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The Pronk Pops Show 1306, August 14, 2019, Story 1: President Trump Delays Tariffs on Chinese Goods to After Christmas — Videos — Story 2: Normal Flight Operations Resume Again in Hong Kong — Videos — Story 3: Progressives Try To Panic American People Over Inverted Yield Curve Leading To Recession — U.S. Economy is Growing — Missy Higgins Singing — Videos — Story 4: President Trump Energy Speech at Shell Pennsylvania Petrochemicals Complex in Monaca, Pennsylvania 

Posted on August 15, 2019. Filed under: 2020 Republican Candidates, Addiction, Addiction, American History, Banking System, Blogroll, Breaking News, Budgetary Policy, Business, Cartoons, China, Coal, Coal, Communications, Congress, Corruption, Countries, Culture, Currencies, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Economics, Economics, Education, Elections, Empires, Employment, Energy, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, Free Trade, Freedom of Speech, Government, Government Dependency, Government Spending, Health, Health Care, Health Care Insurance, History, House of Representatives, Human, Human Behavior, Illegal Immigration, Immigration, Independence, Labor Economics, Language, Law, Legal Immigration, Life, Liquid Natural Gas (LNG), Lying, Media, Monetary Policy, National Interest, Natural Gas, Natural Gas, News, Nuclear, Oil, Oil, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, President Trump, Private Sector Unions, Progressives, Public Corruption, Public Sector Unions, Radio, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Regulation, Resources, Rule of Law, Scandals, Security, Senate, Social Science, Social Sciences, Solar, Success, Tax Policy, Taxation, Taxes, Trade Policy, U.S. Dollar, Unemployment, Unions, United States of America, Videos, Violence, Wealth, Welfare Spending, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

 

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 1306 August 14, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1305 August 12, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1304 August 8, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1303 August 7, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1302 August 6, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1301 August 5, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1300 August 1, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1299 July 31, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1298 July 30, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1297 July 29, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1296 July 25, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1295 July 24, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1294 July 23, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1293 July 22, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1292 July 18, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1291 July 17, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1290 July 16, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1289 July 15, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1288 July 11, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1287 July 10, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1286 July 9, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1285 July 8, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1284 July 2, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1283 July 1, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1282 June 27, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1281 June 26, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1280 June 25, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1279 June 24, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1278 June 20, 2019 

Pronk Pops Show 1277 June 19, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1276 June 18, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1275 June 17, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1274 June 13, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1273 June 12, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1272 June 11, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1271 June 10, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1270 June 6, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1269 June 5, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1268 June 3, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1267 May 30, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1266 May 29, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1265 May 28, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1264 May 24, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1263 May 23, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1262 May 22, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1261 May 21, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1260 May 20, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1259 May 16, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1258 May 15, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1257 May 14, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1256 May 13, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1255 May 10, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1254 May 9, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1253 May 8, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1252 May 7, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1251 May 6, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1250 May 3, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1249 May 2, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1248 May 1, 2019

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Story 1: President Trump Delays Tariffs on Chinese Goods to After Christmas — Americans Would Have Been Paying The Tariff or Tax — Videos —

Trump Blinked With China Tariff Delay, Exante Data’s Setser Says

Trump says China tariffs delayed for ‘Christmas season’

China Is Changing Strategy in Trade War, Says LSE’s Jin

 

Trump CAVES on China tariffs and puts off levies on laptops, cell phones and toys until after Christmas shopping season following ‘very good call’ with Beijing – in move set to boost faltering stock market

  • The Trump administration announced Tuesday morning that is delaying tariffs on Chinese-manufactured goods like laptops and cell phones until Dec. 15
  • Trump’s trade office says that certain products ‘will not face additional tariffs of 10 percent’ due to health, safety or national security concerns 
  • Some of e products it listed were cell phones, laptop computers, video game consoles, computer monitors, footwear and clothingth
  • USTR said it will post a list of items that are being excluded on its website
  • It announced the postponement shortly after the the stock market opened, and the Dow jumped nearly 500 points within minutes of the news
  • Donald Trump has not commented directly but hinted n a tweet that the action was intended to get China to move forward with large agricultural orders

The Trump administration announced Tuesday morning that is delaying tariffs on Chinese-manufactured goods like laptops and cell phones until Dec. 15, when price hikes from the penalties won’t drive up the price of popular Christmas presents.

Trump’s trade office says that certain products ‘will not face additional tariffs of 10 percent’ due to health, safety or national security concerns.

However, the categories of goods that are being protected suggest that Trump was concerned about the consumer pricing index and the billions of dollars in value of this month’s stock losses.

The U.S. trade office announced the postponement shortly after the the stock market opened in the United States, causing the Dow Jones Industrial Average jump nearly 500 points within minutes.

That excitement tempered off as the day wore on. The Dow leveled out at a 400-point rise that was close to 1,000 points off from where it was a month ago when it started to drop.

Speaking to reporters on the tarmac in New Jersey, before a day trip to Pennsylvania from his vacation, the president defended his tough-on-China stance, saying that other presidents should have tightened the screws on Beijing, too.

He said that he backed off on tariffs because he had a ‘very good call with China.

The Trump administration announced Tuesday morning that is delaying tariffs on Chinese-manufactured goods like laptops and cell phones until Dec. 15. Donald Trump is seen here at the White House the previous Friday

The Trump administration announced Tuesday morning that is delaying tariffs on Chinese-manufactured goods like laptops and cell phones until Dec. 15. Donald Trump is seen here at the White House the previous Friday

The Dow Jones Industrial Average jumped nearly 500 points within minutes of the statement

The Dow Jones Industrial Average jumped nearly 500 points within minutes of the statement

Donald Trump said he’d impose a 10 percent penalty on $300 billion in untaxed goods on Sept. 1, if China continued drag out trade talks. 

U.S. negotiators say a deal was nearly finished, when Beijing backed away from major provisions.

A new round of talks was scheduled for September, however Trump drove down skittish markets with claims last week that the meetings could be cancelled.

On Tuesday morning, USTR announced it was loosening the noose on China, specifically on items in the tech and and clothing manufacturing industries.

‘Products in this group include, for example, cell phones, laptop computers, video game consoles, certain toys, computer monitors, and certain items of footwear and clothing,’ according to a United States Trade Representative statement.

USTR said it will post a list of items that are being excluded on its website today.

The president continued to defend his position in a Tuesday morning in tweet that claimed consumers have not paid the price for the 25 percent tariffs on $250 billion of other Chinese items that he’s put in place.

Trump did not mention the policy shift in that tweet or one that he sent a half-hour after the the USTR announcement, however, he hinted that unfilled agricultural orders were part of the calculus.

He said of China’s retracted promises to purchase more American agricultural goods: ‘Maybe this will be different!’ 

Less than an hour prior, the president had been ripping China. He blasted Beijing for financial tinkering the U.S. has blasted as currency manipulation while promising American buyers that tariffs wouldn’t affect everyday product pricing.

‘Through massive devaluation of their currency and pumping vast sums of money into their system, the tens of billions of dollars that the U.S. is receiving is a gift from China. Prices not up, no inflation. Farmers getting more than China would be spending. Fake News won’t report!’ he said.

‘Later, at a manufacturing event in Pennsylvania, the president said in an extended riff on China that it had ‘ripped off our country for years’ and taken advantage of World Trade Organization rules that allow the nation to be classified as a developing economy.

‘And I’m being nice when I say took advantage,’ he argued.

He recounted his threat to leave the WTO, unless it started adjudicating cases in his favor.

‘And it’s only because of attitude,’ he said of a change in behavior. ‘Because we know that they have been screwing us for years.’

He added, ‘And I’d like to use a different word but there’s no word that’s quite as descriptive.’

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7352783/Trump-postpones-new-tariffs-China-months-stock-shares-lose-billions-value.html

 

Story 2: Normal Flight Operations Resume Again in Hong Kong — Videos

 

Normal operations resume at Hong Kong airport as city braces for more protests

Hong Kong’s Airport Authority said normal flight operations would resume on Thursday after pro-democracy protests forced the cancellation of nearly 1,000 flights this week, while the city braced for more mass protests through the weekend.

China reiterated on Wednesday that Hong Kong’s protest movement was “near terrorism” and more street clashes followed ugly and chaotic scenes at the airport on Tuesday, when protesters set upon two men they suspected of being government sympathisers.

Police and protesters faced off again on the streets of the financial hub overnight, with riot officers quickly firing tear gas as their response to demonstrators toughens .

Ten weeks of increasingly violent confrontations between police and protesters have plunged Hong Kong into its worst crisis since it reverted from British to Chinese rule in 1997.

Heightened security would remain at the city’s international airport and the Hong Kong Airport Authority said late on Wednesday an application for protests to be held in the terminal must be made in advance with a “Letter of No Objection” to be obtained from police.

More protests are planned on Friday and over the weekend in different areas of the Chinese-controlled territory.

Protesters have expressed remorse after a peaceful sit-in turned violent at one of the world’s busiest airports earlier this week.

It was not clear whether the violent clashes might have eroded the broad support the movement has so far attracted in Hong Kong. The protests have also hit the city’s faltering economy.

The United States said it was deeply concerned at news of Chinese police forces gathering near the border, urged Hong Kong’s government to respect freedom of speech, and issued a travel advisory urging caution when visiting the city. (Writing by Farah Master Editing by Paul Tait)

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/reuters/article-7358413/Normal-operations-resume-Hong-Kong-airport-city-braces-protests.html

 

Story 3: Progressives Try To Panic American People Over Inverted Yield Curve Leading To Recession — U.S. Economy is Growing — Missy Higgins Singing — Videos

See the source image

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See the source image

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Missy Higgins – Any Day Now (Live)

Any Day Now

Missy Higgins

How long, how long, how long will we take to come undone?
If you know the answer tell me now and I’ll write up a calendar for our count down.
‘Cause what if what we see is all, is all we’ve got?
Say you’ve kept some fire aside to set light to me some surprising night.
And say you’ve locked some fire away to set light to me some surprising day.
To me some surprising day, any day now
How come, how come, how come I’m now on a road holding out my thumb?
If you know my destination please buy me the fastest car and throw me the keys.
‘Cause what if what we see is all, is all we’ve got?
Say you’ve kept some fire aside to set light to me some surprising night.
And say you’ve locked some fire away to set light to me some surprising day.
‘Cause finger by finger we’re losing grasp and
I’m questioning the reason why nothing beautiful does last
Say you’ve kept some fire aside to set light to me some surprising night.
And say you’ve locked some fire away to set light to me some surprising day,
To me some surprising day any day now.
Source: LyricFind
Songwriters: Melissa Higgins
Any Day Now lyrics © Peermusic Publishing, Words & Music A Div Of Big Deal Music LLC

Why Investors Are Obsessed With the Inverted Yield Curve

Fed Must Act on Inverted Yield Curve, Credit Suisse’s Golub Says

What Is An Inverted Yield Curve And How Does It Affect The Stock Market? | NBC News Now

Yield curve inversion does not mean there will be a recession tomorrow, strategist says

Mohamed El-Erian talks yield curve, recession and global economy

President Trump calls Fed Chair Jerome Powell ‘clueless’ and inverted yield curve ‘crazy’

Missy Higgins (9-27-2008) Sugarcane

Sugarcane

Missy Higgins

Baby ballerina’s hiding
Somewhere in the corner
Where the shadow wraps around her
And our torches cannot find her
She will stay there till the morning
Crawl behind us as we are yawning
And she will leave our games
To never be the same
So grow tall, sugarcane
Eat that soil, drink the rain
But know they’ll chase you
If you play their little games
So run, run fast, sugarcane
You see my peep show booth is handy
There’s a one way only mirror
So I can dance here with my hair down
But I don’t see if you get bitter
And there’s a button right beside me
If I happen to want a wall to hide me
If only the ballerina had one too
So grow tall, sugarcane
Eat that soil, drink the rain
But know they’ll chase you
If you play their little games
So run, run fast, sugarcane
And she said, “Always be afraid”
Yes, she said, “Always be afraid”
So grow tall, sugarcane
Eat that soil, drink the rain
But know they’ll chase you
If you play their little games
So run, run fast, sugarcane
Yeah, you’d better run, run fast, sugarcane
Yeah, you’d better run, run fast sugarcane
Source: LyricFind
Songwriters: Melissa Higgins
Sugarcane lyrics © Peermusic Publishing

Missy Higgins – Where I Stood (Official Video)

Where I Stood

Missy Higgins

I don’t know what I’ve done
Or if I like what I’ve begun
But something told me to run
And honey, you know me, it’s all or none
There were sounds in my head
Little voices whispering
That I should go and this should end
Oh, and I found myself listening
‘Cause I don’t know who I am, who I am without you
All I know is that I should
And I don’t know if I could stand another hand upon you
All I know is that I should
‘Cause she will love you more than I could
She who dares to stand where I stood
See, I thought love was black and white
That it was wrong or it was right
But you aren’t leaving without a fight
And I think, I am just as torn inside
‘Cause I don’t know who I am, who I am without you
All I know is that I should
And I don’t know if I could stand another hand upon you
All I know is that I should
‘Cause she will love you more than I could
She who dares to stand where I stood
And I won’t be far from where you are if ever you should call
You meant more to me than any one I, I’ve ever loved at all
But you taught me how to trust myself
And so I say to you, this is what I have to do
‘Cause I don’t know who I am, who I am without you
All I know is that I should
And I don’t know if I could stand another hand upon you
All I know is that I should
‘Cause she will love you more than I could
She who dares to stand where I stood
She who dares to stand where I stood
Source: LyricFind
Songwriters: Melissa Higgins
Where I Stood lyrics © Peermusic Publishing

Kimberley Music – Missy Higgins

Missy Higgins on why she used to break into cemeteries | The Weekly

Missy Higgins & Friends Live

Dow plummets 800 points and 3% in a day amid fears of economic crisis as Treasury yields invert for the first time since the Great Recession

  • Dow Jones plunged more than 800 points on Wednesday on recession fears
  • Yield on the 10-year Treasury note briefly dipped below the two-year yield
  • Known as an ‘inverted yield curve,’ it is a sign investors fear a recession 
  • The past five inverted yield curves have all preceded a recession
  • Trump blasts Fed over rates and calls chairman Jerome Powell ‘clueless’ 

Stocks plunged on Wednesday after the bond market threw up one of its last remaining warning flags on the economy.

The yield on the 10-year Treasury briefly dropped below the two-year Treasury’s yield Wednesday morning, the first time those yields have flipped since 2007. The so-called inversion has correctly predicted many past recessions and is the loudest warning bell yet about a possible recession ahead.

Investors responded by dumping stocks, more than erasing gains from a rally the day before.

The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed down 801 points at 25,479, a loss of 3%, in the largest one-day point drop since October 2018,

A one-day view of the yield spread between the 10-year and two-year Treasury bond shows two brief yield curve inversions when the ratio drops below the red line on Wednesday

Based on the latest available data, the S&P 500 lost 85.72 points, or 2.93%, to 2,840.6, and the Nasdaq Composite dropped 242.42 points, or 3.02%, to 7,773.94.

While the market was falling Wednesday, President Donald Trump took to Twitter to again criticize the Federal Reserve for hampering the U.S. economy by raising rates “far too quickly” last year and not reversing its policy aggressively enough – the Fed cut its key rate by a quarter point last month. 

Trump blasted Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell as ‘clueless’. 

He also defended his trade policy, even though investors remain worried that the trade war between the world’s two largest economies may drag on through the 2020 U.S. election and cause more economic damage.

“We still see a substantial risk that the trade dispute will escalate further,” said Mark Haefele, global chief investment officer at UBS in a note to clients.

‘The relief rally inspired by the Trump administration delaying tariffs on some Chinese imports was short lived – blink and you missed it,’ said Fiona Cincotta, senior market analyst at City Index.

With bond yields falling, banks took heavy losses Wednesday. Lower bond yields are bad for banks because they force interest rates on mortgages and other loans lower, which results in lower profits for banks. Citigroup sank 5.1% and Bank of America gave up 5%.

Trump is seen at a White House meeting last month. He is relying upon a strong economy to bolster his reelection chances, and the latest economic signal is a worrying one

Trump is seen at a White House meeting last month. He is relying upon a strong economy to bolster his reelection chances, and the latest economic signal is a worrying one

Much of the market’s focus was on the U.S. yield curve, which has historically been one of the more reliable recession indicators.

If all this talk about yield curves sounds familiar, it should. Other parts of the curve have already inverted, beginning late last year. But each time, some market watchers cautioned not to make too much of it.

Academics tend to pay the most attention to the spread between the three-month Treasury and the 10-year Treasury, which inverted in the spring. Traders often pay more attention to the two-year and 10-year spread.

Each of the last five times the two-year and 10-year Treasury yields have inverted, a recession has followed.

The average amount of time is around 22 months, according to Raymond James’ Giddis.

The indicator isn’t perfect, though, and it’s given false signals in the past.

Some market watchers also say the yield curve may be a less reliable indicator this time because technical factors may be distorting longer-term yields, such as negative bond yields abroad and the Federal Reserve’s holdings of $3.8 trillion in Treasurys and other investments on its balance sheet.

What is a yield curve inversion?

The yield, or the effective interest rate paid, on a 10-year Treasury bond is usually higher than the yield on a two-year bond — because investors typically want to see a higher return for a longer-term investment.

However, bond yields move in the opposite direction of bond prices, which are driven by demand. When investors clamor for bonds, driving prices up, yields go down.

The inversion of the 10-year and two-year yield curves is a signal that investors are rushing money from stocks into bonds, depressing yields and flipping the return on long- and short-term bonds in a way that appears to make little economic sense.

Data from Credit Suisse going back to 1978 shows:

  • The last five 2-10 inversions have eventually led to recessions.
  • A recession occurs, on average, 22 months following a 2-10 inversion.
  • The S&P 500 is up, on average, 12% one year after a 2-10 inversion.
  • It’s not until about 18 months after an inversion when the stock market usually turns and posts negative returns.

This chart shows the spread between 10-year and two-year Treasury bonds since 1978. The portions below the black line represent yield inversions, and shaded areas are recessions

This chart shows the spread between 10-year and two-year Treasury bonds since 1978. The portions below the black line represent yield inversions, and shaded areas are recessions

Macy’s plunged 11.4%, the sharpest loss in the S&P 500, after it slashed its profit forecast for the year. The retailer’s profit for the latest quarter fell far short of analysts’ forecasts as it was forced to slash prices on unsold merchandise. The grim results from Macy’s sent other retailers sharply lower, too. Nordstrom sank 10% and Kohl’s dropped 11%.

Energy stocks also sank sharply, hurt by another drop in the price of crude oil on worries that a weakening global economy will drag down demand. National Oilwell Varco slumped 7.4% and Schlumberger skidded 6.5%. The price of benchmark U.S. crude slid 3.9% to $54.88 per barrel. Brent crude, the international standard, lost 3.7% to $59.04.

Gold gained $13.70 to $1,515.90 per ounce, close to a six-year high. Investors also bid up shares in mining company Newmont Goldcorp 1.8%.

