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The Pronk Pops Show 1142, September 18, 2018, — Breaking — Story 1: President Trump Joint Press Conference With Poland’s President Andrzej Duda — Videos — Story 2: President Trump Orders Declassification and Release of All Documents Pertaining To FISA Court Application for Surveillance Warrant for Carter Page and Text Messages of Ohr, Strzok, Lisa Page, former FBI Director James Comey and former FBI Deputy Director Andrew McCabe. Without Redaction — Videos — Story 3: Trump Slaps 10% Tariffs On $200 Billion Communist China Exports to United States Rising To 25% in January 2019 — Videos — Story 4: Even The Court of Public Opinion Has A Statue of Limitations — Dr. Ford Has A Choice — Testify In An Open Public Televised Hearing And Answer All Questions About What Happened Over 35 or 36 Years Ago or Refuse To Testify — Either Way Judge Brett Kavanaugh Will Be Confirmed As Supreme Court Justice — What’s Next? — Who’s Your Daddy? JFK Love Child Accuses Altar Boy of Unnatural Acts 55 Years Ago — Hit Me With Your Best Shot — We Will Rock You — Raise Your Glass — Videos

Posted on September 19, 2018. Filed under: Addiction, Addiction, American History, Blogroll, Breaking News, Bribery, Bribes, Cartoons, Communications, Constitutional Law, Corruption, Countries, Crime, Culture, Deep State, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Education, Elections, Empires, Employment, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Federal Government, Foreign Policy, Former President Barack Obama, Free Trade, Freedom of Speech, Government Dependency, Health, Health Care Insurance, History, House of Representatives, Human, Human Behavior, Independence, James Comey, Killing, Language, Law, Life, Lying, Media, Mental Illness, National Interest, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, Progressives, Public Corruption, Radio, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Security, Senate, Sexual Harrasment, Spying, Surveillance/Spying, Taxation, Taxes, Terror, Terrorism, Unemployment, United States of America, United States Supreme Court, Videos, Violence, Wall Street Journal, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

 

 Project_1

The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 1142, September 18, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1141, September 17, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1140, September 14, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1139, September 13, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1138, September 12, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1137, September 7, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1136, September 6, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1135, September 5, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1134, September 4, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1133, August 29, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1132, August 28, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1131, August 27, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1130, August 22, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1129, August 21, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1128, August 20, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1127, August 17, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1126, August 16, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1125, August 15, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1124, August 14, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1123, August 13, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1122, August 9, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1121, August 8, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1120, August 6, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1119, August 2, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1118, August 1, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1117, July 31, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1116, July 30, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1115, July 26, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1114, July 25, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1113, July 24, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1112, July 23, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1111, July 19, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1110, July 18, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1109, July 17, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1108, July 16, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1107, July 12, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1106, July 11, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1105, July 10, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1104, July 9, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1103, July 5, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1102, JUly 3, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1101, July 2, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1100, June 28, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1099, June 26, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1098, June 25, 2018 

Pronk Pops Show 1097, June 21, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1096, June 20, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1095, June 19, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1094, June 18, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1093, June 14, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1092, June 13, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1091, June 12, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1090, June 11, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1089, June 7, 2018

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Breaking — Story 1: President Trump Joint Press Conference With Poland’s President Andrzej Duda — Videos

Watch Live: Donald Trump hosts a joint press conference with the President of Poland, Andrzej Duda

Story 2: President Trump Orders Declassification and Release of All Documents Pertaining To Trump/Russian Collusion and FISA Court Application for Surveillance Warrant for Carter Page and Text Messages of Ohr, Strzok, Lisa Page, former FBI Director James Comey and former FBI Deputy Director Andrew McCabe. Without Redactions — Videos —

Sean Hannity Sep 17, 2018 | Sean Hannity Fox News Today

Lou Dobbs Tonight 9/17/18 | Fox News September 17, 2018

Trump orders feds to declassify key FISA documents, text messages in FBI Russia probe

 

Story 3: Trump Slaps 10% Tariffs On $200 Billion Communist China Exports to United States Rising To 25% in January 2019 — Videos

Trump’s $200 billion tariffs on Chinese goods is ‘done deal’

Lou Dobbs Tonight 9/17/18 | Fox News September 17, 2018

Trump tells aides he wants to move ahead with $200 billion in China tariffs: report

Is the trade war about to kill the bull market?

Trump tells aides he wants to move ahead with $200 billion in China tariffs: report

of China, for whom I have great respect and affection.”

Read Trump’s full statement announcing the new tariffs below:

Today, following seven weeks of public notice, hearings, and extensive opportunities for comment, I directed the United States Trade Representative (USTR) to proceed with placing additional tariffs on roughly $200 billion of imports from China. The tariffs will take effect on September 24, 2018, and be set at a level of 10 percent until the end of the year. On January 1, the tariffs will rise to 25 percent. Further, if China takes retaliatory action against our farmers or other industries, we will immediately pursue phase three, which is tariffs on approximately $267 billion of additional imports.

We are taking this action today as a result of the Section 301 process that the USTR has been leading for more than 12 months. After a thorough study, the USTR concluded that China is engaged in numerous unfair policies and practices relating to United States technology and intellectual property – such as forcing United States companies to transfer technology to Chinese counterparts. These practices plainly constitute a grave threat to the long-term health and prosperity of the United States economy.

For months, we have urged China to change these unfair practices, and give fair and reciprocal treatment to American companies. We have been very clear about the type of changes that need to be made, and we have given China every opportunity to treat us more fairly. But, so far, China has been unwilling to change its practices. To counter China’s unfair practices, on June 15, I announced that the United States would impose tariffs of 25 percent on $50 billion worth of Chinese imports. China, however, still refuses to change its practices – and indeed recently imposed new tariffs in an effort to hurt the United States economy.

As President, it is my duty to protect the interests of working men and women, farmers, ranchers, businesses, and our country itself. My Administration will not remain idle when those interests are under attack.

China has had many opportunities to fully address our concerns. Once again, I urge China’s leaders to take swift action to end their country’s unfair trade practices. Hopefully, this trade situation will be resolved, in the end, by myself and President Xi of China, for whom I have great respect and affection.

https://www.cnbc.com/2018/09/17/trump-puts-new-tariffs-on-china-as-trade-war-escalates.html

 

Story 4: Even The Court of Public Opinion Has A Statue of Limitations — Dr. Ford Has A Choice — Testify In An Open Public Televised Hearing And Answer All Questions About What Happened Over 35 or 36 Years Ago or Refuse To Testify — Either Way Judge Brett Kavanaugh Will Be Confirmed As Supreme Court Justice — What’s Next? — Who’s Your Daddy? JFK Love Child Accuses Altar Boy of Unnatural Acts 55 Years Ago — Hit Me With Your Best Shot — We Will Rock You — Raise Your Glass — Videos

TrumpTV Tucker claims Kavanaugh abt #AbortionNot #RapeAllegations Dr. Christine Blasey Ford

Hannity: Dems Not Interested In Full Truth About Kavanaugh

Kavanaugh accuser wants FBI probe before she testifies

Mitch McConnell & Senate Republicans Press Conference 9/18/18 Kavanaugh Accuser & Monday Hearing

Ingraham Says Dems Have Been ‘Salivating’ for Another Thomas-Hill ‘Spectacle’

What Pisses Me Off About The Brett Kavanaugh Sexual Assault Accusations

Kavanaugh Accuser Has Not Agreed To Appear At Public Hearing Next Monday

Sen. Kamala Harris says she believes Kavanaugh accuser: “She has nothing to gain”

Ex-clerk: Allegations not the Kavanaugh I knew

Brett Kavanaugh Allegation Echoes Anita Hill Bombshell | The Beat With Ari Melber | MSNBC

Jordan Peterson & Bryan Callen – Sexual Misconduct, the Unforgivable Sin

Jordan Peterson and Camille Paglia on rape

Professor Jordan B. Peterson On Modern Sexual Relationships & The Legality Of Abortion

Jordan Peterson: How to Heal from PTSD/Trauma

[youtub=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Snke9v4S2rU]

Jordan Peterson on fixing your past

Jordan Peterson “There are different forms of memory”

Jordan Peterson on the daycare scandals of the 80’s

Jordan Peterson: Repression & other defense mechanisms

Jordan Peterson on the #Metoo Moment

Ben Shapiro – #METOO Movement Going Wildly Wrong | The Aziz Ansari Case

Is #MeToo Falling Apart? | The Ben Shapiro Show Ep. 454

Repressed and Suppressed Memories – Teal Swan –

False Memory – Teal Swan –

Defamation

Tort Law – Defamation

What is Defamation, Slander, & Libel – Quick Lessons – Episode # 3

JFK’s Intern

Marilyn Monroe thought JFK would marry her, book claims

JFK’s Women: Scandals Revealed | CBC

Pretender to Throne of Camelot – JFK’s Love Child

Woman Claims She Is Love Child Of Marilyn Monroe

Seymour Hersh interview (1997)

The Dark Side of JFK: How Kennedy’s Reckless Personal Behavior Imperiled His Presidency (1997)

Dangerous World: The Kennedy Years

President John F. Kennedy Speech on Secret Society

Pat Benatar – Hit Me With Your Best Shot lyrics

Pat Benatar – Hit Me With Your Best Shot (Live)

Pat Benatar – Hit Me With Your Best Shot – Live 2001

Hit Me With Your Best Shot

Well you’re a real tough cookie with a long history
Of breaking little hearts like the one in me
That’s okay, let’s see how you do it
Put up you dukes, let’s get down to it
Hit me with your best shot
Why don’t you hit me with your best shot
Hit me with your best shot
Fire away
You come on with it, come on
You don’t fight fair
That’s okay, see if I care
Knock me down, it’s all in vain
I get right back on my feet again
Hit me with your best shot
Why don’t you hit me with your best shot
Hit me with your best shot
Fire away
Well you’re a real tough cookie with a long history
Of breaking little hearts like the one in me
Before I put another notch in my lipstick case
You better make sure you put me in my place
Hit me with your best shot
C’mon, hit me with your best shot
Hit me with your best shot
Fire away
Hit me with your best shot
Why don’t you hit me with your best shot
Hit me with your best shot
Fire away
Songwriters: Edward Schwartz
Hit Me With Your Best Shot lyrics © Round Hill Music Big Loud Songs

Pepsi Commercial – We Will Rock You (Britney Spears, Pink, Beyonce) – HQ Full Version

Queen – We Will Rock You (Official Video)

P!nk – Raise Your Glass

P!nk – Please Don’t Leave Me (Main Version)

Read the letter Christine Blasey Ford sent accusing Brett Kavanaugh of sexual misconduct

Washington (CNN)The following is the text of the letter Christine Blasey Ford wrote to Sen. Dianne Feinstein detailing an event in which she accuses Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh of sexual misconduct. CNN was not provided a copy of the letter sent to Feinstein, but a source who had the letter read the contents of a redacted version to CNN.

July 30 2018

CONFIDENTIAL
Senator Dianne Feinstein
Dear Senator Feinstein;
I am writing with information relevant in evaluating the current nominee to the Supreme Court.
As a constituent, I expect that you will maintain this as confidential until we have further opportunity to speak.
Brett Kavanaugh physically and sexually assaulted me during high school in the early 1980’s. He conducted these acts with the assistance of REDACTED.
Both were one to two years older than me and students at a local private school.
The assault occurred in a suburban Maryland area home at a gathering that included me and four others.
Kavanaugh physically pushed me into a bedroom as I was headed for a bathroom up a short stair well from the living room. They locked the door and played loud music precluding any successful attempt to yell for help.
Kavanaugh was on top of me while laughing with REDACTED, who periodically jumped onto Kavanaugh. They both laughed as Kavanaugh tried to disrobe me in their highly inebriated state. With Kavanaugh’s hand over my mouth I feared he may inadvertently kill me.
From across the room a very drunken REDACTED said mixed words to Kavanaugh ranging from “go for it” to “stop.”
At one point when REDACTED jumped onto the bed the weight on me was substantial. The pile toppled, and the two scrapped with each other. After a few attempts to get away, I was able to take this opportune moment to get up and run across to a hallway bathroom. I locked the bathroom door behind me. Both loudly stumbled down the stair well at which point other persons at the house were talking with them. I exited the bathroom, ran outside of the house and went home.
I have not knowingly seen Kavanaugh since the assault. I did see REDACTED once at the REDACTED where he was extremely uncomfortable seeing me.
I have received medical treatment regarding the assault. On July 6 I notified my local government representative to ask them how to proceed with sharing this information . It is upsetting to discuss sexual assault and its repercussions, yet I felt guilty and compelled as a citizen about the idea of not saying anything.
I am available to speak further should you wish to discuss. I am currently REDACTED and will be in REDACTED.
In confidence, REDACTED.

 

The #MeToo Kavanaugh Ambush

A story this old and unprovable can’t be allowed to delay a Supreme Court confirmation vote.

The woman accusing Brett Kavanaugh of a drunken assault when both were teenagers has now come forward publicly, and on Monday it caused Republicans to delay a confirmation vote and schedule another public hearing. Yet there is no way to confirm her story after 36 years, and to let it stop Mr. Kavanaugh’s confirmation would ratify what has all the earmarks of a calculated political ambush.

This is not to say Christine Blasey Ford isn’t sincere in what she remembers. In an interview published in the Washington Post on Sunday, Ms. Ford offered a few more details of the story she told anonymously starting in July. She says she was 15 when Mr. Kavanaugh, who would have been 17, and a male friend pushed her into a bedroom at a drinking party, held her down, and pawed her until the male friend jumped on them both and she escaped to a bathroom until the two boys left the room.

Potomac Watch Podcast

Brett Kavanaugh’s Nomination
Mr. Kavanaugh denies all this “categorically and unequivocally,” and there is simply no way to prove it. The only witness to the event is Mr. Kavanaugh’s high school male friend, Mark Judge, who also says he recalls no such event. Ms. Ford concedes she told no one about it—not even a high school girl friend or family member—until 2012 when she told the story as part of couples therapy with her husband.

The vagaries of memory are well known, all the more so when they emerge in the cauldron of a therapy session to rescue a marriage. Experts know that human beings can come to believe firmly over the years that something happened when it never did or is based on partial truth. Mistaken identity is also possible.

The Post reports that the therapist’s notes from 2012 say there were four male assailants, but Ms. Ford says that was a mistake. Ms. Ford also can’t recall in whose home the alleged assault took place, how she got there, or how she got home that evening.

This is simply too distant and uncorroborated a story to warrant a new hearing or to delay a vote. We’ve heard from all three principals, and there are no other witnesses to call. Democrats will use Monday’s hearing as a political spectacle to coax Mr. Kavanaugh into looking defensive or angry, and to portray Republicans as anti-women. Odds are it will be a circus.

***

The timing and details of how Ms. Ford came forward, and how her name was coaxed into public view, should also raise red flags about the partisan motives at play. The Post says Ms. Ford contacted the paper via a tip line in July but wanted to remain anonymous. She then brought her story to a Democratic official while still hoping to stay anonymous.

Yet she also then retained a lawyer, Debra Katz, who has a history of Democratic activism and spoke in public defense of Bill Clinton against the accusations by Paula Jones. Ms. Katz urged Ms. Ford to take a polygraph test. The Post says she passed the polygraph, though a polygraph merely shows that she believes the story she is telling.

The more relevant question is why go to such lengths if Ms. Ford really wanted her name to stay a secret? Even this weekend she could have chosen to remain anonymous. These are the actions of someone who was prepared to go public from the beginning if she had to.

The role of Senator Dianne Feinstein is also highly irregular and transparently political. The ranking Democrat on the Judiciary Committee knew about Ms. Ford’s accusations in late July or early August yet kept quiet. If she took it seriously, she had multiple opportunities to ask Judge Kavanaugh or have committee staff interview the principals. But in that event the details would have been vetted and Senators would have had time to assess their credibility.

Instead Ms. Feinstein waited until the day before a committee markup on the nomination to release a statement that she had “information” about the accusation and had sent it to the FBI. Her statement was a political stunt.

She was seeking to insulate herself from liberal charges that she sat on the letter. Or—and this seems increasingly likely given the course of events—Senator Feinstein was holding the story to spring at the last minute in the hope that events would play out as they have. Surely she knew that once word of the accusation was public, the press would pursue the story and Ms. Ford would be identified by name one way or another.

***

Democrats waited until Ms. Ford went public to make public statements. But clearly some were feeding the names of Ms. Ford and her lawyer to the press, and now they are piling on what they hope will be an election-eve #MeToo conflagration.

“Senator [and Judiciary Chairman] Grassley must postpone the vote until, at a very minimum, these serious and credible allegations are thoroughly investigated,” declared Minority Leader Chuck Schumer on Sunday. “For too long, when women have made serious allegations of abuse, they have been ignored. That cannot happen in this case.”

His obvious political goal is to delay the confirmation vote past the election, fan the #MeToo political furies until then, and hope that at least two GOP Senators wilt under political pressure. If Republican Senators Jeff Flake and Bob Corker think a hearing will satisfy Mr. Schumer, they are right to retire from politics.

GOP Senators should understand that the political cost of defeating Mr. Kavanaugh will likely include the loss of the Senate. Democrats are already motivated to vote against Donald Trump, and if Republicans panic now their own voters will rightly be furious. They would be letting Democrats get away with the same dirty trick they tried and failed to pull off against Clarence Thomas.

It would also be a serious injustice to a man who has by all accounts other than Ms. Ford’s led a life of respect for women and the law. Every #MeToo miscreant is a repeat offender. The accusation against Mr. Kavanaugh is behavior manifested nowhere else in his life.

No one, including Donald Trump, needs to attack Ms. Ford. She believes what she believes. This is not he said-she said. This is a case of an alleged teenage encounter, partially recalled 30 years later without corroboration, and brought forward to ruin Mr. Kavanaugh’s reputation for partisan purposes.

Letting an accusation that is this old, this unsubstantiated and this procedurally irregular defeat Mr. Kavanaugh would also mean weaponizing every sexual assault allegation no matter the evidence. It will tarnish the #MeToo cause with the smear of partisanship, and it will unleash even greater polarizing furies.

Appeared in the September 18, 2018, print edition.

https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-metoo-kavanaugh-ambush-1537197395

Doubts arise over whether Trump court nominee’s accuser will testify

2 pages, 0.73 MB

“Dr. Ford’s testimony would reflect her personal knowledge and memory of events,” he said in a statement. “Nothing the F.B.I. or any other investigator does would have any bearing on what Dr. Ford tells the committee, so there is no reason for any further delay.”

Mr. Trump joined other Republicans in rejecting an F.B.I. investigation of the long-ago episode even before Dr. Blasey’s letter was sent on Tuesday evening. The bureau “said that they really don’t do that, that’s not what they do,” Mr. Trump said during a news conference. “And now they have done supposedly six background checks over the years as Judge Kavanaugh has gone beautifully up the ladder.”

In the letter to the Judiciary Committee, Dr. Blasey’s lawyers said that she has been the target of “vicious harassment and even death threats” since her name was made public on Sunday in an interview published in The Washington Post. Her email has been hacked, she has been impersonated online and she and her family have been forced to relocate out of their home, according to the lawyers, Ms. Banks and her partner, Debra S. Katz.

“While Dr. Ford’s life was being turned upside down, you and your staff scheduled a public hearing for her to testify at the same table as Judge Kavanaugh in front of two dozen U.S. Senators on national television to relive this traumatic and harrowing incident,” the lawyers wrote to Mr. Grassley. The hearing “would include interrogation by senators who appear to have made up their minds that she is ‘mistaken’ and ‘mixed up.’”

Dr. Blasey, who is sometimes referred to by her married name, Ford, “wants to cooperate with the committee and with law enforcement officials” but believes that a “full investigation” by the F.B.I. would be necessary to form a nonpartisan assessment before any hearing, the lawyers wrote.

Both Dr. Blasey, 51, and Judge Kavanaugh, 53, had said on Monday morning that they were willing to come before the committee. In response, Mr. Grassley postponed a vote on the judge’s confirmation and scheduled the hearing for next week. An aide to Mr. Grassley said that the committee never intended to seat the two witnesses together at one table or even on one panel.

Democrats and Republicans spent much of Tuesday arguing over the scope and shape of what such a hearing would entail. Mr. Grassley told the radio host Hugh Hewitt that Judge Kavanaugh and Dr. Blasey would be the only witnesses, prompting pushback from top Democrats.

Another potential witness, Mark Judge, a friend of Judge Kavanaugh’s who Dr. Blasey said was in the room when the assault occurred, told the Judiciary Committee he does not remember it. “I never saw Brett act in the manner Dr. Ford describes,” he said in a statement sent by his lawyers, adding that “I do not wish to speak publicly” about the matter.

As senators in both parties grappled with how to move forward, Mr. Trump’s advisers and Judge Kavanaugh’s allies appeared to be settling on a strategy of defending him by suggesting that this must be a case of mistaken identity. Under the emerging strategy, Judge Kavanaugh’s defenders would accept that Dr. Blasey was in fact assaulted but would insist that it must have been by someone other than Judge Kavanaugh because he denied it.

The approach reflects the shifting reality of the #MeToo movement when it has become politically perilous to directly attack the credibility of women who come forward to tell their stories. By suggesting that perhaps there was confusion after more than 30 years, White House allies said that they could offer wavering Republicans whose votes are critical for his confirmation another explanation for the he-said-she-said conflict without tearing down Dr. Blasey.

Image
Senator Charles E. Grassley, the chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, said Judge Kavanaugh’s accuser, Christine Blasey Ford, had failed so far to respond to his requests to testify in front of the panel.CreditErin Schaff for The New York Times

The line of defense seemed to be previewed on Monday when Judge Kavanaugh called Senator Orrin G. Hatch, Republican of Utah and a member of the Judiciary Committee, to discuss the allegations. Mr. Hatch told reporters afterward that he believed Judge Kavanaugh. “I think she’s mistaken something” or is “mixed up,” he said.

Two people familiar with the call, who did not want to be identified discussing it, said the judge insisted to Mr. Hatch that he did not do what he was accused of and then, in response to a question, agreed it was possible Dr. Blasey was thinking of somebody else.

Judge Kavanaugh has told associates that he did not know who his accuser was until she identified herself in The Post and that, once he saw her name, he vaguely recalled her being part of the social circle associated with his all-boys high school in suburban Maryland at the time.

A person close to Dr. Blasey, who asked not to be identified to discuss the situation in detail, said Dr. Blasey knew the future Judge Kavanaugh in passing before the gathering where she says the attack took place, which could make it harder for his defenders to make a case that she had confused him for someone else.

The conflicting stories generated political fireworks in Washington on Tuesday. Senator Elizabeth Warren, Democrat of Massachusetts, posted on Twitter a video clip of Judge Kavanaugh speaking at his alma mater, Georgetown Preparatory School, in 2015. “What happens at Georgetown Prep stays at Georgetown Prep,” he said to laughter. “That’s been a good thing for all of us, I think.”

Ms. Warren added: “I can’t imagine any parent accepting this view. Is this really what America wants in its next Supreme Court Justice?”

For their part, the White House and other Republicans seized on comments Senator Dianne Feinstein of California, the top Democrat on the Judiciary Committee, made to Fox News. “I can’t say everything’s truthful,” she said of Dr. Blasey’s account. “I don’t know.”

The White House press secretary, Sarah Huckabee Sanders, cited that and added, “Now clear why top Democrat on Senate Judiciary Committee did nothing with allegation for months or even ask Judge Kavanaugh about it.”

Ms. Feinstein later clarified on Twitter: “During every step of this process, I’ve found every single piece of information from Dr. Christine Blasey Ford eminently credible, sincere and believable.”

Before the sexual assault accusation against President Trump’s Supreme Court nominee, Judge Brett Kavanaugh, Mr. Trump weighed in on allegations against several well-known men, including himself. His past statements reveal a man quick to defend other men.Published On

Dr. Blasey’s allegations are inevitably evoking comparisons to 1991 confirmation hearings of Clarence Thomas, who was accused of sexual harassment by the law professor Anita F. Hill. The sight of Professor Hill being grilled on national television by an all-white, all-male Judiciary Committee enraged women, contributing to the so-called Year of the Woman in 1992, when scores of women ran for public office.

Republicans, clearly hoping to avoid a repeat of the Hill-Thomas scenario, were considering employing a special counsel or staff member to question Dr. Blasey and Judge Kavanaugh. Democrats accused Republicans of trying to rush through a hearing without a proper investigation of serious charges.

“She is under no obligation to participate in the Republican efforts to sweep the whole thing under the rug, to continue this nomination on a fast track,” said Senator Patty Murray, Democrat of Washington, who won her Senate seat in 1992. “It’s basically a railroad job. This is what they did to Anita Hill.”

But while Republicans hoped to avoid appearing to aggressively attack Dr. Blasey’s credibility, they made clear on Tuesday that they will vigorously defend Judge Kavanaugh, who until last week seemed on a glide path to confirmation. Senator John Cornyn of Texas, the chamber’s No. 2 Republican, called Dr. Blasey’s accusations “a drive-by attack on the character of this judge,” and referred to them as “false allegations,” in remarks on the Senate floor.

Uncharacteristically, the combative Mr. Trump on Tuesday stuck to the strategy of not attacking the accuser directly as well, instead expressing sympathy and faith in Judge Kavanaugh while assailing Democrats for trying to torpedo his nominee.

“I feel so badly for him that he’s going through this, to be honest with you,” Mr. Trump said of the judge. “I feel so badly for him. This is not a man that deserves this.”

The president repeated the attack on Ms. Feinstein for not raising the issue earlier in the confirmation process, given that Dr. Blasey first contacted her in July. “Why didn’t the Democrats bring it up then?” he said. “Because they obstruct and because they resist. That’s the name of their campaign against me.”

For some liberals, the charge of obstructionism rang hollow given that Republicans refused to even meet with President Barack Obama’s Supreme Court nominee Merrick B. Garland in 2016. In this case, Ms. Feinstein said she did not raise the issue earlier because Dr. Blasey requested confidentiality. Only after word of the accusations leaked out last week did Dr. Blasey shift gears and agree to be named publicly.

Professor Hill, in an opinion article published Tuesday in The New York Times, warned senators against repeating her experience in 1991.

“That the Senate Judiciary Committee still lacks a protocol for vetting sexual harassment and assault claims that surface during a confirmation hearing,” she wrote, “suggests that the committee has learned little from the Thomas hearing, much less the more recent #MeToo movement.”

Correction: 

An earlier version of this article misstated what Mark Judge told the Senate Judiciary Committee. He said that he does not remember the episode, not that he does.

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/18/us/politics/christine-blasey-ford-kavanaugh-senate-hearing.html

JFK may have been a worse philanderer than Trump. Does it matter?

JFK may have been a worse philanderer than Trump. Does it matter?
John F. Kennedy and first lady Jacqueline Kennedy at a ball in Washington on Jan. 20, 1961. (Associated Press)

As Americans get ready to hear Stormy Daniels spill the story of her alleged 2006 affair with President Trump, we might want to acknowledge that she isn’t the first adult entertainer to reportedly hook up with a future president. In 1955, the politician was Massachusetts Sen. John F. Kennedy and the other woman was a stripper named Tempest Storm. The different manner in which Americans have digested these parallel tales reveals a lot about how our nation has evolved — and not — over the past half century.

Tempest Storm, born Annie Blanche Banks in Eastman, Ga., was an internationally famous burlesque star by her mid-20s and headlined feature films such as “French Peep Show” and “Striptease Girl.” She first encountered Kennedy after a performance at the Casino Royale in Washington, D.C.

She later wrote in her memoir that she had no idea who Kennedy was and had little interest in talking with him initially. But she was taken by the senator’s “stunning good looks,” and said their sexual relationship began the next evening. She said their occasional trysts, which ended well before he became president, typically took place at the Mayflower Hotel. According to Storm, who is now 90, Kennedy confided “that he was not happily married, that Jackie was cold toward him.”

The largely male Washington press corps looked the other way then and likewise kept Kennedy insulated from sexual scandal during his presidency. Not until 1975, when the name of his mistress Judith Campbell popped up during a congressional hearing, did most Americans realize Kennedy had been unfaithful to his wife. Still, when Campbell wrote her well-documented 1977 memoir about the multi-year affair, Kennedy loyalists did their best to discredit and degrade her.

Tempest Storm’s 1987 memoir got similar dismissive treatment. The mainstream press ignored it as undignified gossip. The tide turned only when several academic Kennedy biographers acknowledged that her story meshed with their research. For instance, in 1955, Kennedy indeed was temporarily living in a suite at the Mayflower Hotel where he also spent intimate evenings with other lovers, including actresses Lee Remick and Audrey Hepburn.

Kennedy’s track record as a playboy and philanderer may well have been even worse than Trump’s is. Remarkably, this information still remains largely buried by the work of countless apologists over the decades — including journalists and biographers who continue to minimize Kennedy’s extramarital sexual adventures. Take the fawning 2011 bestseller “Jack Kennedy: Elusive Hero” by the MSNBC host Chris Matthews, who has been reprimanded by his network for sexual harassment. According to the TV pundit, after marrying Jackie in 1953, Kennedy simply decided not “to forgo his bachelor pleasures.”

But the details are considerably more disturbing. During his presidency, Kennedy engaged in casual sex with dozens of women, including strangers whom aides would procure for him. And while Trump presumably confined his grabbing of women’s genitals to his pre-presidential days, Kennedy continued to do so while living in the people’s house. As described by biographer Geoffrey Perret, Kennedy “brazenly put his hand up their skirts, propositioned them within minutes of meeting and groped their breasts and buttocks even as he danced with them.”

Sometimes a porn star is just a porn star. But for JFK, as for Trump, his inability to resist her allure indicates a much deeper character issue. And yet a romanticized image of Kennedy still survives intact. Even as Americans debate what to make of Trump’s reported lover with the weather-themed name, our nostalgia endures for the “Mad Men” era, when lecherous behavior was viewed not as a potential violation of the civil rights of women, but as the right of powerful men.

JFK (decidedly unlike Trump) did have some shining moments as a leader. One was his famous and eloquent speech on civil rights in June 1963. “We are confronted primarily with a moral issue,” he said. “It is as old as the Scriptures and is as clear as the American Constitution. The heart of the question is… whether we are going to treat our fellow Americans as we want to be treated.”

That is still the heart of the question, as the #MeToo movement reminds us.

Joshua Kendall is the author of “First Dads: Parenting and Politics from George Washington to Barack Obama.” He is writing a book about how the #MeToo movement will affect our view of presidential history.

http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-kendall-tempest-storm-presidential-affairs-20180324-story.html

How JFK Turned The White House Into The Playboy Mansion

Published January 22, 2018
Updated January 26, 2018

According to the interviews with Secret Service agents and White House insiders, JFK’s women were often prostitutes supplied by organized crime figures.

John F. Kennedy

U.S. Embassy New Delhi/FlickrJohn F. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy remains one of America’s most respected and admired presidents more than forty years after his assassination. But for all his charisma and ability to navigate through some of the worst crises in U.S. history, there are many rumors that suggest that JFK may have some dark secrets yet to be uncovered.

The book describes in detail Kennedy’s womanizing. Hersh relays how Kennedy frequently used the Secret Service to help him smuggle women — it was often more than one — into the White House for daily trysts. According to the interviews Hersh collected from Secret Service agents and White House insiders, these women were often prostitutes supplied by organized crime figures.

According to one of the Secret Service agents Hersh interviewed, Kennedy liked to keep records of his activities in the form of photographs which he sent the agents to have framed. Sidney Mickelson, who ran an art gallery in D.C. with close ties to the White House, went into more detail about these photographs in an interview with Hersh.

“Over a number of years, we framed a number of photographs of people — naked and often lying on beds — in the Lincoln Room,” Mickelson said, “The women were always beautiful.” Some of these photos also included the President himself according to Mickelson, though he pointed out that the figures were usually wearing masks. So although the Secret Service agents told him it was Kennedy in the photos, it’s hard to say for certain.

Many historians have described Kennedy as a compulsive womanizer. And while he wasn’t the only President to stray outside the bounds of marriage in office, he probably took it to the farthest extremes.

Kennedy famously complained that if he didn’t have sex at least once a day, he would start getting headaches. He seems to have taken that very seriously, with a long string of extra-marital affairs that spanned over the three years he was in office. The women JFK was involved with ranged from movie stars like Marilyn Monroe to young White House interns and even to women who may have been closely linked to the Mafia.

Marilyn Monroe in Niagara

Wikimedia CommonsMarilyn Monroe in the 1953 film Niagara.

During the 1960 Presidential Campaign, JFK began an affair with a woman named Judith Campbell Exner. Exner was a Los Angeles socialite who was romantically involved with figures like Frank Sinatra and notorious mobster Sam Giancana. According to Exner, she served as a courier between Giancana and JFK as the two worked on plans to assassinate Fidel Castro.