Overseas, Germany’s DAX dropped 2.3% following the weak German economic data. France’s CAC 40 fell 2.2%, and the FTSE 100 in London lost 1.7%.

In Asia, Japan’s Nikkei 225 rose 1%, the Kospi in South Korea gained 0.7% and the Hang Seng in Hong Kong added 0.1%.

Trader Andrew Silverman works on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange on Tuesday. The threat of a recession doesn't seem so remote anymore, and stocks sank Wednesday

Trader Andrew Silverman works on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange on Tuesday. The threat of a recession doesn’t seem so remote anymore, and stocks sank Wednesday

Markets have largely been in a spin cycle since Trump announced on Aug. 1 that he would impose 10% tariffs on about $300 billion in Chinese imports, which would be on top of 25% tariffs already in place on $250 billion in imports.

On Tuesday, responding to pressure from businesses and growing fears that a trade war is threatening the U.S. economy, the Trump administration is delaying most of the import taxes it planned to impose on Chinese goods and is dropping others altogether.

Investors are still worried that the trade war between the world’s two largest economies may drag on through the 2020 U.S. election and cause more economic damage.

For all its whipsawing up and down, the S&P 500 remains within 5% of its record, which was set in late July.

A five-day view of the Dow shows a sharp drop at the open of trading on Wednesday

A five-day view of the Dow shows a sharp drop at the open of trading on Wednesday

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7356699/Warnings-economic-crisis-Treasury-yields-invert-time-Great-Recession.html

Federal funds rate

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Federal Funds Rate compared to U.S. Treasury interest rates

2 to 10 year treasury yield spread

Inflation (blue) compared to federal funds rate (red)

Quarterly gross domestic product compared to Federal Funds Rate.

Federal Funds Rate and Treasury interest rates from 2002-2019

In the United States, the federal funds rate is the interest rate at which depository institutions (banks and credit unions) lend reserve balances to other depository institutions overnight on an uncollateralized basis. Reserve balances are amounts held at the Federal Reserve to maintain depository institutions’ reserve requirements. Institutions with surplus balances in their accounts lend those balances to institutions in need of larger balances. The federal funds rate is an important benchmark in financial markets.[1][2]

The interest rate that the borrowing bank pays to the lending bank to borrow the funds is negotiated between the two banks, and the weighted average of this rate across all such transactions is the federal funds effective rate.

The federal funds target rate is determined by a meeting of the members of the Federal Open Market Committee which normally occurs eight times a year about seven weeks apart. The committee may also hold additional meetings and implement target rate changes outside of its normal schedule.

The Federal Reserve uses open market operations to make the federal funds effective rate follow the federal funds target rate. The target rate is chosen in part to influence the money supply in the U.S. economy[3]

Mechanism

Financial institutions are obligated by law to maintain certain levels of reserves, either as reserves with the Fed or as vault cash. The level of these reserves is determined by the outstanding assets and liabilities of each depository institution, as well as by the Fed itself, but is typically 10%[4] of the total value of the bank’s demand accounts (depending on bank size). For transaction deposits of size $9.3 million to $43.9 million (checking accountsNOWs, and other deposits that can be used to make payments) the reserve requirement in 2007–2008 was 3 percent of the end-of-the-day daily average amount held over a two-week period. Transaction deposits over $43.9 million held at the same depository institution carried a 10 percent reserve requirement.

For example, assume a particular U.S. depository institution, in the normal course of business, issues a loan. This dispenses money and decreases the ratio of bank reserves to money loaned. If its reserve ratio drops below the legally required minimum, it must add to its reserves to remain compliant with Federal Reserve regulations. The bank can borrow the requisite funds from another bank that has a surplus in its account with the Fed. The interest rate that the borrowing bank pays to the lending bank to borrow the funds is negotiated between the two banks, and the weighted average of this rate across all such transactions is the federal funds effective rate.

The federal funds target rate is set by the governors of the Federal Reserve, which they enforce by open market operations and adjustments in the interest rate on reserves.[5] The target rate is almost always what is meant by the media referring to the Federal Reserve “changing interest rates.” The actual federal funds rate generally lies within a range of that target rate, as the Federal Reserve cannot set an exact value through open market operations.

Another way banks can borrow funds to keep up their required reserves is by taking a loan from the Federal Reserve itself at the discount window. These loans are subject to audit by the Fed, and the discount rate is usually higher than the federal funds rate. Confusion between these two kinds of loans often leads to confusion between the federal funds rate and the discount rate. Another difference is that while the Fed cannot set an exact federal funds rate, it does set the specific discount rate.

The federal funds rate target is decided by the governors at Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meetings. The FOMC members will either increase, decrease, or leave the rate unchanged depending on the meeting’s agenda and the economic conditions of the U.S. It is possible to infer the market expectations of the FOMC decisions at future meetings from the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) Fed Funds futures contracts, and these probabilities are widely reported in the financial media.

Applications

Interbank borrowing is essentially a way for banks to quickly raise money. For example, a bank may want to finance a major industrial effort but may not have the time to wait for deposits or interest (on loan payments) to come in. In such cases the bank will quickly raise this amount from other banks at an interest rate equal to or higher than the Federal funds rate.

Raising the federal funds rate will dissuade banks from taking out such inter-bank loans, which in turn will make cash that much harder to procure. Conversely, dropping the interest rates will encourage banks to borrow money and therefore invest more freely.[6] This interest rate is used as a regulatory tool to control how freely the U.S. economy operates.

By setting a higher discount rate the Federal Bank discourages banks from requisitioning funds from the Federal Bank, yet positions itself as a lender of last resort.

Comparison with LIBOR

Though the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) and the federal funds rate are concerned with the same action, i.e. interbank loans, they are distinct from one another, as follows:

  • The target federal funds rate is a target interest rate that is set by the FOMC for implementing U.S. monetary policies.
  • The (effective) federal funds rate is achieved through open market operations at the Domestic Trading Desk at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York which deals primarily in domestic securities (U.S. Treasury and federal agencies’ securities).[7]
  • LIBOR is based on a questionnaire where a selection of banks guess the rates at which they could borrow money from other banks.
  • LIBOR may or may not be used to derive business terms. It is not fixed beforehand and is not meant to have macroeconomic ramifications.[8]

Predictions by the market

Considering the wide impact a change in the federal funds rate can have on the value of the dollar and the amount of lending going to new economic activity, the Federal Reserve is closely watched by the market. The prices of Option contracts on fed funds futures (traded on the Chicago Board of Trade) can be used to infer the market’s expectations of future Fed policy changes. Based on CME Group 30-Day Fed Fund futures prices, which have long been used to express the market’s views on the likelihood of changes in U.S. monetary policy, the CME Group FedWatch tool allows market participants to view the probability of an upcoming Fed Rate hike. One set of such implied probabilities is published by the Cleveland Fed.

Historical rates

As of 19 December 2018 the target range for the Federal Funds Rate is 2.25–2.50%.[9] This represents the ninth increase in the target rate since tightening began in December 2015.[10]

The last full cycle of rate increases occurred between June 2004 and June 2006 as rates steadily rose from 1.00% to 5.25%. The target rate remained at 5.25% for over a year, until the Federal Reserve began lowering rates in September 2007. The last cycle of easing monetary policy through the rate was conducted from September 2007 to December 2008 as the target rate fell from 5.25% to a range of 0.00–0.25%. Between December 2008 and December 2015 the target rate remained at 0.00–0.25%, the lowest rate in the Federal Reserve’s history, as a reaction to the Financial crisis of 2007–2008 and its aftermath. According to Jack A. Ablin, chief investment officer at Harris Private Bank, one reason for this unprecedented move of having a range, rather than a specific rate, was because a rate of 0% could have had problematic implications for money market funds, whose fees could then outpace yields.[11]

Federal funds rate history and recessions.png

Explanation of federal funds rate decisions

When the Federal Open Market Committee wishes to reduce interest rates they will increase the supply of money by buying government securities. When additional supply is added and everything else remains constant, the price of borrowed funds – the federal funds rate – falls. Conversely, when the Committee wishes to increase the federal funds rate, they will instruct the Desk Manager to sell government securities, thereby taking the money they earn on the proceeds of those sales out of circulation and reducing the money supply. When supply is taken away and everything else remains constant, the interest rate will normally rise.[12]

The Federal Reserve has responded to a potential slow-down by lowering the target federal funds rate during recessions and other periods of lower growth. In fact, the Committee’s lowering has recently predated recessions,[13] in order to stimulate the economy and cushion the fall. Reducing the federal funds rate makes money cheaper, allowing an influx of credit into the economy through all types of loans.

The charts linked below show the relation between S&P 500 and interest rates.

  • July 13, 1990 — Sept 4, 1992: 8.00%–3.00% (Includes 1990–1991 recession)[14][15]
  • Feb 1, 1995 — Nov 17, 1998: 6.00–4.75 [16][17][18]
  • May 16, 2000 — June 25, 2003: 6.50–1.00 (Includes 2001 recession)[19][20][21]
  • June 29, 2006 — (Oct. 29 2008): 5.25–1.00[22]
  • Dec 16, 2008 — 0.0–0.25[23]
  • Dec 16, 2015 — 0.25–0.50[24]
  • Dec 14, 2016 — 0.50–0.75[25]
  • Mar 15, 2017 — 0.75–1.00[26]
  • Jun 14, 2017 — 1.00–1.25[27]
  • Dec 13, 2017 — 1.25–1.50[28]
  • Mar 21, 2018 — 1.50–1.75[29]
  • Jun 13, 2018 — 1.75–2.00[30]
  • Sep 26, 2018 — 2.00–2.25[9]
  • Dec 19, 2018 — 2.25–2.50[31]

Bill Gross of PIMCO suggested that in the prior 15 years ending in 2007, in each instance where the fed funds rate was higher than the nominal GDP growth rate, assets such as stocks and housing fell.[32]

International effects

A low federal funds rate makes investments in developing countries such as China or Mexico more attractive. A high federal funds rate makes investments outside the United States less attractive. The long period of a very low federal funds rate from 2009 forward resulted in an increase in investment in developing countries. As the United States began to return to a higher rate in 2013 investments in the United States became more attractive and the rate of investment in developing countries began to fall. The rate also affects the value of currency, a higher rate increasing the value of the U.S. dollar and decreasing the value of currencies such as the Mexican peso.[33]

See also

References

  1. ^ “Fedpoints: Federal Funds”Federal Reserve Bank of New York. August 2007. Retrieved October 2, 2011.
  2. ^ “The Implementation of Monetary Policy”. The Federal Reserve System: Purposes & Functions (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Federal Reserve Board. August 24, 2011. p. 4. Retrieved October 2, 2011.
  3. ^ “Monetary Policy, Open Market Operations”. Federal Reserve Bank. January 30, 2008. Archived from the original on April 13, 2001. Retrieved January 30, 2008.
  4. ^ “Reserve Requirements”. Board of Governors of The Federal Reserve System. December 16, 2015.
  5. ^ Stefan Homburg (2017) A Study in Monetary Macroeconomics, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-880753-7.
  6. ^ “Fed funds rate”. Bankrate, Inc. March 2016.
  7. ^ Cheryl L. Edwards (November 1997). Gerard Sinzdak. “Open Market Operations in the 1990s” (PDF)Federal Reserve Bulletin (PDF).
  8. ^ “BBA LIBOR – Frequently asked questions”. British Bankers’ Association. March 21, 2006. Archived from the original on February 16, 2007.
  9. Jump up to:a b “Federal Reserve issues FOMC statement” (Press release). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. December 19, 2018. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  10. ^ Tankersley, Jim (March 21, 2018). “Fed Raises Interest Rates for Sixth Time Since Financial Crisis”The New York Times. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  11. ^ “4:56 p.m. US-Closing Stocks”. Associated Press. December 16, 2008. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012.
  12. ^ David Waring (February 19, 2008). “An Explanation of How The Fed Moves Interest Rates”. InformedTrades.com. Archived from the original on May 5, 2015. Retrieved July 20, 2009.
  13. ^ “Historical Changes of the Target Federal Funds and Discount Rates, 1971 to present”. New York Federal Reserve Branch. February 19, 2010. Archived from the original on December 21, 2008.
  14. ^ “$SPX 1990-06-12 1992-10-04 (rate drop chart)”. StockCharts.com.
  15. ^ “$SPX 1992-08-04 1995-03-01 (rate rise chart)”. StockCharts.com.
  16. ^ “$SPX 1995-01-01 1997-01-01 (rate drop chart)”. StockCharts.com.
  17. ^ “$SPX 1996-12-01 1998-10-17 (rate drop chart)”. StockCharts.com.
  18. ^ “$SPX 1998-09-17 2000-06-16 (rate rise chart)”. StockCharts.com.
  19. ^ “$SPX 2000-04-16 2002-01-01 (rate drop chart)”. StockCharts.com.
  20. ^ “$SPX 2002-01-01 2003-07-25 (rate drop chart)”. StockCharts.com.
  21. ^ “$SPX 2003-06-25 2006-06-29 (rate rise chart)”. StockCharts.com.
  22. ^ “$SPX 2006-06-29 2008-06-01 (rate drop chart)”. StockCharts.com.
  23. ^ “Press Release”. Board of Governors of The Federal Reserve System. December 16, 2008.
  24. ^ “Open Market Operations”. Board of Governors of The Federal Reserve System. December 16, 2015.
  25. ^ “Decisions Regarding Monetary Policy Implementation”. Board of Governors of The Federal Reserve System. Archived from the original on December 15, 2016.
  26. ^ Cox, Jeff (March 15, 2017). “Fed raises rates at March meeting”CNBC. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
  27. ^ “Federal Reserve issues FOMC statement”. Board of Governors of The Federal Reserve System. June 14, 2017.
  28. ^ “Federal Reserve issues FOMC statement”. Board of Governors of The Federal Reserve System. December 13, 2017.
  29. ^ “Federal Reserve issues FOMC statement”. Board of Governors of The Federal Reserve System. March 21, 2018.
  30. ^ “Federal Reserve issues FOMC statement”. Board of Governors of The Federal Reserve System. June 13, 2018.
  31. ^ “Federal Reserve issues FOMC statement”. Board of Governors of The Federal Reserve System. December 19, 2018.
  32. ^ Shaw, Richard (January 7, 2007). “The Bond Yield Curve as an Economic Crystal Ball”. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
  33. ^ Peter S. Goodman, Keith Bradsher and Neil Gough (March 16, 2017). “The Fed Acts. Workers in Mexico and Merchants in Malaysia Suffer”The New York Times. Retrieved March 18,2017Rising interest rates in the United States are driving money out of many developing countries, straining governments and pinching consumers around the globe.

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_funds_rate

Missy Higgins

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Missy Higgins
A woman in her twenties with short blonde hair, wearing a black jacket and grey shirt with black stripes.

Missy Higgins, ARIA No. 1 Chart Awards, 10 August 2012
Background information
Birth name Melissa Morrison Higgins
Born 19 August 1983 (age 36)
Origin MelbourneVictoria
Genres Pop rockindieacoustic
Occupation(s) Singer-songwritermusician
Instruments Vocalspianosynthesiserguitarmelodicaxylophonecowbellukulele
Years active 2001–present
Labels Eleven
Reprise
Warner Bros.
Associated acts
Website missyhiggins.com.au

Melissa Morrison Higgins (born 19 August 1983) is an Australian singer-songwriter, musician and actress. Her Australian number-one albums are The Sound of White (2004), On a Clear Night (2007) and The Ol’ Razzle Dazzle (2012), and her singles include “Scar“, “The Special Two“, “Steer” and “Where I Stood“. Higgins was nominated for five ARIA Music Awards in 2004 and won ‘Best Pop Release’ for “Scar”. In 2005, she was nominated for seven more awards and won five. Higgins won her seventh ARIA in 2007. Her third album, The Ol’ Razzle Dazzle, was released in Australia in June 2012 (July 2012 in the US). As of August 2014, Higgins’ first three studio albums had sold over one million units.[1]

Higgins’ fourth studio album, OZ, was released in September 2014 and consists of cover versions of Australian composers, as well as a book of related essays.

Alongside her music career, Higgins pursues interests in animal rights and the environment, endeavouring to make her tours carbon neutral. In 2010 she made her acting debut in the feature film Bran Nue Dae and also performed on its soundtrack.

Biography

Early life

Higgins was born in Melbourne, Victoria, to Gregory Higgins, an English-Australian Tipstave, and Margaret (née Morrison), an Australian childcare centre operator.[2][3] Her sister, Nicola, is seven years older and her brother, David, six years older.[3] Higgins learned to play classical piano from age six, following in the footsteps of Christopher and David, but realised she wanted to be a singer at about 12, when she appeared in an Armadale Primary School production of Andrew Lloyd Webber‘s musical Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat.[4] Bored with practice, she gave up playing piano at that time.[5] Hoping for more freedom, she urged her parents to send her to Geelong Grammar School, an independent boarding school that her siblings attended. At Geelong, Higgins took up the piano again, this time playing jazz and performing with her brother David’s group on weekends.[6]Introverted by nature, Higgins found that piano practice helped her cope with living at boarding school.[5]

At 15, while attending Geelong Grammar’s Timbertop, she wrote “All for Believing” for a school music assignment, completing it just hours before the deadline.[7] The assignment earned an A and she performed her song in front of classmates. She approached a Melbourne record company and was told that they wanted more than one song.[5] She wrote more songs and worked with the Kool Skools project, which enables students to record music.[8] In 2001, Missy’s sister Nicola entered “All for Believing” on her behalf in Unearthed, radio station Triple J‘s competition for unsigned artists. The song won the competition and was added to the station’s play list.[9]

Two record companies showed an interest in Higgins—Sony and Eleven.[5] She signed with Eleven, partly because they agreed that she would not be “made into a pop star”[10] and partly because they were happy for her to take time off for a backpacking holiday.[5]Higgins’ manager is Eleven’s John Watson, who also manages rock band Silverchair.[2] Watson later disclosed that “Missy’s the only time in my career I knew after 90 seconds I really wanted to sign her.”[11] The backpacking trip had been planned with a friend for years and the pair spent most of 2002 in Europe; while Higgins was travelling, “All for Believing” started to receive airplay on Los Angeles radio station KCRW.[12] Such radio exposure attracted the attention of American record labels and, by year’s end, an international recording deal with Warner Bros. had been negotiated.[13]

2003–2005: The Sound of White

Higgins is seated. She sings into a microphone and plays a keyboard instrument. The lettering RD-300SX and Roland are visible across its front.

Higgins, San Francisco, 11 August 2005
Courtesy Nabeel Hyatt

Higgins was the support act on a 2003 Australian tour by folk rock band The Waifs and rock band george.[13] She travelled to the US to work with John Porter, who produced her first EPThe Missy Higgins EP,[14] which was released in November and entered the Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA) Singles Chart Top 50 in August 2004.[15]

She toured Australia, supporting Pete Murray and John Butler Trio.[16] Her four-track single “Scar'” was released in July 2004 and debuted at No. 1 on the ARIA Charts.[15][17] Her first album, The Sound of White, was released in September, and debuted at No. 1 on the ARIA Albums Chart.[15] Also produced by Porter, it sold over 500,000 copies.[18] She was nominated in five categories at the ARIA Music Awards of 2004 for “Scar”: Best Female Artist’, ‘Single of the Year’, ‘Best Pop Release’, ‘Breakthrough Artist – Single’ and ‘Best Video’ (directed by Squareyed Films).[19] At the awards ceremony on 17 October she received the award for Best Pop Release, beating Delta GoodremThe DissociativesKylie Minogue and Pete Murray.[19] This was followed by her first national headline tour.[20] Her second single “Ten Days” was co-written with Jay Clifford (guitarist in US band Jump, Little Children) and was inspired by Higgins’ 2002 break-up with her boyfriend before she travelled to Europe.[21] Released in November, it peaked at No. 12.[15]

On 29 January 2005 Higgins performed with other local musicians including Nick Cave and Powderfinger at the WaveAid fundraising concert in the Sydney Cricket Ground.[22] The concert raised A$2.3 million for four charities supporting the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.[23] In March Higgins performed at the MTV Australia Awards and won the prize for ‘Breakthrough Artist of the Year’.[24] The following month she released her third single, “The Special Two”, which was a radio hit and reached No. 2.[15] “The Special Two” was released on an EP which included her cover of the Skyhooks song, “You Just Like Me Cos I’m Good In Bed”, recorded for Triple J‘s 30th anniversary. The song had been the first track played on Triple J when it launched (as Double J) in 1975.[25] In May, Higgins won the ‘Song of the Year’ and ‘Breakthrough’ awards for “Scar” from the Australasian Performing Right Association (APRA).[26] She continued touring in mid-2005 and released her fourth single, “The Sound of White”, in August.[15] In September she played a sold out performance at the Vanguard in Sydney with the proceeds going to charity.[27] She was nominated for seven more ARIAs and in October won ‘Album of the Year’, ‘Best Pop Release’, ‘Breakthrough Artist – Album’ and ‘Highest Selling Album’ (all for The Sound of White) and ‘Best Female Artist’ (for “Scar”).[28] She teamed up with fellow ARIA award-winning singer Ben Lee in late 2005 for a national tour.[29]

2006–2009: On a Clear Night

Higgins stands and plays an acoustic guitar with her left hand high on the fret board. She sings into a microphone. Her right arm and bottom of guitar are not in view. Background has large stage lights.

Higgins, Live Earth concert, Sydney, 7 July 2007
Courtesy Itapp

During 2006, Higgins lived in Broome, Western Australia for six months, away from the entertainment industry. The relaxed lifestyle helped her focus on writing new material.[30] The landscape made a big impression, “It was the first place I’d ever felt honestly connected with my country, with the physical land of my country” and inspired her to write “Going North”.[31] She then toured the United States and South Africa, writing more material on the road.[32] In September she based herself in Los Angeles to record her second album, On a Clear Night, with producer Mitchell Froom.[33][34] “Steer” was released as an EP, followed a fortnight later by its album on 28 April 2007, both debuted at No. 1 on their respective charts.[15]

In February, Higgins had contributed a tribute song to the album, Cannot Buy My Soul, for noted indigenous singer, Kev Carmody, singing “Droving Woman” with musician Paul Kelly and group Augie March.[35] On 7 July, she participated in the Live Earth concert in Sydney, performing her own set before joining Carmody, Kelly and vocalist John Butler on stage for the song “From Little Things Big Things Grow“.[36] Emily Dunn in The Sydney Morning Herald wrote “[the song] could have been the event’s anthem”.[37] Rolling Stone‘s Dan Lander pointed out a highlight, when the “whole crowd sung along – all eleven verses.”[38]

Higgins returned to Los Angeles to focus on the US market—she spent September and October touring—where she was still relatively unknown.[39] On 26 October, backed by the Sydney Youth Orchestra, she headlined the annual Legs 11 concert, a breast cancer benefit held in The DomainRoyal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.[40] Two days later Higgins performed at the 2007 ARIAs where she was nominated for ‘Best Pop Release’, ‘Highest Selling Album’ and ‘Highest Selling Single’ (for “Steer”) and won ‘Best Female Artist’ (for On a Clear Night)—her seventh ARIA Music Award.[41] On 31 October, she was a guest at television music channel MAX‘s inaugural Concert for the Cure, a private concert for people affected by breast cancer. She sang headline act Powderfinger’s “Sunsets” with front man Bernard Fanning and joined in with the encore of “These Days“.[42][43] She spent November and December on her For One Night Only Tour, taking in Cairns, Sydney and Perth. You Am I lead singer, Tim Rogers, joined her on some shows.[44]

On a Clear Night, was released in the US on 26 February 2008, supported by a tour in March. Her ten-month stay in Los Angeles during 2008 promoted her songs for films and television shows.[33][45] Her first US single “Where I Stood” was featured in US series including Grey’s AnatomyOne Tree Hill and So You Think You Can Dance.[46] During 2008, Higgins supported the Indigo Girls and then Ben Folds on their respective US tours.[47] February and March 2009 saw her co-headlining a US tour with Canadian Justin Nozuka.[48] On 31 March she released an EP, More Than This in Australia that features cover versions of “More Than This” by Roxy Music, “(I’m) In Love Again” by Peggy Lee, “Breakdown” by Tom Petty and “Moses” by Patty Griffin.[49] “Moses” had been included on Triple J’s 2005 compilation album Like a Version: Volume One and “More Than This” was recorded as part of Covered, A Revolution in Sound, a Warner Bros. tribute album also released in March 2009.[50]

2010–2013: The Ol’ Razzle Dazzle

Higgins performing live in December 2012

Higgins started writing music for her third album in 2009.[51] After about seven years of touring and recording she took a break from the music industry to pursue other interests.[52] In 2010 she enrolled in a course in indigenous studies at the University of Melbourne.[53] Her acting debut was as Annie in 2010 film Bran Nue Dae directed by Rachel Perkins. The film is an adaptation of the 1990 musical, Bran Nue Dae, “Australia’s first Aboriginalmusical”.[54] Although Higgins would consider future acting projects she has no plans to actively pursue it as a career.[51][55]

In July and August 2010, Higgins played several dates of Sarah McLachlan‘s Lilith Fair tour in the US.[56][57] At Lilith Fair, she met Australian musician Butterfly Boucher and they decided to work together. In 2011, Higgins travelled to where Boucher was living in Nashville to record her third album, which is co-produced by Boucher and Brad Jones.[58] Titled The Ol’ Razzle Dazzle, the album was released on 1 June 2012.[59] Its first single, “Unashamed Desire“, co-written with Boucher, was released on 23 April.[60] In November 2011, at the ARIA Music Awards, Higgins performed a duet of “Warwu”with Geoffrey Gurrumul Yunupingu, from his Rrakala album.[61]

“The Ol’ Razzle Dazzle” album debuted at #1 on the ARIA Albums Chart the week of 12 June 2012. It was Higgins’ 3rd straight number one album. As of January 2019, Higgins ties Olivia Newton-John for the 3rd highest tally of Australian Number One albums by an Australian female artist. Only Delta Goodrem (with four Number 1 ARIA albums) and Kylie Minogue and Kasey Chambers (with five each) have achieved more.

2014: Oz

In September 2014, Higgins released her fourth studio album, Oz, which features cover versions of Australian composers, including The Angels, Slim Dusty, Something For Kate, Warumpi Band, Paul Kelly and The Drones. The album is also accompanied by a book of related essays, in which Higgins uses each of the recordings to reflect upon subjects such as music and love.[62] Higgins collaborated with Dan Sultan for the recording of the Slim Dusty song “The Biggest Disappointment”.[63]

Higgins explained in an October 2014 interview that she experienced a significant bout of writer’s block following the completion of her second album and someone suggested an album of cover versions at the time, but she only revisited the idea during the conception of Oz. Higgins further explained:

I responded to all these songs on an emotional level, when I first heard them. I wanted songs I felt I could tell with my own voice, and interpret them authentically … But it was important to maintain the emotional integrity and the heart of the song. It was a high priority to keep true to the songs.[63]

The album was co-produced by Jherek Bischoff, who previously worked with David Byrne, formerly of Talking Heads, and Amanda Palmer.[1]

Oz debuted at number 3 on the ARIA Albums chart[64] and remained in the top five positions until 18 October 2014.[65]

The national Australian tour in support of Oz commenced on 20 September 2014 in Cairns, Queensland, and ended in Melbourne in October 2014. Higgins was accompanied by Bischoff, and Australian artist Dustin Tebbutt appeared as a special guest.[1]

2015–present: Solastalgia and The Special Ones

Higgins, performing live in Taronga Zoo, February 2016.

On 19 February 2016, Higgins released a new single titled, “Oh Canada“,[66] in her response to the Death of Alan Kurdi.

In May 2017, Higgins released “Torchlight“, for the Australian drama film, Don’t Tell.[67]

In October 2017, Higgins appeared in a revival of the 1996 musical Miracle City by Nick Enright and Max Lambert at the Sydney Opera House, playing the role of Bonnie Mae.[68]

In February 2018, Higgins released the single “Futon Couch“, the first single from her fifth studio album, called Solastalgia, released in May 2018.[69]

In February 2018, it was announced that Missy Higgins would support Ed Sheeran‘s tour around Australia.[70]

In November 2018, Higgins released her first greatest hits album titled The Special Ones.[71]

Musical influences and technique

Higgins grew up in the 1980s and 1990s listening to artists that her older siblings liked—Nicola played Mariah Carey and Whitney Houston, while David favoured Queen and Kiss.[72][73] Departing for boarding school at age 13, she was exposed to alternative artists like Nirvana and Hole and started teaching herself guitar and writing her own music.[73] She also began singing with David’s jazz group on weekends. As an adult she prefers Nina Simone and Ray Charles to “poppy dance music”.[73] She has cited Patty GriffinRon SexsmithRufus WainwrightPaul Kelly and Sarah McLachlan as influences.[5][51][74] Material from her third album is influenced by ambient music from LowJon Hopkins, Icelandic band Sigur Rós and Estonian classical composer Arvo Pärt.[51]

Higgins’ song writing grew out of a desire to express her emotions when she was at school and her lyrics describe her feelings about her own life and relationships.[75][76] The piano was the first instrument she learned to play, and she continues to use it as well as digital pianos including a Roland RD-300SX, RD-700 and KR-15.[77][78] She also uses guitars extensively in her music particularly when touring, due to their portable nature and favours the Australian brand, Maton.[78] On occasion she plays keytarxylophone and melodicaduring performances.[31][79]

On 7 September 2012, Higgins recorded a cover version of Gotye‘s “Heart’s A Mess” for the “Like a Version” segment on Australian radio station Triple J, explaining on-air that the song is her favourite Gotye composition. Higgins had travelled with Gotye previously and referred to him as “an incredible singer” in the interview prior to the rendition.[80]

Causes

As a vegetarian, Higgins promoted the health benefits of not eating meat in a 2005 advertising campaign by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA);[81] and has supported their anti-fur stance.[45] She is interested in environmental issues and is involved with the Sierra Club, a grassroots organisation based in California.[45] She has protested against the proposed industrialisation of the Kimberley region of Western Australia and donated the royalties from her 2009 EP More Than This.[49] Since early 2007, Higgins has tried to make her tours carbon neutral, she purchases green energy to power venues, uses hybrid cars where possible and purchases carbon offsets.[82]

On 5 October 2012, Higgins performed at two “Save the Kimberley” events held at Federation Square in Melbourne and The Esplanade in Fremantle, Western Australia.[83][84] A march to protest against the proposed gas refinery construction at James Price Point accompanied the free concert and campaign supporters were photographed with banners and placards.[85]

As of 2012, Higgins is one of numerous publicly known advocates for the ‘Oscar’s Law’ campaign. The campaign, launched in 2010, protests against the existence of “puppy factories” in Australia, whereby animals are factory farmed. One of the campaign’s slogans is “Break the Puppy Trade—Don’t buy puppies from pet shops” and the list of notable advocates includes Paul Dempsey (musician), Kate Ceberano (singer) and Mick Molloy (comedian).[86]

In response to the proposed dumping of around 3 million cubic metres (110 million cubic feet) of dredged seabed onto the Great Barrier Reef,[87] a legal fighting team was formed by World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)-Australia and the Australian Marine Conservation Society (AMCS) in late 2013/early 2014.[88] The legal team received further support in April 2014, following the release of the “Sounds For The Reef” musical fundraising project. Produced by Straightup, the digital album features Higgins, in addition to artists such as The HerdSiettaJohn ButlerThe Cat EmpireFat Freddys Drop, The Bamboos (featuring Kylie Auldist) and Resin Dogs. Released on 7 April, the album’s 21 songs were sold on the Bandcamp website.[89][90]

Personal life

Higgins has been a patron of multiple mental health charities since 2003. She described her younger self as “a bit of a depressed child” and “introverted”, and that she had “experienced various degrees of depression”.[14][91] Prescribed antidepressant medication while in high school, she learned to channel low moods into songwriting, calling music her “emotional outlet”.[3][72] In a 2006 interview she said that her songs were “coming from more of a happier place”.[92] While recording her second album she discovered a passion for rock climbing, as a “meditative pursuit”[93] and that, “It’s the first and last thing I’ve had — other than music — that I’m passionate about.”[72]

From 2004 to 2007, Higgins’ sexual orientation was the subject of media speculation based partly on interpretations of her lyrics and her interviews. In an October 2007 interview with Australian lesbian magazine Cherrie, she was asked if she fell under the moniker of “not-so-straight” girls. She replied “Um, yeah, definitely. … I think sexuality is a fluid thing and it’s becoming increasingly more acceptable to admit that you’re that way.”[94] In November her Myspace page reported, “I’ve been in relationships with both men and women so I guess I fall most easily under the category ‘Bisexual'”.[95][96]

In 2013, Higgins began a relationship with Broome playwright and comedian Dan Lee.[97][98] Higgins gave birth to her son named Samuel Arrow Lee, on 5 January 2015.[99] They got married in March 2016,[100][101] and she gave birth to daughter named Luna, on 13 August 2018.

Discography

Filmography

Awards and nominations

Higgins at the ARIA Awardsceremony, December 2013, Star Event Centre, Sydney

APRA Awards

The APRA Awards are presented annually from 1982 by the Australasian Performing Right Association (APRA).[102] Higgins has won two awards from six nominations.[103][104]

 
Year Nominee / work Award Result
2005 Scar” (Missy Higgins, Kevin Griffin) – Missy Higgins Song of the Year[103] Won
Ten Days” (Missy Higgins, Jay Clifford) – Missy Higgins Song of the Year[105] Nominated
Missy Higgins Breakthrough Award[104] Won
2006 The Special Two” (Missy Higgins) – Missy Higgins Song of the Year[106] Nominated
Most Performed Australian Work[106] Nominated
“Ten Days” (Missy Higgins, Jay Clifford) Most Performed Australian Work[106] Nominated

ARIA Awards

The ARIA Music Awards are presented annually from 1987 by the Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA). Higgins has won nine awards from twenty-four nominations.[107][108]

 
Year Nominee / work Award Result
2004 Scar Single of the Year Nominated
Best Female Artist Nominated
Breakthrough Artist – Single Nominated
Best Pop Release Won
“Scar” – Squareyed Films Best Video Nominated
2005 The Sound of White Album of the Year Won
Best Female Artist Won
Highest Selling Album Won
Breakthrough Artist – Album Won
Best Pop Release Won
The Sound of White – Cathie Glassby Best Cover Art Nominated
The Special Two Single of the Year Nominated
Highest Selling Single Nominated
2006 If You Tell Me Yours, I’ll Tell You Mine Best Music DVD Nominated
2007 On a Clear Night Best Female Artist Won
Best Pop Release Nominated
Highest Selling Album Nominated
Steer Highest Selling Single Nominated
2008 Peachy Best Female Artist Nominated
2012 The Ol’ Razzle Dazzle Best Female Artist Nominated
Album of the Year Nominated
Best Adult Contemporary Artist Won
Everyone’s Waiting” – Natasha Pincus Best Video Won
2013 “Set Me on Fire” Best Female Artist Nominated
2018 Solastalgia Best Adult Contemporary Album Nominated

Other awards

She has won an MTV Australia Video Music Award.[24]

References …

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missy_Higgins

 

 

Story 4: President Trump Energy Speech at Shell Pennsylvania Petrochemicals Complex in Monaca, Pennsylvania 

FULL SPEECH: President Trump speech on energy in Pennsylvania

Trump was supposed to give a speech on energy. He went way off script.

Updated 

President Donald Trump on Tuesday headed to a Shell petrochemicals plant being built outside Pittsburgh to give what was billed by the White House as a speech on “America’s Energy Dominance and Manufacturing Revival.”

But the hourlong address was light on energy policy and heavy on stump speech material and off-script riffs, as Trump touched on everything from his love of trucks to his assessment of his potential 2020 rivals. The meandering speech came on a day when the president had already attacked a CNN anchor, endorsed a controversial World Series hero’s potential congressional bid and defended his parroting of a conspiracy theory concerning the apparent suicide of his onetime friend Jeffrey Epstein.

Here are some of Trump’s most off-key comments:

On the supposed benefits of natural gas over renewable energy: “When the wind stops blowing, it doesn’t make any difference does it? Unlike those big windmills that destroy everybody’s property values, kill all the birds. One day the environmentalists are going to tell us what’s going on with that. And then all of a sudden it stops. The wind and the televisions go off. And your wives and husbands say: ‘Darling, I want to watch Donald Trump on television tonight. But the wind stopped blowing and I can’t watch. There’s no electricity in the house, darling.’”

On his construction chops: “I was a good builder. I built good. I love building; in fact, I’m going to take a tour of the site.”

On doing some campaigning: “I’m going to speak to some of your union leaders to say, ‘I hope you’re going to support Trump, OK?’ And if they don’t, vote ‘em the hell out of office because they’re not doing their job — it’s true.”

On his love of trucks: “I love cranes, I love trucks of all types. Even when I was a little boy at 4 years old, my mother would say, ‘You love trucks.’ I do, I always loved trucks, I still do. Nothing changes — sometimes you know you might become president, but nothing changes — I still love trucks. Especially when I look at the largest crane in the world, that’s very cool. You think I’ll get to operate it? We’ll put the media on it and I’ll give them a little ride, right?”

On pundits suggesting he might not leave office willingly: “Can you imagine if I got a fair press? I mean, we’re leading without it; can you imagine if these people treated me fairly? The election would be over. Have they ever called off an election before? Just said, ‘Look just let’s go, go on four more years.’ You want to really drive them crazy? Go to #ThirdTerm, #FourthTerm — you’ll drive them totally crazy.”

On what Trump perceives as a trade imbalance with Japan: “They send us thousands and thousands — millions of cars, we send them wheat. Wheat. That’s not a good deal. And they don’t even want our wheat. They do it because they want us to at least feel that we’re OK, you know, they do it to make us feel good.” This assertion is false.