According to Hersh, Giancana may even have helped rig the 1960 election in Kennedy’s favor in a few states where Kennedy’s lead was particularly narrow. But ultimately, we will probably never know if that accusation is true or not. Just like we can’t be sure just how Kennedy conducted his affairs while he was in office.

But they’re a good reminder that people should never worship heroes blindly. Even the best of them can have skeletons in the closet.

https://allthatsinteresting.com/jfk-homemade-pornography

Statute of limitations

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Statutes of limitations are laws passed by legislative bodies in common law systems to set the maximum time after an event within which legal proceedings may be initiated.[1]

When the period of time specified in a statute of limitations passes, a claim might no longer be filed, or, if filed, may be liable to be struck out if the defense against that claim is, or includes, that the claim is time-barred as having been filed after the statutory limitations period. When a statute of limitations expires in a criminal case, the courts no longer have jurisdiction. Most crimes that have statutes of limitations are distinguished from serious crimes as these may be brought at any time.

In civil law systems, similar provisions are typically part of their civil or criminal codes and known collectively as periods of prescription. The cause of action dictates the statute of limitations, which can be reduced (or extended) to ensure a fair trial.[2] The intention of these laws is to facilitate resolution within a “reasonable” length of time.[3] What period of time is considered “reasonable” varies from country to country, and within countries such as the United States from state to state.[4][5] Within countries and states, the statute of limitations may vary from one civil or criminal action to another. Some nations have no statute of limitations whatsoever.

Analysis of a statute of limitations also requires the examination of any associated statute of repose, tolling provisions, and exclusions.

Applications

Common law legal systems can include a statute specifying the length of time within which a claimant or prosecutor must file a case. In some civil jurisdictions (e.g., California),[1] a case cannot begin after the period specified, and courts have no jurisdiction over cases filed after the statute of limitations has expired. In some other jurisdictions (e.g., New South WalesAustralia), a claim can be filed which may prove to have been brought outside the limitations period, but the court will retain jurisdiction in order to determine that issue, and the onus is on the defendant to plead it as part of their defence, or else the claim will not be statute barred.

Once filed, cases do not need to be resolved within the period specified in the statute of limitations.

Purpose

The purpose and effect of statutes of limitations are to protect defendants. There are three reasons for their enactment:[6]

  • A plaintiff with a valid cause of action should pursue it with reasonable diligence.
  • By the time a stale claim is litigated, a defendant might have lost evidence necessary to disprove the claim.
  • Litigation of a long-dormant claim may result in more cruelty than justice.

In Classical Athens, a five-year statute of limitations was established for all cases except homicide and the prosecution of non-constitutional laws (which had no limitation). Demosthenes wrote that these statutes of limitations were adopted to control “sycophants” (professional accusers).[7]

The limitation period generally begins when the plaintiff’s cause of action accrues, meaning the date upon which the plaintiff is first able to maintain the cause of action in court, or when the plaintiff first becomes aware of a previous injury (for example, occupational lung diseases such as asbestosis).

Statute of repose

statute of repose limits the time within which an action may be brought based upon when a particular event occurred (such as the completion of construction of a building or the date of purchase of manufactured goods), and does not permit extensions. A statute of limitations is similar to a statute of repose, but may be extended for a variety of reasons (such as the minority of the victim).

For example, most U.S. jurisdictions have passed statutes of repose for construction defects.[8][9][10][11] If a person receives an electric shock due to a wiring defect that resulted from the builder’s negligence during construction of a building, the builder is potentially liable for damages if the suit is brought within the time period defined by the statute, normally starting with the date that construction is substantially completed. After the statutory time period has passed, without regard to the nature or degree of the builder’s negligence or misconduct, the statute of repose presents an absolute defense to the claim.

Statutes of repose are sometimes controversial; manufacturers contend that they are necessary to avoid unfair litigation and encourage consumers to maintain their property. Alternatively, consumer advocates argue that they reduce incentives to manufacture durable products and disproportionately affect the poor, because manufacturers will have less incentive to ensure low-cost or “bargain” products are manufactured to exacting safety standards.

Tolling and the discovery rule

Many jurisdictions suspend, or toll, the limitation period under certain circumstances such as if the aggrieved party (plaintiff) was a minor or filed a bankruptcy proceeding. In those instances, the running of limitations is tolled, or paused, until the condition ends. Equitable tolling may also be applied if an individual may intimidate a plaintiff into not reporting or has been promised a suspended period.

The statute of limitations may begin when the harmful event, such as fraud or injury, occurs or when it is discovered. The US Supreme Court has described the “standard rule” of when the time begins as “when the plaintiff has a complete and present cause of action.” The rule has existed since the 1830s.[12] A “discovery rule” applies in other cases (including medical malpractice), or a similar effect may be applied by tolling.

As discussed in Wolk v. Olson, the discovery rule does not apply to mass media such as newspapers and the Internet; the statute of limitations begins to run at the date of publication. In 2013, the US Supreme Court of the United States unanimously ruled in Gabelli v. SEC that the discovery rule does not apply to U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission‘s investment-advisor-fraud lawsuits since one of the purposes of the agency is to root out fraud.[13]

In private civil matters, the limitations period may generally be shortened or lengthened by agreement of the parties. Under the Uniform Commercial Code, the parties to a contract for sale of goods may reduce the limitations period to one year but not extend it.

Limitation periods that are known as laches may apply in situations of equity; a judge will not issue an injunction if the requesting party waited too long to ask for it. Such periods are subject to broad judicial discretion.

For US military cases, the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) states that all charges except those facing court-martial on a capital charge have a five-year statute of limitations. If the charges are dropped in all UCMJ proceedings except those headed for general court-martial, they may be reinstated for six months after which the statute of limitations has run out.

Prescription

In civil law countries, almost all lawsuits must be brought within a legally-determined period known as prescription. Under Italian[14] and Romanian law,[15] criminal trials must be ended within a time limit.

In criminal cases, the public prosecutor must lay charges within a time limit which varies by jurisdiction and varies based on the nature of the charge; in many jurisdictions, there is no statute of limitations for murder.[citation needed] Over the last decade of the 20th century, many United States jurisdictions significantly lengthened the statute of limitations for sex offenses, particularly against children, as a response to research and popular belief that a variety of causes can delay the recognition and reporting of crimes of this nature.[citation needed]

Common triggers for suspending the prescription include a defendant’s fugitive status or the commission of a new crime. A criminal may be convicted in absentia.[16] Prescription should not be confused with the need to prosecute within “a reasonable delay” as obligated by the European Court of Human Rights.

Laws by region

International crimes

Under international lawgenocidecrimes against humanity and war crimes are usually not subject to the statute of limitations as codified in a number of multilateral treaties. States ratifying the Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity agree to disallow limitations claims for these crimes. In Article 29 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes “shall not be subject to any statute of limitations”.

Australia

The Limitations Act of 1958 allows 12 years for child survivors and the disabled to make a claim, with age 37 the latest at which a claim can be made. The police submitted evidence[17][not in citation given] to a commission, the Victorian Inquiry into Church and Institutional Child Abuse (in existence since 2012) indicating that it takes an average of 24 years for a survivor of child sexual abuse to go to the police.[18] According to Attorney General Robert Clark, the government will remove statutes of limitations on criminal child abuse; survivors of violent crime should be given additional time, as adults, to deal with the legal system.[19] Offenders of minors and the disabled have used the statute of limitations to avoid detection and prosecution, moving from state to state and country to country; an example presented to the Victorian Inquiry was the Christian Brothers.[20]

An argument for abolishing statutes of limitations for civil claims by minors and people under guardianship is ensuring that abuse of vulnerable people would be acknowledged by lawyers, police, organisations and governments, with enforceable penalties for organisations which have turned a blind eye in the past. Support groups such as SNAP Australia,[21] Care Leavers Australia Network[22] and Broken Rites have submitted evidence to the Victoria inquiry,[23] and the Law Institute of Victoria[24] has advocated changes to the statute of limitations.

Canada

For crimes other than summary conviction offences, there is no statute of limitations in Canadian criminal law. For indictable (serious) offences such as major theft, murder, kidnapping or sexual assault, a defendant may be charged at any future date;[25] in some cases, warrants have remained outstanding for more than 20 years.[26]

Civil law limitations vary by province,[27] with Ontario introducing the Limitations Act, 2002 on January 1, 2004.[28]

Germany

In Germany, the statute of limitations on crimes varies by type of crime, with the highest being 30 years for second-degree murder (Totschlag). First-degree murder, genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and crime of aggression have no statute of limitations.

First-degree murder used to have 20 years’ statute of limitations, which was then extended to 30 years in 1969. The limitations were abolished altogether in 1979, to prevent Nazi criminals from avoiding criminal liability.

For most other criminal offences, the statute of limitations is set by Section 78(3) of the Criminal Code (Strafgesetzbuch) as follows:

  • 30 years for offences punishable by a maximum term of imprisonment for life;
  • 20 years for offences punishable by a maximum term of imprisonment of over 10 years but not by imprisonment for life;
  • 10 years for offences punishable by a maximum term of imprisonment of over 5 years but no more than 10 years;
  • 5 years for offences punishable by a maximum term of imprisonment of over 1 year but no more than 5 years;
  • 3 years for all other offences.[29]

In the civil code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch), the regular statute of limitations is three years (plus the time until the end of the calendar year). However, different terms between two and thirty years may apply in specific situations. For example, the term is only two years for claims for alleged defects of purchased goods, but 30 years for claims resulting from a court judgement (such as awarded damages).

India

The statute of limitations in India is defined by the Limitations Act, 1963.[30]

The statute of limitations for criminal offences is governed by Sec. 468 of the Criminal Procedure Code.

Norway

The statute of limitations on murder was abolished by a change in law on 1 July 2014, causing any murders committed after 1 July 1989 to have no statute of limitations. This led to the national police force implementing a new investigation group for old cases called the “Cold Case” group. The law was also changed to let cases involving domestic violence, forced marriage, human trafficking and genital mutilation to count from the day the defendant turns 18 years old. Cases where the statute of limitations has already passed can not be extended due to the constitution preventing it.[31]

South Korea

In July 2015, the National Assembly abolished a 25-year-old statute on first degree murder; it had previously been extended from 15 to 25 years in December 2007.

United Kingdom

Unlike other European countries, the United Kingdom has no statute of limitations for any criminal offence. Following a number of acquittals and wrongful convictions of people charged with serious sexual crimes alleged to have been committed several decades prior, there has been some debate as to whether there should be a statute of limitations for historical rape and sexual assault cases, as prosecutions rely solely on personal testimonies and have no physical or scientific evidence due to the passage of time.[32]

United States

In the United States, statutes of limitations may apply to both civil lawsuits and to criminal prosecutions. Statutes of limitations vary significantly between U.S. jurisdictions.

Civil statutes

A civil statute of limitations applies to a non-criminal legal action, including a tort or contract case.[4] If the statute of limitations expires before a lawsuit is filed, the defendant may raise the statute of limitations as an affirmative defense to seek dismissal of the charge.

Criminal statutes

A criminal statute of limitations defines a time period during which charges must be initiated for a criminal offense.[33] If a charge is filed after the statute of limitations expires, the defendant may obtain dismissal of the charge.[34]

Initiation of charges

The statute of limitations in a criminal case only runs until a criminal charge is filed and a warrant is issued, even if the defendant is a fugitive.[35]

When the identity of a defendant is not known, some jurisdictions provide mechanisms to initiate charges and thus stop the statute of limitations from running. For example, some states allow an indictment of a “John Doe” defendant based upon a DNA profile derived from evidence obtained through a criminal investigation.[36] Although rare, a grand jury can issue an indictment in absentia for high-profile crimes to get around an upcoming statute of limitations deadline. One example is the skyjacking of Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 305 by D.B. Cooper in 1971. The identity of D. B. Cooper remains unknown to this day, and he was indicted under the name “John Doe, aka Dan Cooper.” [37]

Heinous crimes

Crimes considered heinous by society have no statute of limitations. Although there is usually no statute of limitations for murder (particularly first-degree murder), judges have been known to dismiss murder charges in cold cases if they feel the delay violates the defendant’s right to a speedy trial.[38] For example, waiting many years for an alibi witness to die before commencing a murder trial would be unconstitutional. In 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court in Stogner v. California ruled that the retroactive extension of the statute of limitations for sexual offenses committed against minors was an unconstitutional ex post facto law.[39]

Military law

Under the U.S. Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), desertion has no statute of limitations.[40]

Maritime Injury Law

Under 46 U.S. Code § 30106, “Except as otherwise provided by law, a civil action for damages for personal injury or death arising out of a maritime tort must be brought within 3 years after the cause of action arose.” There are some exceptions to this, primarily with regard to Jones Act cases filed against the government, in which case the statute of limitations can be less than 2 years. [41]

State laws
State Misdemeanor Felony Notes
Wyoming No No No statute of limitations

Exceptions

U.S. jurisdictions recognize exceptions to statutes of limitation that may allow for the prosecution of a crime or civil lawsuit even after the statute of limitations would otherwise have expired. Some states stop the clock for a suspect who is not residing within the state or is purposely hiding. Kentucky, North Carolina, and South Carolina have no statutes of limitation for felonies, while Wyoming includes misdemeanors as well. However, the right to speedy trial may derail any prosecution after many years have passed.[42]

Fraud upon the court

When an officer of the court is found to have fraudulently presented facts to impair the court’s impartial performance of its legal task, the act (known as fraud upon the court) is not subject to a statute of limitation. Officers of the court include lawyers, judges, referees, legal guardians, parenting-time expeditors, mediators, evaluators, administrators, special appointees and any others whose influence is part of the judicial mechanism. Fraud upon the court has been defined by the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals to “embrace that species of fraud which does, or attempts to, defile the court itself, or is a fraud perpetrated by officers of the court so that the judicial machinery cannot perform in the usual manner its impartial task of adjudging cases that are presented for adjudication”.[43] In Bulloch v. United States, the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled: “Fraud upon the court is fraud which is directed to the judicial machinery itself and is not fraud between the parties or fraudulent documents, false statements or perjury … It is where the court or a member is corrupted or function—thus where the impartial functions of the court have been directly corrupted.”[44]

Continuing-violations doctrine

In tort law, if a defendant commits a series of illegal acts against another person (or in criminal law if someone commits a continuing crime) the limitation period may begin to run from the last act in the series. In the 8th Circuit case of Treanor v. MCI Telecommunications, Inc., the court explained that the continuing-violations doctrine “tolls [freezes] the statute of limitations in situations where a continuing pattern forms due to [illegal] acts occurring over a period of time, as long as at least one incident … occurred within the limitations period.”[45] Whether the continuing-violations doctrine applies to a particular violation is subject to judicial discretion; it was ruled to apply to copyright infringement in Taylor v. Meirick (712 F.2d 1112, 1119; 7th Cir. 1983) but not in Stone v. Williams (970 F.2d 1043, 1049–50; 2d Cir. 1992).[46]

See also

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statute_of_limitations

 

United States defamation law

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The origins of the United States‘ defamation laws pre-date the American Revolution; one influential case in 1734 involved John Peter Zenger and established precedent that “The Truth” is an absolute defense against charges of libel. (Previous English defamation law had not provided this guarantee.) Though the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution was designed to protect freedom of the press, for most of the history of the United States, the U.S. Supreme Court failed to use it to rule on libel cases. This left libel laws, based upon the traditional “Common Law” of defamation inherited from the English legal system, mixed across the states. The 1964 case New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, however, radically changed the nature of libel law in the United States by establishing that public officials could win a suit for libel only when they could prove the media outlet in question knew either that the information was wholly and patently false or that it was published “with reckless disregard of whether it was false or not”. Later Supreme Court cases barred strict liability for libel and forbid libel claims for statements that are so ridiculous as to be patently false. Recent cases have added precedent on defamation law and the Internet.

The First Amendment guarantees of Freedom of Speech and Freedom of the Press provide defendants in the United States significantly more protection than the countries of the Commonwealth and Europe.[citation needed] Some variation exists among the several states to the extent the state’s legislature has passed statutes or its courts have handed down decisions affecting the contours inherited from the common law. Some states codify what constitutes slander and libel together into the same set of laws.

Criminal libel is rarely prosecuted but exists on the books in many states, and is constitutionally permitted in circumstances essentially identical to those where civil libel liability is constitutional. Defenses to libel that can result in dismissal before trial include the statement being one of opinion rather than fact or being “fair comment and criticism”, though neither of these are imperatives on the US constitution. Truth is an absolute defense against defamation in the United States,[1] meaning true statements cannot be defamatory.[2]

Most states recognize that some categories of false statements are considered to be defamatory per se, such that people making a defamation claim for these statements do not need to prove that the statement was defamatory. (See section Defamation per se.)

 

Development

Laws regulating slander and libel in the United States began to develop even before the American Revolution. In one of the most famous cases, New York City publisher John Peter Zenger was imprisoned for 8 months in 1734 for printing attacks on the governor of the colony. Zenger won his case and was acquitted by jury in 1735 under the counsel of Andrew Hamilton. The case established some precedent that the truth should be an absolute defense against libel charges. Previous English defamation law had not provided this guarantee. Gouverneur Morris, a major contributor in the framing of the U.S. Constitution said, “The trial of Zenger in 1735 was the germ of American freedom, the morning star of that liberty which subsequently revolutionized America“.[3]

Zenger’s case also established that libel cases, though they were civil rather than criminal cases, could be heard by a jury, which would have the authority to rule on the allegations and to set the amount of monetary damages awarded.[4]

The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution was designed specifically to protect freedom of the press. However, for most of the history of the United States, the Supreme Court neglected to use it to rule on libel cases. This left libel laws, based upon the traditional common law of defamation inherited from the English legal system, mixed across the states.

In 1964, however, the court issued an opinion in New York Times Co. v. Sullivan376 U.S. 254 (1964) dramatically changing the nature of libel law in the United States. In that case, the court determined that public officials could win a suit for libel only if they could demonstrate “actual malice” on the part of reporters or publishers. In that case, “actual malice” was defined as “knowledge that the information was false” or that it was published “with reckless disregard of whether it was false or not”. This decision was later extended to cover “public figures”, although the standard is still considerably lower in the case of private individuals.

In Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc.418 U.S. 323 (1974), the Supreme Court suggested that a plaintiff could not win a defamation suit when the statements in question were expressions of opinion rather than fact. In the words of the court, “under the First Amendment, there is no such thing as a false idea”. However, the Court subsequently rejected the notion of a First Amendment opinion privilege, in Milkovich v. Lorain Journal Co.474 U.S. 953 (1985). In Gertz, the Supreme Court also established a mens rea or culpability requirement for defamation; states cannot impose strict liability because that would run afoul of the First Amendment. This holding differs significantly from most other common law jurisdictions, which still have strict liability for defamation.

In Hustler Magazine v. Falwell485 U.S. 46 (1988), the Supreme Court ruled that a parody advertisement claiming Jerry Falwell had engaged in an incestuous act with his mother in an outhouse, while false, could not allow Falwell to win damages for emotional distress because the statement was so obviously ridiculous that it was clearly not true; an allegation believed by nobody, it was ruled, brought no liability upon the author. The court thus overturned a lower court’s upholding of an award where the jury had decided against the claim of libel but had awarded damages for emotional distress.

After Stratton Oakmont, Inc. v. Prodigy Services Co., 1995 N.Y. Misc. Lexis 229 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. May 24, 1995), applied the standard publisher/distributor test to find an online bulletin board liable for post by a third party, Congress specifically enacted 47 U.S.C. § 230(1996) to reverse the Prodigy findings and to provide for private blocking and screening of offensive material. § 230(c) states “that no provider or user of an interactive computer shall be treated as a publisher or speaker of any information provided by another information content provider”, thereby providing forums immunity for statements provided by third parties. Thereafter, cases such as Zeran v. America Online, 129 F.3d 327 (4th Cir. 1997), and Blumenthal v. Drudge, 992 F. Supp. 44 (D.D.C. 1998), have demonstrated that although courts are expressly uneasy with applying § 230, they are bound to find providers like AOL immune from defamatory postings. This immunity applies even if the providers are notified of defamatory material and neglect to remove it, because provider liability upon notice would likely cause a flood of complaints to providers, would be a large burden on providers, and would have a chilling effect on freedom of speech on the Internet.

In Barrett v. Rosenthal, 146 P.3d 510 (Cal. 2006), the California Supreme Court ruled that 47 U.S.C. § 230(c)(1) does not permit web sites to be sued for libel that was written by other parties.

To solve the problem of libel tourism, the SPEECH Act makes foreign libel judgments unenforceable in U.S. courts, unless those judgments are compliant with the U.S. First Amendment. The act was passed by the 111th United States Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama.[5]

In 2014 the Ninth Circuit Court ruled[6] that liability for a defamatory blog post involving a matter of public concern cannot be imposed without proof of fault and actual damages.[7] Bloggers saying libelous things about private citizens concerning public matters can only be sued if they are negligent i.e., the plaintiff must prove the defendant’s negligence – the same standard that applies when news media are sued.[8] The Court held that in defamation cases not the identity of the speaker, but rather the public-figure status of a plaintiff and the public importance of the statement at issue provide the First Amendment foundation.[9]

Defamation law in modern practice

Defamation law in the United States is much less plaintiff-friendly than its counterparts in European and the Commonwealth countries, due to the enforcement of the First Amendment. One very important distinction today is that European and Commonwealth jurisdictions adhere to a theory that every publication of a defamation gives rise to a separate claim, so that a defamation on the Internet could be sued on in any country in which it was read, while American law only allows one claim for the primary publication.

In the United States, a comprehensive discussion of what is and is not libel or slander is difficult, because the definition differs between different states. Some states codify what constitutes slander and libel together into the same set of laws. Some states have criminal libel laws on the books, though these are old laws which are very infrequently prosecuted. Washington State has held its criminal libel statute unconstitutional applying the state and federal constitutions to the question.[10]

Most defendants in defamation lawsuits are newspapers or publishers, which are involved in about twice as many lawsuits as are television stations. Most plaintiffs are corporations, businesspeople, entertainers and other public figures, and people involved in criminal cases, usually defendants or convicts but sometimes victims as well. In no state can a defamation claim be successfully maintained if the allegedly defamed person is deceased.

Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act of 1996 generally immunizes from liability parties that create forums on the Internet in which defamation occurs from liability for statements published by third parties. This has the effect of precluding all liability for statements made by persons on the Internet whose identity cannot be determined.

In the various states, whether by case law or legislation, there are generally several “privileges” that can get a defamation case dismissed without proceeding to trial. These include the litigation privilege, which makes statements made in the context of litigation non-actionable, and the allegedly defamatory statement being “fair comment and criticism”, as it is important to society that everyone be able to comment on matters of public interest. The United States Supreme Court, however, has declined to hold that the “fair comment” privilege is a constitutional imperative.[citation needed]

One defense is reporting or passing through information as a general information or warning of dangerous or emergent conditions, and intent to defame must be proven. Also, the truth of the allegedly defamatory statement will always negate the claim (whether because the plaintiff fails to meet his/her burden of proving falsity or because the defendant proves the statement to be true).[11]

Defamation per se

All states except ArizonaMissouri, and Tennessee recognize that some categories of false statements are so innately harmful that they are considered to be defamatory per se. In the common law tradition, damages for such false statements are presumed and do not have to be proven.

Statements are defamatory per se where they falsely impute to the plaintiff one or more of the following things:[2]

  • Allegations or imputations “injurious to another in their trade, business, or profession”
  • Allegations or imputations of “loathsome disease” (historically leprosy and sexually transmitted disease, now also including mental illness)
  • Allegations or imputations of “unchastity” (usually only in unmarried people and sometimes only in women)
  • Allegations or imputations of criminal activity (sometimes only crimes of moral turpitude)[12][13]

Criminal defamation

On the federal level, there are no criminal defamation or insult laws in the United States. However, as of 2005,[clarification needed] seventeen states and two territories had criminal defamation laws on the books:

Between 1992 and August 2004, 41 criminal defamation cases were brought to court in the United States, among which six defendants were convicted. From 1965 to 2004, 16 cases ended in final conviction, among which nine resulted in jail sentences (average sentence, 173 days). Other criminal cases resulted in fines (average fine, $1,700), probation (average of 547 days), community service (on average 120 hours), or writing a letter of apology.[17]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ “Substantial Truth”Digital Media Law Project. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  2. Jump up to:a b “What is a Defamatory Statement”Digital Media Law Project. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  3. Jump up^ attributed to Gouverneur Morris by John Francis, Edinburgh Encyclopedia, American Edition, page 400
  4. Jump up^ Pressman, Steven (1994). “Libel Law in the United States”An Unfettered Press. United States Information Agency. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  5. Jump up^ “Securing the Protection of our Enduring and Established Constitutional Heritage Act (2010; 111th Congress H.R. 2765) – GovTrack.us”GovTrack.us.
  6. Jump up^ Arthur L. AlarcónMilan D. Smith, Jr., and Andrew D. Hurwitz(17 January 2014). “United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit case Obsidian Finance Group LLC and Kevin Padrick vs. Crystal Cox (12-35238)” (PDF). United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit caseUnited States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  7. Jump up^ Levine, Dan (17 January 2014). “Blogger gets same speech protections as traditional press: U.S. court”Reuters. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  8. Jump up^ Paulson, Ken (24 January 2014). “Bloggers enjoy First Amendment protection against libel suits”. First Amendment Center. Retrieved 2 February 2014.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_defamation_law

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The Pronk Pops Show 1141, September 17, 2018, Story 1: Remnants of Slow Moving Tropical Storm Florence — Flooding and Cleanup With Roads and Airports Closed and Electrical Outages Widespread — 31 Deaths — Looting — Stay Home and Safe — Here Comes The Sun — Videos — Story 2: High Tech Lynching 2.0 By Desperate Democrats Delaying Confirmation Vote of Judge Brett Kavanaugh With An Allegation of Sexual Assault In High School Over 35 Years Ago By Professor Christine Ford — False and Faulty Eyewitness Memory — Allegations Are Not Evidence and Way Beyond The Statue of Limitations — Uncertainty, Bias, Confidence Problems With Eyewitness Testimony — Senate Hearing Scheduled For September 24 — Kavanaugh Confirmed Soon — Resistance Is Futile — Videos — Story 3: South Korean President Moon Meets North Korean Chairman Kim Tuesday for 2018 Summit Meeting — Denuclearization of Korea On Agenda —  U.S. Accuses Russia of Violating U.N. Sanctions On North Korea — Videos

Posted on September 17, 2018. Filed under: Addiction, American History, Banking System, Blogroll, Breaking News, Budgetary Policy, Business, China, Communications, Congress, Constitutional Law, Countries, Deep State, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Economics, Education, Elections, Empires, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Federal Government, Fifth Amendment, First Amendment, Fiscal Policy, Free Trade, Freedom of Speech, Government, Government Spending, Health, History, House of Representatives, Housing, Human, Human Behavior, Impeachment, Labor Economics, Law, Life, Media, Mental Illness, Monetary Policy, National Interest, News, North Korea, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, President Trump, Radio, Rape, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Rule of Law, Scandals, Senate, South Korea, Tax Policy, Trade Policy, United States Constitution, United States of America, Videos, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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Story 1: Remnants of Slow Moving Tropical Storm Florence — Flooding and Cleanup With Roads and Airports Closed and Electrical Outages Widespread — 23 Deaths — Looting — Stay Home and Safe — Here Comes The Sun — Videos —

Post-Florence, could we see Category 6 hurricanes in the future?

Florence death toll rises as floodwaters surge in Carolinas

Biggest flooding in North Carolina, USA (Sept 17, 2018)

Hurricane Florence Death Toll Rises As New Evacuations Ordered | TODAY

Watch Live: North Carolina Gov. Roy Cooper gives update on Florence | September 17, 2018

Hurricane Florence: Slow-moving storm brings ‘tremendous’ flooding to eastern U.S.

Tracking Florence: Flooding cleanup already underway

Hurricane Florence Causes At Least 18 Deaths

Hurricane Looters Just Got Priceless Surprise As Florence Rips Through North Carolina

Flooding from Hurricane Florence’s remnants the biggest concern

Hurricane Florence: Drone video captures devastating flooding across North Carolina

Officials report Florence-related death in South Carolina

All-Day Rescues As Tropical Storm Florence Ravages North Carolina | NBC Nightly News

The Weather Channel’s hurricane graphics are blowing our minds

Here Comes The Sun – The Beatles Tribute

Thousands of people line up for water and food as rising floodwaters cut off an entire North Carolina city to create an ‘island’ as death toll from storm Florence rises to 17

By CHARLIE MOORE FOR MAILONLINE

Thousands have been cut off by rising floodwaters as storm Florence batters North Carolina, bringing the death toll to 17.

Officials plan to airlift food and water to thousands holed up in the coastal city of Wilmington, which has been totally cut off from the rest of the state.

So far more than 400 people have been rescued from the area, which has no power and has been described as an island.

Residents have been waiting for hours outside stores and restaurants for basic necessities like water. Police are guarding the doors, only letting in 10 people at a time to avoid rushes and overcrowding.

Residents have been waiting for hours outside stores and restaurants in North Carolina for basic necessities like water. Police are guarding the doors, only letting in 10 people at a time

Residents have been waiting for hours outside stores and restaurants in North Carolina for basic necessities like water. Police are guarding the doors, only letting in 10 people at a time

Thousands have been cut off by rising floodwaters as storm Florence battered North Carolina, bringing the death toll to 17. Pictured: Emerald Isle in NC

People wait in line to buy food and supplies at one of the few places open in Wilmington North Carolina after Hurricane Florence traveled through the area Sunday

People wait in line to buy food and supplies at one of the few places open in Wilmington North Carolina after Hurricane Florence traveled through the area Sunday

Officials have warned evacuated residents to stay away amid fears of further flash flooding over the next two days. Pictured: Flooding in South Carolina

A tree rests atop a home on Queens Road West in Charlotte, NC on Sunday as heavy rains and wind continued to batter the US

Marcus Dipaola helps five-year-old Ember Kelly off a rescue boat carrying her sisters and mother from rising flood waters in the aftermath of Hurricane Florence, in Leland, North Carolina

Marcus Dipaola helps five-year-old Ember Kelly off a rescue boat carrying her sisters and mother from rising flood waters in the aftermath of Hurricane Florence, in Leland, North Carolina

Florence: What is an extra-tropical cyclone?

Florence is expected to weaken on Monday before re-intensifying as it transitions to an extratropical cyclone Tuesday and Wednesday

Extratropical cyclones have cold air at their core, and derive their energy from the release of potential energy when cold and warm air masses interact.

These storms always have one or more fronts connected to them, and can occur over land or ocean.

An extratropical cyclone can have winds as weak as a tropical depression, or as strong as a hurricane.

Officials have warned evacuated residents to stay away amid fears of further flash flooding over the next two days.

Wilmington has a population of 120,000 but it is not clear how many chose not to leave before the storm hit.

‘Do not come here,’ New Hanover County Commission Chairman Woody White said.

‘Our roads are flooded, there is no access into Wilmington…We want you home, but you can’t come yet.’

Hurricane Florence, downgraded to a tropical depression, claimed more lives on Sunday, with at least 17 people confirmed dead.

Florence is expected to weaken on Monday before re-intensifying as it transitions to an extratropical cyclone Tuesday and Wednesday, the US National Hurricane Center said on Monday.

The tropical depression continues to produce widespread heavy rains over parts of North Carolina and north-eastern South Carolina into western Virginia and flash flooding will continue over portions of the western mid-Atlantic region, it said.

Florence is located about 145 miles (230 km) west-northwest of Greensboro, North Carolina packing maximum sustained winds of 30 miles per hour.

Dallas Perdue leaves a Lowe's Foods store in Wilmington, N.C., after storm Florence traveled through the area Sunday

The Waffle House outside of downtown Wilmington, NC was open on Sunday as thousands became stranded from the rest of the state

The Waffle House outside of downtown Wilmington, NC was open on Sunday as thousands became stranded from the rest of the state

An abandoned car's hazard lights continue to flash as it sits submerged in a rising flood waters during pre-dawn hours after Hurricane Florence struck in Wilmington, North Carolina

An abandoned car’s hazard lights continue to flash as it sits submerged in a rising flood waters during pre-dawn hours after Hurricane Florence struck in Wilmington, North Carolina

A view of a gas station with its roof blown off as Hurricane Florence comes ashore in Wilmington, North Carolina

On Monday, the South Carolina Department of Corrections posted pictures of prisoners preparing sandbags to defend their facilities from flooding

Bryan Stirling, director of the department, chose not to evacuate the inmates from several prisons, with a spokesman saying: 'In the past, it’s been safer to leave them there.' Pictured: Sandbanks outside a South Carolina prison

Bryan Stirling, director of the department, chose not to evacuate the inmates from several prisons, with a spokesman saying: ‘In the past, it’s been safer to leave them there.’ Pictured: Sandbanks outside a South Carolina prison

‘Not only are you going to see more impact across North Carolina… but we’re also anticipating you are about to see a lot of damage going through West Virginia, all the way up to Ohio as the system exits out,’ Brock Long of the Federal Emergency Management Agency said Sunday on Fox News.

About 70 miles away from Wilmington, residents near the Lumber River stepped from their homes directly into boats floating in their front yards.

River forecasts showed the scene could be repeated in towns as far as 250 miles inland as waters rise for days.

Radar showed parts of the sprawling storm over six states, with North and South Carolina in the bull’s-eye.

On Monday, the South Carolina Department of Corrections posted pictures of prisoners preparing sandbags to defend their facilities from flooding.

Bryan Stirling, director of the department, chose not to evacuate the inmates from several prisons, with a spokesman saying: ‘In the past, it’s been safer to leave them there.’

Cars try to navigate a flooded road leading to Interstate 40 in Castle Hayne, NC, after damage from Hurricane Florence cut off access to Wilmington

Cars try to navigate a flooded road leading to Interstate 40 in Castle Hayne, NC, after damage from Hurricane Florence cut off access to Wilmington

Meanwhile, half way around the world, Typhoon Mangkhut barreled into southern China on Sunday after lashing the Philippines with strong winds and heavy rain that left dozens dead.

More than 2.4 million people were evacuated from China’s southern Guangdong province ahead of the massive typhoon, the strongest to hit the region in nearly two decades.

In North Carolina, fears of what could be the worst flooding in the state’s history led officials to order tens of thousands to evacuate, though it wasn’t clear how many had fled or even could.

President Donald Trump said federal emergency workers, first responders and law enforcement officials were ‘working really hard.’ As the storm ‘begins to finally recede, they will kick into an even higher gear. Very Professional!’ he declared in a tweet.

The storm’s death toll climbed to 17 when authorities said a 3-month-old child was killed when a tree fell on a mobile home in North Carolina. Three people died in weather-related traffic accidents, officials said.

Victor Merlos was overjoyed to find a store open for business in Wilmington since he had about 20 relatives staying at his apartment, which still had power. He spent more than $500 on cereal, eggs, soft drinks and other necessities, plus beer.

‘I have everything I need for my whole family,’ said Merlos. Nearby, a Waffle House restaurant limited breakfast customers to one biscuit and one drink, all take-out, with the price of $2 per item.

Kenneth Campbell had donned waterproof waders intending to check out his home in Lumberton , but he didn’t bother when he saw the Coast Guard and murky waters in his neighborhood.

‘I’m not going to waste my time. I already know,’ he said.

As rivers swelled, state regulators and environmental groups were monitoring the threat from gigantic hog and poultry farms located in low-lying, flood-prone areas.

Victor Merlos loads supplies he bought at a Harris Teeter grocery store, one of the few places open in Wilmington, N.C., after storm Florence traveled through the area Sunday

The floodwaters of McAlpine Creek along Randolph Road in Charlotte, N.C., are seen on Sunday, Sept. 16, 2018

A man walks along the street with his dog as people return to their houses after the passing of Hurricane Florence in New Bern, North Carolina, US September 16, 2018

A man walks along the street with his dog as people return to their houses after the passing of Hurricane Florence in New Bern, North Carolina, US September 16, 2018

Motorists drive through floodwaters in Hampstead, N.C. Sunday as Tropical Storm Florence continued to pelt the area with rain and wind

Motorists drive through floodwaters in Hampstead, N.C. Sunday as Tropical Storm Florence continued to pelt the area with rain and wind

A boat sits in a backyard after the passing of Hurricane Florence in New Bern, North Carolina on Sunday

A boat sits in a backyard after the passing of Hurricane Florence in New Bern, North Carolina on Sunday

The industrial-scale farms contain vast pits of animal feces and urine that can pose a significant pollution threat if they are breached or inundated by floodwaters. In past hurricanes, flooding at dozens of farms also left hundreds of thousands of dead hogs, chickens and other decomposing livestock bobbing in floodwaters.

Some stream gauges used to monitor river levels failed when they became submerged, but others showed water levels rising steadily, with forecasts calling for rivers to at or near record levels. The Defense Department said about 13,500 military personnel were assigned to help relief efforts.

Authorities ordered the immediate evacuation of up to 7,500 people living within a mile of a stretch of the Cape Fear River and the Little River, about 100 miles from the North Carolina coast. The evacuation zone included part of the city of Fayetteville, population 200,000.

Near the flooded-out town of New Bern , where about 455 people had to be rescued from the swirling flood waters, water completely surrounded churches, businesses and homes. In the neighboring town of Trenton, downtown streets were turned to creeks full of brown water.

The rain was unrelenting in Cheraw, a town of about 6,000 people in northeastern South Carolina. Streets were flooded and Police Chief Keith Thomas warned people not to drive, but the local food and gas store had customers.

‘As you can tell, they’re not listening to me,’ he said.

On Sunday the death toll from the hurricane-turned-tropical depression climbed to 15 when a 23-year-old man drowned after a pickup truck flipped into a drainage ditch along a flooded road in South Carolina.

Earlier, authorities said two people died from carbon monoxide poisoning after using a generator in their South Carolina home during the storm.

Before and after photos show the floodwater level before on September 14 and after Hurricane Florence in New Bern, North Carolina, on September 16, 2018
Before and after photos show the floodwater level before on September 14 and after Hurricane Florence in New Bern, North Carolina, on September 16, 2018
Before and after photos show the floodwater level before on September 14 and after Hurricane Florence in New Bern, North Carolina, on September 16, 2018
Within two days floodwater consumed the base of a home in New Bern, North Carolina. Pictured Friday and then Sunday
Within two days floodwater consumed the base of a home in New Bern, North Carolina. Pictured Friday and then Sunday
Within two days floodwater consumed the base of a home in New Bern, North Carolina. Pictured Friday and then Sunday
Members of the North Carolina Task Force urban search and rescue team wade through a flooded neighborhood looking for residents who stayed behind as Florence continues to dump heavy rain in Fayetteville, North Carolina, Sunday 

Members of the North Carolina Task Force urban search and rescue team wade through a flooded neighborhood looking for residents who stayed behind as Florence continues to dump heavy rain in Fayetteville, North Carolina, Sunday

A member of the US Coast Guard walks down Mill Creek Road checking houses after tropical depression Florence hit Newport North Carolina Saturday

A man wades across a bridge flooded by Hurricane Florence in Pollocksville, North Carolina, Sunday

A man wades across a bridge flooded by Hurricane Florence in Pollocksville, North Carolina, Sunday

A home is seen in floodwaters from Hurricane Florence in Marion, South Carolina Sunday

Members of the Nebraska Task Force 1 urban search and rescue team help load an elderly resident onto a bus as they evacuate an assisted living facility to a church as a precaution against potential flooding Saturday 

A home is damaged after a large tree fell on it Sunday in Wilmington, North Carolina. So far, 15 deaths have been reported

A home is damaged after a large tree fell on it Sunday in Wilmington, North Carolina. So far, 15 deaths have been reported

A sailboat is shoved up against a house and a collapsed garage Saturday, September 15 after heavy wind and rain from Florence

The North Carolina fatalities also include three who died ‘due to flash flooding and swift water on roadways,’ the Duplin County Sheriff’s Office reported.

Horry County Chief Deputy Coroner Tamara Willard said 63-year-old Mark Carter King and 61-year-old Debra Collins Rion were killed by breathing in carbon monoxide.

Their bodies were found in a Loris home Saturday afternoon, but they likely died the day before as the heavy rains and winds from former hurricane-turned-Tropical Depression Florence were moving onshore.

Governor Roy Cooper says the storm has ‘never been more dangerous’ than it is now for areas extending from Fayetteville and Lumberton, across the Sandhills, to the central part of North Carolina and into the mountains.

About 740,000 homes and businesses remained without power in the Carolinas, and utilities said some could be out for weeks.

Sunday’s heavy rains have made major roads, including parts of the I-95, impassable.

Roads were quickly submerged on Sunday morning and blocked off by police cars and fire trucks. Some drivers in raised trucks slowly navigated the flooding while others made U-turns and looked for other routes. Smaller country roads were washed over with water as streams and rivers nearby burst their banks, leaving drivers at risk of being trapped.

The roads were fairly busy as drivers attempted to return home to assess damage on areas where areas where evacuation orders were lifted.

Radar showed parts of the sprawling storm over six states, but North and South Carolina were in the bull’s-eye.

The head of Federal Emergency Management Agency, Brock Long, said officials were still focused on finding and rescuing people.

‘We’ll get through this. It’ll be ugly but we’ll get through it,’ he told Chuck Todd on NBC’s Meet The Press.

Long said:  ‘Well, unfortunately, the event is still unfolding for the next 48 hours.’

Two people in a canoe paddle through a street that was flooded by Hurricane Florence Saturday north of New Bern, North Carolina 

A Corvette sits damaged after a large tree fell on it Sunday in Wilmington, North Carolina 

Maggie Belgie of The Cajun Navy carries a child evacuating a flooding trailer community during Hurricane Florence in Lumberton, North Carolina Saturday

Maggie Belgie of The Cajun Navy carries a child evacuating a flooding trailer community during Hurricane Florence in Lumberton, North Carolina Saturday

A downed tree uprooted by Hurricane Florence lies next to homes in New Bern, North Carolina Saturday

A downed tree uprooted by Hurricane Florence lies next to homes in New Bern, North Carolina Saturday

Robert Dolman walks past a Cadillac that has been crushed by a tree Sunday in North Carolina 

Robert Dolman walks past a Cadillac that has been crushed by a tree Sunday in North Carolina

The next stage of the disaster comes with widespread river flooding, pictured a Coast Guard member Saturday 

The next stage of the disaster comes with widespread river flooding, pictured a Coast Guard member Saturday

US Marine Corp aid in evacuating  the local populace in Jacksonville, North Carolina, Saturday 

US Marine Corp aid in evacuating  the local populace in Jacksonville, North Carolina, Saturday

Apartment complex are evacuated due to Hurricane Florence

Officials on Sunday warned rivers were swelling toward record levels, forecasters now warn, and thousands of people have been ordered to evacuate for fear that the next few days could bring the most destructive round of flooding in North Carolina history.

Stream gauges across the region showed water levels rising steadily, with forecasts calling for rivers to crest Sunday and Monday at or near record levels: The Little River, the Cape Fear, the Lumber, the Neuse, the Waccamaw and the Pee Dee were all projected to burst their banks, possibly flooding nearby communities.

Authorities ordered the immediate evacuation of up to 7,500 people living within a mile of a stretch of the Cape Fear River and the Little River, about 100 miles from the North Carolina coast. The evacuation zone included part of the city of Fayetteville, population 200,000

On Saturday morning, President Donald Trump issued a disaster declaration for parts of the state that will make the rebuilding process easier for residents in some counties.

Trump, who plans a visit to the region next week, tweeted his ‘deepest sympathies and warmth’ to the families and friends of those who had lost their lives.

Saturday afternoon, the White House released a photo of Trump and Vice President Mike Pence receiving a phone briefing on disaster response efforts.

John Rose owns a furniture business with stores less than a mile from the river. Rain-soaked furniture workers helped him quickly empty more than 1,000 mattresses from a warehouse in a low-lying strip mall.

‘It’s the first time we’ve ever had to move anything like this,’ Rose said. ‘If the river rises to the level they say it’s going to, then this warehouse is going to be under water.’

President Donald Trump and Vice President Mike Pence received an emergency preparedness update call on Hurricane Florence in the Treaty Room of the White House on Saturday

President Donald Trump and Vice President Mike Pence received an emergency preparedness update call on Hurricane Florence in the Treaty Room of the White House on Saturday

The next stage of the disaster comes with widespread river flooding – which could make history in North Carolina

An updated map from Sunday morning shows Florence’s status

Certain areas of North Carolina are experiencing record-breaking major flooding

A Sunday morning map shows the three to five inches of rain in parts of North and South Carolina

A woman leaves a flooded home with her dog in a neighborhood inundated by water in Lumberton on Sunday

A woman leaves a flooded home with her dog in a neighborhood inundated by water in Lumberton on Sunday

A partially submerged car is pictured on a flooded street after Hurricane Florence struck Piney Green, North Carolina Sunday

A partially submerged car is pictured on a flooded street after Hurricane Florence struck Piney Green, North Carolina Sunday

Albie Lewis, right, a FEMA Federal Coordinating Officer, talks with North Carolina Gov. Roy Cooper aboard a Coast Guard C-130 aircraft after surveying the damage done by Hurricane Florence on Sunday

On U.S. Route 401 nearby, rain rose in ditches and around unharvested tobacco crops along the road. Ponds had begun to overflow, and creeks passing under the highway churned with muddy, brown water.

Farther along the Cape Fear River, grass and trees lining the banks were partly submerged, still well below a highway bridge crossing it.

‘It’s hard to believe it’s going to get that high,’ says Elizabeth Machado, who came to the bridge to check on the river.

Fayetteville’s city officials, meanwhile, got help from the Nebraska Task Force One search and rescue team to evacuate 140 residents of an assisted-living facility in Fayetteville to a safer location at a church.

Already, more than two feet of rain has fallen in places, and forecasters are saying there could be an additional 1½ feet before Sunday is out.

‘I cannot overstate it: Floodwaters are rising, and if you aren’t watching for them, you are risking your life,’ Gov. Roy Cooper said.

A pickup truck drives on a flooded road past a farm house that is surrounded by flooded fields from tropical storm Florence in Hyde County, North Carolina, Saturday

A pickup truck drives on a flooded road past a farm house that is surrounded by flooded fields from tropical storm Florence in Hyde County, North Carolina, Saturday

Resident Joseph Eudi looks at flood debris and storm damage from Hurricane Florence at a home on East Front Street in New Bern, North Carolina, Saturday 

Rescue personnel help a flood victim and her animals to dry land from heavy rains from Florence in North Carolina

Rescue personnel help a flood victim and her animals to dry land from heavy rains from Florence in North Carolina

Officials were warning residents not only to stay off the roads but also to avoid using GPS systems.

‘As conditions change, GPS navigation systems are not keeping up with the road closures and are directing people onto roads that are confirmed closed and/or flooded,’ the state Transportation Department said on Twitter.

Florence weakened to a tropical depression early Sunday and was crawling west at 8 mph. At 5am, the storm was centered about 20 miles southwest of Columbia, South Carolina. Its winds were down to 35 mph.

In Goldsboro, North Carolina, home of Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, roads that frequently flood were already closed Saturday by rushing water.

Dozens of electric repair trucks massed to respond to damage expected to hit central North Carolina as rainwater collected into rivers headed to the coast. Hundreds of thousands of outages have been reported.

A creek that feeds into the Neuse was rushing over a road near Phil Eubanks’ home Saturday. Another creek backed up into their basement Friday, but based on past experience Eubanks and his wife think the worst is over for them.

‘I didn’t sleep last night. It was creeping up those steps’ from the basement, said his jittery wife, Ellen. ‘It came up. It went down today. I think we’re OK.’

Coast Guard FN Tyler Elliott, from Louisville, Kentucky, helps rescue one of ten beagles from a flooded home in Columbus North Carolina Sunday

Coast Guard FN Tyler Elliott, from Louisville, Kentucky, helps rescue one of ten beagles from a flooded home in Columbus North Carolina Sunday

Members of the Coast Guard help a stranded motorist in the flood waters caused by Hurricane Florence in Lumberton, North Carolina, Sunday 

Members of the Coast Guard help a stranded motorist in the flood waters caused by Hurricane Florence in Lumberton, North Carolina, Sunday

Roger Hedgepeth is assisted along with his dog Bodie by members of the U.S. Coast Guard Sunday 

Hedgepeth wears a life jacket and holds his dog Bodie while being moved to higher ground Sunday 

A Dillon County rescue crew boat works in a flooded area near a stuck car in Latta, South Carolina, on Sunday 

A Dillon County rescue crew boat works in a flooded area near a stuck car in Latta, South Carolina, on Sunday

A man is pictured walking through a flooded street after Florence struck Piney Green, North Carolina

A man is pictured walking through a flooded street after Florence struck Piney Green, North Carolina

On Saturday evening, Duke Energy said heavy rains caused a slope to collapse at a coal ash landfill at a closed power station outside Wilmington, North Carolina. Duke spokeswoman Paige Sheehan said about 2,000 cubic yards (1,530 cubic meters) of ash were displaced at the Sutton Plant and that contaminated storm water likely flowed into the plant’s cooling pond.

Sutton was mothballed in 2013 and the company has been excavating ash to remove to safer lined landfills. The ash left behind when coal is burned contains toxic heavy metals, including lead and arsenic.

In New Bern, along the coast, homes were completely surrounded by water, and rescuers used inflatable boats to reach people Saturday.

Kevin Knox and his family were rescued by boat from their flooded brick home with the help of Army Sgt. Johan Mackie, whose team used a phone app to locate people in distress.

‘Amazing. They did awesome,’ said Knox, who was stranded with seven others.

New Bern spokeswoman Colleen Roberts said 455 people were safely rescued in the town of 30,000 residents. She called damage to thousands of buildings ‘heart-wrenching.’

Ernestine Crumpler, 80, is helped by members of the Nebraska Task Force 1 urban search and rescue team as they evacuate an assisted living facility to a church as a precaution against potential flooding the city could see

Resident Alice Tolson steps over storm debris that washed up from the Neuse River at her home on East Front Street in New Bern

Residents of an assisted living facility sit on a bus as they are evacuated Saturday in North Carolina

A 40-foot yacht lies in the yard of a storm-damaged home on East Front Street in New Bern, North Carolina Saturday

The boat washed up with storm surge and debris from Hurricane Florence

Spirits were high, though, at the Trent Park Elementary School in New Bern, where 44-year-old Cathy Yolanda Wright took shelter after being rescued from her flooded home Saturday. Wright, who sings in the choir at Mount Calvary Missionary Baptist, led residents at the shelter in an energetic singalong.

People clapped and shouted, ‘Amen!’ and ‘Thank you, Lord.’

Across the Trent River from New Bern, Jerry and Jan Andrews returned home after evacuating to find carp flopping in their backyard near the porch stairs.

Coast Guard helicopters took off across the street to rescue stranded people from rooftops and swamped cars.

The Marines rescued about 20 civilians from floodwaters near Camp Lejeune, using Humvees and amphibious assault vehicles, the base reported.

The dead included a mother and baby killed by a falling tree in Wilmington, North Carolina. South Carolina recorded its first death from the storm, with officials saying a 61-year-old woman was killed when her car hit a tree that fell across a highway.

Three died in one inland county, Duplin, because of water on roads and flash floods, authorities said. A husband and wife died in a storm-linked house fire, officials said, and an 81-year-old man died after falling while packing to evacuate.

Trenton, North Carolina, is pictured Sunday inundated with floodwaters from Florence 

A closed sign hangs from the front door of the Blue Flour bakery on Main St. in Columbia, S.C. as the remnants of Hurricane Florence slowly move across the East Coast

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6175377/Entire-North-Carolina-city-cut-storm-Florence-floodwaters.html

Story 2: High Tech Lynching 2.0 By Desperate Democrats Delaying Confirmation Vote of Judge Brett Kavanaugh With An Allegation of Sexual Assault In High School Over 35 Years Ago By Professor Christine Ford — False and Faulty Eyewitness Memory — Allegations Are Not Evidence and Way Beyond The Statue of Limitations — Uncertainty, Bias, Confidence Problems With Eyewitness Testimony — Senate Hearing Scheduled For September 24 — Kavanaugh Confirmed Soon — Resistance Is Futile — Videos —

See the source image

Flashback: Clarence Thomas responds to Anita Hill

Judge Napolitano on if Kavanaugh’s nomination is in jeopardy

Tucker Carlson Tonight 9/17/18 | Fox News september 17, 2018

Judge Brett Kavanaugh’s Accuser Speaks Out About Alleged Sexual Assault | Velshi & Ruhle | MSNBC

As Blasey Ford Alleges Kavanaugh Assaulted Her, Will Senate Repeat Mistakes Made with Anita Hill?

Tammy Bruce to Dianne Feinstein: Shame on you

Brett Kavanaugh Accuser Came Forward Out Of ‘Civic Responsibility’ | Kasie DC | MSNBC

Uncertainty grows over Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh’s confirmation

Lawyer: Kavanaugh accuser willing to testify before Congress

Kavanaugh Strongly Denies Allegation Of Sexual Misconduct Handed Over By Top Dem | NBC Nightly News

#LionelNation🇺🇸Immersive Live Stream: The Electronic (Re)Lynching of Brett Kavanaugh

The Kavanaugh #MeToo Moment | The Ben Shapiro Show Ep. 623

BREAK!NG NEWS TRUMP 9/17/18 | WHITE HOUSE STANDS BY KAVANAUGH AMID ACCUSATIONS

LEVIN: Some important questions about Dianne Feinstein’s referral of Brett Kavanaugh letter to FBI

Democrats threaten to delay hearings for SCOTUS nominee Brett Kavanaugh

Ted Cruz: Dems Delaying Kavanaugh Confirmation Because They Want to ‘Re-Litigate’ 2016 Election

Scott Adams – False Memories, Brett Kavanaugh, Peacocks, Lie Detectors, and the Simulation

How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

Scott Fraser: The problem with eyewitness testimony

Why eyewitnesses fail | Thomas Albright | TEDxSanDiego

How memory plays us: Elizabeth Loftus at TEDxOrangeCoast

The Power of Suggestion: How to Implant False Memories

Implanting False Memories

Is Your Memory Just an Illusion? | A Tua Memória é Apenas Uma Ilusão? | Julia Shaw | TEDxPorto

How False Memories Corrupt Our Identities, Politics, and Justice System | Julia Shaw | TEDxBergen

Time To Rethink Evil | Julia Shaw | TEDxOxford

Resistance is Futile!

KAVANAUGH ACCUSER IS AN ANTI-TRUMP LEFTIST WHO ATTENDED WOMEN’S MARCH, DONATED TO DNC

Attempt to derail nomination is a blatant political ploy

 | Infowars.com – SEPTEMBER 17, 2018

Judge Brett Kavanaugh accuser Christine Blasey Ford is an anti-Trump leftist who participated in the Women’s March and donated to the DNC, revelations that make the attempt to delay Kavanaugh’s nomination look increasingly like a desperate political ploy.

Ford, now a professor at Palo Alto University in California, accused Kavanaugh of holding her down on a bed and groping her at a house party in Maryland in the early 80’s when Kavanaugh was 17 and Ford was 15.

Ford asserts that the attack was so severe, she thought Kavanaugh was going to “inadvertently” kill her, claiming, “He was trying to attack me and remove my clothing.”

The professor says that the assault only came to a stop when a third person, Mark Judge, intervened and jumped on top of them.

However, Judge has completely denied that the incident ever took place. Democratic Sen. Dianne Feinstein of California was also first made aware of the allegations back in July but concealed all information relating to them for weeks.

It has since emerged that Ford has a history of left-wing political activism;

– She signed a letter attacking Trump’s “zero tolerance” policy at the U.S.-Mexico border, asserting that it was “violating fundamental human rights”.

– Ford attended a women’s march event and even wore a version of the infamous “pussy hat” made to look like a brain.

null

– Records show that Ford donated to the Democratic National Committee, Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee and Friends Of Bernie Sanders.

– Perhaps in an attempt to hide her motives, Ford scrubbed her social media presence before the allegations came to light.

View image on TwitterView image on TwitterView image on Twitter

Ryan Saavedra 🇺🇸

@RealSaavedra

Judge Brett Kavanaugh’s accuser, Christine Blasey Ford, has donated money to the Democratic National Committee (DNC), Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC), and Friends Of Bernie Sanders.

Despite top Democrats calling for the vote on Kavanaugh to be postponed until Ford’s claims can be properly vetted, the FBI has refused to open an investigation.

Judiciary Committee Chairman Chuck Grassley’s (R-Iowa) office also sent out a letter on Friday morning on behalf of 65 women who knew Kavanaugh when he was in high school asserting, “For the entire time we have known Brett Kavanaugh, he has behaved honorably and treated women with respect.”

“It’s disturbing that these uncorroborated allegations from more than 35 years ago, during high school, would surface on the eve of a committee vote after Democrats sat on them since July,” a Republican spokesperson for Senate Judiciary Committee chairman Chuck Grassley said Sunday. “If Ranking Member Feinstein and other Committee Democrats took this claim seriously, they should have brought it to the full Committee’s attention much earlier.”

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https://www.infowars.com/kavanaugh-accuser-is-an-anti-trump-leftist-who-attended-womens-march-donated-to-dnc/

Rejoice, Democrats: Your Next High-Tech Lynching Has Arrived!

Democrats raise the depravity to new heights. – After news of the “anonymous letter” from a woman who knew Brett Kavanaugh in high school, accusing the Supreme Court nominee of unspecified teenage misconduct, came to light last week, here is what The Campaign Update told you we would soon find out:

Trust me on this, it is only a matter of time before…

– We find out the accuser’s name;

We discover she is being represented by some scumbag lawyer like Michael Avenetti or Lisa Bloom or best of all, Gloria Allred;

– We find out she got paid a ton of money by some Democrat-affiliated, Soros-funded third party group to write and send the letter; and

– We start seeing leftwing talking heads and Democrat politicians rolling out their next big talking point, which will be that we must – MUST – place the Kavanaugh nomination on hold until these oh-so-credible accusations, which will almost certainly be luridly sexual in nature, can be sorted out.

=================================

That was last Thursday.  On Sunday, we found out most of that information, courtesy of the fakenewsers at the Washington Post.

The accuser’s name?  Christine Blasey Ford, a longtime leftwing activist, professor at extremely liberal Palo Alto University in California, and Bernie Sanders contributor.  Totally credible.

The accuser’s lawyer?  Not the Porn Lawyer, nor the execrable Ms. Bloom nor her even more execrable mother, Gloria Allred.  But just as bad: One Debra Katz, a longtime leftwing Democrat activist who was recently quoted as describing anyone who works for President Trump as “miscreants.”  Katz also was part of Hillary Clinton’s “Bimbo Eruptions” team, a group of women who viciously slandered any of the myriad women who came out of the woodwork to accuse Bill Clinton of sexual misconduct.  Just a lovely person, no doubt.

How much has Ms. Blasey Ford been paid to do this?  We don’t know this bit of key information yet, but you can bet tons of people are working on that particular question as you read this.  The going rate for this sort of thing during the 2016 presidential campaign was about $150,000; for accusers of Roy Moore, the bidding got up over $200,000.  The execrable lawyer Ms. Bloom got caught offering something like $700k to one #MeToo accuser.  Ms. Blasey Ford may or may not have been paid to do this, but the history of this sort of Democrat dirty trick tells us there’s a pretty good chance that some big, big money is behind this.

Very predictably, the calls from Democrat politicians and fake news readers that we must – MUST – place the Kavanaugh nomination on hold until these accusations from this woman – who the Democrat/fake journalist joint talking points insist is a “credible witness” – can be sorted out literally rained down from the heavens throughout Sunday afternoon and evening.

Of course, the truth is that Ms. Blasey Ford is not credible in any way, shape or form.  Even a rookie public defender would rip her story to shreds were she to try to roll this junk out on the witness stand in a court of law.  The mere fact that she has allegedly sat on this “information” for 36 years, as Mr. Kavanaugh rose through the ranks of the federal judiciary, as the FBI has conducted no fewer than 6 thorough investigations into his background, even as he went through a highly-publicized confirmation before this same Senate Judiciary Committee when he was nominated to serve on a federal appellate court – that she sat on her hands through all of those years and all of those hearings and investigations alone renders her as a wholly non-credible person.

She claims to have passed a lie detector test administered by a “former FBI agent”.  Oh, really?  Was that agent’s last name Strzok?  Page?  Comey?  McCabe?  The possibilities are almost endless here.

Meanwhile, despite Ms. Blasey Ford’s laser-clear memory of this “incident,” she cannot remember where this party was held, who owned the home in question, how she got to the party, or who she arrived there with.  Oh, but she does remember that Kavanaugh allegedly had a partner in this “incident,” and even the guy’s name – some poor schlub named Mark Judge, who, like Mr. Kavanaugh, categorically denies the story, calling it “just absolutely nuts.”

Yes, it is absolutely nuts, but this is today’s depraved Democrat Party we’re talking about here, and the fake news media which serves as its propaganda wing.

Sadly, it’s also nervous Republicans like Lindsey Graham and shameless swamp skunks like Jeff Flake, both of whom are now getting all wobbly in the knees and calling for Judiciary Committee Chairman Chuck Grassley to bring Ms. Blasey Ford before the Committee for a hearing before the scheduled committee vote this Thursday.  The accuser says she’s willing to do that, no doubt in the hopes of becoming the new darling of the news media, a modern-day Anita Hill.  What a goal to have in life.

Given that every Democrat on that Committee knew about Ms. Blasey Ford’s allegations when the full week of hearings on this nomination took place, and conspired to keep it in their hip pockets, Chairman Grassley should refuse to cowtow to his weak-kneed colleagues and simply follow through with his scheduled vote.  But he won’t do that, because congressional Republicans have no, well, um, let’s call them “huevos”.  (Look it up if you don’t understand rudimentary Spanish.)

So we’re going to have another gigantic, disgusting spectacle this week, probably two full days of salacious, slanderous hearings that will only serve to divide the nation even further than it already is, brought to you courtesy of depraved Democrats and gutless Republicans.

A pox on all their houses.  Every one of them.

That is all.

[Addendum:  Don’t just assume that Ms. Blasey Ford is the only accuser the Democrats are holding in their hip pockets on this nomination.  The Roy Moore episode makes it clear that they may well have a number of longtime leftist activist Bernie Sanders donors willing to come forward and slander Mr. Kavanaugh’s reputation.  Say tuned, if you can bear it.]
https://dbdailyupdate.com/index.php/2018/09/17/rejoice-democrats-your-next-high-tech-lynching-has-arrived/

 

California professor, writer of confidential Brett Kavanaugh letter, speaks out about her allegation of sexual assault

Kavanaugh and his accuser offer to testify as allegation roils Washington

Christine Blasey Ford is willing to testify after her letter leaked alleging Supreme Court nominee Brett M. Kavanaugh sexually assaulted her in the 1980s.

September 16 at 10:28 PM

Earlier this summer, Christine Blasey Ford wrote a confidential letter to a senior Democratic lawmaker alleging that Supreme Court nominee Brett M. Kavanaugh sexually assaulted her more than three decades ago, when they were high school students in suburban Maryland. Since Wednesday, she has watched as that bare-bones version of her story became public without her name or her consent, drawing a blanket denial from Kavanaugh and roiling a nomination that just days ago seemed all but certain to succeed.Now, Ford has decided that if her story is going to be told, she wants to be the one to tell it.Speaking publicly for the first time, Ford said that one summer in the early 1980s, Kavanaugh and a friend — both “stumbling drunk,” Ford alleges — corralled her into a bedroom during a gathering of teenagers at a house in Montgomery County.

While his friend watched, she said, Kavanaugh pinned her to a bed on her back and groped her over her clothes, grinding his body against hers and clumsily attempting to pull off her one-piece bathing suit and the clothing she wore over it. When she tried to scream, she said, he put his hand over her mouth.

“I thought he might inadvertently kill me,” said Ford, now a 51-year-old research psychologist in northern California. “He was trying to attack me and remove my clothing.”

Ford said she was able to escape when Kavanaugh’s friend and classmate at Georgetown Preparatory School, Mark Judge, jumped on top of them, sending all three tumbling. She said she ran from the room, briefly locked herself in a bathroom and then fled the house.

Ford said she told no one of the incident in any detail until 2012, when she was in couples therapy with her husband. The therapist’s notes, portions of which were provided by Ford and reviewed by The Washington Post, do not mention Kavanaugh’s name but say she reported that she was attacked by students “from an elitist boys’ school” who went on to become “highly respected and high-ranking members of society in Washington.” The notes say four boys were involved, a discrepancy Ford says was an error on the therapist’s part. Ford said there were four boys at the party but only two in the room.

Notes from an individual therapy session the following year, when she was being treated for what she says have been long-term effects of the incident, show Ford described a “rape attempt” in her late teens.

In an interview, her husband, Russell Ford, said that in the 2012 sessions, she recounted being trapped in a room with two drunken boys, one of whom pinned her to a bed, molested her and prevented her from screaming. He said he recalled that his wife used Kavanaugh’s last name and voiced concern that Kavanaugh — then a federal judge — might one day be nominated to the Supreme Court.

On Sunday, the White House sent The Post a statement Kavanaugh issued last week, when the outlines of Ford’s account became public: “I categorically and unequivocally deny this allegation. I did not do this back in high school or at any time.”