On the price tag of the presidency: “This thing is costing me a fortune, being president. Somebody said, ‘Oh, he might have rented a room to a man from Saudi Arabia for $500.’ What about the $5 billion that I’ll lose — you know, it’s probably going to cost me, including, upside, downside, lawyers, because every day they sue me for something. These are the most litigious people. It’s probably costing me from $3 to $5 billion for the pleasure of being — and I couldn’t care less, I don’t care. You know if you’re wealthy, it doesn’t matter. I just want to do a great job.”

On his pledge to salvage manufacturing jobs: “You guys, I don’t know what the hell you’re going to do. You don’t want to make widgets, right? You don’t want to make — do you want to learn how to make a computer? A little tiny piece of stuff. … You put it with those big, beautiful hands of yours like … you’re going to take these big hands, going to take this little tiny part. You’re going to go home, ‘Alice this is a tough job.’ Nah, you want to make steel, and you want to dig coal — that’s what you want to do!”

On the number of members of the media at the event, at about 2:45 p.m.: “That’s a lot people back there for, like, an 11 o’clock speech. That’s a lot of people.”

On the Oscars: “Like the Academy Awards during the day, it used to be — you know the Academy Awards is on hard times now, you know that right? Nobody wants to watch it. You know why? Because they started taking us on, everyone got tired of it. It’s amazing. That used to be second after the Super Bowl, and then all of a sudden now it’s just another show because people got tired of people getting up and making fools of themselves and disrespecting the people in this room and the people that won the election in 2016.”

On attacking Sen. Elizabeth Warren and former Vice President Joe Biden, potential 2020 rivals: “I did it very early with Pocahontas, I should have probably waited. She’s staging a comeback on Sleepy Joe. I don’t know who’s going to win, but we’ll have to hit Pocahontas very hard again if she does win. But she’s staging a little bit of a comeback. What a group — Pocahontas and Sleepy Joe.”

On Mexico deploying soldiers to stem the flow of Central American migrants: “I want to thank Mexico, it’s incredible. We have close to 27,000, you think of that. We never had three — I think we had about 2½ soldiers, one was sitting down all the time. We had nobody.”

https://www.politico.com/story/2019/08/13/donald-trump-energy-speech-pittsburgh-1461337

 

Shell Pennsylvania Petrochemicals Complex
Monaca, Pennsylvania

2:06 P.M. EDT

AUDIENCE:  USA!  USA!  USA!

THE PRESIDENT: Well, thank you very much.  And thank you, Gretchen.  It’s great to be back in the incredible Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.  Great place.  And this is my 13th visit to Pennsylvania during my administration, which is more than any other President to this point in the term.

And I really love Pennsylvania.  I went to school in Pennsylvania — Philadelphia.  So, we love this state.  And I love the unions and I love the workers.  And, you know, when I built buildings in New York — (applause) — I built them exclusively with unions.  People don’t understand that.  I was exclusive.

And, in the last really great election, our election of 2016, you know, we did great with the union workers.  Great.  But we didn’t do good with the leadership.  The leadership said, “Well, we’ve always gone Democrat.  Let’s keep going that way.”  That didn’t work out too well for some of them, I want to tell you.  (Applause.)  I’ll tell you.  And as Gretchen said, this would have never happened without me and us.  This would have never happened.  So, I’m with you.  I’m with you.  Remember that.
And remember that Pennsylvania — you know, Pennsylvania has the best numbers they’ve ever had in the history of the state.  And that’s for a very good reason.  And you know what that reason is.

(Audience member waves.)  Hello.  Here I am.  (Applause.)

And I’m truly honored to be here with the amazing energy workers and construction workers.  These are talented people.  The craft workers who make America run and who make America proud.  We’re proud again.  We’re proud again.  (Applause.)

And no one in the world does it better than you.  Nobody.  Nobody does it better.  There’s nobody in the world that does it.  And we’re unleashing that power again like we’ve never seen before, I will say.

And we are doing well and we’re fighting against a lot of countries that have taken advantage of us for many, many years.  But they’re not doing it so much anymore.  And in a little period of time, they won’t be doing it at all anymore.  They have taken advantage of this country.  (Applause.)

Today, we celebrate the revolution in American energy that’s helping make our economy the envy of the world.  This Shell petrochemical plant in Beaver County, Pennsylvania — I did very well here.  We did very well.  How many points did we win by?  Does anybody know?  I’ll tell you.  Isn’t it, I think, 28 points?  That’s a lot.  That’s against a Democrat — (laughter) — or whatever.

It’s one of the single-biggest construction projects in the nation.  And it made it possible and was possible by clean, affordable, all-American natural gas.  Powerful, clean, natural gas.  (Applause.)

And when the wind stops blowing, it doesn’t make any difference, does it?  Unlike those big windmills that destroy everybody’s property values, kill all the birds.  Someday, the environmentalists are going to tell us what’s going on with that.  And then, all of a sudden, it stops; the wind and the televisions go off.  And your wives and husbands say, “Darling, I want to watch Donald Trump on television tonight.”  (Laughter.)  “But the wind stopped blowing and I can’t watch.  There’s no electricity in the house, darling.”  No, we love natural gas and we love a lot of other things, too.

Each of you is taking part in the largest investment in Pennsylvania history.  It’s the largest investment in the history of Pennsylvania, in the history of our country — the money that’s being invested in your state right now.

With your help, we’re not only unleashing American energy, we’re restoring the glory of American manufacturing, and we are reclaiming our noble heritage as a nation of builders again.  (Applause.)  A nation of builders.

I was a good builder.  I built good.  I love building.  In fact, I’m going to take a tour of the site.  They said, “Sir, we were going to do it before the speech, but we’re waiting for it to stop raining.”  I said, “Don’t worry about the rain.  Do we have umbrellas?  Don’t worry about the rain.  Umbrellas work very well, especially when they’re made in America.”  (Laughs.)  (Applause.)  So, I don’t care.  But we’re going to take a tour afterwards.

I’m going to speak to some of your union leaders to say, “I hope you’re going to support Trump.”  Okay?  (Applause.)  And if they don’t, vote them the hell out of office because they’re not doing their job.  It’s true.  It’s true.  (Applause.)  Vote them out of office.

When completed, this facility will transform abundant natural gas — and we have a lot of it — fracked from Pennsylvania wells, which they never would have allowed you to take if I weren’t President.  If my opponent won, this would be a lot of nice, new structures outside.  I guess you would have stopped long ago.  You would have stopped construction before it started too much.

But I was talking to Gretchen.  They would have never gotten the approvals to do what’s needed to fuel these plants.  That wouldn’t have been good.  So, probably, they wouldn’t have started.  But if they would have started, it would have stopped.

But they put it into plastic through a process known as “cracking.”  That raw material will then be shipped all over the country and all over the world to be fashioned into more products stamped with that very beautiful phrase: “Made in the USA.”  Right?  “Made in the USA.”  (Applause.)  Beautiful.

AUDIENCE:  USA!  USA!  USA!

THE PRESIDENT:  That is a beautiful phrase.

Getting this massive job done right has required more than 1,500 pieces of heavy equipment; one of the largest cranes anywhere in the world — I look forward to seeing it.  I love cranes.  I loves trucks of all types.  Even when I was a little boy at four years old, my mother would say, “You love trucks.”  I do.  I always loved trucks.  I still do.  Nothing changes.  Sometimes, you know, you might become President but nothing changes.  I still love trucks, especially when I look at the largest crane in the world.  That’s very cool.  Do you think I’ll get to operate it?  I don’t know.  (Applause.)  We’ll put the media on it, and I’ll give them a little ride, right?   (Applause.)

And you have thousands of tons of concrete, aluminum and steel, and nearly 6,000 of the strongest, toughest, and most talented workers anywhere on Earth.  (Applause.)  True.  I know.  It was the Trump administration that made it possible.  No one else.  Without us, you would never have been able to do this.

I want to thank all of our great union members: the boilermakers, carpenters — (applause) — cement finishers — (applause) — electricians — (applause) — iron workers — (applause) — laborers — (applause) — millwrights — (applause) — operators — (applause) — plumbers — (applause) — painters — (applause) — steamfitters; I know them well.

And a group that I’ve used more than anybody that’s ever run for office times 1,000, because in New York City they would drive those cement trucks up to my building and those trucks were always on time, and sometimes they were lined up for six blocks when I was doing different things.  Even when I was doing the Wollman Rink, the city couldn’t build it.  Took them nine years.  They had no idea what they were doing.

And I had that whole big — about 70,000 feet — it’s like a massive office floor — bigger than an office floor.  We did it all in one day, and the trunks were lined up from Central Park all the way back into Harlem.  And they did it all in one day — that pour.  It was called a contiguous pour.  The city used to build little pieces.  A little piece here.  A little piece there.  A little piece here.  A little there.  (Laughter.)  A few years later: a little piece here.  Then they had pipes underneath and the pipes were made out of copper.

And during the evening, things would happen, like the copper would be stolen because it was very valuable.  (Laughter.)  So they’d have a little piece with copper, and then the rest of the pipe they’d lay.  And they’d get ready to pour, and they’d leave, and everybody would steal the copper.  So they — this took place for — I guess, from seven to nine years.  Nobody actually knows.  Nobody wants to talk about it.  (Laughter.)  But those trucks were operated incredibly well, and I never missed a delivery.  And it’s called the “Teamsters.”  (Applause.)

I also want to thank I also want to thank Bechtel, a real incredible company.  We talk about the great builders of the world: President Jack Futcher.  Where is he?  Where is he?  Jack.  Where is Jack?  (Applause.)  Jack.  What a great job you’ve done, Jack.  Some big ones.  Think of it this way, Jack.  If we don’t win, you won’t be doing anything in this country.  (Laughter.)  And, you know, the world follows us.  You see that.  The world follows us.  And it won’t be so good.  But you and I are friends, and you’re going to have a lot of work to do, I think, Jack.  A lot of work.  Thank you, Jack.  Great job.  (Applause.)  Jack has done an incredible job.  That’s an incredible company.  Incredible — they’re incredible builders.

And the Secretary-Treasurer of North America’s Building Trades Unions, Brent Booker.  Where’s Brent?  Brent.  Thank you.  Great job.  (Applause.)  Young guy.  You’re so young, Brent.  How the hell did you get that job?  (Laughter.)  Man.

We’re honored to be joined by two leaders who truly have the backs of American workers.  They’ve become friends of mine.  They do such an incredible job.  They break up the roadblocks.  We have a lot of roadblocks in this country, where you have — a little clause can stop a project.  A little clause can stop it for years.  And we break up those little clauses.  We break them up fast.  Energy Secretary Rick Perry.  Where’s Rick?  Rick?  (Applause.)  Thank you, Rick.  What a great guy.

I had to compete with him.  You know, he wanted to be President.  He was tough.  He was nasty.  Man.  (Laughter.)  He was nasty.  But then he said, “I want to do something great.”  And you have been incredible.  He ran Texas for like 14 years — (applause) — and he did it well.  And now he’s running a little thing called “Energy.”  And nobody has ever done it better.  Thank you, Rick, very much.  Great job.

And a man who has been incredible in every way.  You know, EPA — Environmental Protection Agency.  You’ve heard a lot of horror stories where nothing can get done, nothing gets passed.  It takes years and years and years to get a simple permit.  It can take 20, 21 years to get a road, before they reject it.  How about this?  They go 20 years — 21 years, in certain cases — for a highway or a road.  Not even a highway.  At the end of the 21st year, they vote to reject it.  How would you like to be — you’re a young person, you’re starting out, and you’re all excited about this project.  And it starts off as being a simple, straight road, and then it ends up being a total catastrophe because of nesting and lots of other things that we can take care of.  And it’s 20 years later, and then they reject it.  You’ve devote half of your working life to a rejection.  It happened to many people.

And we have a man that knows how to break it up but he’s also a great lover of the environment: EPA Administrator Andrew Wheeler.  He’s done an incredible job.  Andrew?  (Applause.)  Great job, Andrew.  Great.  Really great job.

And I also want to recognize some of my great friends that have helped me so much: Congressman John Joyce.  John?  (Applause.)  John.  Where is John?  John.  John, usually you’re in the front row.  I can’t believe this.  I guess you got shut out by the unions.  Look.  (Laughter.)  Thank you, John.  Fantastic job.  John Joyce.  Been a great friend — a great friend of all of us.

Speaker of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives Michael Turzai.  (Applause.)  Michael Turzai.  Thank you.  Michael, great job.  Thank you.  Good to see you, Michael.  Michael Turzai.  Great name in this state, I’ll tell you, for a long time.  How long has it been, Michael?  You’ve been there a long time.  How long?

SPEAKER TURZAI:  (Inaudible.)

THE PRESIDENT:  Okay.  Good luck.  (Laughter.)  It’s not that long.  Thank you, Mike.

And one of my good friends from Beaver County, David Urban.  David.  (Applause.)  David.  Where’s David?  David?  Thank you, David.  Great football player.  Great athlete.  And he was a Trump supporter.  He liked Trump.  And when he liked Trump, nobody was going to get in his way.  Right, David?

AUDIENCE MEMBER:  We love Trump!

THE PRESIDENT:  (Laughs.)  Thank you.  Thank you.
How are we doing in the state, David?  We looking good?

AUDIENCE MEMBER:  Four more years!

THE PRESIDENT:  Thank you.  I appreciate it.  (Applause.)  Thank you.

I think we’re looking very good.  I think we’re looking good all over: in Ohio, in North Carolina, in South Carolina, Florida.  We just got numbers in Florida.  We’re looking fantastically good.

Now, you know, sometimes — and they do.  They do.  They say, “Donald Trump…”  Can you imagine if I got a fair press?  I mean, we’re leading without it.  Can you imagine if these people treated me fairly?  (Applause.)  The election would be over.  Have they ever called off an election before?  Just said, “Look, just — let’s go.  Go on.  Four more years.”

Yeah.  And then, you want to really drive them crazy?  Go to “#thirdterm”; “#fourthterm.”  You’ll drive them totally crazy.  (Laughter.)  I mean, you have one guy on television: “I’m telling you, he’s not leaving.  He’s going to win and then he’s not leaving.  So, in 2024, he won’t leave.  I’m telling you…”  This is a serious person.  These people have gone stone-cold crazy.  (Laughter.)

And we’re grateful especially to the Chairman of Royal Dutch Shell.  That’s big stuff, folks.  You know, I’m a business guy.  When I hear “Royal Dutch Shell” — you know, until I became President, that was like a big deal, but now I don’t view it the same.  (Laughter.)  Once you’re President, nothing seems big.  Right?  Chad Holliday.  Where’s Chad?  (Applause.)  Chad understands it.  That’s a big deal, Chad.  But thank you for coming.  That’s a big deal.  You don’t get any bigger.  That’s an incredible company.

Shell’s U.S. President — you just met her and you know her; everybody knows her, and she’s got a lot of other things in store.  And she’s thanked me for what we’ve done here.  But I said, “Forget this.  We got a lot of jobs.  Let’s do a couple of more fast.  Do them fast.  We’ll get you fast approvals.”  And you may get rejected, you know, if it’s not going to be environmentally good, environmentally sound; if something is going to be wrong.  But we’re not going to take 20 years to reject you, like they did with the pipelines.  It didn’t matter; I approved them.  But that’s okay.

So we have pipelines — (applause) — oh — (applause) — we got plenty of pipeline folks here, don’t we?  Huh?  (Applause.)  I’ll tell you.  Hey, you know, that’s a bigger hand than we got from the Teamsters.  Do you believe that?  No, but, you know, they did that with the pipelines, right?  Keystone XL.  They did it with the pipelines.  Dakota Access Pipeline.  We’re building pipelines.  And if we get the pipelines approved, then you better work.  The EPA is working right now to get them approved in Texas.  And if we can do — we can increase our — we can increase.  We’re now the largest in the world in energy, by far.  But if we get those approved, Andrew — I hope Andrew is listening — EPA.  Andrew, you know what I’m saying, right?  If we get them approved in Texas fast — they said it will take 18 years.  I said, “Could you do it in about a month?”  (Applause.)  Right?

If we get, though — oh, look at those pipeline guys.  They’re so happy.  That’s a lot of jobs.  But, Andrew, if we get them approved fast, we can increase our entire output.  Texas is so big.  And it’s bigger — it turned out to be much bigger.

I also got you ANWR, in Alaska, which may be bigger than everything.  And they couldn’t get it.  Ronald Reagan couldn’t get it.  No President could get it.  And I got it approved, and we’re all set.  And so — (applause) — so we’re all set.

So, Andrew, in Texas, if you can get those pipelines going, you will be so happy.  We’ll have dinner with your family.  I’ll tell them how great you were.  (Laughter.)  Okay?  EPA.  Thank you, Andrew.

So I want to thank, though, Gretchen.  She’s been fantastic.  I also want to thank Vice President of Pennsylvania Chemicals Hilary Mercer.  I want to thank you very much for investing in the people of Pennsylvania.  (Applause.)  Hilary?  Where’s Hilary?  Thank you, Hilary.  (Applause.)  You’re investing in the people of Pennsylvania, so that’s a guarantee, as far as I’m concerned.

For generations, American greatness was forged, and fueled, and won by the extraordinary workers of this region.  This region is an incredible region.

Pennsylvania Steel raised the skyscrapers that built our cities.  And, by the way, steel — steel was dead.  Your business was dead.  Okay?  I don’t want to be overly crude.  Your business was dead.  And I put a little thing called “a 25 percent tariff” on all of the dumped steel all over the country.  And now your business is thriving.  Probably there’s few businesses that have gone proportionately up like steel and aluminum.
We did it with aluminum, too.  But they are doing well — 25 percent and 10 percent on aluminum.

And they still dump, but now the United States takes in billions of dollars and the dumping is much less, and the steel companies are thriving again.

We have to have a steel industry.  We can’t — (applause) — I mean, we need steel for defense.  We need steel — what are we going to do?  We have a little bit of a problem.  We have a little bit of a conflict.  We’ll say, “Listen, China, could you do us a favor?  We need help.  All our steel mills are closed.  Oh, damn it.  Could you send us some steel, please?  We don’t make steel anymore.”

Well, we make it now.  And I’ll tell you what: Those steel mills — U.S. Steel and all of them, all of them — they’re expanding all over the place.  New mills.  New expansions.  We hadn’t have — we didn’t have a new mill built in 30 years, and now we have many of them going up.

Many car plants — they’re coming in from Japan.  I told Prime Minister Abe — great guy.  I said, “Listen, we have a massive deficit with Japan.”  They send thousands and thousands — millions — of cars.  We send them wheat.  Wheat.  (Laughter.)  That’s not a good deal.  And they don’t even want our wheat.  They do it because they want us to at least feel that we’re okay.  You know, they do it to make us feel good.

But the deficit is massive, which — changing rapidly.  But what they’re doing is they’re buying a lot of our stuff, including our military equipment.  They’re building car plants now in the United States — in Michigan, in Pennsylvania.  Many, many of the Japanese car companies are coming over and building car plants in the United States.  It doesn’t fully do the trick, but it helps.  And those deficits will start coming down very substantially.