Through a White House spokesman, Kavanaugh declined to comment further on Ford’s allegation and did not respond to questions about whether he knew her during high school. The White House had no additional comment.

Kavanaugh denies making unwanted sexual advances as an adult

Judge Brett M. Kavanaugh denied committing sexual or physical harassment as an adult when asked by Sen. Mazie Hirono (D-Hawaii) on Sept. 5. 

Reached by email Sunday, Judge declined to comment. In an interview Friday with The Weekly Standard, before Ford’s name was known, he denied that any such incident occurred. “It’s just absolutely nuts. I never saw Brett act that way,” Judge said. He told the New York Times that Kavanaugh was a “brilliant student” who loved sports and was not “into anything crazy or illegal.”

Christine Ford is a professor at Palo Alto University who teaches in a consortium with Stanford University, training graduate students in clinical psychology. Her work has been widely published in academic journals.

She contacted The Post through a tip line in early July, when it had become clear that Kavanaugh was on the shortlist of possible nominees to replace retiring justice Anthony M. Kennedy but before Trump announced his name publicly. A registered Democrat who has made small contributions to political organizations, she contacted her congresswoman, Democrat Anna G. Eshoo, around the same time. In late July, she sent a letter via Eshoo’s office to Sen. Dianne Feinstein of California, the ranking Democrat on the Judiciary Committee.

In the letter, which was read to The Post, Ford described the incident and said she expected her story to be kept confidential. She signed the letter as Christine Blasey, the name she uses professionally.

Though Ford had contacted The Post, she declined to speak on the record for weeks as she grappled with concerns about what going public would mean for her and her family — and what she said was her duty as a citizen to tell the story.

She engaged Debra Katz, a Washington lawyer known for her work on sexual harassment cases. On the advice of Katz, who said she believed Ford would be attacked as a liar if she came forward, Ford took a polygraph test administered by a former FBI agent in early August. The results, which Katz provided to The Post, concluded that Ford was being truthful when she said a statement summarizing her allegations was accurate.

By late August, Ford had decided not to come forward, calculating that doing so would upend her life and probably would not affect Kavanaugh’s confirmation. “Why suffer through the annihilation if it’s not going to matter?” she said.

Her story leaked anyway. On Wednesday, the Intercept reported that Feinstein had a letter describing an incident involving Kavanaugh and a woman while they were in high school and that Feinstein was refusing to share it with her Democratic colleagues.

Feinstein soon released a statement: “I have received information from an individual concerning the nomination of Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court,” she wrote. “That individual strongly requested confidentiality, declined to come forward or press the matter further, and I have honored that decision. I have, however, referred the matter to federal investigative authorities.”

The FBI redacted Ford’s name and sent the letter to the White House to be included in Kavanaugh’s background file, according to a Judiciary Committee aide. The White House sent it to the Senate Judiciary Committee, making it available to all senators.

As pressure grew, the New York Times reported that the incident involved “possible sexual misconduct.”

By then, Ford had begun to fear she would be exposed. People were clearly learning her identity: A BuzzFeed reporter visited her at her home and tried to speak to her as she was leaving a classroom where she teaches graduate students. Another reporter called her colleagues to ask about her.

On Friday, the New Yorker reported the letter’s contents but did not reveal Ford’s identity. Soon after, Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Charles E. Grassley (R-Iowa) released a letter from 65 women who say they knew Kavanaugh when he attended high school from 1979 to 1983 at Georgetown Prep, an all-boys school in North Bethesda.

“Through the more than 35 years we have known him, Brett has stood out for his friendship, character, and integrity,” the women wrote. “In particular, he has always treated women with decency and respect. That was true when he was in high school, and it has remained true to this day.”

As the story snowballed, Ford said, she heard people repeating inaccuracies about her and, with the visits from reporters, felt her privacy being chipped away. Her calculation changed.

“These are all the ills that I was trying to avoid,” she said, explaining her decision to come forward. “Now I feel like my civic responsibility is outweighing my anguish and terror about retaliation.”

Katz said she believes Feinstein honored Ford’s request to keep her allegation confidential, but “regrettably others did not.”

“Victims must have the right to decide whether to come forward, especially in a political environment that is as ruthless as this one,” Katz said. “She will now face vicious attacks by those who support this nominee.”

After so many years, Ford said, she does not remember some key details of the incident. She said she believes it occurred in the summer of 1982, when she was 15, around the end of her sophomore year at the all-girls Holton-Arms School in Bethesda. Kavanaugh would have been 17 at the end of his junior year at Georgetown Prep.

At the time, Ford said, she knew Kavanaugh and Judge as “friendly acquaintances” in the private-school social circles of suburban Maryland. Her Holton-Arms friends mostly hung out with boys from the Landon School, she said, but for a period of several months socialized regularly with students from Georgetown Prep.

Ford said she does not remember how the gathering came together the night of the incident. She said she often spent time in the summer at the Columbia Country Club pool in Chevy Chase, where in those pre-cellphone days, teenagers learned about gatherings via word of mouth. She also doesn’t recall who owned the house or how she got there.

Ford said she remembers that it was in Montgomery County, not far from the country club, and that no parents were home at the time. Ford named two other teenagers who she said were at the party. Those individuals did not respond to messages on Sunday morning.

She said she recalls a small family room where she and a handful of others drank beer together that night. She said that each person had one beer but that Kavanaugh and Judge had started drinking earlier and were heavily intoxicated.

In his senior-class yearbook entry at Georgetown Prep, Kavanaugh made several references to drinking, claiming membership to the “Beach Week Ralph Club” and “Keg City Club.” He and Judge are pictured together at the beach in a photo in the yearbook.

Judge is a filmmaker and author who has written for the Daily Callerthe Weekly Standard and The Post. He chronicled his recovery from alcoholism in “Wasted: Tales of a Gen-X Drunk,” which described his own blackout drinking and a culture of partying among students at his high school, renamed in the book “Loyola Prep.” Kavanaugh is not mentioned in the book, but a passage about partying at the beach one summer makes glancing reference to a “Bart O’Kavanaugh,” who “puked in someone’s car the other night” and “passed out on his way back from a party.”

Through the White House, Kavanaugh did not respond to a question about whether the name was a pseudonym for him.

Ford said that on the night of the party, she left the family room to use the bathroom, which was at the top of a narrow stairway. She doesn’t remember whether Kavanaugh and Judge were behind her or already upstairs, but she remembers being pushed into a bedroom and then onto a bed. Rock-and-roll music was playing with the volume turned up high, she said.

She alleges that Kavanaugh — who played football and basketball at Georgetown Prep — held her down with the weight of his body and fumbled with her clothes, seemingly hindered by his intoxication. Judge stood across the room, she said, and both boys were laughing “maniacally.” She said she yelled, hoping that someone downstairs would hear her over the music, and Kavanaugh clapped his hand over her mouth to silence her.

At one point, she said, Judge jumped on top of them, and she tried unsuccessfully to wriggle free. Then Judge jumped on them again, toppling them, and she broke away, she said.

She said she locked herself in the bathroom and listened until she heard the boys “going down the stairs, hitting the walls.” She said that after five or 10 minutes, she unlocked the door and made her way through the living room and outside. She isn’t sure how she got home.

Ford said she has not spoken with Kavanaugh since that night. And she told no one at the time what had happened to her. She was terrified, she said, that she would be in trouble if her parents realized she had been at a party where teenagers were drinking, and she worried they might figure it out even if she did not tell them.

“My biggest fear was, do I look like someone just attacked me?” she said. She said she recalled thinking: “I’m not ever telling anyone this. This is nothing, it didn’t happen, and he didn’t rape me.”

Years later, after going through psychotherapy, Ford said, she came to understand the incident as a trauma with lasting impact on her life.

“I think it derailed me substantially for four or five years,” she said. She struggled academically and socially, she said, and was unable to have healthy relationships with men. “I was very ill-equipped to forge those kinds of relationships.”

She also said that in the longer term, it contributed to anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms with which she has struggled.

She married her husband in 2002. Early in their relationship, she told him she had been a victim of physical abuse, he said. A decade later, he learned the details of that alleged abuse when the therapist asked her to tell the story, he said.

He said he expects that some people, upon hearing his wife’s account, will believe that Kavanaugh’s high school behavior has no bearing upon his fitness for the nation’s high court. He disagrees.

“I think you look to judges to be the arbiters of right and wrong,” Russell Ford said. “If they don’t have a moral code of their own to determine right from wrong, then that’s a problem. So I think it’s relevant. Supreme Court nominees should be held to a higher standard.”

Beth Reinhard, Seung Min Kim, Alice Crites and Julie Tate contributed to this report.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/investigations/california-professor-writer-of-confidential-brett-kavanaugh-letter-speaks-out-about-her-allegation-of-sexual-assault/2018/09/16/46982194-b846-11e8-94eb-3bd52dfe917b_story.html?utm_term=.cdf2d19dcf91

 

Mark Judge, the other man named in Christine Ford’s Brett Kavanaugh allegations, explained

Ford alleges Judge was in the room when Kavanaugh assaulted her — and that he played along.

By 
Supreme Court nominee Judge Brett Kavanaugh is sworn in before the Senate Judiciary Committee during his Supreme Court confirmation hearing in the Hart Senate Office Building on Capitol Hill September 4, 2018, in Washington, DC.
 Mark Wilson/Getty Images

The sexual assault allegation from Christine Blasey Ford that have upended Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh’s hearing aren’t just about Kavanaugh. They also mention a friend of Kavanaugh’s who Ford says was in the room when the assault took place: Mark Judge.

Ford describes Judge as watching Kavanaugh’s alleged assault, occasionally egging him on, and eventually jumping on top of her and Kavanaugh — a move that allowed her to escape.

Kavanaugh has vehemently denied the allegations as “completely false.” Judge denied themto the Weekly Standard on Friday. (He declined to comment to the Washington Post for its article published Sunday.)

Judge was a classmate of Kavanaugh’s at Georgetown Preparatory School in Maryland and is now a conservative writer who has written for publications such as the Daily Caller and the American Spectator.

He’s floated some controversial ideas in his writings — including asking in 2006 whether gay people are perverts and longing for the days when President George W. Bush could give his wife, Laura, a “loving but firm pat on the backside in public” as a show that he “knew who was boss.” He’s also the author of several books, including one recounting his teenage years of alcoholism and addiction.

He is now at the center of the brewing storm over Ford’s allegations that Kavanaugh sexually assaulted her while at a party during the early 1980s, when they were both in high school. The accusations could derail confirmation of President Donald Trump’s second Supreme Court nomination, which Democrats have asked to be delayed, even as many Republicans and the White House seem determined to forge ahead.

Ford alleges that Judge was in the room when Kavanaugh assaulted her — and that he played along

Ford alleges that at sometime during the early 1980s, she was at a party when Kavanaugh and Judge, both drunk, corralled her into a bedroom. Ford says that while Judge watched, Kavanaugh “pinned her to a bed on her back and groped her over her clothes, grinding her body against hers and clumsily attempting to pull off her one-piece bathing suit and the clothing she wore over it,” according to an account written by Emma Brown at the Washington Post, who interviewed Ford.

https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2018/9/17/17870642/mark-judge-brett-kavanaugh-friend-christine-ford

 

 

Kavanaugh, accuser say they’re ready to testify _ but how?

Brett Kavanaugh and the woman accusing him of a decades-old sexual assault both indicated Monday they would be willing to testify to a Senate panel as the confirmation of President Donald Trump’s Supreme Court nominee shifted from seemingly painless to problematic.

However, top Republicans seemed to be trying to limit any new testimony by Kavanaugh and his accuser, Christine Blasey Ford, to telephone interviews. Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Chuck Grassley said he was trying to arrange to hear Ford in “an appropriate, precedented and respectful manner.”

The Iowa Republican said standard procedure for late-breaking information would involve follow-up phone calls with “at least” Kavanaugh and Ford. No. 2 Senate GOP leader John Cornyn of Texas backed him, lauding Grassley for seeking a process that “respects confidentiality.”

Kavanaugh was seen arriving at the White House, with no immediate reason given, while all 10 Democrats on the Senate Judiciary Committee wrote to Grassley asking him to postpone a scheduled Thursday vote on the nominee to give the FBI more time to investigate.

Democrats and some Republican senators have expressed concern over Ford’s private-turned-public accusation that a drunken Kavanaugh groped her and tried to take off her clothes at a party when both were teenagers at high schools in suburban Maryland.

White House counselor Kellyanne Conway says Judge Brett Kavanaugh’s accuser “should not be insulted.” Conway adds: “She should not be ignored. She should testify under oath and she should do it on Capitol Hill.” (Sept. 17)

Kavanaugh released a new statement calling the allegation “completely false” and saying he “had no idea who was making this accusation until she identified herself” on Sunday to The Washington Post.

“I am willing to talk to the Senate Judiciary Committee in any way the committee deems appropriate to refute this false allegation, from 36 years ago, and defend my integrity,” Kavanaugh said.

Debra S. Katz, the attorney for the accuser, said Ford was willing to tell her story publicly to the Judiciary panel but no lawmakers had yet contacted her. Katz denied that Ford, a Democrat, was politically motivated.

“She believes that if it were not for the severe intoxication of Brett Kavanaugh, she would have been raped,” Katz told NBC’s “Today.” Explaining Ford’s initial reluctance to come forward, Katz said, “No one in their right mind regardless of their motives would want to inject themselves into this process and face the kind of violation that she will be subjected to by those who want this nominee to go though.”

The Judiciary Democrats, in their letter to Chairman Grassley of Iowa, said serious questions have been raised about Kavanaugh’s “record, truthfulness and character.”

Currently a judge on the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, widely viewed as the nation’s second most powerful court, Kavanaugh seemed to be on a smooth confirmation track until the new allegation emerged.

Kavanaugh, 53, “categorically and unequivocally” denied the allegation when it came out anonymously last week.

“This has not changed,” said White House spokesman Kerri Kupec on Monday. “Judge Kavanaugh and the White House both stand by that statement.”

Still, White House counselor Kellyanne Conway said of Ford: “She should not be insulted. She should not be ignored. She should testify under oath, and she should do it on Capitol Hill.”

Conway, who said she had discussed the situation with Trump, said both Ford and Kavanaugh should testify, but made clear it was up to the Judiciary Committee. She said Sen. Lindsey Graham had told her it could happen as soon as Tuesday and the White House will “respect the process.”

Stressing that Kavanaugh had already testified and undergone FBI background checks, Conway said: “I think you have to weigh this testimonial evidence from Dr. Ford and Judge Kavanaugh along with the considerable body of evidence that is already there about the judge’s temperament and qualifications and character.”

Initially the sexual misconduct allegation was conveyed in a private letter, without revealing Ford’s name. With a name and disturbing details, the accusation raised the prospect of congressional Republicans defending Trump’s nominee ahead of midterm elections featuring an unprecedented number of female candidates and informed in part by the #MeToo movement.

Ford said Kavanaugh and a friend — both “stumbling drunk,” she says — corralled her in a bedroom at a Maryland party in the early 1980s when she was around 15 and Kavanaugh was around 17. She says Kavanaugh groped her over her clothes, grinded his body against hers and tried to take off her one-piece swimsuit and the outfit she wore over it. Kavanaugh covered her mouth with his hand when she tried to scream, she says, and she escaped when the friend, Mark Judge, jumped on them.

Kavanaugh attended a private school for boys in Maryland while Ford attended a nearby school.

A split over the nomination seemed to be emerging among the GOP.

Two committee Republicans — all on the GOP side are men — Jeff Flake of Arizona and Lindsey Graham of South Carolina, said they wanted to hear more from Ford. Flake went as far as to say he was “not comfortable” voting for Kavanaugh for the time being.

A potential “no” vote from Flake would complicate the judge’s prospects because Republicans control the committee by just 11-10.

A Republican not on the committee, Bob Corker of Tennessee, said the vote should be postponed until the committee heard from Ford. GOP Maine Sen. Susan Collins tweeted that she wanted Kavanaugh and Ford to both testify under oath to the committee, but when she was contacted Sunday by CNN she wouldn’t say if the vote should be postponed.

Grassley said that so far, the Judiciary committee’s top Democrat, Dianne Feinstein of California, has refused to help schedule telephone interviews. A committee spokesman had said Sunday that Grassley was trying to arrange those phone calls but only for aides to Grassley and Feinstein before Thursday’s scheduled vote.

The allegation against Kavanaugh first came to light late last week in the form of a letter that had been for some time in the possession of Feinstein, the top Democrat on the committee and one of its four female members. On Sunday, the Post published an interview with Ford.

“I thought he might inadvertently kill me,” said Ford, 51, a clinical psychology professor at Palo Alto University in California. “He was trying to attack me and remove my clothing.”

In the interview, Ford says she didn’t reveal what had happened until 2012, when she and her husband sought couples therapy. Ford’s husband, Russell Ford, said he recalled his wife using Kavanaugh’s last name and expressing concern that Kavanaugh — then a federal judge — might someday be nominated to the Supreme Court.

Grassley could invite Ford to testify, likely in closed session before Thursday. Kavanaugh would also probably be asked to appear before senators. The panel would also likely seek testimony from Judge, Kavanaugh’s friend and classmate who Ford says jumped on top of her. Judge has denied that the incident happened.

With Republicans narrowly controlling the Senate 51-49, the views of Collins and Sen. Lisa Murkowski of Alaska would be key.

Both are under enormous pressure from outside groups who want them to oppose Kavanaugh on grounds that as a justice he could vote to undercut the Roe v. Wade ruling legalizing abortion.

___

Associated Press writers Darlene Superville and Zeke Miller contributed to this report.

https://apnews.com/3ce01c061d2d4d6a8b1bc8c71de220ba/Kavanaugh’s-accuser-willing-to-talk-to-Congress,-lawyer-says

Eyewitness testimony

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Eyewitness testimony is the account a bystander or victim gives in the courtroom, describing what that person observed that occurred during the specific incident under investigation. Ideally this recollection of events is detailed; however, this is not always the case. This recollection is used as evidence to show what happened from a witness’ point of view. Memory recall has been considered a credible source in the past, but has recently come under attack as forensics can now support psychologists in their claim that memories and individual perceptions can be unreliable, manipulated, and biased. Due to this, many countries and states within the US are now attempting to make changes in how eyewitness testimony is presented in court. Eyewitness testimony is a specialized focus within cognitive psychology.

 

Reliability

Psychologists have probed the reliability of eyewitness testimony since the beginning of the 20th century.[1] One prominent pioneer was Hugo Münsterberg, whose controversial book On the Witness Stand (1908) demonstrated the fallibility of eyewitness accounts, but met with fierce criticism, particularly in legal circles.[2] His ideas did, however, gain popularity with the public.[3] Decades later, DNA testing would clear individuals convicted on the basis of errant eyewitness testimony. Studies by Scheck, Neufel, and Dwyer showed that many DNA-based exonerations involved eyewitness evidence.[4]

In the 1970s and ’80s, Bob Buckhout showed inter alia that eyewitness conditions can, at least within ethical and other constraints, be simulated on university campuses,[2] and that large numbers of people can be mistaken: “Nearly 2,000 witnesses can be wrong” was the title of one paper.[5]

The mechanisms by which flaws enter eyewitness testimony are varied and can be quite subtle.

One way is a person’s memory being influenced by things seen or heard after the crime occurred. This distortion is known as the post-event misinformation effect (Loftus and Palmer, 1974). After a crime occurs and an eyewitness comes forward, law enforcement tries to gather as much information as they can to avoid the influence that may come from the environment, such as the media. Many times when the crime is surrounded by much publicity, an eyewitness may experience source misattribution. Source misattribution occurs when a witness is incorrect about where or when they have the memory from. If a witness cannot correctly identify the source of their retrieved memory, the witness is seen as not reliable.

While some witnesses see the entirety of a crime happen in front of them, some witness only part of a crime. These witnesses are more likely to experience confirmation bias. Witness expectations are to blame for the distortion that may come from confirmation bias. For example, Lindholm and Christianson (1998) found that witnesses of a mock crime who did not witness the whole crime, nevertheless testified to what they expected would have happened. These expectations are normally similar across individuals due to the details of the environment.

Evaluating the credibility of eye-witness testimony falls on all individual jurors when such evidence is offered as testimony in a trial in the United States.[6] Research has shown that mock juries are often unable to distinguish between a false and accurate eyewitness testimony. “Jurors” often appear to correlate the confidence level of the witness with the accuracy of their testimony. An overview of this research by Laub and Bornstein shows this to be an inaccurate gauge of accuracy.[7]

Research

Research on eyewitness testimony looks at systematic variables or estimator variables. Estimator variables are characteristics of the witness, event, testimony, or testimony evaluators. Systematic variables are variables that are, or have the possibility of, being controlled by the criminal justice system. Both sets of variables can be manipulated and studied during research, but only system variables can be controlled in actual procedure.[1]

Estimator variables

Age of Witness

Among children, suggestibility can be very high. Suggestibility is the term used when a witness accepts information after the actual event and incorporates it into the memory of the event itself. Children’s developmental level (generally correlated with age) causes them to be more easily influenced by leading questions, misinformation, and other post-event details. Compared to older children, preschool-age children are more likely to fall victim to suggestions without the ability to focus solely on the facts of what happened.[8]

In addition, a recent meta-analysis found that older adults (over age 65) tend to be more susceptible to memory distortion brought about by misleading post-event information, compared to young adults.[9]

Reconstructive memory

Many of the early studies of memory demonstrated how memories can fail to be accurate records of experiences. Because jurors and judges do not have access to the original event, it is important to know whether a testimony is based on actual experience or not.[10]

In a 1932 study, Frederic Bartlett demonstrated how serial reproduction of a story distorted accuracy in recalling information. He told participants a complicated Native American story and had them repeat it over a series of intervals. With each repetition, the stories were altered. Even when participants recalled accurate information, they filled in gaps with information that would fit their personal experiences. His work showed long term memory to be adaptable.[11] Bartlett viewed schemas as a major cause of this occurrence. People attempt to place past events into existing representations of the world, making the memory more coherent. Instead of remembering precise details about commonplace occurrences, a schema is developed. A schema is a generalization formed mentally based on experience.[12] The common use of these schemas suggests that memory is not an identical reproduction of experience, but a combination of actual events with already existing schemas. Bartlett summarized this issue, explaining

[M]emory is personal, not because of some intangible and hypothetical persisting ‘self ’, which receives and maintains innumerable traces, restimulating them whenever it needs; but because the mechanism of adult human memory demands an organisation of ‘schemata’ depending upon an interplay of appetites, instincts, interests and ideas peculiar to any given subject. Thus if, as in some pathological cases, these active sources of the ‘schemata’ get cut off from one another, the peculiar personal attributes of what is remembered fail to appear.[13]

Further research of schemas shows memories that are inconsistent with a schema decay faster than those that match up with a schema. Tuckey and Brewer found pieces of information that were inconsistent with a typical robbery decayed much faster than those that were schema consistent over a 12-week period, unless the information stood out as being extremely unusual. The use of schemas has been shown to increase the accuracy of recall of schema-consistent information but this comes at the cost of decreased recall of schema-inconsistent information.[14]

Misinformation effect

Elizabeth Loftus is one of the leading psychologists in the field of eyewitness testimony. She provided extensive research on this topic, revolutionizing the field with her bold stance that challenges the credibility of eyewitness testimony in court. She suggests that memory is not reliable and goes to great lengths to provide support for her arguments. She mainly focuses on the integration of misinformation with the original memory, forming a new memory. Some of her most convincing experiments support this claim:

  1. In one of her experiments, Loftus demonstrates that false verbal Information can integrate with original memory. Participants were presented with either truthful information or misleading information, and overall it showed that even the false information verbally presented became part of the memory after the participant was asked to recall details. This happens because of one of two reasons. First, it can alter the memory, incorporating the misinformation in with the actual, true memory. Second, the original memory and new information may both reside in memory in turn creating two conflicting ideas that compete in recall.[15]
  2. Loftus conducted more experiments to prove the reliability of expert psychological testimony versus the accepted basic eyewitness testimony. It was found that jurors who hear about a violent crime are more likely to convict a defendant than of one from a nonviolent crime. To reduce this tendency for a juror to quickly accuse, and perhaps wrongly accuse, choosing to utilize expert psychological testimony causes the juror to critically appraise the eyewitness testimony, instead of quickly reaching a faulty verdict.[16]
  3. Also, it has been shown that intelligence and gender has a role in the ability of accurate memory recall. Participants were measured in eyewitness performance in two areas: 1) the ability to resist adding misinformation to the memory and 2) accuracy of recalling the incident and person. It showed that when a woman was recalling information about a woman, the resistance to false details was higher and the recall was more accurate. If a man was recalling an incident involving a man, similarly the recall was more accurate. However, when dealing with opposite genders, the participants gave into the suggestibility (misinformation) more easily and demonstrated less accuracy.[17]
  4. Facial recognition is a good indicator of how easily memories can be manipulated. In this specific experiment, if a misleading feature was presented, more than a third of the participants recalled that detail. With a specific detail, almost 70% of people claimed that it had been there, when it had not been present.[18]

Systematic variables

Type of questioning

As early as 1900, psychologists like Alfred Binet recorded how the phrasing of questioning during an investigation could alter witness response. Binet believed people were highly susceptible to suggestion, and called for a better approach to questioning witnesses.[19]

Studies conducted by Crombag (1996) discovered that in an incident involving a crew attempting to return to the airport but were unable to maintain flight and crashed into an 11-story apartment building. Though no cameras caught the moment of impact on film, many news stations covered the tragedy with footage taken after impact.[20] Ten months after the event, the researchers interviewed people about the crash. According to theories about flashbulb memory, the intense shock of the event should have made the memory of the event incredibly accurate. This same logic is often applied to those who witness a criminal act. To test this assumption, participants were asked questions that planted false information about the event. Fifty-five percent of subjects reported having watched the moment of impact on television, and recalled the moment the plane broke out in flames-even though it was impossible for them to have seen either of these occurrences. One researcher remarked, “[V]ery critical sense would have made our subjects realize that the implanted information could not possibly be true. We are still at a loss as to why so few of them realized this.”

A survey of research on the matter confirm eyewitness testimony consistently changes over time and based on the type of questioning.[21] The approach investigators and lawyers take in their questioning has repeatedly shown to alter eyewitness response. One study showed changing certain words and phrases resulted in an increase in overall estimations of witnesses.[22]

Improving eyewitness testimony

Law enforcement, legal professions, and psychologists have worked together in attempts to make eyewitness testimony more reliable and accurate. Geiselman, Fisher, MacKinnon, and Holland saw much improvement in eyewitness memory with an interview procedure they referred to as the cognitive interview. The approach focuses on making witness aware of all events surrounding a crime without generating false memories or inventing details. In this tactic, the interviewer builds a rapport with the witness before asking any questions.[23] They then allow the witness to provide an open ended account of the situation. The interviewer then asks follow up questions to clarify the witness’ account, reminding the witness it is acceptable to be unsure and move on.[1] This approach guides the witness over a rigid protocol. When implemented correctly, the CI showed more accuracy and efficiency without additional incorrect information being generated.[24]

Currently, this is the U.S. Department of Justice’s suggested method for law enforcement officials to use in obtaining information from witnesses.[25] Programs training officers in this method have been developed outside the U.S. in many European countries, as well as Australia, New Zealand, and Israel.[26]

While some analysis of police interviewing technique reveals this change towards CI interviewing is not put into effect by many officials in the U.S.A. and the U.K., it is still considered to be the most effective means of decreasing error in eyewitness testimony.[1][27]

Procedural reforms

Experts debate what changes need to occur in the legal process in response to research on inaccuracy of eyewitness testimony.

Jury guidelines

It has been suggested that the jury be given a checklist to evaluate eyewitness testimony when given in court. R. J. Shafer offers this checklist for evaluating eyewitness testimony:

  • How well could the eyewitness observe the thing he reports? Were his senses equal to the observation? Was his physical location suitable to sight, hearing, touch? Did he have the proper social ability to observe: did he understand the language, have other expertise required (e.g., law, military)?
  • When did he report in relation to his observation? Soon? Much later?
  • Are there additional clues to intended veracity? Was he indifferent on the subject reported, thus probably not intending distortion? Did he make statements damaging to himself, thus probably not seeking to distort? Did he give incidental or casual information, almost certainly not intended to mislead?
  • Do his statements seem inherently improbable: e.g., contrary to human nature, or in conflict with what we know?
  • Remember that some types of information are easier to observe and report on than others.
  • Are there inner contradictions in the testimony? [28]

Judge guidelines

In 2011, the New Jersey Supreme Court created new rules for the admissibility of eyewitness testimony in court. The new rules require judges to explain to jurors any influences that may heighten the risk for error in the testimony. The rules are part of nationwide court reform that attempts to improve the validity of eyewitness testimony and lower the rate of false conviction.[29]

See also

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eyewitness_testimony

False memory

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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false memory is a psychological phenomenon where a person recalls something that did not happen. There is a growing body of evidence that false memories are created whenever memories are recalled.[1][2][3][4]

False memory is often considered regarding childhood sexual abuse.[5][6][7][8] This phenomenon was initially investigated by psychological pioneers Pierre Janet and Sigmund Freud. Freud wrote The Aetiology of Hysteria, where he discussed repressed memories of childhood sexual trauma in their relation to hysteria.[9] Elizabeth Loftus has, since her debuting research project in 1974,[10] been a lead researcher in memory recovery and false memories.

False memory syndrome recognizes false memory as a prevalent part of one’s life in which it affects the person’s mentality and day-to-day life. False memory syndrome differs from false memory in that the syndrome is heavily influential in the orientation of a person’s life, while false memory can occur without this significant effect. The syndrome takes effect because the person believes the influential memory to be true.[11] However, its research is controversial and the syndrome is excluded from identification as a mental disorder and, therefore, is also excluded from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. False memory is an important part of psychological research because of the ties it has to a large number of mental disorders, such as PTSD.[12]

Manipulation of memory recall through language

In 1974, Elizabeth Loftus and John Palmer conducted a study to investigate the effects of language on the development of false memory. The experiment involved two separate studies.

In the first test, 45 participants were randomly assigned to watch different videos of a car accident, in which separate videos had shown collisions at 20 miles per hour, 30 miles per hour, and 40 miles per hour. Afterwards, participants filled out a survey. The survey asked the question, “About how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?” The question always asked the same thing, except the verb used to describe the collision varied. Rather than “smashed”, other verbs used included “bumped”, “collided”, “hit”, or “contacted”. Participants estimated collisions of all speeds to average between 35 miles per hour to just below 40 miles per hour. If actual speed were the main factor in estimate, it could be assumed that participants would have lower estimates for lower speed collisions. Instead, the word being used to describe the collision seemed to better predict the estimate in speed rather than the speed itself.[10]

The second experiment also showed participants videos of a car accident, but the critical thing was the verbiage of the follow-up questionnaire. 150 participants were randomly assigned to three conditions. Those in the first condition were asked the same question as the first study using the verb “smashed”. The second group was asked the same question as the first study, replacing “smashed” with “hit”. The final group was not asked about the speed of the crashed cars. The researchers then asked the participants if they had seen any broken glass, knowing that there was no broken glass in the video. The responses to this question had shown that the difference between whether broken glass was recalled or not heavily depended on the verb used. A larger sum of participants in the “smashed” group declared that there was broken glass.

In this study, the first point brought up in discussion is that the words used to phrase a question can heavily influence the response given.[10] Second, the study indicates that the phrasing of a question can give expectations to previously ignored details, and therefore, a misconstruction of our memory recall. This indication supports false memory as an existing phenomenon.

Article adjustment on eyewitness report

Loftus’ meta-analysis on language manipulation studies suggested the phenomenon effects taking hold on the recall process and products of the human memory. Even the smallest adjustment in a question, such as the article preceding the supposed memory, could alter the responses. For example, having asked someone if they’d seen “the” stop sign, rather than “a” stop sign, provided the respondent with a presupposition that there was a stop sign in the scene. This presupposition increased the number of people responding that they had indeed seen the stop sign.

Adjective implications on eyewitness report

Select adjectives can imply characteristics about an object. Including said adjectives in a prompt can alter participant responses. Harris’ 1973[citation needed] study looks at the differences in answers on the height of a basketball player. Respondents were randomly assigned to have either answered to, “How tall was the basketball player?” or “How short was the basketball player?” Rather than asking participants simply for the height of the basketball player, they used adjectives that had an implication for the numerical results. The difference in height averages that were predicted was 10 inches (250 mm). The adjective provided in a sentence can cause a respondent to exaggerate.

Word lists

One can trigger false memories by presenting subjects a continuous list of words. When subjects were presented with a second type of the list and asked if the words had appeared on the previous list, they find that the subjects did not recognize the list correctly. When the words on the two lists were semantically related to each other (e.g. sleep/bed), it was more likely that the subjects did not remember the first list correctly and created false memories (Anisfeld & Knapp).[13]

Staged naturalistic events

Subjects were invited in an office and were told to wait there. After this they had to recall the inventory of the visited office. Subjects recognized objects consistent with the “office schema” although they did not appear in the office. (Brewer & Treyens, 1981)[13]

Response to meta-analysis

It has been argued[by whom?] that Loftus and Palmer did not control for outside factors coming from individual participants, such as participants’ emotions or alcohol intake, along with many other factors. Despite criticisms such as this, this particular study is extremely relevant to legal cases regarding false memory. The Loftus and Palmer automobile study allowed for the Devlin Committee to create the Devlin Report, which suggested that eyewitness testimony is not reliable standing on its own.

Reliability of memory recall

Presuppositions

Presuppositions are an implication through chosen language. If a person is asked, “What shade of blue was the wallet?” The questioner is, in translation, saying, “The wallet was blue. What shade was it?” The question’s phrasing provides the respondent with a supposed “fact”. This presupposition provides two separate effects: true effect and false effect.

True effect says that the object implied to have existed does exist. With that, the respondent’s recall is strengthened, more readily available, and easier to extrapolate from. In true effect, presuppositions make a detail more readily recalled. For example, it would be less likely that a respondent would remember a wallet was blue if the prompt did not say that it was blue. False effect is that the object implied to have existed never was present. Despite this, the respondent is convinced otherwise and allows it to manipulate their memory. It can also alter responses to later questions to keep consistency. Regardless of the effect being true or false, the respondent is attempting to conform to the supplied information, because they assume it to be true.[citation needed]

Construction hypothesis

Construction hypothesis has major implications for explanations on the malleability of memory. Upon asking a respondent a question that provides a presupposition, the respondent will provide a recall in accordance with the presupposition (if accepted to exist in the first place). The respondent will recall the object or detail. The construction hypothesis says that if a true piece of information being provided can alter a respondent’s answer, then so can a false piece of information.[14]

Skeleton theory

Loftus developed the skeleton theory after having run an experiment involving 150 subjects from the University of Washington.[citation needed][15] The skeleton theory explains the idea of how a memory is recalled, which is split into two categories: the acquisition processes and the retrieval processes.

The acquisition processes are in three separate steps. First, upon the original encounter, the observer selects a stimulus to focus on. The information that the observer can focus on compared to the information in the situation is very small. In other words, a lot is going on around us and we only pick up on a small portion. Therefore, the observer must make a selection on the focal point. Second, our visual perception must be translated into statements and descriptions. The statements represent a collection of concepts and objects; they are the link between the event occurrence and the recall. Third, the perceptions are subject to any “external” information being provided before or after the interpretation. This subsequent set of information can alter recall.

The retrieval processes come in two steps. First, the memory and imagery is regenerated. This perception is subject to what foci the observer has selected, along with the information provided before or after the observation. Second, the linking is initiated by a statement response, “painting a picture” to make sense of what was observed. This retrieval process results in either an accurate memory or a false memory.

Relational processing

Memory retrieval has been associated with the brain’s relational processing. In associating two events (in reference to false memory, say tying a testimony to a prior event), there are verbatim and gist representations. Verbatim matches to the individual occurrences (i.e. I do not like dogs because when I was five a chihuahua bit me) and gist matches to general inferences (i.e. I do not like dogs because they are mean). Keeping in line with the fuzzy-trace theory, which suggests false memories are stored in gist representations (which retrieves both true and false recall), Storbeck & Clore (2005) wanted to see how change in mood affected the retrieval of false memories. After using the measure of a word association tool called the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm, the subjects’ moods were manipulated. Moods were either oriented towards being more positive, more negative, or were left unmanipulated. Findings suggested that a more negative mood made critical details, stored in gist representation, less accessible.[16] This would imply that false memories are less likely to occur when a subject was in a worse mood.

Therapy-induced memory recovery

Recovery strategies

Memories recovered through therapy have become more difficult to distinguish between simply being repressed or having existed in the first place. Therapists have used strategies such as hypnotherapy, repeated questioning, and bibliotherapy. These strategies may provoke the recovery of nonexistent events or inaccurate memories.[7][17][18][19] A recent report indicates that similar strategies may have produced false memories in several therapies in the century before the modern controversy on the topic which took place in the 1980s and 1990s.[20] In The Myth of Repressed Memory: False memories and allegations of Sexual AbuseElizabeth Loftus writes about how easy it is for her as a therapist to mold people’s memories, or prompt them to recall a nonexistent broken glass.[21]

For her there are different possibilities to create false therapy-induced memory. One is the unintentional suggestions of therapists. For example, a therapist might tell their client that, on the basis of their symptoms, it is quite likely that they had been abused as a child. Once this “diagnosis” is made, the therapist sometimes urges the patient to pursue the recalcitrant memories. It is a problem resulting from the fact that people create their own social reality with external information.[22]

Laurence and Perry conducted a study testing the ability to induce memory recall through hypnosis. Subjects were put into a hypnotic state and later woken up. Observers suggested that the subjects were woken up by a loud noise. Nearly half of the subjects being tested concluded that this was true, despite it being false. Although, by therapeutically altering the subject’s state, they may have been led to believe that what they were being told was true.[23] Because of this, the respondent has a false recall.

A 1989 study focusing on hypnotizability and false memory separated accurate and inaccurate memories recalled. In open-ended question formation, 11.5% of subjects recalled the false event suggested by observers. In a multiple-choice format, no participants claimed the false event had happened. This result led to the conclusion that hypnotic suggestions produce shifts in focus, awareness, and attention. Despite this, subjects do not mix fantasy up with reality.[9]

Therapy-induced memory recovery is a prevalent subcategory of memory recall prompting discussion of false memory syndrome. This phenomenon is loosely defined, and not a part of the DSM. However, the syndrome suggests that false memory can be declared a syndrome when recall of a false or inaccurate memory takes great effect on your life. This false memory can completely alter the orientation of your personality and lifestyle.[9]

The “lost-in-the-mall” technique is another recovery strategy. This is essentially a repeated suggestion pattern. The person whose memory is to be recovered is persistently said to have gone through an experience even if it may have not happened. This strategy can cause the person to recall the event as having occurred, despite its falsehood.[24]

Legal cases

Therapy-induced memory recovery has made frequent appearances in legal cases, particularly those regarding sexual abuse.[citation needed] Therapists can often aid in creating a false memory in a victim’s mind, intentionally or unintentionally. They will associate a patient’s behavior with the fact that they have been a victim of sexual abuse, thus helping the memory occur. They use memory enhancement techniques such as hypnosis dream analysis to extract memories of sexual abuse from victims. According to the FMSF (False Memory Syndrome Foundation), these memories are false and are produced in the very act of searching for and employing them in a life narrative. In Ramona v. Isabella,[citation needed] two therapists wrongly prompted a recall that their patient, Holly Ramona, had been sexually abused by her father. It was suggested that the therapist, Isabella, had implanted the memory in Ramona after use of the hypnotic drug sodium amytal. After a nearly unanimous decision, Isabella had been declared negligent towards Holly Ramona. This 1994 legal issue played a massive role in shedding light on the possibility of false memories’ occurrences.

In another legal case where false memories were used, they helped a man to be acquitted of his charges. Joseph Pacely had been accused of breaking into a woman’s home with the intent to sexually assault her. The woman had given her description of the assailant to police shortly after the crime had happened. During the trial, memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus testified that memory is fallible and there were many emotions that played a part in the woman’s description given to police. Loftus has published many studies consistent with her testimony.[14][25][26] These studies suggest that memories can easily be changed around and sometimes eyewitness testimonies are not as reliable as many believe.

Another notable case of Maxine Berry, Maxine grew up in the custody of her mother, who opposed the father having contact with her (Berry & Berry, 2001). When the father expressed his desire to attend his daughter’s high school graduation, the mother enrolled Maxine in therapy, ostensibly to deal with the stress of seeing her father. The therapist pressed Maxine to recover memories of sex abuse by her father. Maxine broke down under the pressure and had to be psychiatrically hospitalized. She had her tubes tied, so she would not have children and repeat the cycle of abuse. With the support of her husband and primary care physician, Maxine eventually realized that her memories were false and filed a suit for malpractice. The suit brought to light the mother’s manipulation of mental health professionals to convince Maxine that she had been sexually abused by her father. In February 1997 Jennifer Gerrietts, Argus Leader, South Dakota Maxine Berry, sued her therapists and clinic that treated her from 1992-1995 and, she says, made her falsely believe she had been sexually and physically abused as a child when no such abuse ever occurred. The lawsuit, filed in February 1997 in Minnehaha Co. Circuit Court South Dakota, states that therapist Lynda O’Connor-Davis had an improper relationship with Berry, both during and after her treatment. The suit also names psychologist Vail Williams, psychiatrist Dr. William Fuller and Charter Hospital and Charter Counseling Center as defendants. Berry and her husband settled out of court for an undisclosed amount of money.[citation needed]

Although there have been many legal cases in which false memory appears to have been a factor, this does not ease the process of distinguishing between false memory and real recall. Sound therapeutic strategy can help this differentiation, by either avoiding known controversial strategies or to disclosing controversy to a subject.[7][9][27] In each case, the recovered memory therapy was declared inadmissible and not scientifically sound. The fact that recovered memories cannot necessarily distinguish between true and false meant the quality of evidence was weakened and the cases concluded against the therapists. The objection to therapeutic recovery techniques has been argued by comparing the ethics of memory elimination techniques such as electroconvulsive therapy.[19]

Harold Merskey published a paper on the ethical issues of recovered-memory therapy.[27] He suggests that if a patient had pre-existing severe issues in their life, it is likely that “deterioration” will occur to a relatively severe extent upon memory recall. This deterioration is a physical parallel to the emotional trauma being surfaced. There may be tears, writhing, or many other forms of physical disturbance. The occurrence of physical deterioration in memory recall coming from a patient with relatively minor issues prior to therapy could be an indication of the recalled memory’s potential falsehood.[27]

In children

If a child experienced abuse, it is not typical for them to disclose the details of the event when confronted in an open-ended manner.[28] Trying to indirectly prompt a memory recall can lead to the conflict of source attribution, as if repeatedly questioned the child might try to recall a memory to satisfy a question. The stress being put on the child can make recovering an accurate memory more difficult.[5] Some people hypothesise that as the child continuously attempts to remember a memory, they are building a larger file of sources that the memory could be derived from, potentially including sources other than genuine memories. Children that have never been abused but undergo similar response-eliciting techniques can disclose events that never occurred.[28] If one concludes that the child’s recalled memory is false, it is a type I error. Assuming the child did not recall an existing memory, it is a type II error.

One of children’s most notable setbacks in memory recall is source misattribution. Source misattribution is the flaw in deciphering between potential origins of a memory. The source could come from an actual occurring perception, or it can come from an induced and imagined event. Younger children, preschoolers in particular, find it more difficult to discriminate between the two.[29] Lindsay & Johnson (1987) concluded that even children approaching adolescence struggle with this, as well as recalling an existent memory as a witness. Children are significantly more likely to confuse a source between being invented or existent.[30]

Commonly held false memories

The Bologna station clock, subject of a collective false memory

Similar false memories are sometimes shared by multiple people.[31][32] One such false memory is that the name of the Berenstain Bears was once spelled Berenstein.[33][34] Another example consists of false memories of a 1990s movie titled Shazaam starring comedian Sinbad as a genie, which may be a conflation of memories of the comedian wearing a genie costume during a TV presentation of Sinbad the Sailor movies in 1994,[31][35] and a similarly named 1996 film Kazaam featuring a genie played by Shaquille O’Neal.[31]

A 2010 study examined people who were familiar with the clock at Bologna Centrale railway station, which had been damaged in the Bologna massacre bombing in August 1980. In the study, 92% falsely remembered that the clock had remained stopped since the bombing; in fact, the clock was repaired shortly after the attack but was again stopped 16 years later as a symbolic commemoration of it.[32]

In 2010 the phenomenon of collective false memory was dubbed the “Mandela effect” by self-described “paranormal consultant” Fiona Broome, in reference to a false memory she reports of the death of South African leader Nelson Mandela in the 1980s (when he was in fact still alive), which she claims is shared by “perhaps thousands” of other people.[36] Broome has speculated about alternate realities as an explanation, but most commentators suggest that these are instead examples of false memories shaped by similar factors affecting multiple people,[37][38][31][39][34][40][41] such as social reinforcement of incorrect memories,[42][43] or false news reports and misleading photographs influencing the formation of memories based on them.[44][43]

See also

  • False memory syndrome, a condition in which a person’s identity and relationships are affected by strongly believed but false memories of traumatic experiences.
  • Source-monitoring error, an effect in which memories are incorrectly attributed to different experiences than the ones that caused them.
  • Misinformation effect, false memories caused by exposure to misleading information presented between the encoding of an event and its subsequent recall.
  • Confabulation, the production of fabricated, distorted, or misinterpreted memories without the conscious intention to deceive.
  • Repressed memory, the idea that traumatic memories can be repressed and also potentially brought back through therapy.
  • Jamais vu, the feeling of unfamiliarity with recognised memories.
  • Cryptomnesia, a memory that is not recognised as such.

Notes …

References

Further reading

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/False_memory

 Story 3: South Korean President Moon Meets North Korean Chairman Kim Tuesday for 2018 Summit Meeting — Denuclearization of Korea On Agenda —  U.S. Accuses Russia of Violating U.N. Sanctions On North Korea — Videos

Predictions on Third Inter-Korean Summit

LIVE/NEWSCENTER] 2018 Inter-Korean Summit Pyeongyang D-1: Latest from Main Press Center

Detailed schedule of 2018 Inter-Korean Summit Pyeongyang

Live: Moon Jae-in leaves Seoul for Pyongyang summit韩国总统离开首尔前往会见金正恩

Moon Jae-in, the Republic of Korea president, is leaving Seoul for Pyongyang to meet Kim Jong Un, the top leader of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), who will greet him at the airport in the DPRK capital.

S. Korean business leaders to attend inter-Korean summit

UN: US accuses Russia of N. Korean ‘sanctions violations’

UN Security Council to hold urgent meeting on Monday on North Korea sanctions implementation

Two Koreas hold high-stakes summit with nuclear talks in jeopardy

By Hyonhee Shin and Joyce Lee

South Korea’s President Moon Jae-in is set to cross the heavily militarised border on Tuesday for his third summit with North Korean leader Kim Jong Un, seeking to cement a breakthrough in faltering nuclear talks between Pyongyang and Washington.

The inter-Korean summit will be a litmus test for another meeting Kim has recently proposed to U.S. President Donald Trump, giving clues to whether Kim is serious about denuclearisation, a commitment he made at their first encounter in June.

Trump has asked Moon to be “chief negotiator” between himself and Kim, according to Moon’s aides, after Trump cancelled a trip to Pyongyang by his secretary of state last month.

“I’d like to have frank dialogue with Chairman Kim on how to find a point of contact between U.S. demands for denuclearisation and North Korea’s demands for ending hostile relations and security guarantees,” Moon told a meeting with senior secretaries on Monday.

Moon, himself the offspring of a family displaced by the 1950-53 Korean War, will fly into the North’s capital of Pyongyang, landing at 10 a.m. (0300 GMT), his chief of staff Im Jong-seok told a news briefing on Monday. He is expected to be greeted by Kim before an official welcoming ceremony.

The two leaders will sit down for formal talks after lunch, which will be followed by a musical performance and welcome dinner.

Accompanying corporate executives, including Samsung Electronics Vice Chairman Jay Y. Lee and the chiefs of SK Group and LG Group, will meet with North Korean Deputy Prime Minister Ri Ryong Nam in charge of economic affairs, Im said.

On Wednesday, Moon and Kim are expected to unveil a joint statement, and a separate military pact designed to defuse tensions and prevent armed clashes, Im said.

Moon will return home early Thursday.

‘EVERYTHING IN BLANK’

Moon is hoping to help jumpstart nuclear negotiations between Pyongyang and Washington, by engineering a proposal that combines a concrete framework for the North’s denuclearisation and a joint declaration ending the 1950-53 Korean War, Seoul officials said.

The war ended with an armistice, not a peace treaty, leaving U.S.-led U.N. forces including South Korea technically still at war with the North.

But U.S. officials remain “unenthusiastic” about declaring an end to the war without any substantial action toward denuclearisation from the North, Seoul officials said.

South Korea is pinning high hopes on Kim’s remarks to Moon’s special envoys earlier this month that he wants to achieve denuclearisation within Trump’s first term in office ending in early 2021, the first time line he has given.

Agreeing on a timetable is a core task for Moon, as it would induce U.S. action, said Lee Jung-chul, a professor at Soongsil University in Seoul.

“Given U.S. scepticism that South Korea may have oversold Kim’s willingness to denuclearise, how President Moon delivers his sincerity toward denuclearisation to Trump would be a key factor for the fate of their second summit,” Lee told a forum on Monday in Seoul.

https://sg.news.yahoo.com/two-koreas-hold-high-stakes-summit-nuclear-talks-150704972.html

 

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The Pronk Pops Show 1139:  Breaking News — Story 1: Huge Hurricane Florence In Size Downgraded To Category 2 With 100 Miles Per Hour Winds Gusting to 120 MPH — Storm Surge 9-13 Feet — Tracking To Hit North and South Carolina, Georgia and Virginia — Expect 2 to 4 Feet of Rain Over Next 2 to 3 Days with Massive Flooding and Land Mud Slides — Water Kills Most Hurricane Fatalities (75%+)  — Electrical Power Out For Days and Weeks — Leave Now! — Videos — Story 2: President Trump Should Declassify All Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Court Applications For The Carter Page Warrants To Spy on Trump Campaign and President Trump — October Surprise Exposing The Clinton Obama Democrat Criminal Conspiracy Before Mid-term Elections — Videos — Story 3: Jobless Claims Hit A 50 Year Low of 204,000 in the Week Ended Sept. 8, 2018 — Videos

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 1139, September 13, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1138, September 12, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1137, September 7, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1136, September 6, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1135, September 5, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1134, September 4, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1133, August 29, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1132, August 28, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1131, August 27, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1130, August 22, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1129, August 21, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1128, August 20, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1127, August 17, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1126, August 16, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1125, August 15, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1124, August 14, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1123, August 13, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1122, August 9, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1121, August 8, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1120, August 6, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1119, August 2, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1118, August 1, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1117, July 31, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1116, July 30, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1115, July 26, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1114, July 25, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1113, July 24, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1112, July 23, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1111, July 19, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1110, July 18, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1109, July 17, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1108, July 16, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1107, July 12, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1106, July 11, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1105, July 10, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1104, July 9, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1103, July 5, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1102, JUly 3, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1101, July 2, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1100, June 28, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1099, June 26, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1098, June 25, 2018 

Pronk Pops Show 1097, June 21, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1096, June 20, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1095, June 19, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1094, June 18, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1093, June 14, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1092, June 13, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1091, June 12, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1090, June 11, 2018

Pronk Pops Show 1089, June 7, 2018

cone graphicSee the source imageSee the source imageSee the source imageSee the source image

Breaking News — Story 1: Huge Hurricane Florence In Size Downgraded To Category 2 With 100 Miles Per Hour Winds Gusting to 120 MPH — Storm Surge 9-13 Feet — Tracking To Hit North and South Carolina, Georgia and Virginia — Expect 2 to 4 Feet of Rain Over Next 2 to 3 Days with Massive Flooding and Land Mud Slides — Water Kills Most Hurricane Fatalities (75%+)  — Electrical Power Out For Days and Weeks — Leave Now! — Videos —

Storm Surge Like You’ve Never Experienced it Before

NASA Footage Shows The ‘Nightmare’ Hurricane Florence

WAVY News 10 at 4 – Super Doppler 10 Hurricane Florence Update

Emergency crews head toward Hurricane Florence’s path

Hurricane Florence is starting to impact coast

South Carolina Gov. Henry McMaster Updates State’s Response to Hurricane Florence

Pentagon briefing on Hurricane Florence

Ensuring FEMA is funded ahead of Hurricane Florence

Why Hurricane Florence is such a dangerous storm

VDOT says they don’t plan to close roads during Hurricane Florence

Hurricane Florence closes in on the US coast

Myrtle Beach braces for Hurricane Florence

Residents facing quadruple threat from Hurricane Florence

Graham on preparing South Carolina for Hurricane Florence

North Carolina local on why he isn’t evacuating

NHC director on Hurricane Florence’s 2 biggest threats

Storm’s uncertain track sows fear; 10 million in crosshairs

Hurricane Florence put a corridor of more than 10 million people in the crosshairs Wednesday as the monster storm closed in on the Carolinas, uncertainty over its projected path spreading worry across a widening swath of the Southeast.

Faced with new forecasts that showed a more southerly threat, Georgia’s governor joined his counterparts in Virginia and North and South Carolina in declaring a state of emergency, and some residents who had thought they were safely out of range boarded up their homes.

The National Hurricane Center’s best guess was that Florence would blow ashore as early as Friday afternoon around the North Carolina-South Carolina line, then push its rainy way westward with a potential for catastrophic inland flooding.

Florence’s nighttime winds were down to 110 mph (175 kph) from a high of 140 mph (225 kph), and the Category 3 storm fell to a Category 2, with a further slow weakening expected as the storm nears the coast. But authorities warned it will still be an extremely dangerous hurricane.

“Do you want to get hit with a train or do you want to get hit with a cement truck?” said Jeff Byard, an administrator with the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

Tropical storm-force winds extended 195 miles (315 kilometers) from Florence’s center, and hurricane-force winds reached out 70 miles (110 kilometers).

The National Weather Service said 5.25 million people live in areas under hurricane warnings or watches, and 4.9 million live in places covered by tropical storm warnings or watches.

At the White House, President Donald Trump both touted the government’s readiness and urged people to get out of the way of Florence.

“Don’t play games with it. It’s a big one,” he said.

As of 11 p.m., the storm was centered 280 miles (455 kilometers) southeast of Wilmington, North Carolina, moving northwest at 17 mph (28 kph). The hurricane center said Florence will approach the coast Friday and linger for a while before rolling ashore.

As of Tuesday, more than 1.7 million people in the Carolinas and Virginia were warned to clear out. Airlines had canceled nearly 1,000 flights and counting. Home Depot and Lowe’s activated emergency response centers to get generators, trash bags and bottled water to stores before and after the storm. The two hardware chains said they sent in a total of around 1,100 trucks.

Duke Energy, the nation’s No. 2 power company, said Florence could knock out electricity to three-quarters of its 4 million customers in the Carolinas, and outages could last for weeks. Workers are being brought in from the Midwest and Florida to help in the storm’s aftermath, it said.

Boarding up his home in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, Chris Pennington watched the forecasts and tried to decide when to leave.

“In 12 or 18 hours, they may be saying different things all over again,” he said.

Computer models of exactly what the storm might do varied, adding to the uncertainty. In contrast to the hurricane center’s official projection, a highly regarded European model had the storm turning southward off the North Carolina coast and coming ashore near the Georgia-South Carolina line.

Reacting to the possibility of a more southerly track, Georgia Gov. Nathan Deal declared an emergency but did not immediately order any evacuations.

“I ask all Georgians to join me in praying for the safety of our people and all those in the path of Hurricane Florence,” Deal said.

The shift in the projected track spread concern to areas that once thought they were relatively safe. In South Carolina, close to the Georgia line, Beaufort County emergency chief Neil Baxley told residents they need to prepare again for the worst just in case.

“We’ve had our lessons. Now it might be time for the exam,” he said.

In Virginia, where about 245,000 residents were ordered to evacuate low-lying areas, officials urged people to remain away from home despite forecast changes showing Florence’s path largely missing the state.

Their entire neighborhood evacuated in Wilmington, North Carolina, David and Janelle Garrigus planned to ride out Florence at their daughter’s one-bedroom apartment in Charlotte. Unsure of what they might find when they return home, the couple went shopping for a recreational vehicle.

“We’re just trying to plan for the future here, not having a house for an extended period of time,” David Garrigus said.

Melody Rawson evacuated her first-floor apartment in Myrtle Beach and arrived at Atlanta Motor Speedway in Hampton, Georgia, to camp for free with three other adults, her disabled son, two dogs and a pet bird.

“We hope to have something left when we get home,” she said.

Forecasters worried the storm’s damage will be all the worse if it lingers on the coast. The trend is “exceptionally bad news,” said University of Miami hurricane researcher Brian McNoldy, since it “smears a landfall out over hundreds of miles of coastline, most notably the storm surge.”

AP Graphic

With South Carolina’s beach towns more in the bull’s-eye because of the shifting forecast, Ohio vacationers Chris and Nicole Roland put off their departure from North Myrtle Beach to get the maximum amount of time on the sand. Most other beachgoers were long gone.

“It’s been really nice,” Nicole Roland said. “Also, a little creepy. You feel like you should have already left.”

___

Associated Press writers Seth Borenstein in Washington; Jonathan Drew in Wilmington, North Carolina; Jennifer Kay in Miami; Gary Robertson in Raleigh, North Carolina; Sarah Rankin and Denise Lavoie in Richmond, Virginia; Meg Kinnard in Columbia, South Carolina; Skip Foreman in Charlotte, North Carolina; Jeff Martin in Hampton, Georgia; David Koenig in Dallas; and Jay Reeves in Atlanta contributed to this report.

___

For the latest on Hurricane Florence, visit https://www.apnews.com/tag/Hurricanes .

https://apnews.com/58781157df70417ca4168b48bdc9e3c2

The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale is a 1 to 5 rating based on a hurricane’s sustained wind speed. This scale estimates potential property damage. Hurricanes reaching Category 3 and higher are considered major hurricanes because of their potential for significant loss of life and damage. Category 1 and 2 storms are still dangerous, however, and require preventative measures. In the western North Pacific, the term “super typhoon” is used for tropical cyclones with sustained winds exceeding 150 mph.

Category Sustained Winds Types of Damage Due to Hurricane Winds
1 74-95 mph
64-82 kt
119-153 km/h
Very dangerous winds will produce some damage: Well-constructed frame homes could have damage to roof, shingles, vinyl siding and gutters. Large branches of trees will snap and shallowly rooted trees may be toppled. Extensive damage to power lines and poles likely will result in power outages that could last a few to several days.
2 96-110 mph
83-95 kt
154-177 km/h
Extremely dangerous winds will cause extensive damage: Well-constructed frame homes could sustain major roof and siding damage. Many shallowly rooted trees will be snapped or uprooted and block numerous roads. Near-total power loss is expected with outages that could last from several days to weeks.
3
(major)
111-129 mph
96-112 kt
178-208 km/h
Devastating damage will occur: Well-built framed homes may incur major damage or removal of roof decking and gable ends. Many trees will be snapped or uprooted, blocking numerous roads. Electricity and water will be unavailable for several days to weeks after the storm passes.
4
(major)
130-156 mph
113-136 kt
209-251 km/h
Catastrophic damage will occur: Well-built framed homes can sustain severe damage with loss of most of the roof structure and/or some exterior walls. Most trees will be snapped or uprooted and power poles downed. Fallen trees and power poles will isolate residential areas. Power outages will last weeks to possibly months. Most of the area will be uninhabitable for weeks or months.
5
(major)
157 mph or higher
137 kt or higher
252 km/h or higher
Catastrophic damage will occur: A high percentage of framed homes will be destroyed, with total roof failure and wall collapse. Fallen trees and power poles will isolate residential areas. Power outages will last for weeks to possibly months. Most of the area will be uninhabitable for weeks or months.

 

https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/aboutsshws.php

 

Coastal Watches/Warnings and Forecast Cone for Storm Center

Forecast Length* Forecast Track Line Initial Wind Field
Full Forecast
3 days
On
Off
On
Off

cone graphic

* If the storm is forecast to dissipate within 3 days, the “Full Forecast” and “3 day” graphic will be identical

Click Here for a 5-day Cone Printer Friendly Graphic

About this product:

This graphic shows an approximate representation of coastal areas under a hurricane warning (red), hurricane watch (pink), tropical storm warning (blue) and tropical storm watch (yellow). The orange circle indicates the current position of the center of the tropical cyclone. The black line, when selected, and dots show the National Hurricane Center (NHC) forecast track of the center at the times indicated. The dot indicating the forecast center location will be black if the cyclone is forecast to be tropical and will be white with a black outline if the cyclone is forecast to be extratropical. If only an L is displayed, then the system is forecast to be a remnant low. The letter inside the dot indicates the NHC’s forecast intensity for that time:

D: Tropical Depression – wind speed less than 39 MPH
S: Tropical Storm – wind speed between 39 MPH and 73 MPH
H: Hurricane – wind speed between 74 MPH and 110 MPH
M: Major Hurricane – wind speed greater than 110 MPH

NHC tropical cyclone forecast tracks can be in error. This forecast uncertainty is conveyed by the track forecast “cone”, the solid white and stippled white areas in the graphic. The solid white area depicts the track forecast uncertainty for days 1-3 of the forecast, while the stippled area depicts the uncertainty on days 4-5. Historical data indicate that the entire 5-day path of the center of the tropical cyclone will remain within the cone about 60-70% of the time. To form the cone, a set of imaginary circles are placed along the forecast track at the 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h positions, where the size of each circle is set so that it encloses 67% of the previous five years official forecast errors. The cone is then formed by smoothly connecting the area swept out by the set of circles.

It is also important to realize that a tropical cyclone is not a point. Their effects can span many hundreds of miles from the center. The area experiencing hurricane force (one-minute average wind speeds of at least 74 mph) and tropical storm force (one-minute average wind speeds of 39-73 mph) winds can extend well beyond the white areas shown enclosing the most likely track area of the center. The distribution of hurricane and tropical storm force winds in this tropical cyclone can be seen in the Wind History graphic linked above.

Considering the combined forecast uncertainties in track, intensity, and size, the chances that any particular location will experience winds of 34 kt (tropical storm force), 50 kt, or 64 kt (hurricane force) from this tropical cyclone are presented in tabular form for selected locations and forecast positions. This information is also presented in graphical form for the 34 kt50 kt, and 64 kt thresholds.

Note:  A detailed definition of the NHC track forecast cone is also available.

https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/refresh/graphics_at1+shtml/032641.shtml?cone

Terrifying simulation video shows what the life-threatening Hurricane Florence storm surge will look like if it reaches nine feet

By EMILY CRANE FOR DAILYMAIL.COM

A simulation weather video is showing what the life-threatening Hurricane Florence storm surge might look like if it reaches a frightening nine feet.

Life-threatening storm surges of up to 13 feet have been forecast in some areas when the monster storm eventually makes landfall in North and South Carolina.

The Weather Channel‘s forecast video shows the potential damage such surges could inflict on the southern states.

The Weather Channel's forecast video shows the potential damage storm surges caused by Hurricane Florence could inflict on North and South Carolina

Dr Greg Postel, the network’s hurricane specialist, said three feet of water was enough to knock people off their feet, potentially carry cars away and flood lower levels of buildings.

Six feet of storm surge could carry large objects like cars underwater and leave lower levels structures submerged in water, according to Dr Postel.

The video also gives a frightening indication of what nine feet of water looks like – completely submerging lower buildings.

In addition to the life-threatening storm surge, Florence is also forecast to dump up to 40 inches of rain after it makes landfall in North and South Carolina Thursday night or Friday.

THREE FEET: Three feet of storm surge is enough to knock people off their feet, potentially carry cars away and flood lower levels of buildings

SIX FEET: Storm surge of six feet could carry large objects like cars underwater and leave lower levels structures submerged in water

SIX FEET: Storm surge of six feet could carry large objects like cars underwater and leave lower levels structures submerged in water

Florence’s winds had dropped from a peak of 140 mph to 105 mph by Thursday, reducing the hurricane from a terrifying Category 4 to a 2.

But forecasters warned that the widening storm – and its likelihood of lingering around the coast for days – will bring life-threatening storm surge and torrential rains.

The center of Florence is expected to hit North Carolina’s southern coast Friday, then drift southwest before moving inland on Saturday.

The storm was already generating 83-foot waves at sea on Wednesday.

Forecasters at the National Hurricane Center warned that Florence remained deadly because of its size and slow forward speed, even if its top sustained winds have dropped it to Category 2 status as a hurricane.