But we’re losing $78 billion.  For many years, we’re losing billions and billions with these countries.  And, frankly, the countries that we do the worst with are the allies — our allies.  Does that make sense to you?  Our allies take advantage of us far greater than our enemies.  And someday, I’m going to explain that to a lot of people.

Pennsylvania miners.  Do we love our miners?  (Applause.)  They lit up our towns and powered our industries.  And Pennsylvania factory workers made the American brand into the universal symbol of excellence all around the world — all over.

But, in recent decades, the loyalty of Pennsylvania workers was repaid only with betrayal.  They betrayed you.  They let your companies move to Mexico, to Canada, to China, to many other places.  We ended up with no income and massive unemployment.  Well, right now, our employment has reached the lowest level that it’s seen since the 1960s, and we’ll soon be breaking that record, I predict.  (Applause.)

And you’ve heard me say it, but now it’s even better.  Numbers just came out.  African American unemployment — lowest in history.  (Applause.)  Asian American, Hispanic American — lowest in the history of our country.  Women — lowest in 70 years.  (Applause.)  Sorry, women.  I let you down again.  Think of it: Lowest in 70 years, and I have to apologize to women.  But soon we’re going to have that — that will be a record very soon.  We’re very close to saying “lowest in history” for women — unemployment.

Today, we have more workers working in the United States than — almost 160 million — than at any time in the history of our country.  Think of that.  That’s a hell of a stat.  (Applause.)

The political class in Washington gutted your factories with horrendous trade deals — horrible.  NAFTA — one of the worst trade deals ever.  By the way, World Trade Organization, it made China.  China made themselves.  They did a good job.  But they ripped off our country for years, and with our money and World Trade Organization backing.  And then they took advantage of the rules of the World Trade Organization.  And I’m being nice when I say “took advantage.”  Much more than “took advantage.”  They went up like a rocket ship.  They were flat-lined for 100 years.  And then, one day, World Trade Organization — a terrible move.

And, you know, we were losing all our cases until I came along.  We were losing all our cases in the World Trade Organization.  Almost every case, we were — lost, lost, lost.  They thought we were stupid.  They were the ones ruling.

And then I came along.  Now we’re winning a lot of cases because they know that they’re not on very solid ground.  We will leave, if we have to.  And all of the sudden, we’re winning a lot of cases.  We’re winning most of our cases.  And it’s only because of attitude, because we know that they have been screwing us for years.  And it’s not going to happen any longer.  They get it.  They get it.  So they’re giving us victories.  They’re giving us victories.  (Applause.)

And I’d like to use a different word, but there’s no word that’s quite as —

AUDIENCE MEMBER:  (Inaudible.)

THE PRESIDENT:  Right?  There’s no word that’s quite as descriptive.  I’d like to.  But that’s exactly what they were doing.  They were taking advantage of us for years and years.  And now they understand that if it’s not going to be fair, it’s not going to be at all.  We don’t need it.  We don’t need it.

So, a lot of good things.  And I think we will — I think they will treat us fairly.  I mean, the concept should work.  But people have taken advantage.

Like, for instance, they view certain countries — like China, India, many countries — for a long time, they viewed them as “they’re growing.”  Right?  They’re “growing nations.”  We’re a “mature nation.”  They’re growing.  These are “growing nations.”

Well, they’ve grown.  And they had tremendous advantages.  But we’re not letting that happen anymore, okay?  We’re not letting that happen anymore.  Everybody is growing but us.  You know, they’re all “growing nations.”  We have to work with them, but nobody ever wants to work with the United States.  It’s a disgrace.  But it’s changing, and it’s changing fast.

And I think it’s the primary reason, probably, that I ran for President.  (Applause.)  I’d see these factories all over the country, and I’d see them empty, and I’d see the jobs going to other countries.  And I just never understood why the politicians didn’t do anything about it.  But now we’re doing it.

And, by the way, the USMCA — that’s Mexico and Canada — that deal is a fantastic deal.  And it’s a great deal for your unions, too.  We have the farmers, the unions, the manufacturers.  It’s good for everybody.  We have to get the Democrats to put it up for a vote.  And most Democrats are going to vote for it, too.  They’re under a lot of pressure to vote for it.

But that replaces one of the worst trade deals ever made, which is NAFTA.

But I watched them crush your industries with taxes and regulations, and they targeted American energy for total destruction.  You weren’t going to be able to take anything out.  That’s our gold.  That’s gold underneath our feet.  And they weren’t going to allow it to happen.

The Paris Accord: The Paris Accord was good for other countries.  It wasn’t good for us.

All the while, they expected you to stay on the sidelines, silence your voices, and surrender the future of our nation.  And you didn’t do it, but you didn’t have the right people representing you, so it didn’t matter.  But when you finally had the right person — the person that really cared — because let me tell — this thing is costing me a fortune, being President.  Somebody said, “Oh, he might have rented a room for — to a man from Saudi Arabia for $500.”  What about the $5 billion that I’ll lose?  You know, it’s probably going to cost me — including upside, downside, lawyers — because every day, they sue me for something.  (Laughter.)  These are the most litigious people.  It’s probably costing me from 3 to 5 billion for the privilege of being — and I couldn’t care less.  I don’t care.  You know, if you’re wealthy, it doesn’t matter.  I just want to do a great job.  That’s why — I don’t care.  I want to do the right job.

When this great building company comes here and wants to build a plant, I want to make it easy for them, not hard for them.  I’m not jealous of them.  I couldn’t care less.  Bechtel.  (Applause.)  I’m not jealous of them.

I got sued on a thing called “emoluments.”  Emoluments.  You ever hear the word?  Nobody ever heard of it before.  They went back.  Now, nobody looks at Obama getting $60 million for a book.  That’s okay.  Even though nobody in history ever got that money for a book.  Obama got $60 million.  Think of it: $60 million for a book.  Nobody looks — nobody looks at any —

But with me, it’s everything.  Emoluments.  Nobody knows what it is.  Here’s the good news: Last month, I just won two cases on emoluments.  And the judge was scolding of the other side.  And what it is, is presidential harassment because this thing is costing me a fortune, and I love it, okay?  I love it because I’m making the lives of other people much, much better.  (Applause.)
And each of you here today is living proof that America never surrenders.  We don’t surrender.  And we were in bad shape.  This area was in really bad shape.  And now you look outside, and you say, “That’s like the eighth wonder of the world.”

Under my administration, we’re fighting back and we’re winning because we are truly and finally putting America first.  (Applause.)  After years of building up foreign countries, we are finally building up our country.  Think of it, we protect the border of South Korea, but we don’t protect our own border.  But now we are.

And the wall is being built.  We won that case two weeks ago.  (Applause.)  We won that case.  The wall is being — and we’re going to have a lot of it.  We’re going to have anywhere from 400 to 500 miles built by the end of next year.  We’re building a lot of wall and we need it.  We need it.  We want people to come into our country.  They have to come in legally and we want them to come in through merit.  (Applause.)

The last administration tried to shut down Pennsylvania coal and Pennsylvania fracking.  If they got in, your fracking is gone, your coal is gone, you guys — I don’t know what the hell you’re going to do.  You don’t want to make widgets, right?  (Laughter.)  You don’t want to make — do you want to learn how to make a computer?  A little tiny piece of stuff you put in with those big, beautiful hands of yours.  (Laughter.)  They’re going to take these big hands — he’s going to take this little tiny part.  (Laughter.)  He’s going to go home, “Alice, this is a tough job.”  (Laughter.)  No, you want to make steel and you want to dig coal, and that’s what you want to do.

I was in West Virginia when Hillary made that terrible statement that she wants to close up all of the coal.

AUDIENCE:  Booo —

THE PRESIDENT:  She forgot: In three weeks, she was going to West Virginia.  Remember, she wanted to close up all coal.  She was in an area where they didn’t do the coal.  And she said, “Well, I look forward to closing up all coal.  It’s going to be closed.  Steel — going to be in big trouble.”  She forgot: In three weeks, she was going to West Virginia.  That didn’t work out too well.  (Laughter.)  I won that one by 42 points.  Forty-two points.  West Virginia.  (Applause.)

And I actually think, this time, we have a good chance of winning Virginia, which is a tough one to win because, you know, you have some people there that maybe don’t agree with us.  But I think we have a really good chance of Virginia, too, which is something that hasn’t been won by a Republican in a long time.  But it’s common sense.  Some — a lot of this is — you know, they say, politics — politics — great politics is common sense.

But on my first day in office, I ended the war on American energy.  And that’s common sense, I think.  You know, that’s common sense.  (Applause.)

We’re lucky.  You go to places like China, they don’t have oil and gas.  They don’t have it under their — they have to go buy it and then they devalue their currency and manipulate their currency.  And that costs them a fortune to go out and buy it.  They hurt themselves in the long run.  But they’re devaluing all over the place, as others are.

But we have this unbelievable — the greatest in the world.  We have the greatest resources, which really came about over the last few years.  Nobody knew this.  Fracking made it possible.  Other new technologies made it possible.  And now we’re the number-one — think of it, as I said — the number-one energy producer in the world.

I’m so proud of that because we wouldn’t have been number five.  They were going to close it up.  They were going to close it up.  And it’s common sense.  They wanted to take away our wealth.

That’s what the Paris Accord would have done.  It would have taken away our wealth.  It wasn’t for us; it was good for others.  It wasn’t for us.  We had to pay money to other countries that are very substantial countries.  They wanted to take away your wealth.  They didn’t want you to drill.  They didn’t want you to frack.  They didn’t want you to do steel.  They wanted to take away your wealth.

Now, the press will try and spin that differently, but I’m right, okay?  The fake news.  (Applause.)  That’s a lot of people back there for a — like an 11 o’clock speech.  That’s a lot of people.  (Laughter.)  That’s a lot.  That’s like the Academy Awards during the day.  (Laughter.)

It used to be.  You know, the Academy Awards is on hard times now.  You know that.  Nobody wants to watch it.  You know, why?  Because they started taking us on.  Everyone got tired of it.  It’s amazing.  That used to be second after the Super Bowl, and then, all of a sudden, now it’s just another show because people got tired of people getting up and making fools of themselves and disrespecting the people in this room and the people that won the election in 2016 — (applause) — and the people that won the Senate, without me on the ticket, in 2018.

You know, they never say that.  We won the Senate.  That’s why we’ll have appointed, within two months, 179 federal judges and two Supreme Court judges.  Think of that: 179.  (Applause.)  But they don’t say we won the Senate; they say we lost the House.  And, you know, there were a lot of people running for the House; it’s hard for me to campaign.  But almost everybody I campaigned for won.  We had tremendous records in ’18 and I wasn’t running.  There’s a big difference.  In 2020, we’re running, so you better get out there and make sure we win.  (Applause.)

And we have a record that nobody’s ever had.  Remember, when I was running, I was saying, “We’re going to do this.  We’re going to create jobs.”  Everyone — you know, big yawn.  And, you know, we like — “Let’s give him a shot.  What do we have to lose, right?”

I said that with African Americans.  They had the worst crime rates, the worst education, the worst everything.  They had like 10 things — I’m reading it off a list.  I looked — I said, “What the hell do you have to lose?”

But I really sort of said the same thing to everybody because our country wasn’t doing well with Biden and Obama.  It wasn’t doing well.  And they were pouring money in — pouring, pouring money in.  And it wasn’t doing well.

Even now, you know, you see the interest rates.  I’m paying a normalized interest rate.  We should be paying less, frankly.  This guy has made a big mistake.  He’s made a big mistake — the head of the Fed.  That was another beauty that I chose.  But even with that, we’re paying a normalized interest rate.

The nice thing is you get some interest from the bank.  With President Obama, he was paying nothing.  It’s easy to make money when you you’re paying nothing; you’re paying zero.  Easy.  But even with that, our economy is roaring and his wasn’t.  It was the weakest economy since the Great Depression.  The weakest up.

So we have it going.  Our country now has the hottest economy anywhere in the world.  Every time a prime minister, president, king, queen, dictator, whatever they may be — some are sort of mutual.  Some you have presidents and prime ministers who are actually dictators.  But they come in and they see me at the Oval Office, they always say — almost everybody — “Congratulations on your incredible economy.  What you’ve done is incredible: the tax cuts, the regulation cuts, all of the things we’ve done.”

And they were all saying — and they want to try and copy us.  It’s not easy to copy us. And part of the reason it’s not easy is because of the people like this, all over the country — the people in this room.  You are incredible people.  That was an incredible win.  Thank you.  (Applause.)  Incredible.  Incredible people.  Incredible people.

And here in the Appalachian region, where the Marcellus and Utica shale formations generate one-third of American natural gas — think of that.  You’ve been sitting on this for a long time, and yet, look at the numbers.  Look at the way you lived.  Because you never had anybody that wanted to take advantage of it, but now we’re taking advantage of it.  You’re sitting on gold, and we’re taking advantage of it.  And your future has never looked brighter or better.  It’s so great that you stayed, because you suffered.  This whole region — Appalachia.  The whole re- — it just suffered, this whole region, with great people — the greatest people.  And you suffered.

When this plant opens, 600 American workers will get the fulltime jobs, with quality healthcare, pensions, and great pay to support a family.  And you have — I said before — almost 2,000 construction workers.  And you’re going to another plant because we’re going to talk to Bechtel after this, and we’re talking to Shell.  I mean, you got the boss from Shell.  You people don’t realize, that’s a big deal.  I don’t know where the hell he comes from.  Where are you based?  It’s not in this country.  Hey, how about moving Shell to the United States?  (Applause.)  Well, we’re ready if you are.  Just let me know.  But they have their big USA division.  But that’s a great company.  It’s a big deal.  And that you’re here is a big deal.  That’s a big deal to me, and it’s a big deal to everybody in this room.  (Applause.)  You have the top man — top man at Shell.

But this is just the beginning.  My administration is clearing the way for other massive, multi-billion-dollar investments.  We just did one in Louisiana.  It’s a 10-billion-dollar plant.  There’s more pipes in that plant that I’ve ever seen in my life.  There’s more plant — you know that.  LNG.  It’s an LNG plant.  Ten billion dollars.  And we’re now — it’s totally sold out.  They sell it like you rent office space.  Can you believe it?  It’s all sold out.

All over the world, people have used it.  And you haven’t had a plant like that built in this country, really, ever, because there’s never been anything that big.  But you didn’t build plants like that because, environmentally, they weren’t letting you.  And yet, environmentally, it’s so good what they’ve done and what they can build today.

Investments that could bring more than 100,000 new jobs to this region are now being looked at very seriously.  And I think the hundred-thousand-doll- — I really do.  I feel the hundred thousand jobs, Andrew, is going to be a very low number.  I think you’re going to have many more.  This is an incredible region.  You’re sitting on top of something special.  It’s all fueled by the greatest treasure on the planet: American energy.  And we don’t want people taking that away from us.

Two more companies have recently proposed a 10-billion-dollar investment in the great state of Ohio.  Incredible state.  (Applause.)  We have tens of billions of dollars’ worth of investments, and this is really good stuff that we’re now negotiating.  But these two are in Ohio.  The energy revolution is also creating new jobs in West Virginia, [New] Mexico, Colorado, Texas, Kansas, Louisiana, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, all across our beautiful land.  You have no idea what’s going on, including, as I said before, car companies.  We didn’t make cars.  Look, we lost 32 percent of our car companies to Mexico — before I got there, by the way.  Now it’s very, very hard to do that anymore.  Nobody is going to be looking that way, I don’t think.

And I want to thank Mexico because the President now has been great, and he’s got 27,000 soldiers on our southern border and on his border with Guatemala, keeping our borders safe.  (Applause.)  Our numbers are plummeting — the people coming in — (applause) — all because the Democrats won’t approve fixing the loopholes and asylum.  So, I want to thank Mexico.  It’s incredible.  We have close to 27,000 — so, you think of that.  We never had three.  I think we had about two and a half soldiers.  One was sitting down all the time.  We had nobody.

And don’t forget, the southern border is 2,000 miles, from the Gulf to the Pacific.  We have 27,000, and they’re doing a great job.  And they’re helping themselves too because they’re disrupting and really hurting the cartels.  So much of that stuff is run illegally by the cartels: human trafficking, drugs, people.  It’s terrible.  And Mexico, I’ll tell you, they’re — so far.  I hope they’re going to keep it up.  I hope they’re going to keep it up.  But they’ve been great.  And 27,000 people.  They wouldn’t have done that for any other President, that I can tell you.  That I can tell you.

With us today are a few of the hardworking Pennsylvania patriots who are making this comeback possible.

Jason Eckhart is the third generation of his family to work on these grounds.  And he’s doing better than any of them.  His father and — by the way, three years ago, you wouldn’t have said that.  Three years ago, his father would say, “Hey, I had it made.”  His grandparents would say, “We had it made.”  Now he can look at them and say, “Dad, we have it made.”

His father and grandfather worked for the zinc smelting company previously housed at this site.  When that plant closed in 2014, 500 jobs disappeared — like magic.  Remember President Obama, “You need magic to bring back manufacturing jobs.  You need a magic wand.”  You remember?  “Not going to happen.”  Well, so far, we’ve brought back 600,000 manufacturing jobs.  (Applause.)

And Jason never imagined he would get the chance to carry on his family’s legacy. But now, he has.  He is carrying it on, and he’s carrying it on proudly.  He’s a great American.  Jason — where are you, Jason?  Jason.  Jason.  Come on up, Jason.  Come on.  Let’s get Jason up.  (Applause.)  Come on up.  Jason.  I’d like Jason to tell us what this great facility means to him and to his family.  Thank you.

Jason, come tell us what this facility means to you.

MR. ECKHART:  Thank you, Mr. President.  (Applause.)

It’s been amazing to see the transformation on this site, from a 100-year-old zinc smelter to a state-of-the-art petrochem facility.  I’m very proud to be part of Pennsylvania Chemicals, to redevelop this site, and create the jobs in Western Pennsylvania for all of you.  (Applause.)

And it’s very exciting to think about what we have to come, starting this place up and having jobs into the future for our families.

As a native from this area — I’m from right here in Center Township — I can appreciate how much this means to the area.  I’m really proud to be a part of this and be proud of all you guys.  Thanks.  (Applause.)

THE PRESIDENT:  Thank you, Jason.  Great.  Did you enjoy doing that, Jason?  Huh?  I think so.  You had a big group of people back here that likes you a lot.  They’re giving him a hard time back there, right?  His friends.  Thanks, Jason.

Heather Michaux grew up here in Beaver County, and has been working for Shell in other states for several years.  Now she can raise her family right near her parents and loved ones, and actually be home, where she wants to be and where she belongs.

Heather, please come up and tell us about your journey.  (Applause.)

MS. MICHAUX:  Thank you, Mr. President.

THE PRESIDENT:  Thank you.

MS. MICHAUX:  So, for me, when Shell announced that we were going to be building a facility in Beaver County, I was in Texas and I was so excited — but not just for me getting to further my career and move home; I was excited for all the possibilities that had opened up for my hometown.  I was excited because I recognized the potential that a place like this has, for us to be able to hone our existing skills and to gain new ones, too.