NINE FEET: the video also gives a frightening indication of what nine feet of water looks like - completely submerging lower buildings

Story 2: President Trump Should Declassify All Foreign Intelligence Surveillance ACT (FISA) Court Applications For The Carter Page Warrants To Spy on Candidate and President Trump and Campaign — October Surprise Exposing The Clinton Obama Democrat Criminal Conspiracy — Videos

Rep. Jordan: Strzok’s argument doesn’t hold water

Fitton on New Strzok-Page Texts: ‘Corrupted’ Mueller Probe Needs to Be Shut Down

Judge Nap on Strzok & Page Discussing ‘Media Leak Strategy’: Gov’t Is World’s ‘Best Leaker’

Gaetz on ‘media leak strategy’ of Strzok and Page

New Strzok-Page texts reveal ‘media leak strategy’

Dershowitz on Strzok, Page ‘media leaking strategy’

The Ingraham Angle 9/12/18 | Breaking Fox News | September 12, 2018

Tucker Carlson Tonight 9/12/18 | Fox News September 12, 2018

THE HOUSE OF CARDS IS ABOUT TO FALL..Jarrett: Rosenstein, Comey, Yates & McCabe Can Be Prosecuted

Sean Hannity 9/10/18 | Fox News September 10, 2018

Gohmert on the Economy, FISA documents, and the Border Wall funding

Solomon on Bruce Ohr’s efforts to shape Trump probe

FBI & US Justice Dept accused of deliberate media leak strategy

Strzok, Page & the FBI’s ‘Leak Strategy’ With the Media

John Solomon, The Hill September 11, 2018
Leaking lovers and an FBI smear job of Carter Page?
© Getty Images

Just last week I opined on how troubling it was that the FBI and Department of Justice (DOJ) apparently targeted and used media to further, in the court of public opinion, an as-yet-unproven Russia-collusion case against Donald Trump.

Now, belatedly released information from the files of those favorite FBI lovebirds — Peter Strzok and Lisa Page — has created even more concern that the top echelons of America’s premier law enforcement were involved in name-smearing media leaks.

Rep. Mark Meadows (R-N.C.), chairman of the conservative House Freedom Caucus, disclosed in a letter Monday to Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein that, in April 2017, Strzok and Page discussed a specific media-leak strategy about Trump campaign adviser Carter Page.

Carter Page, of course, was subjected to a year-long FBI surveillance warrant but never has been charged with any wrongdoing — yet, somehow, nearly all the FBI’s suspicions about his ties to Russia made it into media reports.

Meadows’ letter suggests a possible reason why and how that happened.

On April 10, 2017, Strzok texted Lisa Page the following message: “I had literally just gone to find this phone to tell you I want to talk to you about media leak strategy with DOJ before you go.”

The next day, according to Meadows, the Washington Post broke a storyon the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) warrant application against Carter Page.

And then, on April 12, 2017, Strzok texted regarding two articles coming out about Carter Page — whom he refers to as Lisa Page’s “namesake” — and that one is more damaging than the other.

Strzok, according to Meadows, then congratulated his FBI colleague Lisa Page, with whom he allegedly was having an affair. “Well done, Page,” he texted.

Meadows, who has led the charge against the FBI’s conduct in the Russia probe, told Rosenstein the “text exchange should lead a reasonable person to question whether there was a sincere desire to investigate wrongdoing or to place derogatory information in the media to justify a continued probe.”

FISA warrants are among the most secretive tools in the FBI’s arsenal, and information contained in them is supposed to be guarded closely from public release, in part because innocent people sometimes can be caught up in surveillance in complex espionage and terrorism cases.

In his letter, Meadows asks the deputy attorney general to provide more documents to explain what the FBI and the DOJ were up to in devising a “media leak strategy” and whether there was a “systemic culture of media leaking by high-ranking officials at the FBI and DOJ related to ongoing questions.”

I asked the FBI and DOJ for comment. So far, crickets.

But I asked Carter Page what he thought of the text messages. He had his own very personal observation, starting with “it seems pretty obvious” the FBI texts referred to leaking about him. But he also was happy that the DOJ is finally giving the light of day to what happened over the past two years.

“After so much damage has been done to this new administration, I’m happy steps are being take to correct this. It’s not about me; it’s about us and our country,” Page told me.

“In the southern district of New York and the foreign intelligence surveillance court, the Department of Justice and their affiliates made a kangaroo court out of some of the most important courts of our country,” he added. “There will be civil liability but all I really want is for DOJ just to do the right thing.”

In the end, the new text messages aren’t dispositive but raise obvious and disturbing questions. And that means a real investigation should be conducted to determine if anyone in government leaked something as sensitive as a FISA warrant or the intercepts between former National Security Adviser Michael Flynn and the Russian ambassador.

Honest, independent answers to those questions are especially warranted inside an FBI where:

  • the former FBI director, James Comey, authorized a leak in hopes of securing a special prosecutor in the Russia case;
  • the former deputy director already has been fired for lying about another leak;
  • agents used leaked stories as corroborating evidence in court, even though they knew the leaks were simply circular intelligence flowing from their tainted source, former British intelligence operative Christopher Steele.

The FISA court that approves secret surveillance warrants operates on an honor system, so much so that the judges never bothered to hold a hearing about the four warrants they issued on Carter Page.

That honor system requires the FBI to disclose everything they know — the good, the bad and the ugly.

There’s growing evidence the bad and the ugly (i.e., the exculpatory evidence) was carefully omitted from the FBI’s submissions. And that should concern anyone who believes in a fair and honest court system.

John Solomon is an award-winning investigative journalist whose work over the years has exposed U.S. and FBI intelligence failures before the Sept. 11 attacks, federal scientists’ misuse of foster children and veterans in drug experiments, and numerous cases of political corruption. He is The Hill’s executive vice president for video.

http://thehill.com/opinion/white-house/405956-leaking-lovers-and-an-fbi-smear-job-of-carter-page

FBI’s ‘Leak Strategy’: Was It Criminal Collusion To Damage Trump?

Russia Investigation: Drip by drip, a pool of incriminating evidence grows almost daily showing that FBI and Justice Department officials worked together to thwart President Trump’s presidency just as it got underway. The whole Russia investigation conducted by Robert Mueller must now come under serious question, and it seems likely that key FBI officials will be charged with crimes.

Congress released documents late Monday showing an “apparent systemic culture of media leaking” among top officials at the FBI and Justice Department, according to a letter that North Carolina Republican Rep. Mark Meadows sent to Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein.

In particular, wrote Meadows, two text messages exchanged on April 10 and April 12, 2017, between former FBI agent Peter Strzok and his then-lover, former FBI attorney Lisa Page, explicitly discuss the FBI’s “media leak strategy.”

On April 10, 2017, Strzok texted Page: “I had literally just gone to find this phone to tell you I want to talk to you about media leak strategy with DOJ before you go.”

Just two days later, Meadows noted, Strzok lauded Page’s efforts and gave her a heads up that “two articles are coming out, one which is ‘worse’ than the other about Lisa’s ‘namesake,’ ” a reference to Carter Page, the target of a monthslong FBI surveillance effort that began in October 2016. Despite the surveillance, Carter Page has never been charged with any crime.

Just one day after Strzok’s text to Page, the Washington Post, on April 11, 2017, ran a piece titled “FBI obtained FISA warrant to monitor former Trump advisor Carter Page.”

Ignoring The Rulebook

But that wasn’t all. As Fox News reports, “The leaks involved other outlets in addition to the Washington Post. … FBI and DOJ officials, including DOJ prosecutor and top Robert Mueller deputy Andrew Weissman, met with several Associated Press reporters in April 2017, according to court filings in the Virginia federal trial of Trump’s former campaign chairman Paul Manafort.”

Moreover, Meadows wrote, “The leaks to the media continued even as FBI attorneys cited the U.S. Attorney’s Manual in telling Congress that witnesses could not answer questions about pending probes.”

So the FBI was stonewalling Congress’ nascent investigation of the FBI’s actions, while leaking like a sieve to the media. Leaking secret information to anyone, by the way, is a crime.

It’s noteworthy that Strzok was the lead investigator not just for the Russia investigation but for the Hillary Clinton email scandal as well. So Strzok and the others covered all the bases. He was just fired in August for sending anti-Trump messages to Lisa Page, including one that grandiosely said of Trump’s presidency, “We’ll stop it.”

Page, The Patsy

As for poor Carter Page, the Post piece on April 11 claimed that “law enforcement and other U.S. officials” had told them that top Justice and FBI officials convinced a FISA judge that there was “probable cause to believe Page was acting as an agent of a foreign power, in this case Russia.”

Their evidence? The bogus anti-Trump dossier authored by former British spy Christopher Steele, who served as a paid informant for the FBI. When the FBI discovered that he had leaked information to the press, they fired him. As it turns out, Steele compiled his dossier while working for the shady opposition research group Fusion GPS. And the Hillary Clinton-controlled Democratic National Committee and Clinton’s own presidential campaign paid for it all.

The FBI, in short, lied to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court about the source of its “probable cause.” They used the phony Steele dossier as the basis for their claims to the FISA court, but told the court they didn’t. Isn’t that perjury? Or don’t U.S. officials have to tell the truth to FISA?

Collusion At FBI, Justice?

As for Carter Page, he was a tool, spied upon for entirely spurious reasons. Mainly, it appears, pro-Hillary, anti-Trump officials in the CIA, Justice Department and FBI wanted a pretense for spying on the Trump campaign — and, later, for undermining his presidency. Surveillance of Carter Page gave the FBI a backdoor into the Trump campaign.

The troubling aspect of all this isn’t just the media leaks, which are troubling enough. It’s why they leaked that is most bothersome.

Given the prevalent and near-total anti-Trump animus that various CIA, FBI and Justice officials exhibited, it seems quite clear that they coordinated their efforts to take down a presidential candidate and, when that failed, to politically damage him once he won the election.

Moreover, it was all collusion on behalf of Hillary Clinton’s campaign and against Donald Trump.

This is the stuff of cheap spy novels, and yet it’s true. This appears to be a conspiracy to undermine the constitutional government of the U.S. — a crime of the highest order. At the very least, Congress should name a special prosecutor. Mueller’s case for Trump-Russia collusion was never strong; the case for FBI-Justice-CIA political interference looks like a slam dunk.

https://www.investors.com/politics/editorials/fbi-leak-strategy-collusion-trump/

 

Trump responds to Strzok, Page texts on ‘media leak strategy’

President Trump lamented on Tuesday that “nothing is being done” to investigate former FBI agent Peter Strzok and his mistress Lisa Page after a report said they had planned a “media leak strategy” to embarrass the president.

“New Strzok-Page texts reveal ‘Media Leak Strategy.’ @FoxNews So terrible, and NOTHING is being done at DOJ or FBI – but the world is watching, and they get it completely,” the president wrote on his Twitter account.

A report late Monday on Fox News said GOP Rep. Mark Meadows sent a letter to Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein to alert him to the actions of Strzok and Page that were revealed in newly released text messages.

“Review of these new documents raises grave concerns regarding an apparent systemic culture of media leaking by high-ranking officials at the FBI and DOJ related to ongoing investigations,” Meadows wrote in the letter.

He said the House Oversight & Government Reform Committee discovered an April 10, 2017, text from Strzok to Page that said: “I had literally just gone to find this phone to tell you I want to talk to you about media leak strategy with DOJ before you go.”

Then, two days later, Strzok reached out to Page to congratulate her for planting two stories that were critical of former Trump campaign adviser Carter Page.

“Well done, Page,” Strzok wrote.

Meadows’ letter notes that the Washington Post wrote a story on April 11, 2017, about the FBI receiving a FISA warrant to monitor Carter Page and that it had convinced a judge there was “probable cause to believe Page was acting as an agent of a foreign power, in this case Russia.”

The message “should lead a reasonable person to question whether there was a sincere desire to investigate wrongdoing or to place derogatory information in the media to justify a continued probe,” Meadows wrote in the letter.

Strzok’s lawyer, Aitan Goelman said the strategy was intended to stop leaks and accused Trump of misleading people in his Twitter post.

“The term ‘media leak strategy’ in Mr. Strzok’s text refers to a Department-wide initiative to detect and stop leaks to the media. The president and his enablers are once again peddling unfounded conspiracy theories to mislead the American People,” Goelman said in a statement.

Strzok worked on special counsel Robert Mueller’s probe into any links between Trump campaign officials and Russia but was removed after text messages between him and Page showed they were critical of the president.

He was fired by the FBI in August.

Page, a former FBI lawyer who had an affair with Strzok, also was removed from Mueller’s team. She has since resigned.

https://nypost.com/2018/09/11/trump-responds-to-strzok-page-texts-on-media-leak-strategy/

 

GOP official: Strzok and Page conspired to unleash a ‘media leak strategy’

Fired FBI agent Peter Strzok and his gal pal Lisa Page conspired to unleashed a “media leak strategy” to embarrass President Trump, a House Republican said Monday.

Rep. Mark Meadows (R-NC), a member of the House Oversight & Government Reform Committee, made those allegations in a letter to Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein, who is overseeing special counsel Robert Mueller’s probe of Russian meddling in the 2016 election.

“Review of these new documents raises grave concerns regarding an apparent systemic culture of media leaking by high-ranking officials at the FBI and DOJ related to ongoing investigations,” Meadows wrote.

Meadows claims his committee uncovered an April 10, 2017, text from Strzok to Page in Justice Department documents saying: “I had literally just gone to find this phone to tell you I want to talk to you about media leak strategy with DOJ before you go.”

Then two days later, Meadows said, Strzok congratulated Page — texting “Well done, Page” — for allegedly planting stories that reflected poorly on Trump campaign adviser Carter Page.

Meadows suggested that an April, 11, 2017, story in The Washington Post — reporting that the FBI obtained a secret court order to monitor Carter Page’s communications — came from Strzok and Page.

“While these two text messages alone are troubling enough, events surrounding these interactions call the motives of the investigative team into question,” Meadows wrote to Rosenstein.

Strzok was once one of the top FBI agents on Mueller’s team before it was discovered that he had sent texts that disparaged Trump. He was removed from the Russia probe and fired last month.

Page was an FBI lawyer and her affair with Strzok has added to Republican accusations that they’re both untrustworthy.

“Our task force continues to receive troubling evidence that the practice of coordinated media interactions continues to exist within the DOJ and FBI,” Meadows wrote to Rosenstein.

“While this activity may be authorized and not part of the inappropriate behavior highlighted above, it fails to advance the private march to justice, and as such, warrants your attention to end this practice.”

https://nypost.com/2018/09/10/gop-official-strzok-and-page-conspired-to-unleash-a-media-leak-strategy/

Story 3: Jobless Claims Hit A 49 Year Low of 204,000 in the Week Ended Sept. 8, 2018 — Videos

U.S. Jobless Claims Fall To Lowest Level Since 1969

Jobless Claims Hit 49 Year Low

US Jobless Claims fall to 49 YEAR LOW…WOMP WOMP!!

US weekly jobless claims drop to near 49-year low

 | 
  • The number of Americans filing for unemployment benefits unexpectedly fell last week.
  • Claims hit their lowest level in nearly 49 years and pointed to robust labor market conditions.
  • Initial claims for state unemployment benefits slipped 1,000 to a seasonally adjusted 204,000 for the week ended Sept. 8, the lowest level since December 1969, the Labor Department said on Thursday.
GP: Job seeker at Home Depot now hiring event 160901
A job seeker speaks with recruiters from The Home Depot at a RecruitMilitary veterans job fair in Cleveland.
Luke Sharrett | Bloomberg | Getty Images

The number of Americans filing for unemployment benefits unexpectedly fell last week, hitting its lowest level in nearly 49 years and pointing to robust labor market conditions.

Initial claims for state unemployment benefits slipped 1,000 to a seasonally adjusted 204,000 for the week ended Sept. 8, the lowest level since December 1969, the Labor Department said on Thursday. Data for the prior week was revised to show 2,000 more applications received than previously reported.

Economists polled by Reuters had forecast claims rising to 210,000 in the latest week. The claims data covered last Monday’s Labor Day holiday. Claims tend to be volatile around public holidays.

The Labor Department said only claims for Maine were estimated last week. The four-week moving average of initial claims, considered a better measure of labor market trends as it irons out week-to-week volatility, fell 2,000 last week to 208,000, also the lowest level since December 1969.

The labor market is viewed as being near or at full employment. It continues to strengthen, with nonfarm payrolls increasing by 201,000 jobs in August and annual wage growth notching its biggest gain in more than nine years. Job openings hit an all-time high of 6.9 million in July.

The Federal Reserve’s Beige Book report, which was published on Wednesday, described the labor market as “tight throughout the country, with most districts reporting widespread shortages.”

Though there have been reports of some companies either planning job cuts or laying off workers because of trade tensions between the United States and its major trade partners, they have been partially offset by increased hiring in the steel industry.

Economists, however, warn of widespread job losses if the Trump administration presses ahead with tariffs on nearly all Chinese imports. President Donald Trump last week threatened duties on another $267 billion worth of Chinese goods on top of a $200 billion tariff list that is awaiting his decision.

Washington has already slapped duties on $50 billion worth of Chinese imports, provoking retaliation from Beijing. The United States has also engaged in tit-for-tat tariffs with other trade partners, including the European Union, Canada and Mexico.

Thursday’s claims report also showed the number of people receiving benefits after an initial week of aid dropped 15,000 to 1.70 million for the week ended Sept. 1, the lowest level since December 1973. The four-week moving average of the so-called continuing claims decreased 8,250 to 1.71 million, the lowest level since November 1973.

https://www.cnbc.com/2018/09/13/us-weekly-jobless-claims-sept-8-2018.html

 

Jobless Claims Remain at Half-Century Low

Initial claims, a proxy for layoffs across the U.S., fell to 204,000 in the week ended Sept. 8

A job seeker taking notes during employer presentations at a United Career Fairs hiring event in Oak Brook, Ill., in July.
A job seeker taking notes during employer presentations at a United Career Fairs hiring event in Oak Brook, Ill., in July. PHOTO: DANIEL ACKER/BLOOMBERG NEWS

WASHINGTON—The number of Americans filing applications for new unemployment benefits fell last week, remaining at a half-century low for the second-straight week.

Initial jobless claims, a proxy for layoffs across the U.S., fell by 1,000 to a seasonally adjusted 204,000 in the week ended Sept. 8, the Labor Department said Thursday. This is the lowest level since December 1969. Unemployment benefit applications were near this level last week too.

Economists surveyed by The Wall Street Journal expected 210,000 new claims last week.

Data can be volatile from week to week. The four-week moving average of claims, a steadier measure, fell 2,000 to 208,000, also the lowest level since 1969.

Jobless claims have remained low in recent years, as the labor market continues to tighten and managers face difficulty finding qualified employees.

The August unemployment rate remained at 3.9% for the second straight month, just above the best rate in two decades. Hiring regained momentum in August, as employers added 201,000 workers to payrolls.

Thursday’s report showed the number of claims workers made for longer than a week declined by 15,000 to 1,696,000 in the week ended Sept. 1. The figure, also known as continuing claims, is reported with a one-week lag.

https://www.wsj.com/articles/jobless-claims-remain-at-half-century-low-1536842053

 

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The Pronk Pops Show 1137, September 7, 2018, Story 1: U-3 Unemployment Rate 3.9% and Labor Participation Rate 62.7% with 201,000 Jobs Created in August 2018 — Well Below 66-67% Labor Participation Rate in Clinton and Bush Administrations — Boom Lite — Videos — Story 2: President Trump’s Plan B for Building U.S./Mexican Wall By Military with Defense Appropriations — Plan B for Betrayal of Trump Voters Expecting The Wall To Be Built By 2020 — Requires At Least $25 Billion In Congressional Appropriations To Complete Wall By 2020 — Completion Date is The Twelfth of Never — You Have Been Conned —  Videos — Story 3: Trump Campaigning in Sioux Falls, South Dakota For F Rated Republicans According To Conservative Review Scorecard — Videos

Posted on September 10, 2018. Filed under: American History, Banking System, Blogroll, Breaking News, Budgetary Policy, Communications, Constitutional Law, Corruption, Countries, Culture, Defense Spending, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Drugs, Economics, Education, Empires, Employment, Federal Government, First Amendment, Fiscal Policy, Free Trade, Freedom of Speech, Government, Government Spending, Health, History, Human, Human Behavior, Illegal Drugs, Illegal Immigration, Immigration, Impeachment, Independence, Law, Legal Immigration, Life, Lying, Media, Mexico, News, People, Philosophy, Photos, Polls, Presidential Appointments, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Rule of Law, Second Amendment, Senator Jeff Sessions, Social Networking, Spying, Surveillance/Spying, Trump Surveillance/Spying, United States Constitution, United States of America, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

 

 

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Not In Labor Force

96,290,000

Series Id:           LNS15000000
Seasonally Adjusted
Series title:        (Seas) Not in Labor Force
Labor force status:  Not in labor force
Type of data:        Number in thousands
Age:                 16 years and over

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
2000 69142 69120 69338 69267 69853 69876 70398 70401 70645 70782 70579 70488
2001 70088 70409 70381 70956 71414 71592 71526 72136 71676 71817 71876 72010
2002 72623 72010 72343 72281 72260 72600 72827 72856 72554 73026 73508 73675
2003 73960 74015 74295 74066 74268 73958 74767 75062 75249 75324 75280 75780
2004 75319 75648 75606 75907 75903 75735 75730 76113 76526 76399 76259 76581
2005 76808 76677 76846 76514 76409 76673 76721 76642 76739 76958 77138 77394
2006 77339 77122 77161 77318 77359 77317 77535 77451 77757 77634 77499 77376
2007 77506 77851 77982 78818 78810 78671 78904 79461 79047 79532 79105 79238
2008 78554 79156 79087 79429 79102 79314 79395 79466 79790 79736 80189 80380
2009 80529 80374 80953 80762 80705 80938 81367 81780 82495 82766 82865 83813
2010 83349 83304 83206 82707 83409 84075 84199 84014 84347 84895 84590 85240
2011 85441 85637 85623 85603 85834 86144 86383 86111 85940 86308 86312 86589
2012 87888 87765 87855 88239 88100 88073 88405 88803 88613 88429 88836 88722
2013 88900 89516 89990 89780 89827 89803 90156 90355 90481 91708 91302 91563
2014 91557 91559 91150 92036 92058 92072 92012 92105 92428 92274 92390 92726
2015 92660 93165 93326 93214 93006 93592 93841 93963 94625 94403 94312 93893
2016 94010 93766 93515 94049 94662 94421 94413 94340 94357 94621 94996 95006
2017 94364 94248 94179 94407 95038 94743 94684 94759 94480 95395 95416 95512
2018 95665 95012 95335 95745 95915 95502 95598 96290

 

 

Civilian Labor Force Level

161,776,000

 

Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey

 

Series Id:           LNS11000000
Seasonally Adjusted
Series title:        (Seas) Civilian Labor Force Level
Labor force status:  Civilian labor force
Type of data:        Number in thousands
Age:                 16 years and over

Download:
Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
2000 142267(1) 142456 142434 142751 142388 142591 142278 142514 142518 142622 142962 143248
2001 143800 143701 143924 143569 143318 143357 143654 143284 143989 144086 144240 144305
2002 143883 144653 144481 144725 144938 144808 144803 145009 145552 145314 145041 145066
2003 145937(1) 146100 146022 146474 146500 147056 146485 146445 146530 146716 147000 146729
2004 146842(1) 146709 146944 146850 147065 147460 147692 147564 147415 147793 148162 148059
2005 148029(1) 148364 148391 148926 149261 149238 149432 149779 149954 150001 150065 150030
2006 150214(1) 150641 150813 150881 151069 151354 151377 151716 151662 152041 152406 152732
2007 153144(1) 152983 153051 152435 152670 153041 153054 152749 153414 153183 153835 153918
2008 154063(1) 153653 153908 153769 154303 154313 154469 154641 154570 154876 154639 154655
2009 154210(1) 154538 154133 154509 154747 154716 154502 154307 153827 153784 153878 153111
2010 153484(1) 153694 153954 154622 154091 153616 153691 154086 153975 153635 154125 153650
2011 153263(1) 153214 153376 153543 153479 153346 153288 153760 154131 153961 154128 153995
2012 154381(1) 154671 154749 154545 154866 155083 154948 154763 155160 155554 155338 155628
2013 155763(1) 155312 155005 155394 155536 155749 155599 155605 155687 154673 155265 155182
2014 155357(1) 155526 156108 155404 155564 155742 156011 156124 156019 156383 156455 156301
2015 157063(1) 156734 156754 157051 157449 157071 157035 157132 156700 157138 157435 158043
2016 158387(1) 158811 159253 158919 158512 158976 159207 159514 159734 159700 159544 159736
2017 159718(1) 159997 160235 160181 159729 160214 160467 160598 161082 160371 160533 160597
2018 161115(1) 161921 161763 161527 161539 162140 162245 161776
1 : Data affected by changes in population controls.

Employment Level

155,542,000

Series Id:           LNS12000000
Seasonally Adjusted
Series title:        (Seas) Employment Level
Labor force status:  Employed
Type of data:        Number in thousands
Age:                 16 years and over

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
2000 136559(1) 136598 136701 137270 136630 136940 136531 136662 136893 137088 137322 137614
2001 137778 137612 137783 137299 137092 136873 137071 136241 136846 136392 136238 136047
2002 135701 136438 136177 136126 136539 136415 136413 136705 137302 137008 136521 136426
2003 137417(1) 137482 137434 137633 137544 137790 137474 137549 137609 137984 138424 138411
2004 138472(1) 138542 138453 138680 138852 139174 139556 139573 139487 139732 140231 140125
2005 140245(1) 140385 140654 141254 141609 141714 142026 142434 142401 142548 142499 142752
2006 143150(1) 143457 143741 143761 144089 144353 144202 144625 144815 145314 145534 145970
2007 146028(1) 146057 146320 145586 145903 146063 145905 145682 146244 145946 146595 146273
2008 146378(1) 146156 146086 146132 145908 145737 145532 145203 145076 144802 144100 143369
2009 142152(1) 141640 140707 140656 140248 140009 139901 139492 138818 138432 138659 138013
2010 138438(1) 138581 138751 139297 139241 139141 139179 139438 139396 139119 139044 139301
2011 139250(1) 139394 139639 139586 139624 139384 139524 139942 140183 140368 140826 140902
2012 141584(1) 141858 142036 141899 142206 142391 142292 142291 143044 143431 143333 143330
2013 143292(1) 143362 143316 143635 143882 143999 144264 144326 144418 143537 144479 144778
2014 145122(1) 145161 145673 145680 145825 146267 146401 146522 146752 147411 147391 147597
2015 148113(1) 148100 148175 148505 148788 148806 148830 149136 148810 149254 149486 150135
2016 150576(1) 151005 151229 150978 151048 151164 151484 151687 151815 151939 152126 152233
2017 152076(1) 152511 153064 153161 152892 153250 153511 153471 154324 153846 153917 154021
2018 154430(1) 155215 155178 155181 155474 155576 155965 155542
1 : Data affected by changes in population controls.

 

Employment Population Ratio

60.3%

 

Series Id:           LNS12300000
Seasonally Adjusted
Series title:        (Seas) Employment-Population Ratio
Labor force status:  Employment-population ratio
Type of data:        Percent or rate
Age:                 16 years and over

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
2000 64.6 64.6 64.6 64.7 64.4 64.5 64.2 64.2 64.2 64.2 64.3 64.4
2001 64.4 64.3 64.3 64.0 63.8 63.7 63.7 63.2 63.5 63.2 63.0 62.9
2002 62.7 63.0 62.8 62.7 62.9 62.7 62.7 62.7 63.0 62.7 62.5 62.4
2003 62.5 62.5 62.4 62.4 62.3 62.3 62.1 62.1 62.0 62.1 62.3 62.2
2004 62.3 62.3 62.2 62.3 62.3 62.4 62.5 62.4 62.3 62.3 62.5 62.4
2005 62.4 62.4 62.4 62.7 62.8 62.7 62.8 62.9 62.8 62.8 62.7 62.8
2006 62.9 63.0 63.1 63.0 63.1 63.1 63.0 63.1 63.1 63.3 63.3 63.4
2007 63.3 63.3 63.3 63.0 63.0 63.0 62.9 62.7 62.9 62.7 62.9 62.7
2008 62.9 62.8 62.7 62.7 62.5 62.4 62.2 62.0 61.9 61.7 61.4 61.0
2009 60.6 60.3 59.9 59.8 59.6 59.4 59.3 59.1 58.7 58.5 58.6 58.3
2010 58.5 58.5 58.5 58.7 58.6 58.5 58.5 58.6 58.5 58.3 58.2 58.3
2011 58.3 58.4 58.4 58.4 58.3 58.2 58.2 58.3 58.4 58.4 58.6 58.6
2012 58.4 58.5 58.5 58.4 58.5 58.6 58.5 58.4 58.7 58.8 58.7 58.7
2013 58.6 58.6 58.5 58.6 58.6 58.6 58.7 58.7 58.7 58.3 58.6 58.7
2014 58.8 58.7 58.9 58.9 58.9 59.0 59.0 59.0 59.1 59.3 59.2 59.3
2015 59.3 59.3 59.3 59.3 59.4 59.4 59.3 59.4 59.2 59.3 59.4 59.6
2016 59.7 59.8 59.8 59.7 59.7 59.7 59.7 59.8 59.7 59.7 59.8 59.8
2017 59.9 60.0 60.2 60.2 60.0 60.1 60.2 60.1 60.4 60.2 60.1 60.1
2018 60.1 60.4 60.4 60.3 60.4 60.4 60.5 60.3

Unemployment Level

6,234,000

Series Id:           LNS13000000
Seasonally Adjusted
Series title:        (Seas) Unemployment Level
Labor force status:  Unemployed
Type of data:        Number in thousands
Age:                 16 years and over

Download:
Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
2000 5708 5858 5733 5481 5758 5651 5747 5853 5625 5534 5639 5634
2001 6023 6089 6141 6271 6226 6484 6583 7042 7142 7694 8003 8258
2002 8182 8215 8304 8599 8399 8393 8390 8304 8251 8307 8520 8640
2003 8520 8618 8588 8842 8957 9266 9011 8896 8921 8732 8576 8317
2004 8370 8167 8491 8170 8212 8286 8136 7990 7927 8061 7932 7934
2005 7784 7980 7737 7672 7651 7524 7406 7345 7553 7453 7566 7279
2006 7064 7184 7072 7120 6980 7001 7175 7091 6847 6727 6872 6762
2007 7116 6927 6731 6850 6766 6979 7149 7067 7170 7237 7240 7645
2008 7685 7497 7822 7637 8395 8575 8937 9438 9494 10074 10538 11286
2009 12058 12898 13426 13853 14499 14707 14601 14814 15009 15352 15219 15098
2010 15046 15113 15202 15325 14849 14474 14512 14648 14579 14516 15081 14348
2011 14013 13820 13737 13957 13855 13962 13763 13818 13948 13594 13302 13093
2012 12797 12813 12713 12646 12660 12692 12656 12471 12115 12124 12005 12298
2013 12471 11950 11689 11760 11654 11751 11335 11279 11270 11136 10787 10404
2014 10235 10365 10435 9724 9740 9474 9610 9602 9266 8972 9064 8704
2015 8951 8634 8578 8546 8662 8265 8206 7996 7891 7884 7948 7907
2016 7811 7806 8024 7942 7465 7812 7723 7827 7919 7761 7419 7502
2017 7642 7486 7171 7021 6837 6964 6956 7127 6759 6524 6616 6576
2018 6684 6706 6585 6346 6065 6564 6280 6234

U-3 Unemployment Rate

3.9%

Series Id:           LNS14000000
Seasonally Adjusted
Series title:        (Seas) Unemployment Rate
Labor force status:  Unemployment rate
Type of data:        Percent or rate
Age:                 16 years and over

Download:
Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
2000 4.0 4.1 4.0 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.1 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9
2001 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.5 4.6 4.9 5.0 5.3 5.5 5.7
2002 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.9 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.9 6.0
2003 5.8 5.9 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.7
2004 5.7 5.6 5.8 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.5 5.4 5.4
2005 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.0 5.0 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.9
2006 4.7 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.4
2007 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.4 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.7 5.0
2008 5.0 4.9 5.1 5.0 5.4 5.6 5.8 6.1 6.1 6.5 6.8 7.3
2009 7.8 8.3 8.7 9.0 9.4 9.5 9.5 9.6 9.8 10.0 9.9 9.9
2010 9.8 9.8 9.9 9.9 9.6 9.4 9.4 9.5 9.5 9.4 9.8 9.3
2011 9.1 9.0 9.0 9.1 9.0 9.1 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.8 8.6 8.5
2012 8.3 8.3 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.1 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.9
2013 8.0 7.7 7.5 7.6 7.5 7.5 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.2 6.9 6.7
2014 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.3 6.3 6.1 6.2 6.2 5.9 5.7 5.8 5.6
2015 5.7 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.5 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
2016 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.0 4.7 4.9 4.9 4.9 5.0 4.9 4.6 4.7
2017 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1
2018 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.9

Not in Labor Force

96,290,000

 

 

Series Id:           LNS15000000
Seasonally Adjusted
Series title:        (Seas) Not in Labor Force
Labor force status:  Not in labor force
Type of data:        Number in thousands
Age:                 16 years and over

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
2000 69142 69120 69338 69267 69853 69876 70398 70401 70645 70782 70579 70488
2001 70088 70409 70381 70956 71414 71592 71526 72136 71676 71817 71876 72010
2002 72623 72010 72343 72281 72260 72600 72827 72856 72554 73026 73508 73675
2003 73960 74015 74295 74066 74268 73958 74767 75062 75249 75324 75280 75780
2004 75319 75648 75606 75907 75903 75735 75730 76113 76526 76399 76259 76581
2005 76808 76677 76846 76514 76409 76673 76721 76642 76739 76958 77138 77394
2006 77339 77122 77161 77318 77359 77317 77535 77451 77757 77634 77499 77376
2007 77506 77851 77982 78818 78810 78671 78904 79461 79047 79532 79105 79238
2008 78554 79156 79087 79429 79102 79314 79395 79466 79790 79736 80189 80380
2009 80529 80374 80953 80762 80705 80938 81367 81780 82495 82766 82865 83813
2010 83349 83304 83206 82707 83409 84075 84199 84014 84347 84895 84590 85240
2011 85441 85637 85623 85603 85834 86144 86383 86111 85940 86308 86312 86589
2012 87888 87765 87855 88239 88100 88073 88405 88803 88613 88429 88836 88722
2013 88900 89516 89990 89780 89827 89803 90156 90355 90481 91708 91302 91563
2014 91557 91559 91150 92036 92058 92072 92012 92105 92428 92274 92390 92726
2015 92660 93165 93326 93214 93006 93592 93841 93963 94625 94403 94312 93893
2016 94010 93766 93515 94049 94662 94421 94413 94340 94357 94621 94996 95006
2017 94364 94248 94179 94407 95038 94743 94684 94759 94480 95395 95416 95512
2018 95665 95012 95335 95745 95915 95502 95598 96290

 

U-6 Unemployment Rate

7.4%

Series Id:           LNS13327709
Seasonally Adjusted
Series title:        (seas) Total unemployed, plus all marginally attached workers plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of all civilian labor force plus all marginally attached workers
Labor force status:  Aggregated totals unemployed
Type of data:        Percent or rate
Age:                 16 years and over
Percent/rates:       Unemployed and mrg attached and pt for econ reas as percent of labor force plus marg attached

 

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
2000 7.1 7.2 7.1 6.9 7.1 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.0 6.8 7.1 6.9
2001 7.3 7.4 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.9 7.8 8.1 8.7 9.3 9.4 9.6
2002 9.5 9.5 9.4 9.7 9.5 9.5 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.7 9.8
2003 10.0 10.2 10.0 10.2 10.1 10.3 10.3 10.1 10.4 10.2 10.0 9.8
2004 9.9 9.7 10.0 9.6 9.6 9.5 9.5 9.4 9.4 9.7 9.4 9.2
2005 9.3 9.3 9.1 8.9 8.9 9.0 8.8 8.9 9.0 8.7 8.7 8.6
2006 8.4 8.4 8.2 8.1 8.2 8.4 8.5 8.4 8.0 8.2 8.1 7.9
2007 8.4 8.2 8.0 8.2 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.8
2008 9.2 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.7 10.1 10.5 10.8 11.0 11.8 12.6 13.6
2009 14.2 15.2 15.8 15.9 16.5 16.5 16.4 16.7 16.7 17.1 17.1 17.1
2010 16.7 17.0 17.1 17.1 16.6 16.4 16.4 16.5 16.8 16.6 16.9 16.6
2011 16.2 16.0 15.9 16.1 15.8 16.1 15.9 16.1 16.4 15.8 15.5 15.2
2012 15.2 15.0 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.8 14.6 14.8 14.4 14.4 14.4
2013 14.6 14.4 13.8 14.0 13.8 14.2 13.8 13.6 13.5 13.6 13.1 13.1
2014 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.3 12.1 12.0 12.1 11.9 11.7 11.5 11.4 11.2
2015 11.3 11.0 10.9 10.9 10.8 10.4 10.3 10.2 10.0 9.8 9.9 9.9
2016 9.9 9.7 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.5 9.7 9.6 9.7 9.6 9.3 9.1
2017 9.4 9.2 8.8 8.6 8.4 8.5 8.5 8.6 8.3 8.0 8.0 8.1
2018 8.2 8.2 8.0 7.8 7.6 7.8 7.5 7.4

 


 

 

Unemployment Rate by Year Since 1929 Compared to Inflation and GDP

U.S. Unemployment Rate History

The unemployment rate by year is the percent of unemployed in the labor force. It tracks the health of the country’s economy. Unemployment rises during recessions and falls during prosperity. It also declined during the five U.S. wars, especially World War II. It rose again in the recessions that follow wars.