So I knew that we, the hardworking people of Western Pennsylvania — and other places in the U.S., too — would now have this fresh opportunity and would take advantage of it.  And that’s the opportunity that I see the thousands of you folks taking advantage of now — not only today, but we’re also creating something that is going to well outlive us by building this site.  And I am really proud to be a part of that legacy, sir.

THE PRESIDENT:  Thank you very much.  (Applause.)  Great job.  Thank you.  She’ll be running for office soon.  (Laughter.)  Fantastic job.

Samantha Polizotto was a single mom working full-time when she learned about process technology training programs at the local community college, funded by Shell.  She became the first woman to graduate from that program, and she made the Dean’s List.  That’s pretty good.  Now she’s leading the way as one of the very first production operators hired here at Shell.

Samantha, please come up and say a few words.  Please.  (Applause.)

MS. POLIZOTTO:  Growing up in Beaver County, I can recall people talking of the “good old days,” when steel mills were running and, often, people were born and spent their whole lives in the same town.  Local families had multiple generations working the same industry and, in many cases, the same companies.

This was a fact for our parents.  But with the fall of the steel mills in this area, it began to see a period of stagnation.  Hardworking men and women in this area, full of pride, still lace up their work boots, driving by the vacant skeletons of the old mills and refineries, holding onto the hope that, one day, this area would see its former glory.

The announcement of Shell Pennsylvania Chemicals Plant seems to have kindled that spark within the community.  It has provided an opportunity for steady employment for many different skilled tradesmen, emptying many of the local union halls.

As a young woman, this has also afforded me an incredible opportunity to come into the ground floor of an unprecedented project.  In school, I chose a field far different than many of my female colleagues.  Process technology is a focused area of studies around production and operations.

Predominantly male-dominated careers, I knew there would be challenges as I entered the workforce.  Being a mother and a wife, I must balance my responsibilities at work and at home.  The challenges I have faced have been softened by a network of support that has been given to me not only by my family, but also through the Community College of Beaver County, my coworkers, and, now, the culture of care at Shell.  I am proud to play a role in this project, as it restores this area and makes Beaver County great again.  (Applause.)

THE PRESIDENT:  Thank you, Samantha.  That was a great job.  Thank you.

To help create more opportunities for workers like Jason, Heather, and Samantha, my administration started the Pledge to America’s Workers.  Our partners are providing over 12 million training and enhanced career opportunities to American workers.  And my daughter, Ivanka, is working so hard on it.  She’s done a great job.  Twelve million people, so far, have been positively affected.

Today, I’m pleased to announce that Shell is signing the Pledge to America’s Workers to provide enhanced career opportunities.  By the way, Shell, thank you.  (Applause.)  They’re providing career opportunities to 3,300 workers over five years, right here in Western Pennsylvania.  That’s great.  Thank you, fellas.  Thank you very much.  And thank you, Hilary, for that tremendous commitment that you’ve made.  We really appreciate it.  Fantastic job.

Under this administration, we live by two very simple words: Buy American.  That’s what we want.  I’m going to add something: “Hire American.”  It’s about hiring American, buying American.  It’s about “America First.”  It’s about “Make America Great Again.”  It’s about “Keep America Great.”  (Applause.)

Despite all of this exceptional progress, however, some politicians in this country still want to keep America’s vast energy treasures buried deep underground and let other nations take advantage of our country.  Not happening anymore.

They see factories like this one not as a cause for celebration, but for condemnation.  Democrats in Congress are pushing hard for the Green New Deal.  How about that one?  Green New Deal.

AUDIENCE:  Booo —

THE PRESIDENT:  Where it puts everybody in this room out of work — hate to tell you — and a lot more people.  Everybody out of work.  And other — but I don’t want to speak badly about it.  You know, you’ve heard me say this: I want to encourage them.  That should be their platform.  (Laughter.)  I don’t want to do it too early.  I did it very early, with Pocahontas; I should have probably waited.  She’s staging a comeback on Sleepy Joe.  (Laughter.)  I don’t know who’s going to win, but we’ll have to hit Pocahontas very hard again if she does win.  But she’s staging a little bit of a comeback.

What a group: Pocahontas and Sleepy Joe.  (Laughter.)  I don’t think they give a damn about Western Pennsylvania, do you?

AUDIENCE:  No!

THE PRESIDENT:  I don’t think so.  And other radical plans to wipe out our coal.  That’s what they want.  They want to wipe out our oil.  They want to wipe out our natural gas industries, while allowing other countries to steal our jobs.

Virtually every leading Democrat has vowed to eliminate fossil fuels, obliterating millions of American jobs, devastating communities, and bankrupting factories, families, and senior citizens all across this region.

And, by the way, this is only fuel that has the power for plants.  When you have to steam up and you have to fuel up on these giant plants, these giant generators, these giant electrical factories, you need what you’re doing.  You need this.  It’s got the power.  The other doesn’t have the power; certainly not yet.  Probably never will.

And we’re not taking chances.  And we have the cleanest air and water we’ve ever had in our country right now.  The cleanest we’ve ever had.  And we’re going to keep it that way.  (Applause.)

But we’re never going to allow other countries and outside sources to take away our great wealth, because that’s what they want to do.  They want to take away our wealth, take away our jobs.  We’re not going to let it happen.

To see the destructive results of the far-left’s energy nightmare, just compare the enormous success here in Pennsylvania with the tremendous folly happening right across a line — a little line — ina New York.  Both states have vast energy reserves, but New York prohibits development while Pennsylvania welcomes it.

From 2010 to 2017, natural gas production plummeted by nearly 70 percent in New York, but it soared almost 1,000 percent in Pennsylvania.  And New York won’t allow us to build a pipeline across because New York is sort of a long state and we can’t have pipelines going across, helping a region that’s not a wealthy region at all.  They have a lot of economic problems.  People are leaving, left and right.

We want to get it over to the waters.  We want to get it over to the oceans.  We want to get it up to New England, where they have the highest energy costs anywhere in the United States.  We can’t get energy because New York doesn’t allow the pipelines to go through.  And that’s going to be very costly for New York, ultimately.

As a result, families in Pennsylvania shale country got more jobs, billions of dollars in royalty payments, and wages that are significantly higher compared to their neighbors just across the state line.

Meanwhile, families in New York — I love New York; that’s where I’m from.  Probably, most of you don’t know that.  (Laughter.)  That’s where I’m from.  They’re burdened with more power outages and electricity rates — you never saw anything like this — that are much, much higher than neighboring states and than your state.  New York energy rates are through the roof.  New England, through the roof.  A lot of it has to do with the fact that we can’t get pipelines through New York.  New York won’t let us.  They won’t let us.

All New York likes to do is sue me.  They like to sue me.  (Laughter.)  They’re always suing.  I said, “Which lawyer is handling that case?”  No, they sue me for everything so they can try to stop us by any means possible.  The radical Left wants to do to America what they’ve done to New York: raise prices, kill jobs, and leave our nation less independent and far less secure.

My vision is the exact opposite.  And we want to work with New York and we want to help New York.  They need jobs in New York so badly.

You know, they talk about the environment.  So you have the state line, and over here you have machinery fracking.  And over here you have nothing, except poverty.  Over here you have people driving new cars and nice cars.  And over here you have cars that are 40 years old.  Now, what does that have to do with the environment?  It’s the same.  It’s an artificial line.

And I wonder what happens when they get down there.  What happens?  I just wonder, is New York losing its wealth?  You know what I’m talking about, right?  What happens when those lines go down and they can go in any direction now?  The equipment is so incredible.

So, hopefully, we can help New York.  I want to help New York so much.  We will never allow ourselves to be at the mercy of foreign energy suppliers.  And that’s what’s fighting us.  They don’t want us to have great energy.  They’ve made a fortune selling us energy.

You probably saw the Straits the other day.  Very few American boats are there.  They capture — Iran, I broke up that deal.  That was a good thing to do.  It’s a whole different country right now.  (Applause.)

But they’re capturing boats from other countries.  They’re not taking our boats.  And one of the things that was brought up by the media, actually — and wisely and correctly brought out — we have very few boats going there anymore because we have our own oil and gas.  We don’t need it from the Middle East anymore.  (Applause.)

And that’s why we’re pursuing a future not only of energy independence — but not just words.  You know, you’ve been hearing “energy independence” for years and years, and you’d hear it.  We have real independence.  But what we want now is not independence; we want American energy dominance.  Dominance.  (Applause.)

Instead of relying on foreign countries, we are now relying on American producers.  And we are relying on American workers to build our own future right here on American soil.  It’s time.  (Applause.)

And together, we’re defending the oil and gas workers who light up our cities and uplift our communities.  We’re fighting for the technicians and construction workers here in Beaver County who are building a powerful engine of American commerce.  There’s no place like what you’re seeing right outside these doors.  There is no place like it.

We’re here once again to stand up for the engineers and the factory workers who will shape the work of your hands into American-made products sold all over the world.  That’s what’s going to happen.  That’s what you’re producing.

And everyday patriots who make this all possible, you are the backbone of America.  The absolute backbone.  And you haven’t been given the honor of having that said by other people.  But you are the backbone of this country.  (Applause.)  It’s true.  So true.

You are the ones who work hard, pay your taxes, build your neighborhoods, obey our laws, safeguard our values, raise up your children, make this land the greatest nation ever to exist on the face of the Earth.  You are the ones who do it.  We work with a lot of people, but you are there and you are doing it.  You’ve always been loyal to America, and now you finally have a President of the United States who is loyal to you.  (Applause.)

Our vision is pro-worker, pro-jobs, pro-family, pro-growth, pro-energy, and 100 percent pro-American.  (Applause.)

And we’re taking care of our military, and we’re taking care of our vets.  Veterans Choice: You’ve been hearing it about for 45 years.  I got it approved.  Veterans Choice.  We’re taking care of our veterans.  We’re taking care of our military like never, ever before.  (Applause.)

Because Americans can do anything, go anywhere, and outperform anyone.  Nobody can beat us.  Nothing can stop us because winning is what Americans do.  Winning is what we know best.  We will keep winning, wining, winning.

And I used to tell you the story about winning.  I used to say that your great leaders would come to Washington and they would say, “President, we’re winning too much.  We can’t take it anymore.  The people of Pennsylvania cannot stand winning.  We haven’t won for years and years and now we’re winning too much.  Mr. President, please, for the good of the people of Pennsylvania, stop winning.  Stop creating all these jobs.  Stop creating all this product.  Please, sir.  Please, stop winning.”

And I said to them, and I will say to them, “We’re never going to stop winning because nobody has ever won like what’s happened over the last couple of years.  Nobody has ever won like you’re winning.”  I’ve more than fulfilled my promises.  Even they said, “He promised things, and he actually produced more than he promised.”  That’s true.  But we’re going to produce more and more.

I just want to thank everybody.  With your help, factory floors across this land are once more crackling with life.  (Applause.)  Our steel mills are fired up and blazing bright.  The assembly lines are roaring.  Industry is booming.  And the hearts of our workers, the American spirit, is soaring higher, stronger, freer, and greater than ever before.

I want to thank you all for giving this nation your very best.  And your very best cannot be beaten.  I want to thank you for filling America with pride.  We are proud of you.  We think you are just incredible, incredible people.  And it’s an honor for me to be with you in Pennsylvania.

Thank you very much.  God bless you.  (Applause.)  God bless you.

END

https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-american-energy-manufacturing-monaco-pa/

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POLITICS

New High in U.S. Say Immigration Most Important Problem

New High in U.S. Say Immigration Most Important Problem

STORY HIGHLIGHTS

  • 23% mention immigration as most important problem, highest in Gallup trends
  • The government is the most commonly mentioned problem, at 26%
  • Most Americans still say immigration a good thing for the U.S.

WASHINGTON, D.C. — Americans’ concern with immigration continues to be heightened, as 23% name it the most important problem facing the country. This is by one percentage point the highest Gallup has ever measured for the issue since it first began recording mentions of immigration in 1993.

Line graph. Americans’ mentions of immigration as the country’s most important problem reached a high of 23% in June.

The June 3-16 poll was conducted as the U.S. continues to grapple with how to handle a surge of Central American immigrants at the U.S.-Mexican border. Gallup has previously found spikes in mentions of immigration as the most important U.S. problem at other times when the immigration debate intensified, including:

  • 22% in July 2018 amid controversy over a U.S. policy to separate children and parents who were trying to enter the U.S. illegally
  • 17% in July 2014, when a wave of young immigrants from Central American countries crossed the U.S. border illegally
  • 19% in April 2006 as the Senate worked toward passage of a comprehensive immigration reform bill it later passed but ultimately was not considered by the House of Representatives

Mentions of immigration have been higher on average in 2019 than in any prior year. The 20% average to date compares with 14% in 2018, and no more than 10% in any other year.

Yet immigration has typically finished behind the government as the nation’s top problem over the past three years, and did so again this month, when 26% of Americans named the government. Government has finished ahead of immigration in all but two months since February 2017 (July and November 2018). This included a record 35% naming the government in February.

Concern about the government is broadly distributed across the three major partisan groups, with 32% of Democrats and 23% of both Republicans and independents currently identifying it as the most important problem. In contrast, immigration mentions are far more common among Republicans (42%) than Democrats (7%). Twenty-one percent of independents name it.

One in Three Want Immigration Levels Decreased

Asked their preferences for U.S. immigration levels, 37% of Americans say it should be kept at its present level, while more say it should be decreased (35%) than increased (27%). The percentage wanting immigration reduced is higher than the average 30% holding this view in Gallup’s two prior surveys, in January 2019 and July 2018. However, in the past, many more Americans have called for a reduction than do so now, including 41% in June 2014, 58% in October 2001 (after 9/11), and a record 65% in the mid-1990s during a surge of illegal immigration in California.

In recent years, there has been an uptick in the percentage who want immigration to the U.S. increased. Before 2012, the percentage never reached 20%, but it has been above that mark since, including a record 30% in January.

Line graph. Among Americans, 37% want immigration kept at current levels, 35% would prefer it decreased and 27% increased.

As their differences in perceptions of immigration as the most important problem would suggest, partisans have divergent views on U.S. immigration levels. A slim majority of Republicans, 54%, want them decreased, while 31% want them kept the same and 13% increased. Democrats are about equally likely to prefer increased immigration (43%) as to want current levels maintained (42%); just 13% want immigration cut. Independents’ views essentially match those of all U.S. adults.

Public Mixed in Assessment of Immigration’s Effects

Even as they acknowledge immigration as one of the nation’s most pressing problems, Americans still view immigration positively in general, with 76% describing it as a good thing for the country today and 19% as a bad thing. Since Gallup first asked this question in 2001, no fewer than 52% have affirmed immigration’s value, with the current year’s figure the highest to date by one point.

Line graph. Three-quarters, 76%, of Americans say immigration is good for the country, 19% say it is bad for the U.S.

Notably, two-thirds of Americans who identify immigration as the most important problem still believe it is a good thing for the country.

Democrats (87%) are much more likely than Republicans (62%) to say immigration is a good thing, with 78% of independents holding that view.

Americans’ assessments of the effect of immigration on six aspects of U.S. society are mixed. In two areas — the economy and food, music, and the arts — more believe immigration has made the situation better than made it worse. The public is divided as to immigration’s effects on social and moral values and job opportunities for their family, but more evaluate immigration’s effect on crime and taxes negatively than positively.

Americans’ Views of Immigration’s Impact Mixed
For each of the following areas, please say whether immigrants to the United States are making the situation in the country better or worse, or not having much effect. How about — [RANDOM ORDER]?
Better Worse No effect Net (% Better – % Worse)
% % % pct. pts.
Food, music and the arts 57 10 32 +47
The economy in general 43 31 25 +12
Social and moral values 31 28 39 +3
Job opportunities for you and your family 19 25 56 -6
Taxes 20 42 37 -22
The crime situation 7 42 50 -35
GALLUP, JUNE 3-16, 2019

Americans’ opinions on the impact immigration has on these aspects of society have shifted in a more positive direction over the past two decades. Specifically, the public is much more positive today about immigration’s effect on the economy and job opportunities than they were in 2001, when Gallup first asked the question. While still negative overall today, Americans are less negative about immigration’s effect on taxes and the crime situation than they were 18 years ago.

Probing further on immigration’s impact on the economy, the poll asked Americans whether immigrants “mostly help the economy by providing low-cost labor” or “mostly hurt the economy by driving down wages for many Americans.” For the first time, a majority of Americans say immigrants mostly help the economy, with 55% holding this view, compared with 37% who see immigrants as harming the economy. In 1993 and 2004 surveys, large majorities of Americans saw immigrants as detrimental to the economy.

Line graph. More than half, 55%, of Americans see immigrants as mostly helping the U.S. economy; 37% see them as hurting it.

Republicans disagree with Democrats and independents on the effect of immigration on the economy. Whereas 60% of Republicans see immigration as hurting the economy, 72% of Democrats and 58% of independents believe it helps.

Implications

At a time when Americans are more likely to name immigration as the most important problem facing the country than any in recent memory, they hold mixed views about it. They still see immigration as a good thing for the country, and more believe it benefits than harms the economy. About one-third want to see immigration levels reduced, but that is a lower proportion than in past surveys, including times when fewer Americans viewed immigration as a pressing U.S. problem.

The issue continues to challenge U.S. lawmakers, as Congress and Presidents George W. Bush, Barack Obama and Donald Trump have been unable to enact meaningful legislation to stem the flow of illegal immigrants to the country and develop a plan for immigrants living in the U.S. illegally. As such, the issue promises to remain a major one in the coming presidential election.

View complete question responses and trends.

Learn more about how the Gallup Poll Social Series works.

https://news.gallup.com/poll/259103/new-high-say-immigration-important-problem.aspx

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The Pronk Pops Show 1227, March 21, 2019 — Story 1:President Trump Said It is Time The United States Recognize the Golan Heights as Part of Israel — America Does Stand With Israel — Videos — Story 2: ISIS Caliphate Final Days Numbered — The End Is Near — Three Cheers — Videos — Story 3: Crazy Communist Cortez aka Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez or AOC — Leads Lying Lunatic Leftist Losers aka Radical Extremist Democrat Socialists (REDS) — In Their Guts Voters Know She Is Nuts — Videos — Story 4: Radical Extremist Democrat Socialist (REDS) Want To Replace The Electoral College With Majority Rule Democracy or Tyranny of The Majority — Founding Fathers Were Right and Wise in Establishing The Electoral College — American People Vote By State For President of The United States of America — Videos

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Story 1: President Trump Said It is Time The United States Recognize the Golan Heights as Part of Israel — America Does Stand With Israel — Videos

 

See the source image

Word for Word: Prime Minister Netanyahu “deeply grateful” for U.S. support (C-SPAN)

Trump supports Israel’s sovereignty over Golan Heights

With Trump’s Golan Heights move, Netanyahu may be the biggest winner

Trump tweets Israel should have sovereignty over Golan Heights

Trump: Time for US to Recognize Israeli Sovereignty Over Golan Heights

Trump says U.S. should recognize the Golan Heights as part of Israel as Netanyahu accuses Iran of trying to set up terror network there — and Trump insists the move has NOTHING to do with saving Bibi’s re-election hopes

  • The Golan Heights are 690 square miles of territory that Israel annexed in 1981 after winning it from Syria in the 1967 Six-Day War
  • The United Nations has never recognized Israeli sovereignty there
  • Donald Trump said Thursday on Twitter that it’s time for the U.S. to do so
  • Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu is scheduled to meet with Trump on Monday in Washington and to speak at the AIPAC conference
  • The Golan Heights decision will be seen as a seismic move akin to repositioning America’s embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem
  • Trump said in a Fox Business Network interview that he had ‘been thinking about doing it for a long time’
  • Asked whether his announcement was linked to Netanyahu’s political future, Trump said, ‘No. I wouldn’t even know about that’
  • Netanyahu faces near-certain indictment on corruption charges as he prepares to stand for re-election on April 9 

President Donald Trump signaled on Thursday that the U.S. will soon officially recognize the contested Golan Heights region as a part of Israel.

The move comes just four days before Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is scheduled to visit with Trump at the White House.

Israel will see such a development as rivaling the significance of last year’s opening of a U.S. embassy in Jerusalem — a unilateral White House action that now has city authorities planning to name a new subway station after the American president.

Trump said in an interview with the Fox Business Network, slated for broadcast on Friday morning, that he had ‘been thinking about doing it for a long time.’

Host Maria Bartiromo asked the president if the move was about the election – a reference to the April 9 election the embattled Netanyahu faces.

‘No. I wouldn’t even know about that,’ Trump responded. The president’s timing, however, coincides with a political crisis for Netanyhu, who almost certainly will face a corruption indictment following an announcement by his country’s attorney general.

Asked whether his announcement was linked to Netanyahu’s political future, Trump said, ‘No. I wouldn’t even know about that,’ and added: ‘I hear he’s doing okay. But I would imagine the other side, whoever’s against him, is also in favor of what I just did.’

‘Every president has said, “Do that.” I’m the one that gets it done.’

President Donald Trump signaled on Thursday that the U.S. will soon officially recognize the contested Golan Heights region as a part of Israel

 

President Donald Trump signaled on Thursday that the U.S. will soon officially recognize the contested Golan Heights region as a part of Israel

'After 52 years it is time for the United States to fully recognize Israel’s Sovereignty over the Golan Heights,' the president tweeted

‘After 52 years it is time for the United States to fully recognize Israel’s Sovereignty over the Golan Heights,’ the president tweeted

The Golan Heights are 690 square miles straddling between Israel and Syria; Israel won the territory and others from Syria in 1967 during the Six-Day War

The Golan Heights are 690 square miles straddling between Israel and Syria; Israel won the territory and others from Syria in 1967 during the Six-Day War

Secretary of State Mike Pompeo (center) joined Netanyahu (right) and U.S. Ambassador to Israel David Friedman (not pictured) in prayers at the Western Wall in Jerusalem's Old City on Thursday

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu tweeted back at Trump, saying Trump's move came 'at a time when Iran seeks to use Syria as a platform to destroy Israel

 

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu tweeted back at Trump, saying Trump’s move came ‘at a time when Iran seeks to use Syria as a platform to destroy Israel

Netanyahu tweeted his gratitude Thursday afternoon, writing: ‘At a time when Iran seeks to use Syria as a platform to destroy Israel, President Trump boldly recognizes Israeli sovereignty over the Golan Heights. Thank you President Trump!’

In a tweet, the president had declared: ‘After 52 years it is time for the United States to fully recognize Israel’s Sovereignty over the Golan Heights, which is of critical strategic and security importance to the State of Israel and Regional Stability!’

Rumors of the potential move swirled in diplomatic circles this week as Israel-watchers expected a policy announcement timed with an American Israel Public Affairs Committee meeting next week, where Netanyahu will speak.

At least four prominent Democratic presidential contenders have said they will skip the annual event as AIPAC has come under fire from their party’s progressive wing.

Fort Wayne, Indiana Mayor Pete Buttigieg, former HUS Secretary Julian Castro, California Sen. Kamala Harris and Massachusetts Sen. Elizabeth Warren are all sidestepping the thorny Israel issue after freshman Democratic Rep. Ilhan Omar earned a reputation as an anti-Semite for complaining that moneyed Jews control much of Washington.

The president insisted he knows 'nothing' about how his announcement might help Netanyahu solidify his political position in advance of an April 9 election; Netanyahu faces the possibility of a corruption indictment between now and then

The president insisted he knows ‘nothing’ about how his announcement might help Netanyahu solidify his political position in advance of an April 9 election; Netanyahu faces the possibility of a corruption indictment between now and then

South Carolina Republican Senator Lindsey Graham, Netanyahu and Friedman visited the border between Israel and Syria in the Golan Heights

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu tweeted back at Trump, saying Trump's move came 'at a time when Iran seeks to use Syria as a platform to destroy Israel

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu tweeted back at Trump, saying Trump’s move came ‘at a time when Iran seeks to use Syria as a platform to destroy Israel

Netanyahu tweeted his gratitude Thursday afternoon, writing: ‘At a time when Iran seeks to use Syria as a platform to destroy Israel, President Trump boldly recognizes Israeli sovereignty over the Golan Heights. Thank you President Trump!’

In a tweet, the president had declared: ‘After 52 years it is time for the United States to fully recognize Israel’s Sovereignty over the Golan Heights, which is of critical strategic and security importance to the State of Israel and Regional Stability!’

Rumors of the potential move swirled in diplomatic circles this week as Israel-watchers expected a policy announcement timed with an American Israel Public Affairs Committee meeting next week, where Netanyahu will speak.

At least four prominent Democratic presidential contenders have said they will skip the annual event as AIPAC has come under fire from their party’s progressive wing.

Fort Wayne, Indiana Mayor Pete Buttigieg, former HUS Secretary Julian Castro, California Sen. Kamala Harris and Massachusetts Sen. Elizabeth Warren are all sidestepping the thorny Israel issue after freshman Democratic Rep. Ilhan Omar earned a reputation as an anti-Semite for complaining that moneyed Jews control much of Washington.

South Carolina Republican Senator Lindsey Graham, Netanyahu and Friedman visited the border between Israel and Syria in the Golan Heights last week

 The Golan Heights’ role as a Middle East political football intensified this week when the State Department stopped referring to it as ‘Israeli-occupied’ territory, a designation favored by Arabs.

In a new report, the area was called the ‘Israeli-controlled Golan Heights.’

A spokesman for Palestinian National Authority President Mahmoud Abbas called that decision ‘a continuation of the hostile approach of the American administration toward our Palestinian people.’

The spokesman said the shift is part of Trump’s plan to ‘liquidate’ the Palestinians’ cause.

Israel captured the Golan Heights from Syria in 1967 during the Six-Day War. The area’s 690 square miles today are a buffer zone between the two nations.

The United Nations weeks later called on Israel to withdraw from the territory, and from the West Bank and Gaza in a resolution that also declared that Israel had the same right as Arab states ‘to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force.’

Pompeo's (center) frequent appearance in Israel is a sign of Trump's closeness with Netanyahu (left) and the value Israelis place on the certainty of their U.S. alliance

Netanyahu, Pompeo and Friedman finished their Old City Jerusalem tour on Thursday with a visit to the Western Wall Tunnels

Netanyahu, Pompeo and Friedman finished their Old City Jerusalem tour on Thursday with a visit to the Western Wall Tunnels

Israel instead enacted a law that effectively annexed the western two-thirds of the Golan Heights in 1981 following years of squabbling over the resolution.

The UN Security Council then passed a resolution declaring ‘that the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan Heights is null and void and without international legal effect.’

Netanyahu suggested Thursday in Jerusalem that he’s eager to see Trump make a unilateral move akin to his decision in December 2017 to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s undivided capital, and his later move of America’s embassy there from Tel Aviv.

The presidential order enraged Palestinians, who see the largely Palestinian region of East Jerusalem as the future capital of a Palestinian nation whose existence the U.S. hasn’t acknowledged.

Israel’s prime minister also thanked Secretary of State Mike Pompeo on Thursday for the Trump administration’s strong denunciations of Iran, which Israel regards as an existential threat.

The prime minister accused Tehran on Thursday of attempting to set up a terrorist network to target Israel from the Golan Heights, using Hezbollah militia groups from Lebanon as mercenaries.

Druze women, Arab-speaking Israeli citizens who live in the Israeli-annexed Golan Heights but consider themselves Palestinians, watched a protest there last week

Druze women, Arab-speaking Israeli citizens who live in the Israeli-annexed Golan Heights but consider themselves Palestinians, watched a protest there last week

‘Just last week we uncovered efforts by Hezbollah, an Iranian proxy, to build a military network in Syria, in the Golan Heights,’ Netanyahu said during a press conference. ‘All of you can imagine what would have happened if Israel were not in the Golan: We would have Iran on the shores of the Sea of Galilee.’

‘I think, for this reason, and many more, it is time that the international community recognises Israel’s stay on the Golan, and the fact that the Golan will always remain part of the State of Israel.’

One reason is the steady deterioration of security along a demilitarized border zone between Israel and Syria which lost its historical calm when the Syrian civil war began in 2011.

South Carolina Republican Sen. Lindsey Graham, a staunch Trump ally, visited the Golan Heights with Netanyahu on Monday and pledged to promote Israel’s sovereignty over the area ‘now and forever.’

Story 2: ISIS Caliphate Final Days Numbered — The End Is Near — Three Cheers — Videos —

Syrian media, Pentagon send conflicting reports on ISIS defeat

Flares illuminate Syrian horizon as WH claims caliphate defeated

militants will still be a threat

Inside ISIS’s Final Fight (HBO)

Fighting in Syria continues as ISIS close to defeat

 

White House declares end to Islamic State, but fighting grinds on

March 22 at 4:59 PM

U.S.-backed forces have pushed the Islamic State out of its final foothold in Syria, the White House said Friday, making a long-awaited victory announcement but defying eyewitness accounts of continued fighting.

Speaking to reporters aboard Air Force One, White House press secretary Sarah Sanders said the group’s “territorial caliphate has been eliminated in Syria.”

Trump, making brief remarks to reporters after landing in Palm Beach, Fla., showed reporters a map comparing Iraq and Syria at the height of Islamic State power in 2014 with today.

“That’s what we have right now,” he said, indicating areas no longer controlled by the militants.

The announcement, more than four years after the United States launched its first airstrikes against the then-formidable militant group, follows months of speculation about when U.S.-backed Syrian forces would capture the Islamic State’s final foothold in eastern Syria.

Neighboring Iraq declared victory over the group in late 2017.

But the White House statements were immediately contradicted by reports from eyewitnesses and local forces in eastern Syria, where the U.S.-backed ­Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) have struggled to root out militant holdouts who are dug in among civilians.

Mustafa Bali, a spokesman for the SDF, said the fighting had not eased up around the village of Baghouz, which has been the scene of an intense battle against those holdouts.

“Heavy fighting continues around mount #Baghouz right now to finish off whatever remains of ISIS,” he said in a message on Twitter.

A U.S. military official, speaking on the condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to comment publicly, said the SDF was still working “to clear pockets of ISIS from caves under Baghouz.”

The official said there appeared to be a few hundred militants remaining around Baghouz.

Trump claims credit for ISIS’s territorial losses in Syria

President Trump on March 20 showed a map of the Islamic State’s diminished territory in Syria, and said it “will be gone by tonight.” 

Photographs from the area showed the night sky lit up with tracer rounds.

The militants appeared to be pinned down along a cliff near the Euphrates River as they mount a desperate final stand.

More than 50,000 people have left the enclave since January, surprising military planners who have repeatedly believed the area to be almost empty.

On Thursday, the International Rescue Committee said that thousands more civilians could follow in the coming days.

“These women and children are in the worst condition we have seen since the crisis first began,” said Wendy Taeuber, the group’s Iraq and northeast Syria country director.

The Pentagon did not immediately provide an explanation for the apparent disconnect between the White House depiction and reports from eastern Syria.

Trump, who has been eager to end the U.S. military mission in Syria, has repeatedly suggested in recent months that a final victory was imminent, only to have the fighting drag on.

In December, Trump made another victory declaration as he announced, in a surprise move, that he would pull out all 2,000 U.S. troops from Syria.

In the following weeks, the president appeared to back away from that victory claim as top advisers warned that an abrupt departure from Syria would alienate allies and jeopardize gains against the militants.

The Pentagon now plans to keep at least 400 troops in Syria to help the SDF and other allies maintain security in former Islamic State strongholds.

While a conclusion to the operation would be a milestone for the Pentagon, officials expect the group will seek to mount continued insurgent attacks in Syria, as it has in Iraq.

Sanders said Trump had been briefed during his flight by acting defense secretary Patrick Shanahan.

Shanahan joins Trump at his exclusive Mar-a-Lago resort as the president considers nominating the former Boeing executive to the top Pentagon job.

It was not immediately clear whether Shanahan conveyed to Trump that the Islamic State had been ejected from Baghouz, or whether Trump or Shanahan were aware of the assessment from Syrian and U.S. forces in the region.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/white-house-declares-islamic-state-100-percent-defeated-in-syria/2019/03/22/ce39dd02-4cbd-11e9-9663-00ac73f49662_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.c29a4f4aaa92

Story 3: Crazy Communist Cortez aka Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez or AOC — Leads Lying Lunatic Leftist Losers aka Radical Extremist Democrat Socialist (REDS) — In Their Guts Voters Know She Is Nuts — Videos —

Hannity: Ocasio-Cortez bashes capitalism

Is Ocasio-Cortez driving a disconnect between the Democratic Party and voters?

Paul Sperry: Obama Has Trained Tens of Thousands of Leftist Organizers at Alinsky Camps

What is the ‘Green New Deal?’

Explaining the Green New Deal

Climate Change: What’s So Alarming?

Climate Change: What Do Scientists Say?

Can Climate Models Predict Climate Change?

Can We Rely on Wind and Solar Energy?

The Paris Climate Agreement Won’t Change the Climate

The Paris Accord: What is it? And What Does it All Mean?

Why I Left Greenpeace

Why I Left the Left

Are Electric Cars Really Green?

Capitalism vs. Socialism

How’s Socialism Doing in Venezuela?

Democratic Socialism is Still Socialism

Is Capitalism Moral?

A Progressive’s Guide to Political Correctness

Why You Can’t Argue with a Leftist

 

The political fraud of Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez’s “Green New Deal”

By Will Morrow
23 November 2018

Last week, newly-elected Democratic Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez released a proposal for an addendum to the rules of the US House of Representatives, to create a new congressional committee that would draft legislation for a “Green New Deal.” Nine Democrats have already put their names to the proposal, including Rashida Tlaib, who like Ocasio-Cortez is a member of the Democratic Socialists of America.

The document includes the call for a transition to 100 percent renewable energy within 10 years, and actions to “virtually eliminate poverty in the United States and to make prosperity, wealth and economic security available to everyone.” It calls for “a job guarantee program to assure a living wage to every person who wants one”; “massive investment in the drawdown of greenhouse gases,” and “upgrading every residential and industrial building for state-of-the-art energy efficiency, comfort and safety.”

The document, as with Ocasio-Cortez’s politics, is characterized by a massive political fraud. It includes various left-sounding rhetoric, but is entirely directed to and dependent upon the Democratic Party. In particular, the members of the committee would be selected by the Speaker of the House, who is likely to be Nancy Pelosi, the stalwart of the Democratic Party establishment who has received the support of Ocasio-Cortez herself.

Any serious measures to stop global warming, let alone assure a job and livable wage to everyone, would require a massive redistribution of wealth and the reallocation of trillions currently spent on US imperialism’s neo-colonial wars abroad.

Ocasio-Cortez’s document, however, excludes any encroachment on the fortunes of the ruling class. It calls instead for “innovative public and other financing structures,” including a “new public bank,” or system of banks, or “public venture funds,” which in concrete terms means nothing more than new avenues for providing cheap credit to private corporations. Everything is phrased as part of consultation with “business” leaders.

Several of her proposals are explicitly aimed at promoting the interests of different sections of capital, including the call to “promote opportunities” for “entrepreneurship,” and “promote economic security, labor market flexibility and entrepreneurism.”

“Labor market flexibility”—that is, the ability of corporations to fire and hire at will. Such is the character of Ocasio-Cortez’s great left-wing reform!

The original “New Deal,” which included massive public works infrastructure projects, was introduced by Democratic President Franklin Roosevelt in the 1930s amid the Great Depression. Its purpose was to stave off a socialist revolution in America. It was a response to a militant upsurge of strikes and violent class battles, led by socialists who were inspired by the 1917 Russian Revolution that had occurred less than two decades before.

American capitalism could afford to make such concessions because of its economic dominance. The past forty years have been characterized by the continued decline of American capitalism on a world stage relative to its major rivals. The ruling class has responded to this crisis with a social counterrevolution to claw back all gains won by workers. This has been carried out under both Democratic and Republican administrations and with the assistance of the trade unions.

Since the 2008 crash, first under Bush and Obama, and now Trump, the ruling elites have pursued a single-minded policy of enriching the wealthy, through free credit, corporate bailouts and tax cuts, while slashing spending on social services.

To claim as does Ocasio-Cortez that American capitalism can provide a new “New Deal,” of a green or any other variety, is to promote an obvious political fiction.

None of the signatories to the bill believes that any of its proposals—except those directly tailored to corporate interests—will ever be implemented. Its purpose is rather to promote illusions that the Democratic Party, a party of the corporate and financial elite no less than the Republicans, can be transformed into an agency of social progress.

The document states that the newly-formed committee would be required to complete its plan by January 2020 and publish its draft legislation by March 2020, immediately prior to the next presidential elections. Any such documents would be wholly aimed at providing some popular appeal to the Democrats’ election campaign. They would be permanently shelved immediately after the election, regardless of the outcome.

Ocasio-Cortez’s promotion of the “Green New Deal” is also aimed at distracting attention from her own rapid rightward shift after her primary victory.

She has backtracked on her earlier criticisms of Israeli slaughters of Gaza protesters; hailed the late Republican Senator and war criminal John McCain as an “unparalleled example of human decency and American service;” called for securing US borders, dropped her previous calls to “Abolish ICE [Immigration and Customs Enforcement],” and declared that this slogan “does not mean abolish deportations” of immigrants. Over the weekend, she declared her support for Nancy Pelosi as the speaker of the House.

The “Green New Deal” is another example of the political function of Ocasio-Cortez and the DSA in seeking to provide a “left” political veneer for the capitalist politics of the Democratic Party. The latter is campaigning against the billionaire demagogue Trump on a right-wing basis, attacking him not for his militarist threats, fascistic rants, attacks on immigrants and efforts to build up an extra-parliamentary extreme-right movement, but for being insufficiently deferential toward the American intelligence agencies and aggressive toward Russia.

A socialist response to climate change cannot take place through the Democratic Party or within the framework of capitalism. It requires the organization of production according to a rational, scientific plan on a global scale. This requirement is fundamentally incompatible with both the private ownership of humanity’s productive forces (and the subordination of production according to the profit interests of the capitalist class), and the continued division of the world into rival national states, who compete on behalf of their own capitalist class for markets, profits and geostrategic control.