The highest rate of U.S. unemployment was 24.9 percent in 1933. That was during the Great Depression.

Unemployment was more than 14 percent from 1931 to 1940. Unemployment remained in the single digits until 1982 when it reached 10.8 percent. The annual unemployment rate reached 9.9 percent in 2009, during the Great Recession.

The lowest unemployment rate was 1.2 percent in 1944. You may think that unemployment can’t get too low, but it can. Even in a healthy economy, there should always be a natural rate of unemployment. That’s because people move before they get a new job, they are getting retrained for a better job, or they have just started looking for work and are waiting until they find just the right job. Even when the unemployment rate is 4 percent, it’s difficult for companies to expand because they have a hard time finding good workers.

Unemployment swings coincide with the business cycle. Slow growth causes high unemployment.. As gross domestic product declines, businesses lay off workers.

In return, jobless workers have less to spend.  Lower consumer spending reduces business revenue. That forces companies to cut more payroll to reduce their costs. This downward cycle is devastating.

Keep in mind that the unemployment rate is a lagging indicator. This means it continues to worsen even after economic growth improves.

Companies hesitant about hiring workers back until they are sure growth is on a stable upward trend.

When the unemployment rate reaches 6 percent, the government steps in. The Federal Reserve uses expansionary monetary policy and lowers the federal funds rate. If unemployment continues, the Congress uses fiscal policy. It can directly create jobs for public works projects. It can also stimulate demand by providing extended unemployment benefits. Find out more about unemployment solutions.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has measured unemployment since 1929. That’s why the table below shows the unemployment rate for every year since the stock market crash of 1929. Comparing unemployment by year to fiscal and monetary policies provides a complete picture of what works and what doesn’t.

U.S. Unemployment Rate by Year Compared to GDP Growth Rate, Inflation, and Major Events

Year Unemployment Rate (December) GDP Growth Inflation (December Year-over-Year) What Happened
1929 3.2% NA 0.6% Market crash
1930 8.7% -8.5% -6.4% Smoot-Hawley
1931 15.9% -6.4% -9.3% Dust Bowl
1932 23.6% -12.9% -10.3% Hoover’s tax hikes
1933 24.9% -1.2% 0.8% FDR’s New Deal
1934 21.7% 10.8% 1.5% Depression eased thanks to New Deal.
1935 20.1% 8.9% 3.0%
1936 16.9% 12.9% 1.4%
1937 14.3% 5.1% 2.9% Spending cuts
1938 19.0% -3.3% -2.8% FLSA starts min wage
1939 17.2% 8.0% 0% Drought ended
1940 14.6% 8.8% 0.7% U.S. draft
1941 9.9% 17.7% 9.9% Pearl Harbor
1942 4.7% 18.9% 9.0% Defense tripled
1943 1.9% 17.0% 3.0% Germany surrendered
1944 1.2% 8.0% 2.3% Bretton Woods
1945 1.9% -1.0% 2.2% War ends. Min wage $.40
1946 3.9% -11.6% 18.1% Employment Act
1947 3.9% -1.1% 8.8% Marshall Plan
1948 4.0% 4.1% 3.0% Truman reelected
1949 6.6% -0.6% -2.1% Fair DealNATO
1950 4.3% 8.7% 5.9% Korean War. Min wage $.75
1951 3.1% 8.0% 6.0% Expansion
1952 2.7% 4.1% 0.8% Expansion
1953 4.5% 4.7% 0.7% Korean War ended
1954 5.0% -0.6% -0.7% Dow returned to 1929 level
1955 4.2% 7.1% 0.4% Unemployment fell
1956 4.2% 2.1% 3.0% Min wage $1.00
1957 5.2% 2.1% 2.9% Recession
1958 6.2% -0.7% 1.8%
1959 5.3% 6.9% 1.7% Expansion.
1960 6.6% 2.6% 1.4% Recession.
1961 6.0% 2.6% 0.7% JFK. Min wage $1.15
1962 5.5% 6.1% 1.3% Cuban Missile Crisis
1963 5.5% 4.4% 1.6% LBJ. Min wage $1.25
1964 5.0% 5.8% 1.0% Tax cut
1965 4.0% 6.5% 1.9% Vietnam War
1966 3.8% 6.6% 3.5% Expansion
1967 3.8% 2.7% 3.0% Min wage $1.40
1968 3.4% 4.9% 4.7% Min wage $1.60
1969 3.5% 3.1% 6.2% Nixon took office
1970 6.1% 0.2% 5.6% Recession
1971 6.0% 3.3% 3.3% Emergency Employment Act. Wage-price controls
1972 5.2% 5.3% 3.4% Stagflation.
1973 4.9% 5.6% 8.7% CETAGold standard, Vietnam War ended
1974 7.2% -0.5% 12.3% Watergate. Min wage $2.00
1975 8.2% -0.2% 6.9% Recession ended.
1976 7.8% 5.4% 4.9% Expansion.
1977 6.4% 4.6% 6.7% Carter took office.
1978 6.0% 5.5% 9.0% Fed raised rate to 20% to stop inflation
1979 6.0% 3.2% 13.3%
1980 7.2% -0.3% 12.5% Recession
1981 8.5% 2.5% 8.9% Reagan tax cuts. Min wage $3.35
1982 10.8% -1.8% 3.8% Job ActGarn-St.Germain Act.
1983 8.3% 4.6% 3.8% Reagan increased military spending
1984 7.3% 7.2% 3.9%
1985 7.0% 4.2% 3.8% Expansion
1986 6.6% 3.5% 1.1% Tax cuts
1987 5.7% 3.5% 4.4% Black Monday
1988 5.3% 4.2% 4.4% Fed raised rate
1989 5.4% 3.7% 4.6% S&L Crisis
1990 6.3% 1.9% 6.1% Recession
1991 7.3% -0.1% 3.1% Desert Storm. Min wage $4.25
1992 7.4% 3.5% 2.9% NAFTA drafted
1993 6.5% 2.8% 2.7% Balanced Budget Act
1994 5.5% 4.0% 2.7% School to Work Act
1995 5.6% 2.7% 2.5% Expansion
1996 5.4% 3.8% 3.3% Welfare reform
1997 4.7% 4.4% 1.7% Min wage $5.85
1998 4.4% 4.5% 1.6% LTCM crisis
1999 4.0% 4.8% 2.7% Euro. Serbian airstrike
2000 3.9% 4.1% 3.4% NASDAQ hit record high.
2001 5.7% 1.0% 1.6% Bush tax cuts9/11 attacks
2002 6.0% 1.7% 2.4% War on Terror
2003 5.7% 2.9% 1.9% JGTRRA
2004 5.4% 3.8% 3.3% Expansion.
2005 4.9% 3.5% 3.4% Bankruptcy ActKatrina
2006 4.4% 2.9% 2.5% Expansion.
2007 5.0% 1.9% 4.1% EU became #1 economy.
2008 7.3% -0.1% 0.1% Min. wage = $6.55/ hour. Financial crisis
2009 9.9% -2.5% 2.7% ARRA. Min wage $7.25. Jobless benefits extended
2010 9.3% 2.6% 1.5% Obama tax cuts. Iraq War ended
2011 8.5% 1.6% 3.0% 26 months of job losses by July. Debt ceiling crisis.
2012 7.9% 2.2% 1.7% QE10-year rate at 200-year lowFiscal cliff.
2013 6.7% 1.8% 1.5% Stocks up 30%. Long term=50% of unemployed.
2014 5.6% 2.5% 0.8% Unemployment at 2007 levels.
2015  5.0% 2.9% 0.7% Natural rate
2016 4.7% 1.6% 2.1% Presidential race
2017 4.1% 2.2% 2.1% Dollar weakened

Resources for Table

More History

https://www.thebalance.com/unemployment-rate-by-year-3305506

Natural Rate of Unemployment, Its Components, and Recent Trends

Why zero unemployment isn’t as good as it sounds

will-work-unemploy.jpg

The natural rate of unemployment is a combination of frictional, structural, and surplus unemployment. Even a healthy economy will have this level of unemployment because workers are always coming and going, looking for better jobs. This jobless status, until they find that new job, is the natural rate of unemployment.

The Federal Reserve estimates this rate to be between 4.5 percent and 5.0 percent. Both fiscal and monetary policymakers use that rate as the goal of full employment. They use 2 percent as the target inflation rate. They also consider the ideal GDP growth rate to be between 2 percent and 3 percent. They must try to balance these three goals when setting interest rates. The Fed encourages Congress to consider all three goals when setting tax rates or spending levels.

 

Three Components of the Natural Rate of Unemployment

Even in a healthy economy, there is some level of unemployment for three reasons.

  1.  Frictional Unemployment – Some workers are in between jobs. Examples are new graduates looking for their first job. Others are workers who move to a new town without lining up another position. Some people quit abruptly, knowing they’ll get a better job shortly. Still, others might decide to leave the workforce for personal reasons such as retirement, pregnancy or sickness. They drop out of the labor force. When they return and start looking again, the BEA counts them as unemployed.
  2.  Structural Unemployment – As the economy evolves, there is an unavoidable mismatch between workers’ job skills and employers’ needs. It happens when workers are displaced by technology, as when robots take over manufacturing jobs. It also occurs when factories move to cheaper locations. That’s what happened after the North American Free Trade Agreement was signed. When baby boomers reached their 30s and had fewer children, there was less need for daycare workers. Structural unemployment remains until workers receive new training.
  1. Surplus Unemployment – This occurs whenever the government intervenes with minimum wage laws or wage/price controls. It can also happen with unions. Why? Employers must pay the mandated wage while keeping within their payroll budget. The only way to do this is to let some workers go. It’s the consequence of an unfunded mandate.

Also, there are six dangerous of types of unemployment. They are cyclicallong-termreal, seasonal, classical, and underemployment.

 

Why You Don’t Want Zero Unemployment

The only way an economy could have a zero percent unemployment rate is if it is severely overheated. Even then, wages would probably rise before unemployment fell to absolute zero.

The United States has never experienced zero unemployment. The lowest rate was 2.5 percent in May and June 1953. It occurred because the economy overheated during to the Korean War. When this bubble burst, it kicked off the recession of 1953.

 

Why the Recession Didn’t Raise the Natural Unemployment Rate

The financial crisis of 2008 wiped out a staggering 8.3 million jobs. The unemployment rate rose from 4.7 percent to 10.1 percent at its peak in 2009. This considerable loss meant that many of the unemployed stayed that way for six months or more. Long-term unemployment made it even more difficult for them to get back to work. Their skills and experience became outdated, leading to structural unemployment.

Does this mean that the recession would leave, as its legacy, a higher natural rate of unemployment? Research done by the Cleveland Federal Reserve said yes, this could be the case. That’s because job turnover slowed. Throughout the recession, those with jobs were less likely to leave them. In fact, by 2011, the separation rate was as low as it was during the boom before the recession.

The reasons were different though. During the boom, people didn’t leave jobs because they liked them and received good wages. Employers had a difficult time finding new employees, so they made sure the workers were happy. During the recession, workers were afraid to leave and look for better employment. They put up with long hours and no raises to keep their jobs.

The natural rate of unemployment typically rises after a recession. Frictional unemployment increases since workers can finally quit their jobs, confident they can find a better one now that the recession is over. Structural unemployment rises when workers have been unemployed for so long their skills no longer match the needs of businesses.

Between 2009 and 2012, the natural rate of unemployment rose from 4.9 percent to 5.5 percent. That was higher than during the recession itself. Researchers grew concerned that the length and depth of the recession meant the natural rate would remain elevated. But by 2014, it had fallen to 4.8 percent. (Source: “Natural Rate of Unemployment,” St. Louis Federal Reserve, March 22, 2017.)​

https://www.thebalance.com/natural-rate-of-unemployment-definition-and-trends-3305950

 

Alternate Unemployment Charts

The seasonally-adjusted SGS Alternate Unemployment Rate reflects current unemployment reporting methodology adjusted for SGS-estimated long-term discouraged workers, who were defined out of official existence in 1994. That estimate is added to the BLS estimate of U-6 unemployment, which includes short-term discouraged workers.

The U-3 unemployment rate is the monthly headline number. The U-6 unemployment rate is the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ (BLS) broadest unemployment measure, including short-term discouraged and other marginally-attached workers as well as those forced to work part-time because they cannot find full-time employment.

 

Public Commentary on Unemployment

Unemployment Data Series   subcription required(Subscription required.)  View  Download Excel CSV File   Last Updated: September 7th, 2018

The ShadowStats Alternate Unemployment Rate for August 2018 is 21.2%.

Republishing our charts:  Permission, Restrictions and Instructions (includes important requirements for successful hot-linking)

http://www.shadowstats.com/alternate_data/unemployment-charts

Employment Situation Summary

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until            USDL-18-1412
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, September 7, 2018

Technical information:
 Household data:      (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:  (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                       THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- AUGUST 2018


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 201,000 in August, and the unemployment
rate was unchanged at 3.9 percent,the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
Job gains occurred in professional and business services, health care, wholesale trade,
transportation and warehousing, and mining.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate remained at 3.9 percent in August, and the number of unemployed
persons, at 6.2 million, changed little. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.5 percent),
adult women (3.6 percent), teenagers (12.8 percent), Whites (3.4 percent), Blacks
(6.3 percent), Asians (3.0 percent), and Hispanics (4.7 percent) showed little or no
change in August. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was little
changed in August at 1.3 million and accounted for 21.5 percent of the unemployed.
Over the year, the number of long-term unemployed has declined by 403,000. (See
table A-12.)

Both the labor force participation rate, at 62.7 percent, and the employment-population
ratio, at 60.3 percent, declined by 0.2 percentage point in August. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to as
involuntary part-time workers), at 4.4 million, changed little over the month but was
down by 830,000 over the year. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time
employment, were working part time because their hours had been reduced or they were
unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In August, 1.4 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, little
different from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals
were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a
job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they
had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 434,000 discouraged workers in August,
essentially unchanged from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.)
Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they believe
no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.0 million persons marginally attached
to the labor force in August had not searched for work for reasons such as school
attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 201,000 in August, in line with the
average monthly gain of 196,000 over the prior 12 months. Over the month, employment
increased in professional and business services, health care, wholesale trade,
transportation and warehousing, and mining. (See table B-1.)

Professional and business services added 53,000 jobs in August and 519,000 jobs over
the year.

In August, health care employment rose by 33,000, with job gains in ambulatory health
care services (+21,000) and hospitals (+8,000). Health care has added 301,000 jobs over
the year.

Wholesale trade employment increased by 22,000 in August and by 99,000 over the year.
Durable goods wholesalers added 14,000 jobs over the month and accounted for about
two-thirds of the over-the-year job gain in wholesale trade. 

Employment in transportation and warehousing rose by 20,000 in August and by 173,000
over the past 12 months. Within the industry, couriers and messengers added 4,000 jobs
in August.

Mining employment increased by 6,000 in August, after showing little change in July.
Since a recent trough in October 2016, the industry has added 104,000 jobs, almost
entirely in support activities for mining.

Employment in construction continued to trend up in August (+23,000) and has increased
by 297,000 over the year.

Manufacturing employment changed little in August (-3,000). Over the year, employment
in the industry was up by 254,000, with more than three-fourths of the gain in the
durable goods component.

Employment showed little change over the month in other major industries, including
retail trade, information, financial activities, leisure and hospitality, and
government.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at
34.5 hours in August. In manufacturing, the workweek held steady at 41.0 hours, and
overtime was unchanged at 3.5 hours. The average workweek for production and
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls was 33.8 hours for the fifth
consecutive month. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In August, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose
by 10 cents to $27.16. Over the year, average hourly earnings have increased by 77
cents, or 2.9 percent. Average hourly earnings of private-sector production and
nonsupervisory employees increased by 7 cents to $22.73 in August. (See tables B-3
and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for June was revised down from +248,000
to +208,000, and the change for July was revised down from +157,000 to +147,000. With
these revisions, employment gains in June and July combined were 50,000 less than
previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from
businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the
recalculation of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged 185,000
per month over the last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for September is scheduled to be released on Friday,
October 5, 2018, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).



The PDF version of the news release

News release charts

Supplemental Files Table of Contents

Table of Contents

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/wp-admin/post-new.php

Employment Situation Summary Table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Change from:
July
2018-
Aug.
2018

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

255,357 257,642 257,843 258,066 223

Civilian labor force

160,598 162,140 162,245 161,776 -469

Participation rate

62.9 62.9 62.9 62.7 -0.2

Employed

153,471 155,576 155,965 155,542 -423

Employment-population ratio

60.1 60.4 60.5 60.3 -0.2

Unemployed

7,127 6,564 6,280 6,234 -46

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.0 3.9 3.9 0.0

Not in labor force

94,759 95,502 95,598 96,290 692

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.4 4.0 3.9 3.9 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

4.1 3.7 3.4 3.5 0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.0 3.7 3.7 3.6 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

13.8 12.6 13.1 12.8 -0.3

White

3.8 3.5 3.4 3.4 0.0

Black or African American

7.6 6.5 6.6 6.3 -0.3

Asian

3.9 3.2 3.1 3.0 -0.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

5.1 4.6 4.5 4.7 0.2

Total, 25 years and over

3.7 3.3 3.2 3.2 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

6.2 5.5 5.1 5.7 0.6

High school graduates, no college

5.0 4.2 4.0 3.9 -0.1

Some college or associate degree

3.8 3.3 3.2 3.5 0.3

Bachelor’s degree and higher

2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,497 3,065 3,017 2,875 -142

Job leavers

790 811 844 862 18

Reentrants

2,137 2,086 1,799 1,846 47

New entrants

653 578 591 584 -7

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,221 2,227 2,091 2,208 117

5 to 14 weeks

1,996 1,882 1,820 1,720 -100

15 to 26 weeks

1,067 836 971 923 -48

27 weeks and over

1,735 1,478 1,435 1,332 -103

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,209 4,743 4,567 4,379 -188

Slack work or business conditions

3,232 3,042 2,877 2,551 -326

Could only find part-time work

1,631 1,447 1,431 1,365 -66

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,468 21,304 21,532 21,781 249

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,548 1,437 1,498 1,443

Discouraged workers

448 359 512 434

– Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

https://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.a.htm

Employment Situation Summary Table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Aug.
2017
June
2018
July
2018(P)
Aug.
2018(P)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

221 208 147 201

Total private

208 192 153 204

Goods-producing

75 36 36 26

Mining and logging

8 7 0 6

Construction

28 8 18 23

Manufacturing

39 21 18 -3

Durable goods(1)

31 19 16 -4

Motor vehicles and parts

23.1 4.8 -3.5 -4.9

Nondurable goods

8 2 2 1

Private service-providing

133 156 117 178

Wholesale trade

3.6 12.7 10.8 22.4

Retail trade

3.9 -41.8 4.1 -5.9

Transportation and warehousing

12.4 15.0 6.6 20.2

Utilities

-0.2 -0.4 -3.1 0.3

Information

-1 -2 -1 -6

Financial activities

15 12 2 11

Professional and business services(1)

42 47 37 53

Temporary help services

5.3 -6.5 10.9 10.0

Education and health services(1)

48 67 41 53

Health care and social assistance

15.8 29.4 35.4 40.7

Leisure and hospitality

4 28 32 17

Other services

5 18 -12 13

Government

13 16 -6 -3

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

217 217 208 185

Total private

205 209 202 183

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.5 49.7 49.7 49.7

Total private women employees

48.1 48.3 48.3 48.3

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.6 34.5 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$26.39 $26.99 $27.06 $27.16

Average weekly earnings

$907.82 $933.85 $933.57 $937.02

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

107.6 109.9 109.7 109.9

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.5 -0.2 0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

135.7 141.8 142.0 142.7

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 0.6 0.1 0.5

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

64.3 64.1 59.5 60.7

Manufacturing (76 industries)

71.7 65.8 61.2 52.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(P) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.

https://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.b.htm

Six Living Generations in America.

The Six Living Generations In America

Dr. Jill Novak, University of Phoenix, Texas A&M University.

In America, there are six living generations, which are six fairly distinct groups of people. As a generalization each generation has different likes, dislikes, and attributes. They have had collective experiences as they aged and therefore have similar ideals. A person’s birth date may not always be indicative of their generational characteristics, but as a common group they have similarities.

The six living generations

GI Generation

GI Generation.

  • Born 1901-1926.
  • Children of the WWI generation & fighters in WWII & young in the Great Depression…all leading to strong models of teamwork to overcome and progress.
  • Their Depression was The Great One; their war was The Big One; their prosperity was the legendary Happy Days.
  • They saved the world and then built a nation.
  • They are the assertive and energetic do’ers.
  • Excellent team players.
  • Community-minded.
  • Strongly interested in personal morality and near-absolute standards of right and wrong.
  • Strong sense of personal civic duty, which means they vote.
  • Marriage is for life, divorce and having children out of wedlock were not accepted.
  • Strong loyalty to jobs, groups, schools, etc.
  • There was no “retirement” you worked until your died or couldn’t work anymore.
  • The labor-union-spawning generation.
  • “Use it up, fix it up, make it do, or do without.”
  • Avoid debt…save and buy with cash.
  • Age of radio and air flight; they were the generation that remembers life without airplanes, radio, and TV.
  • Most of them grew up without modern conveniences like refrigerators, electricity and air conditioning.
  • Sometimes called The Greatest Generation.

Mature / Silents

Mature/Silents.

  • Born 1927- 1945.
  • Went through their formative years during an era of suffocating conformity, but also during the postwar happiness: Peace! Jobs! Suburbs! Television! Rock ‘n Roll! Cars! Playboy Magazine!
  • Korean and Vietnam War generation.
  • The First Hopeful Drumbeats of Civil Rights!
  • Pre-feminism women; women stayed home generally to raise children, if they worked it was only certain jobs like teacher, nurse or secretary.
  • Men pledged loyalty to the corporation, once you got a job, you generally kept it for life.
  • The richest, most free-spending retirees in history.
  • Marriage is for life, divorce and having children out of wedlock were not accepted.
  • In grade school, the gravest teacher complaints were about passing notes and chewing gum in class.
  • They are avid readers, especially newspapers.
  • “Retirement” means to sit in a rocking chair and live your final days in peace.
  • The Big-Band/Swing music generation.
  • Strong sense of trans-generational common values and near-absolute truths.
  • Disciplined, self-sacrificing, & cautious.

Baby Boomer

Baby Boomers

Baby boomers are the demographic of people who were born just after the Second World War; this would give the baby boomer generation an approximate date of between 1946 and 1964 .  World war two ended in a 1945, and as a rule of thumb baby boomers are the children who are born as the war ended, as families settled down again. More >>

  • Born between 1946 and 1964. Two sub-sets:
  • 1. the save-the-world revolutionaries of the ’60s and ’70s;
  • and 2. the party-hardy career climbers (Yuppies) of the ’70s/’80s.
  • The “me” generation.
  • “Rock and roll” music generation.
  • Ushered in the free love and societal “non-violent” protests which triggered violence.
  • Self righteous & self-centered.
  • Buy it now and use credit.
  • Too busy for much neighborly involvement yet strong desires to reset or change the common values for the good of all.
  • Even though their mothers were generally housewives, responsible for all child rearing, women of this generation began working outside the home in record numbers, thereby changing the entire nation as this was the first generation to have their own children raised in a two-income household where mom was not omnipresent.
  • The first TV generation.
  • The first divorce generation, where divorce was beginning to be accepted as a tolerable reality.
  • Began accepting homosexuals.
  • Optimistic, driven, team-oriented.
  • Envision technology and innovation as requiring a learning process.
  • Tend to be more positive about authority, hierarchal structure and tradition.
  • One of the largest generations in history with 77 million people.
  • Their aging will change America almost incomprehensibly; they are the first generation to use the word “retirement” to mean being able to enjoy life after the children have left home. Instead of sitting in a rocking chair, they go skydiving, exercise and take up hobbies, which increases their longevity.
  • The American Youth Culture that began with them is now ending with them and their activism is beginning to re-emerge.

Generation X

Generation X.

  • Born between 1965 and 1980*
  • The “latch-key kids” grew up street-smart but isolated, often with divorced or career-driven parents. Latch-Key came from the house key kids wore around their neck, because they would go home from school to an empty house.
  • Entrepreneurial.
  • Very individualistic.
  • Government and big business mean little to them.
  • Want to save the neighborhood, not the world
  • Feel misunderstood by other generations
  • Cynical of many major institutions, which failed their parents, or them, during their formative years and are therefore eager to make marriage work and “be there” for their children
  • Don’t “feel” like a generation, but they are
  • Raised in the transition phase of written based knowledge to digital knowledge archives; most remember being in school without computers and then after the introduction of computers in middle school or high school
  • Desire a chance to learn, explore and make a contribution
  • Tend to commit to self rather than an organization or specific career. This generation averages 7 career changes in their lifetime, it was not normal to work for a company for life, unlike previous generations.
  • Society and thus individuals are envisioned as disposable.
  • AIDS begins to spread and is first lethal infectious disease in the history of any culture on earth which was not subjected to any quarantine.
  • Beginning obsession of individual rights prevailing over the common good, especially if it is applicable to any type of minority group.
  • Raised by the career and money conscious Boomers amidst the societal disappointment over governmental authority and the Vietnam war.
  • School problems were about drugs.
  • Late to marry (after cohabitation) and quick to divorce…many single parents.
  • Into labels and brand names.
  • Want what they want and want it now but struggling to buy, and most are deeply in credit card debt.
  • It is has been researched that they may be conversationally shallow because relating consists of shared time watching video movies, instead of previous generations.
  • Short on loyalty & wary of commitment; all values are relative…must tolerate all peoples.
  • Self-absorbed and suspicious of all organization.
  • Survivors as individuals.
  • Cautious, skeptical, unimpressed with authority, self-reliant.

Generation Y

Generation Y/Millennium.

  • Born between 1981* and 2000*.
  • Aka “The 9/11 Generation” “Echo Boomers” America’s next great generation brings a sharp departure from Generation X.
  • They are nurtured by omnipresent parents, optimistic, and focused.
  • Respect authority.
  • Falling crime rates. Falling teen pregnancy rates. But with school safety problems; they have to live with the thought that they could be shot at school, they learned early that the world is not a safe place.
  • They schedule everything.
  • They feel enormous academic pressure.
  • They feel like a generation and have great expectations for themselves.
  • Prefer digital literacy as they grew up in a digital environment. Have never known a world without computers! They get all their information and most of their socialization from the Internet.
  • Prefer to work in teams.
  • With unlimited access to information tend to be assertive with strong views.
  • Envision the world as a 24/7 place; want fast and immediate processing.
  • They have been told over and over again that they are special, and they expect the world to treat them that way.
  • They do not live to work, they prefer a more relaxed work environment with a lot of hand holding and accolades.

Generation Z

Generation Z/Boomlets.

  • Born after 2001*
  • In 2006 there were a record number of births in the US and 49% of those born were Hispanic, this will change the American melting pot in terms of behavior and culture. The number of births in 2006 far outnumbered the start of the baby boom generation, and they will easily be a larger generation.
  • Since the early 1700’s the most common last name in the US was ‘Smith’ but not anymore, now it is Rodriguez.
  • There are two age groups right now:
  • (a) Tweens.
  • (a1) Age 8-12 years old.
  • (a2) There will be an estimated 29 million tweens by 2009.
  • (a3) $51 billion is spent by tweens every year with an additional $170 billion spent by their parents and family members directly for them.
  • (b)Toddler/Elementary school age.
  • 61 percent of children 8-17 have televisions in their rooms.
  • 35 percent have video games.
  • 14 percent have a DVD player.
  • 4 million will have their own cell phones. They have never known a world without computers and cell phones.
  • Have Eco-fatigue: they are actually tired of hearing about the environment and the many ways we have to save it.
  • With the advent of computers and web based learning, children leave behind toys at younger and younger age. It’s called KGOY-kids growing older younger, and many companies have suffered because of it, most recognizable is Mattel, the maker of Barbie dolls. In the 1990’s the average age of a child in their target market was 10 years old, and in 2000 it dropped to 3 years old. As children reach the age of four and five, old enough to play on the computer, they become less interested in toys and begin to desire electronics such as cell phones and video games.
  • They are Savvy consumers and they know what they want and how to get it and they are over saturated with brands.

References.

deMesa, A. (2008). Marketing and tweens. Retrieved on February 21, 2008.

Elegant, S. (5 November 2007). China’s me generation. Time Magazine.

Generational Generalities. (2005). America’s generations. Retrieved November 6, 2007.

Generational Imperative. (2006). Meet Americas 5 living generations. Retrieved on November 6, 2007.

Marketing Vox. (2008). Generation Z. Retrieved on February 14, 2008.

Parents. (December 2007). Check out this news. Parents Magazine, p.166.

This is only a guideline, remember that everyone is different and not everyone fits into this analysis, but for the most part you can generalize their behavior. As a marketer, it is important to know how to effectively communicate and market to these diverse generations. In understanding consumer behavior, you can create the right promotion, tailoring it specifically for each group’s needs and therefore effectively sell products and services.

The dates for GI, Mature, and Baby Boomer and the beginning of Gen X are set and do not change, the dates for the end of Gen X, Gen Y and Gen Z fluctuate depending on what source you are using.

Similar topics include:

Internal Influences – Personality

Internal Influences – Motivation

Internal Influences – Memory

Internal Influences – Lifestyle and Attitude

Internal Influences – Learning

Internal Influences – Emotion and Perception

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Story 2: President Trump’s Plan B for Building U.S./Mexican Wall By Military with Defense Appropriations — Plan B for Betrayal of Trump Voters Expecting The Wall To Be Built By 2020 — Requires At Least $25 Billion In Congressional Appropriations To Complete Wall By 2020 — Completion Date is The Twelfth of Never — You Have Been Conned —  Videos

Trump Rolls Out a BRILLIANT Plan – The Military Will Build His Wall!

Should the military help build the border wall?

Should We Build the Wall? We Asked Trump Supporters.

Trump’s Budget: Builds Up Military, Builds Wall

Johnny Mathis – The Twelfth Of Never

Trump says he could use the MILITARY to build his wall if Congress won’t fund it through Homeland Security’s budget – and he won’t rule out another government shutdown to get his way

By DAVID MARTOSKO, U.S. POLITICAL EDITOR FOR DAILYMAIL.COM IN SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA

President Donald Trump said Friday that he’s considering using military resources to finish construction of his long-promised border wall instead of relying on Congress to fund the project through the Homeland Security Department’s budget.

He also wouldn’t eliminate the possibility of a government shutdown if Democrats continue to confound his efforts to appropriate money for the project on the U.S.-Mexico border.

‘We have two options,’ he told DailyMail.com aboard Air Force One as he flew from Billings, Montana to Fargo, North Dakota. ‘We have military, we have homeland security.’

He was asked specifically about using the Army Corps of Engineers as a taxpayer-funded construction crew.

President Donald Trump said Friday that he’s considering using military resources to finish construction of his long-promised border wall, as he spoke to the press on Air Force One, above on Friday

‘We have two options,’ he told DailyMail.com aboard Air Force One as he flew from Billings, Montana to Fargo, North Dakota. ‘We have military, we have homeland security’

Trump said he would prefer to fund the ambitious construction ‘the old-fashioned way – get it from Congress – but I have other options if I have to.’

He’s seeking about $25 billion.

The possibility of diverting Pentagon funding and assets to build a border wall is a hole card the president is holding but has never directly acknowledged before.

Two Defense Department officials told DailyMail.com in August that the Army Corps of Engineers could take on the task.

‘They build levees that hold back massive walls of water,’ one said of the agency. ‘They can build one to hold back drugs and human traffickers.’

The White House appears headed for another confrontation with Congress over an increase in funding for the project after securing $1.6 billion for 2007 and the same amount for this year.

A senior White House official said Thursday that the money was ‘basically a down-payment on the thing’.

The possibility looms that the president will refuse to sign the next federal budget, due September 30, if lawmakers don’t go along with more installments. That would trigger a government shutdown.

‘If it were up – I don’t want to say “up to me,” because it is up to me – I would do it,’ he said aboard Air Force One, ‘because I think it’s a great political issue.’

But he said some Republicans in Congress, facing tough re-election fights, have counseled more patience.

‘They have races, they’re doing well, they’re up,’ Trump explained. ‘And you know, the way they look at it: might be good, might be bad.’

Typically the party in power, in this case the GOP, would shoulder most of the blame for interrupted government services. National security and military operations wouldn’t be affected.

Trump said he would prefer to fund the ambitious construction ‘the old-fashioned way – get it from Congress – but I have other options if I have to.’ he is pictured above speaking with the press on Air Force One on Friday

The Army Corps of Engineers are seen above in this file photo repairing damage to the middle breakwater caused by Hurricane Marie in Long Beach, California, in January 2015

Thursday night in Billings, he told a Fox News Channel interviewer that ‘we need Republicans elected in the midterms’.

‘We are getting the wall done. But I’ve had so many people, good people, great people – they would rather not do [it] before [November]. They’d rather do it right after the election.’

Trump said he still wants to persuade Congress – preferably one reinforced with more Republicans – to write the checks he wants.

Politically speaking, I’d rather get it through Congress. If we don’t, I’m looking at that option very seriously,’ he said aboard Air Force One on Friday, referring to the Defense Department.

In Sioux Falls, South Dakota on Friday evening the president assured a crowd of about 600 supporters that ‘we’re building the wall!’

‘It works so easily!’ he said. ‘They say walls don’t work? Tell Israel.’

Border Patrol agents confer next to the U.S-Mexico border fence, as seen from a helicopter on May 11, 2017 in San Diego, California

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6144837/Trump-says-use-MILITARY-build-wall-Congress-wont-fund-DHS.html

 

Story 3: Trump Campaigning in Sioux Falls, South Dakota For F Rated Republicans According To Conservative Review Scorecard — Videos

FULL TRUMP SPEECH: President Trump In Sioux Falls, South Dakota

President Donald J. Trump Speaks at Denny Sanford Convention Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota at a Joint Fundraising Committee Reception

South Dakota Conservative Review Liberty Scorecard

https://www.conservativereview.com/scorecard/

 

 

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The Pronk Pops Show 1134, September 4, 2018, Breaking News, Story 1: Democrats Distracting Delaying Destruction Derby at Senate Judiciary Committee For Nomination Hearing of Brett Kavanaugh For Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States — Resistance Is Futile Lying Lunatic Leftist Losers — Kavanuagh Will Be Confirmed — Video — Story 2: Betraying You Loyal Customers with Quitter Colin Kaepernick — Nike Nuts — Videos — Story 3: You Are Not A Paranoid President When The Political Elitist Establishment Is Out To Get Trump — Trump Goes On Offense — Videos

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Image result for senate judiciary committee on justice brett kavanuagh confirmation hearingSee the source image

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Breaking News, Story 1: Democrats Distracting Destruction Derby at Senate Judiciary Committee For Nomination Hearing of Judge Brett Kavanaugh For Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States —  — Kavanuagh Will Be Confirmed — Resistance Is Futile Lying Lunatic Leftist Losers — Video

Democrats interrupt start of Kavanaugh confirmation hearing

Ted Cruz: Dems Delaying Kavanaugh Confirmation Because They Want to ‘Re-Litigate’ 2016 Election

“I Call This The Hypocrisy Hearing” Lindsey Graham DISMANTLES Every Democrat Over Brett Kavanaugh

Ingraham: The party of stunts strikes again

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Judge Brett Kavanaugh complete remarks (C-SPAN)

Confirmation hearing for Supreme Court nominee Judge Brett Kavanaugh

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Expect ‘Boiling Mad Democrats’ At Hearing: Senator | Morning Joe | MSNBC

Democrats Demand Postponement Of Supreme Court Nominee Brett Kavanaugh Hearing | TIME

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The Mindless Kavanaugh Confirmation Hearing Torture Makes Waterboarding Look Pleasant In Comparison

We are The Borg

CHAOS: KAVANAUGH HEARINGS KICK OFF WITH BELLIGERENT, SHRIEKING DEMOCRATIC HECKLERS, CALLS TO ADJOURN

Grassley: ‘We will continue as planned’

 

As the chairman of the Senate Judiciary committee, Sen. Grassley (R-Iowa), attempted to call the hearings to order, hecklers almost immediately began heckling the lawmakers.

Sen. Kamala Harris (D-Calif.) promptly interrupted Grassley, demanding a delay to the hearings. Sen. Klobuchar (D-Minn.) then followed up with another call to delay the hearings. The Democratic lawmakers were upset over documents the White House released last night, which they said came too late.

“We cannot possibly move forward,” Sen. Kamala Harris said. Sen. Blumenthal then moved to adjourn the meeting, a call which received a roaring ovation from the hecklers.

Watch above to witness the circus in full swing.

Below is a transcript:

GRASSLEY: “Good morning. I welcome everyone to this confirmation hearing on the nomination of —“
HARRIS: “Mr. Chairman.”
GRASSLEY: “— Brett Kavanaugh –”
HARRIS: “Mr. Chairman.”
GRASSLEY: “— to serve as associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.”
HARRIS: “Mr. Chairman, I’d like to be recognized for a question before we proceed. Mr. Chairman, I’d like to be recognized to ask a question before we proceed. The committee received just last night less than 15 hours ago —“
HARRIS: “Mr. Chairman, regular order.”
HARRIS: “— 42.000 pages of documents that we have not had an opportunity to review or read or analyze.”
GRASSLEY: “You are out of order. I will proceed.”
HARRIS: “We cannot possibly move forward, Mr. Chairman. We have not been given the opportunity to have a meaningful hearing with Congress nominee–“[cross-talk]
GRASSLEY: “I extend a very warm welcome to Judge Kavanaugh, to his wife Ashley, their two daughters –[cross-talk]
UNKNOWN: “Mr. Chairman, I agree with my colleague, senator Harris. Mr. Chairman, we received 42.000 documents tat we haven’t been able to review  —”
GRASSLEY: “— And everyone else joining us today.”
UNKNOWN: ” and we believe this hearing should be postponed —”
GRASSLEY: “I know this is an exciting day for all of you here and your you’re rightly proud —”
UNKNOWN: “Mr. Chairman, if we cannot be recognized I move to adjourn. Mr. Chairman, I move to adjourn.”
GRASSLEY: “— From Judge Kavanaugh —”
UNKNOWN: “Mr. Chairman, I move to adjourn. Mr. Chairman, we have been denied real access to the documents we need to advise —” (Audience cheering)
BLUMENTHAL: “Mr. Chairman, we have been denied the real access to the documents we need —[cross-talk] which turns this hearing into a charade and a mockery of our norms and, Mr. Cha

As the chairman of the Senate Judiciary committee, Sen. Grassley (R-Iowa), attempted to call the hearings to order, hecklers almost immediately began heckling the lawmakers.

Sen. Kamala Harris (D-Calif.) promptly interrupted Grassley, demanding a delay to the hearings. Sen. Klobuchar (D-Minn.) then followed up with another call to delay the hearings. The Democratic lawmakers were upset over documents the White House released last night, which they said came too late.

“We cannot possibly move forward,” Sen. Kamala Harris said. Sen. Blumenthal then moved to adjourn the meeting, a call which received a roaring ovation from the hecklers.

Watch above to witness the circus in full swing.

Below is a transcript:

GRASSLEY: “Good morning. I welcome everyone to this confirmation hearing on the nomination of —“
HARRIS: “Mr. Chairman.”
GRASSLEY: “— Brett Kavanaugh –”
HARRIS: “Mr. Chairman.”
GRASSLEY: “— to serve as associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.”
HARRIS: “Mr. Chairman, I’d like to be recognized for a question before we proceed. Mr. Chairman, I’d like to be recognized to ask a question before we proceed. The committee received just last night less than 15 hours ago —“
HARRIS: “Mr. Chairman, regular order.”
HARRIS: “— 42.000 pages of documents that we have not had an opportunity to review or read or analyze.”
GRASSLEY: “You are out of order. I will proceed.”
HARRIS: “We cannot possibly move forward, Mr. Chairman. We have not been given the opportunity to have a meaningful hearing with Congress nominee–“[cross-talk]
GRASSLEY: “I extend a very warm welcome to Judge Kavanaugh, to his wife Ashley, their two daughters –[cross-talk]
UNKNOWN: “Mr. Chairman, I agree with my colleague, senator Harris. Mr. Chairman, we received 42.000 documents tat we haven’t been able to review  —”
GRASSLEY: “— And everyone else joining us today.”
UNKNOWN: ” and we believe this hearing should be postponed —”
GRASSLEY: “I know this is an exciting day for all of you here and your you’re rightly proud —”
UNKNOWN: “Mr. Chairman, if we cannot be recognized I move to adjourn. Mr. Chairman, I move to adjourn.”
GRASSLEY: “— From Judge Kavanaugh —”
UNKNOWN: “Mr. Chairman, I move to adjourn. Mr. Chairman, we have been denied real access to the documents we need to advise —” (Audience cheering)
BLUMENTHAL: “Mr. Chairman, we have been denied the real access to the documents we need —[cross-talk] which turns this hearing into a charade and a mockery of our norms and, Mr. Chairman, I therefore move to adjourn this hearing.”
AUDIENCE: “This is a mockery. This is a travesty of justice. Cancel Brett Kavanaugh, adjourn the hearing. [ indecipherable].”
BLUMENTHAL: “Mr. Chairman, I ask for a roll call vote on my motion to adjourn.”
AUDIENCE MEMBER: “‘[indecipherable]'”
GRASSLEY: “Okay.”
BLUMENTHAL: “Mr. Chairman, I move to adjourn. I ask for a roll call vote.”
GRASSLEY: “We are not in executive session. We will continue as planned.”

RELATED: 

— Cory Booker Demands Cancellation of Kavanaugh Hearings: ‘This Committee Is a Violation’

— Hecklers Continue to Interrupt Start of Brett Kavanaugh Hearing

— More Chaos as Sen. Blumenthal Interrupts His Colleague Feinstein During Kavanaugh Hearings

— Sen. Tillis Reads Report Debunking Dems’ Docs Argument: Plans to Disrupt Were Already in Place

https://news.grabien.com/story-kavanaugh-hearings-kick-belligerent-shrieking-hecklers

 

Brett Kavanaugh

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Brett Kavanaugh
Judge Brett Kavanaugh.jpg
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
Assumed office
May 30, 2006
Appointed by George W. Bush
Preceded by Laurence Silberman
White House Staff Secretary
In office
June 6, 2003 – May 30, 2006
President George W. Bush
Preceded by Harriet Miers
Succeeded by Raul F. Yanes
Personal details
Born Brett Michael Kavanaugh
February 12, 1965 (age 53)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s)
Ashley Estes (m. 2004)
Children 2[1]
Education Yale University (BAJD)

Brett Michael Kavanaugh (born February 12, 1965) is a United States circuit judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Kavanaugh has been nominated to become an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. The American Bar Association (ABA) unanimously gave him its highest rating.

Kavanaugh previously was White House Staff Secretary during the presidency of George W. Bush.

As an attorney working for Ken Starr, Kavanaugh played a lead role in drafting the Starr Report, which urged the impeachment of President Bill Clinton.[2] Kavanaugh led the investigation into the suicide of Clinton aide Vince Foster. After the 2000 U.S. presidential election (in which Kavanaugh worked for the George W. Bush campaign in the Florida recount), Kavanaugh joined Bush’s staff, where he led the administration’s effort to identify and confirm judicial nominees.[3]

Kavanaugh was first nominated to the Court of Appeals by Bush in 2003. His confirmation hearings were contentious and stalled for three years over charges of partisanship. Kavanaugh was ultimately confirmed in May 2006 after a series of negotiations between Democratic and Republican U.S. Senators.[4][5][6]

On July 9, 2018, President Donald Trump nominated Kavanaugh to become an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States following the vacancy created by the pending retirement of Associate Justice Anthony Kennedy.[7][8] Trump and his advisors reportedly viewed Kavanaugh as “a stalwart originalist“.[9][10]

Early life and education

Kavanaugh was born on February 12, 1965, in Washington, D.C., and raised in BethesdaMaryland, the son of Martha Gamble (Murphy) and Everett Edward Kavanaugh Jr.[11][12] His mother was a history teacher at Woodson and McKinley high schools in Washington in the 1960s and 1970s. She earned her law degree from Washington College of Law in 1978 and served as a Maryland state Circuit Court Judge from 1995 to 2001.[13][14] His father was the president of the Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association for two decades.[15]

Kavanaugh attended Georgetown Preparatory School, where he was two years senior to Justice Neil Gorsuch.[16][17] He then graduated cum laude from Yale University in 1987 with a Bachelor of Arts and from Yale Law School with a Juris Doctor degree in 1990. There, he lived in a dilapidated group house with future-Judge James E. Boasberg and became a basketball partner of Professor George L. Priest, who was the sponsor of the school’s Federalist Society.[18] He was a Notes Editor for the Yale Law Journal.[19]

Early legal career (1990–2006)

Kavanaugh first worked as a law clerk for Judge Walter King Stapleton of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit.[18] During Kavanaugh’s clerkship, Stapleton wrote the majority opinion in Planned Parenthood v. Casey, in which the Third Circuit upheld many of Pennsylvania’s abortion restrictions.[18] Priest recommended Kavanaugh to Ninth Circuit Judge Alex Kozinski, who was regarded as a feeder judge.[18]

After clerking for Judge Kozinski, Kavanaugh next interviewed with Chief Justice William Rehnquist, but he was not offered a clerkship.[18]

Kavanaugh then earned a one-year fellowship with the Solicitor General of the United StatesKen Starr.[20] Kavanaugh next clerked for Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy, working alongside his high school classmate Neil Gorsuch and with future-Judge Gary Feinerman.[16]

Kavanaugh with President George W. Bush and other White House staffers in 2001. Kavanaugh is seated directly to the left of Bush.

After his Supreme Court clerkship, Kavanaugh worked for Ken Starr again as an Associate Counsel in the Office of the Independent Counsel, where his colleagues included Rod Rosenstein and Alex Azar.[21] In that capacity, he handled a number of the novel constitutional and legal issues presented during the Vincent Foster investigation.[21][22][23] In Swidler & Berlin v. United States (1998), Kavanaugh argued his first and only case before the Supreme Court when he asked it to disregard attorney–client privilege in relation to the investigation of Foster’s death.[24] The Supreme Court rejected Kavanaugh’s arguments by a vote of 6–3.[25]

Kavanaugh was a principal author of the Starr Report to Congress on the Monica LewinskyBill Clinton sex scandal.[21] He urged Starr to ask the president sexually graphic questions and argued on broad grounds for the impeachment of Bill Clinton,[26][27] describing Clinton as being involved in “a conspiracy to obstruct justice”, having “disgraced his office” and “lied to the American people”.[28]

Kavanaugh was later a partner at the law firm of Kirkland & Ellis.[20] While there in 2000, he was pro bono counsel of record for relatives of Elián González, a six-year-old rescued Cuban boy while Jeffery M. Leving spearheaded the amicus brief for the boy. After the boy’s mother’s death at sea, members of the extended family in the U.S. wanted to keep him from returning to the care of his sole surviving parent, his father in Cuba. The district court, the Circuit Court and the Supreme Court all followed precedent, refusing to block the boy’s return to his home.[29] In addition, Kavanaugh authored two amicus briefs supporting religious activities and expressions in public places.[29]

After George W. Bush became president in 2001, Kavanaugh was hired as an associate by the White House CounselAlberto Gonzales.[18] There, Kavanaugh worked on the Enron scandal, the successful nomination of Chief Justice John Roberts, and the unsuccessful nomination of Miguel Estrada.[18] Starting in 2003, he served as Assistant to the President and White House Staff Secretary.[20] In that capacity, he was responsible for coordinating all documents to and from the president.

Tenure as U.S. Circuit Judge (2006–present)

Kavanaugh at his confirmation hearing in 2004

President George W. Bush first nominated Kavanaugh to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit on July 25, 2003, to a vacancy created by Judge Laurence Silberman, who took senior status in November 2000.[30] Kavanaugh’s nomination was stalled in the Senate for nearly three years. Democratic Senators accused him of being too partisan, with Senator Dick Durbin calling him the “Forrest Gump of Republican politics”.[31] In 2003, the American Bar Association rated Kavanaugh as “well qualified”, but, after opposition from Senate Democrats, rated him in 2006 as only “qualified”.[18] His nomination was opposed by People for the American Way.[32]

The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary recommended confirmation on a 10–8 party-line vote on May 11, 2006,[33] and Kavanaugh was thereafter confirmed to the court by the U.S. Senate on May 26, 2006, by a vote of 57–36.[34][35] On June 1, 2006, he was sworn in by Justice Anthony Kennedy, for whom he had previously clerked, during a special Rose Garden ceremony at the White House.[36] Kavanaugh was the fourth judge nominated to the D.C. Circuit by Bush and confirmed by the United States Senate. Kavanaugh began hearing cases on September 11, 2006, and had his formal investiture on September 27, at the Prettyman Courthouse. His first published opinion was released on November 17, 2006.[37]

Kavanaugh being sworn in by Justice Anthony Kennedy as President George W. Bush and Kavanaugh’s wife, Ashley Estes Kavanaugh, look on

In July 2007, Democratic Senators Patrick Leahy and Dick Durbin accused Kavanaugh of “misleading” the Senate Judiciary Committee during his nomination. Durbin and Leahy accused Kavanaugh of lying to them in his confirmation hearing when he denied being involved in formulating the Bush administration’s detention and interrogation policies in the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks. In 2002, Kavanaugh had met with other White House lawyers, and talked about whether or not the Supreme Court would approve of denying lawyers to prisoners detained as enemy combatants. Kavanaugh had previously been a law clerk for Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy, and predicted in that meeting that Kennedy would not approve of denying legal counsel to those prisoners.[38] Durbin said, “It appears that you misled me, the Senate Judiciary Committee and the nation.” [39] This issue re-emerged in July 2018, as Kavanaugh was under consideration for a nomination to the Supreme Court[40], which Kavanaugh received.

Notable cases

The Supreme Court has adopted Kavanaugh’s position on cases 13 times, and has reversed his position only once. These included cases involving environmental regulationscriminal procedure, the separation of powers and extraterritorial jurisdiction in human rightsabuse cases.[18][41] He has been regarded as a feeder judge.[42]

Abortion

During his confirmation hearing in 2006 for the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals, Kavanaugh stated that he considered Roe v. Wade binding under the principle of stare decisis and would follow the ruling of the higher court.[43] The prevalence of abortion regulations both historically and at the time, Rehnquist said he could not reach such a conclusion about abortion.”[44]

In October 2017, Kavanaugh joined an unsigned divided panel opinion which found that the Office of Refugee Resettlement could temporarily prevent an unaccompanied alien minor in its custody from traveling to obtain an abortion.[45] Days later, the en banc D.C. Circuit reversed that judgment, with Kavanaugh dissenting.[45][46] The girl then obtained an abortion.[45] In his dissent, Linda Greenhouse says Kavanaugh criticized the majority for creating “a new right for unlawful immigrant minors in U.S. government detention to obtain immediate abortion on demand”.[47] In Azar v. Garza (2018), the girl’s claim was ultimately dismissed as moot after the en banc D.C. Circuit’s judgment was vacated by the U.S. Supreme Court.[48]

Affordable Care Act

In November 2011, Kavanaugh dissented when the D.C. Circuit upheld the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), arguing that the court did not have jurisdiction to hear the case.[49][50] In his dissent concerning jurisdiction, he compared the individual mandate to a tax.[51] After a unanimous panel found that the ACA did not violate the Constitution’s Origination Clause in Sissel v. United States Department of Health & Human Services (2014), Kavanaugh wrote a lengthy dissent from the denial of rehearing en banc.[52][53] In May 2015, Kavanaugh dissented from a decision that denied an en banc rehearing of the Priests for Life v. HHS ruling in which the panel upheld the ACA’s contraceptive mandate accommodations against Priests for LifeReligious Freedom Restoration Act claims.[54][55] In Zubik v. Burwell (2016), the Supreme Court vacated the circuit’s judgment in a per curiam decision.[56]

Appointments Clause and separation of powers

In August 2008, Kavanaugh dissented when the circuit found that the Constitution’s Appointments Clause did not prevent the Sarbanes–Oxley Act from creating a board whose members were not directly removable by the President.[57][58] In Free Enterprise Fund v. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (2010), the Supreme Court reversed the circuit’s judgment by a vote of 5–4.[59]

In 2015, Kavanaugh found that those directly regulated by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) could challenge the constitutionality of its design.[60][61] In October 2016, Kavanaugh wrote for a divided panel finding that the CFPB’s design was unconstitutional, and made the CFPB Director removable by the President of the United States.[62][63] In January 2018, the en banc D.C. Circuit reversed that judgment by a vote of 7-3, over the dissent of Kavanaugh.[64][65]

Environmental regulation

In 2013, Kavanaugh issued an extraordinary writ of mandamus requiring the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to process the license application of the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, over the dissent of Judge Merrick Garland.[66][67] In April 2014, Kavanaugh dissented when the court found that Labor Secretary Tom Perez could issue workplace safety citations against SeaWorld regarding the multiple killings of its workers by Tilikum the orca.[68][69]

After Kavanaugh wrote for a divided panel striking down a Clean Air Act regulation, the Supreme Court reversed by a vote of 6–2 in EPA v. EME Homer City Generation, L.P. (2014).[70][71] Kavanaugh dissented from the denial of rehearing en banc of a unanimous panel opinion upholding the agency’s regulation of greenhouse gas emissions and a fractured Supreme Court reversed by a vote of 5-4 in Utility Air Regulatory Group v. Environmental Protection Agency (2014).[72][73] After Judge Kavanaugh dissented from a per curiamdecision allowing the agency to disregard cost–benefit analysis, the Supreme Court reversed by a vote of 5–4 in Michigan v. EPA (2015).[74][75]

Extraterritorial jurisdiction

In Doe v. Exxon Mobil Corp. (2007), Kavanaugh dissented when the circuit court allowed a lawsuit making accusations of ExxonMobil human rights violations in Indonesia to proceed, arguing in his dissent that the claims were not justiciable.[76][77] Kavanaugh dissented again when the circuit court later found that the corporation could be sued under the Alien Tort Statute of 1789.[41][78][79]

First Amendment and free speech

Kavanaugh wrote for unanimous three-judge district courts when they held that the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act could restrict soft money donations to political parties and could forbid campaign contributions by foreign citizens.[80][81] Those judgments were both summarily affirmed on direct appeal by the Supreme Court.[82]

In 2014, Kavanaugh concurred in the judgment when the en banc D.C. Circuit found that the Free Speech Clause did not forbid the government from requiring meatpackers to include a country of origin label on their products.[83][84] In United States Telecom Ass’n v. FCC (2016), Kavanaugh dissented when the en banc circuit refused to rehear a rejected challenge to the net neutrality rule, writing that “Congress did not clearly authorize the FCC to issue the net neutrality rule”.[20][85][86]

Fourth Amendment and civil liberties

In November 2010, Kavanaugh dissented from the denial of rehearing en banc after the circuit found that attaching a Global Positioning System tracking device to a vehicle violated the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution.[87][88] The circuit’s judgment was then affirmed by the Supreme Court in United States v. Jones (2012).[89] In February 2016, Kavanaugh dissented when the en banc circuit refused to rehear police officers’ rejected claims of qualified immunity for arresting partygoers in a vacant house.[20][90] In District of Columbia v. Wesby (2018), the Supreme Court unanimously reversed the circuit’s judgment.[91]

In Klayman v. Obama (2015), Kavanaugh concurred when the circuit court denied an en banc rehearing of its decision to vacate a district court order blocking the National Security Agency‘s warrantless bulk collection of telephony metadata.[92][93] In his concurrence, Kavanaugh wrote that the metadata collection was not a search, and, even if it were, no reasonable suspicion would be required because of the government’s special need to prevent terrorist attacks.[94]

National security

In April 2009, Kavanaugh wrote a lengthy concurrence when the court found that detainees at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp had no right to advanced notice before being transferred to another country.[95][96] In Kiyemba v. Obama (2010), the Supreme Court vacated that judgment while refusing to review the matter.[97] In June 2010, Kavanaugh wrote a concurrence in judgment when the en banc D.C. Circuit found that the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory owners could not bring a defamation suit regarding the government’s allegations that they were terrorists.[98][99] In October 2012, he wrote for a unanimous court when it found that the Constitution’s Ex Post Facto Clause made it unlawful for the government to prosecute Salim Hamdan under the Military Commissions Act of 2006 on charges of providing material support for terrorism.[100][101]

In August 2010, Kavanaugh wrote a lengthy concurrence when the en banc circuit refused to rehear Ghaleb Nassar Al Bihani’s rejected claims that the international law of war limits the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists.[20][102] In 2014, Kavanaugh concurred in the judgment when the en banc circuit found that Ali al-Bahlul could be retroactively convicted of war crimes, provided existing statute already made it a crime “because it does not alter the definition of the crime, the defenses or the punishment”.[103][104] In October 2016, Kavanaugh wrote the plurality opinion when the en banc circuit found al-Bahlul could be convicted by a military commission even if his offenses are not internationally recognized as war crimes under the law of war.[105][106]

In Meshal v. Higgenbotham (2016), Kavanaugh concurred when the divided panel threw out a claim by an American that he had been disappeared by the FBI in a Kenyan black site.[107][108]

Second Amendment and gun ownership

In October 2011, Kavanaugh dissented when the circuit court found that a ban on the sale of semi-automatic rifles was permissible under the Second Amendment. This case followed the landmark Supreme Court ruling in District of Columbia v. Heller (2008).[109][110]

Law clerk hiring practices

More than half of Kavanaugh’s law clerks have been women (25 of 48) and more than a quarter have been people of color (13 of 48).[111] A number of Kavanaugh’s law clerks are the children of other judges and high profile legal figures, including Clayton Kozinski (son of former federal Judge Alex Kozinski), Porter Wilkinson (daughter of Judge J. Harvie Wilkinson III), Philip Alito (son of Justice Samuel Alito), Sophia Chua-Rubenfeld (daughter of Yale Law Professor and “Tiger Mom” Amy Chua), and Emily Chertoff (daughter of former DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff).[112][113]

Nomination to the Supreme Court of the United States (2018)

Kavanaugh and his family with President Donald Trump in 2018

On July 2, 2018, Kavanaugh was one of four U.S. Court of Appeals judges to receive a personal 45-minute interview by President Donald Trump as a potential replacement for Justice Anthony Kennedy.[114] On July 9, Trump announced his intent to nominate Kavanaugh for a seat on the Supreme Court.[115][116]

Legal philosophy and approach

The Washington Posts statistical analysis estimated that the ideologies of most of Trump’s announced candidates were “statistically indistinguishable” and placed Kavanaugh between Justices Gorsuch and Alito.[117] Brian Bennett writing for Time magazine in July 2018 reported that Trump and his advisors viewed Kavanaugh as “a stalwart originalist“.[118] Jonathan Turley of George Washington University has stated that among the judges considered by Trump, “Kavanaugh has the most robust view of presidential powers and immunities.[119] Brian Bennett writing for TIME magazine cites Kavanaugh’s 2009 Minnesota Law Review article as defending the privilege of the President to immunity from prosecution during tenure in office.[120] In a 2017 speech at the American Enterprise Institute about former Chief Justice, William Rehnquist, he praised his opinions in Roe v. Wade and Furman v. Georgia, where Rehnquist dissented in rulings that overturned the ban against abortion and the statutes which supported the death penalty.[121][122]

According to the Judicial Common Space scores, a score based on the ideology scores of the home state senators and president who nominated the judge to the federal benchClarence Thomas is the only justice more conservative than Kavanaugh. According to this metric, Kavanaugh’s confirmation would mean the composition of the court would shift to the right.[123] Had Merrick Garland been confirmed, Stephen Breyer would have become the median swing vote when Justice Kennedy retired. However, since Scalia was replaced by another conservative (Gorsuch), it is expected that Chief Justice John Roberts will become the median swing vote on the Supreme Court if Kavanaugh is confirmed.[124]

Teaching and scholarship

Since joining the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, Kavanaugh taught full-term courses on Separation of Powers at Harvard Law School from 2008 to 2015, on the Supreme Court at Harvard Law School between 2014 and 2018, on National Security and Foreign Relations Law at Yale Law School in 2011, and on Constitutional Interpretation at Georgetown University Law Center in 2007. Kavanaugh has also been named the Samuel Williston Lecturer on Law at Harvard Law School since 2009.[125] Kavanaugh was hired as a visiting professor by Elena Kagan, who was then the dean of Harvard Law School in 2008 and according to The Boston Globe, quickly became a student favorite professor who was generous with his time and accessible. He would often dine in Cambridge with students and offer references and career advice.[126][127] Kavanaugh received high evaluations from his students, including J. D. Vance.[128]

In 2009, Kavanaugh wrote an article for the Minnesota Law Review in which he argued that Congress should exempt U.S. presidents from civil lawsuits while in office[129] because, among other things, such lawsuits could be “time-consuming