What is needed is not empty promises of a new “New Deal” bestowed from above by the capitalist class—which in any case is impossible—but socialist revolution by the working class and a fundamental transformation of society.

https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2018/11/23/cort-n23.html

 

Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez

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Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez
Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez standing
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York‘s 14th district
Assumed office
January 3, 2019
Preceded by Joe Crowley
Personal details
Born October 13, 1989 (age 29)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Education Boston University (BA)
Website House website

Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (/ˌkɑːsi kɔːrˈtɛz/Spanish: [oˈkasjo koɾˈtes];[1] born October 13, 1989), also known by her initials, AOC,[2][3] is an American politician and activist.[4][5] A member of the Democratic Party, she has been the U.S. Representative for New York’s 14th congressional district since January 3, 2019. The district includes the eastern part of The Bronx and portions of north-central Queens in New York City.

On June 26, 2018, Ocasio-Cortez drew national recognition when she won the Democratic Party’s primary election for New York’s 14th congressional district, defeating the ten-term incumbent Congressman, Democratic Caucus Chair Joe Crowley, in what was widely seen as the biggest upset victory in the 2018 midterm election primaries.[11] She beat Republican opponent Anthony Pappas in the November 6, 2018, general election, and at age 29, became the youngest woman ever to serve in the United States Congress.[12] Ocasio-Cortez is noted for her social media presence.[13][14]

Ocasio-Cortez is a member of the Democratic Socialists of America.[15] Ocasio-Cortez and Rashida Tlaib are the first two members of the group in Congress. She advocates for a progressive platform that includes Medicare For All, a federal jobs guarantee, a proposed Green New Deal, abolishing U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, free public college and trade school, and a 70% marginal tax rate for incomes above $10 million. Before running for Congress, she served as an educational director for the 2017 Northeast Collegiate World Series for the National Hispanic Institute. Ocasio-Cortez majored in international relations and economics at Boston University, graduating cum laude in 2011.

 

Early life

Ocasio-Cortez was born in The BronxNew York City, on October 13, 1989, to Blanca Ocasio-Cortez (née Cortez) and Sergio Ocasio in a Catholic family.[16] She has a younger brother, Gabriel Ocasio-Cortez.[17] Her father was born in the Bronx to a Puerto Rican family and became an architect; her mother was born in Puerto Rico.[18][19] She has described her Puerto Rican community as an amalgamation: “We are black; we are indigenous; we are Spanish; we are European.”[20] Until age five, Ocasio-Cortez lived with her family in an apartment in the neighborhood of Parkchester.[19] The family moved to a house in Yorktown Heights, a suburb in Westchester County.[19]

Ocasio-Cortez attended Yorktown High School, graduating in 2007.[21] She came in second in the Microbiology category of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair with a microbiology research project on the effect of antioxidants on the lifespan of the nematode C. elegans.[22] In a show of appreciation for her efforts, the MIT Lincoln Laboratory named a small asteroid after her: 23238 Ocasio-Cortez.[23][24] In high school, she took part in the National Hispanic Institute‘s Lorenzo de Zavala (LDZ) Youth Legislative Session. She later became the LDZ Secretary of State while she attended Boston University. Ocasio-Cortez had a John F. Lopez Fellowship.[25] In 2008, while Ocasio-Cortez was a sophomore at Boston University, her father died of lung cancer.[26][27] During college, she served as an intern in the immigration office during the final year of U.S. Senator Ted Kennedy‘s tenure.[28] “I was the only Spanish speaker, and as a result, as basically a kid—a 19-, 20-year-old kid—whenever a frantic call would come into the office because someone is looking for their husband because they have been snatched off the street by ICE, I was the one that had to pick up that phone,” Ocasio-Cortez said. “I was the one that had to help that person navigate that system.”[28]

She graduated cum laude from Boston University’s College of Arts and Sciences in 2011, majoring in international relations and economics.[25][29][30]

When her father died intestate in 2008,[31] she became involved in a long probate battle to settle his estate. She has said that the experience helped her learn “firsthand how attorneys appointed by the court to administer an estate can enrich themselves at the expense of the families struggling to make sense of the bureaucracy.”[32]

Early career

After college, Ocasio-Cortez moved back to the Bronx and found work as an educational director. Following the death of her father, she took on an additional job working as a bartender and waitress to help her mother—a house cleaner and school-bus driver—fight foreclosure of their home.[33][34] Ocasio-Cortez later launched Brook Avenue Press, a publishing firm for books that portray the Bronx in a positive light.[35] She worked as lead educational strategist at GAGEis, Inc.[36] Ocasio-Cortez also worked for the nonprofit National Hispanic Institute, serving as the Educational Director of the 2017 Northeast Collegiate World Series, a five-day long program targeted at college-bound high school students from across the United States and other countries, where she also participated in the panel on the future of Latino leadership.[25][37][38]

In the 2016 primary, Ocasio-Cortez worked as an organizer for Bernie Sanders’s 2016 presidential campaign.[39] After the general election, she traveled across America by car, visiting places such as FlintMichigan, and Standing Rock Indian Reservation in North Dakota, and speaking to people affected by the Flint water crisis and the Dakota Access Pipeline.[40] In an interview, she recalled her visit to Standing Rock as a tipping point, saying that before that, she had believed that the only way to effectively run for office was if you had access to wealth, social influence, and power. But her visit to North Dakota, where she saw others “putting their whole lives and everything that they had on the line for the protection of their community”, inspired her to begin to work for her own community.[41]

2018 campaign

Ocasio-Cortez’s congressional campaign logo was inspired by “revolutionary posters and visuals from the past.”

Ocasio-Cortez began her campaign while waiting tables and tending bar at Flats Fix, a taqueria in New York City’s Union Square.[42] “For 80 percent of this campaign, I operated out of a paper grocery bag hidden behind that bar,” she told Bon Appétit.[43] She was the first person since 2004 to challenge Joe Crowley, the Democratic Caucus Chair, in the primary. She faced a financial disadvantage, saying, “You can’t really beat big money with more money. You have to beat them with a totally different game.” Her campaign posters’ design were said to have taken inspiration from “revolutionary posters and visuals from the past.”[44]

On June 15, the candidates’ only face-to-face encounter during the campaign occurred on a local political talk show, Inside City Hall. The format was a joint interview conducted by Errol Louis, which NY1 characterized as a debate.[45]On June 18, a debate in the Bronx was scheduled, but Crowley did not participate. He sent former New York City Council member Annabel Palma in his place.[46][47][48]

Endorsements

Ocasio-Cortez was endorsed by progressive and civil rights organizations such as MoveOn,[49] Justice Democrats,[50] Brand New Congress,[51] Black Lives Matter,[52] and Democracy for America,[39] and by gubernatorial candidate Cynthia Nixon, who, like Ocasio-Cortez, also challenged a longtime incumbent. Nixon challenged incumbent Andrew Cuomo in the 2018 New York gubernatorial election[53] but lost.

Governor Cuomo endorsed Crowley, as did both of New York’s U.S. Senators, Chuck Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand, as well as New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio, 11 U.S. Representatives, 31 local elected officials, 31 trade unions, and progressive groups such as the Sierra ClubPlanned Parenthood, the Working Families PartyNARAL Pro-Choice America, and Moms Demand Action for Gun Sense in America, among others.[54] California representative Ro Khanna, a Justice Democrat like Ocasio-Cortez,[55] initially endorsed Crowley but later endorsed Ocasio-Cortez in an unusual dual endorsement.[56]

Primary election

Ocasio-Cortez speaks to a voter during the campaign.

On June 26, 2018, Ocasio-Cortez received 57.13% of the vote (15,897) to Joe Crowley’s 42.5% (11,761), defeating the 10-term incumbent by almost 15 percentage points.[57] Her win, and Crowley’s defeat, came as a shock to many political commentators and analysts and immediately garnered nationwide attention. Time called her victory “the biggest upset of the 2018 elections so far”;[58] CNN made a similar statement.[7] The New York Times described Crowley’s loss as “a shocking primary defeat on Tuesday, the most significant loss for a Democratic incumbent in more than a decade, and one that will reverberate across the party and the country”.[39] The Guardian called it “one of the biggest upsets in recent American political history”.[59] Her victory was especially surprising as she was outspent by a margin of 18 to 1.[60] Merriam-Webster reported that searches for the word “socialism” spiked 1,500% after her victory.[61] Crowley conceded defeat on election night.[62] However, that he did not call primary night to congratulate Ocasio-Cortez was a matter of dispute which was made public on Twitter on July 11, fueling some short-lived speculation that he intended to run against her.[63]

Bernie Sanders and Noam Chomsky congratulated her.[10][64] Several commentators noted the similarities between Ocasio-Cortez’s victory over Crowley and Dave Brat‘s Tea Party movement-supported 2014 victory over Eric Cantor in the Republican primary for Virginia’s 7th congressional district.[65][66] Like Crowley, Cantor was a high-ranking member in his party’s caucus.[67] After her primary win, Ocasio-Cortez endorsed several progressive primary challengers to Democratic incumbents nationwide,[68] capitalizing on her fame and spending her political capital in a manner unusual even for unexpected primary winners.[69]

Without campaigning for it, Ocasio-Cortez won the Reform Party primary as a write-in candidate in a neighboring congressional district, New York’s 15th, with a total vote count of nine, highest among all 22 write-in candidates. She declined the nomination.[70][71]

General election

Ocasio-Cortez faced Republican nominee Anthony Pappas in the November 6 general election.[72] Pappas, who lives in Astoria, is an economics professor at St. John’s University. According to the New York Post, Pappas did not actively campaign. The Post wrote that “Pappas’ bid was a long shot,” since the 14th has a Cook Partisan Voting Index of D+29, making it the sixth most Democratic district in New York City. Registered Democrats outnumber Republicans by almost six to one.[73][74][75] Ocasio-Cortez was endorsed by various politically progressive organizations and figures, including former President Barack Obama and U.S. Senator Bernie Sanders.[76][77] She spoke at the Netroots Nation conference in August 2018, and was called “the undisputed star of the convention.”[78]

Crowley also remained on the ballot, as the nominee of the Working Families Party (WFP). Neither Crowley nor the party actively campaigned, with both having endorsed Ocasio-Cortez after her Democratic primary victory.[79] Former Connecticut Senator Joe Lieberman, who won reelection in 2006 on a third-party line after losing the Democratic Primary in 2006, penned a July 17 column in the Wall Street Journal expressing his hope that Crowley would actively campaign on the WFP ballot line.[80] Dan Cantor, Executive Director of the WFP, wrote an endorsement of, and apology to, Ocasio-Cortez for the New York Daily News; he asked voters not to vote for Crowley if his name remained on the general election ballot.[81]

Ocasio-Cortez won the election with 78% of the vote (110,318) to Pappas’s 14% (17,762). Her election was part of a broader Democratic victory in the 2018 midterm elections, as the party gained control of the House by picking up at least 40 seats.[82] Saikat Chakrabarti, who had been her campaign co-chair, became chief of staff for her congressional office.[83] Co-creator of two progressive political action committees, he has been called a significant political presence.[84]

Media coverage

Ocasio-Cortez during an interview with Julia Cumming in December 2017

After her primary win, Ocasio-Cortez quickly garnered nationwide media attention, including numerous articles and TV talk-show appearances. She also drew a great deal of media attention when she and Sanders campaigned for James Thompson in Kansas in July 2018. A rally in Wichita had to be moved from a theater with a capacity of 1,500 when far more people said they would attend. The event drew 4,000 people, with some seated on the floor. In The New Yorker Benjamin Wallace-Wells wrote that while Sanders remained “the de-facto leader of an increasingly popular left, [he is unable to] do things that do not come naturally to him, like supply hope.” Wallace-Wells suggested that Ocasio-Cortez had made Sanders’s task easier, as he could point to her success to show that ideas “once considered to be radical are now part of the mainstream”.[85]

Prior to defeating incumbent Joe Crowley in the 2018 Democratic primary, Ocasio-Cortez was given little airtime by most traditional news media outlets.[86][87] Jimmy Dore interviewed her when she first announced her candidacy in June 2017.[88] After her primary win, Brian Stelter wrote that progressive-media outlets, such as The Young Turks and The Intercept, “saw the Ocasio-Cortez upset coming” in advance.[66] Margaret Sullivan said that traditional metrics of measuring a campaign’s viability, like total fundraising, were contributing to a “media failure”.[87] Ocasio-Cortez was barely mentioned in print-media coverage until her primary election win.[89] Ocasio-Cortez was one of the subjects of the 2018 Michael Moore documentary Fahrenheit 11/9; it chronicled her primary campaign.[90][91]

Just before Ocasio-Cortez took office, Twitter user “AnonymousQ” shared a Boston University student-produced dance video in which she briefly appeared, in an attempt to embarrass her.[92] Many social media users came to her defense, inspiring memes and a Twitter account syncing the footage to songs like “Mambo No. 5” and “Gangnam Style“.[93] Ocasio-Cortez lightheartedly responded by posting a video of herself dancing to Edwin Starr‘s “War“.[92]

116th Congress

File:Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez - 2019-01-16 Speech about an immigrant constituent.webm

Ocasio-Cortez’s first speech as a Representative, addressing the 2018–19 United States federal government shutdown

Ocasio-Cortez entered Congress with no seniority but with a large social media presence that could increase her influence in the House. Axios has credited her with “as much social media clout as her fellow freshman Democrats combined.”[13] As of February 2019, she has 3.1 million Twitter followers,[14] up from 1.38 million in November 2018[13] and surpassing Nancy Pelosi.[94] She has 2.2 million Instagram followers[95] and 500,000 followers on Facebook.[96] Her colleagues were so impressed that she was appointed to teach them social media lessons upon her arrival in Congress.[96]

On the first day of congressional orientation, Ocasio-Cortez participated in a climate change protest outside the office of House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi.[97] Ocasio-Cortez backed Pelosi’s bid to be Speaker of the House once the Democratic Party reclaimed the majority on the condition that Pelosi “remains the most progressive candidate for speaker.”[98]

During the orientation for new members hosted by the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Ocasio-Cortez wrote on Twitter about the influence of corporate interests by sponsors such as the American Enterprise Institute and the Center for Strategic and International Studies: “Lobbyists are here. Goldman Sachs is here. Where’s labor? Activists? Frontline community leaders?”[99][100][101] During her first month in office, admirers of Ocasio-Cortez left dozens of post-it notes with messages of encouragement in orange, pink, yellow. The sticky notes were removed after the Superintendent of House Office Buildings said the notes obscured the braille on her nameplate.”[102]

When Ocasio-Cortez made her first speech on the floor of Congress, C-SPAN tweeted out the video. Within 12 hours, the video of her four-minute speech set the record as C-SPAN’s most-watched Twitter video by a member of the House of Representative.[103]

Speaking at a Congressional hearing with a panel of representatives from campaign finance watchdog groups, Ocasio-Cortez questioned the panel about ethics regulations as they apply to both the president and members of Congress. She asserted that no regulations prevent lawmakers “from being bought off by wealthy corporations.”[104] With more than 37.5 million views, the clip became the most-watched political video ever posted on Twitter.[105]

When President Trump‘s former lawyer Michael Cohen appeared before the Oversight Committee, Ocasio-Cortez asked him whether Trump had ever inflated property values for bank or insurance purposes and inquired where to get more information on the subject. Cohen’s reply implied that Trump may have committed potential tax and bank fraud in his personal and business tax returns, financial statements and real-estate filings.[106][107] David Brooks, a commentator for The New York Times, praised her for “laying down specific questions for specific predicates”.[108]

Committee assignments

Political positions

Ocasio-Cortez is a member of the Democratic Socialists of America[15] and embraces the democratic socialist label as part of her political identity. In an interview on NBC’s Meet the Press, she described democratic socialism as “…part of what I am. It’s not all of what I am. And I think that that’s a very important distinction.”[111] She believes capitalism will gradually be replaced.[citation needed] In response to a question about democratic socialism ultimately calling for an end to capitalism during a Firing Line interview on PBS, she answered: “Ultimately, we are marching towards progress on this issue. I do think that we are going to see an evolution in our economic system of an unprecedented degree, and it’s hard to say what direction that that takes.”[112]

She rejects the policies of Cuba, the USSR and Venezuela, and favors policies that “most closely resemble what we see in the U.K., in Norway, in Finland, in Sweden.”[113][114]

Ocasio-Cortez supports progressive policies such as single-payer Medicare for Alltuition-free public college and trade school,[115] a federal job guarantee,[116] guaranteed family leave,[117] abolishing U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement,[118] ending the privatization of prisons, enacting gun-control policies,[119] and energy policy relying on 100% renewables.[120] She is open to using Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) as an economic pathway that could provide funding and enable implementation of these goals.[121]

Environment

Ocasio-Cortez speaks on a Green New Deal in front of the Capitol Building in February 2019.

Ocasio-Cortez has called for “more environmental hardliners in Congress”,[122] describing climate change as “the single biggest national security threat for the United States and the single biggest threat to worldwide industrialized civilization” and stating that the world will end in 12 years unless the problem is addressed.[123][124][125] Her comments referred to the recent United Nations report that established that unless carbon emissions are reined in over the next 12 years the effects of climate change will be irreversible.[126] Ocasio-Cortez advocates for the United States to transition to an electrical grid running on 100% renewable energy[127] and to end the use of fossil fuels within 10 years. The changes, estimated to cost roughly $2.5 trillion per year, would be financed in part by higher taxes on the wealthy.[128]

The plan, called the Green New Deal, has gained support from some Democratic senators, including Elizabeth WarrenBernie Sanders and Cory Booker;[127] other Democrats, such as Dianne Feinstein, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, and Chairman of the House Energy and Commerce Committee Frank Pallone, have expressed opposition. Activist groups such as Greenpeace and the Sunrise Movement have also come out in favor of the Green New Deal. No Republican lawmakers have voiced support.[129][130][131][132]

On February 7, Ocasio-Cortez and Senator Ed Markey released a joint resolution laying out the main elements of a 10-year “economic mobilization” that would phase out fossil fuel use and overhaul the nation’s infrastructure. Their plan calls for implementing the “social cost of carbon” that was part of the Obama administration’s plans to address climate change and transitioning the United States to 100% renewable, zero-emission energy sources, including electric cars and high-speed rail systems.[133]

Tax policy

Ocasio-Cortez proposed introducing a marginal tax as high as 70% on income above $10 million to pay for the Green New Deal. According to tax experts contacted by The Washington Post, this tax would bring in extra revenue of $720 billion per decade.[134][135] Ocasio-Cortez has opposed and voted against the pay-as-you-go rule supported by Democratic leaders, which requires deficit-neutral fiscal policy, with all new expenditures balanced by tax increases or spending cuts. She joins Ro Khanna in condemning the rule as hamstringing new or expanded progressive policies.[136][137] She cites Modern Monetary Theory, a heterodox macroeconomic theory widely rejected by economists,[138][139] as a justification for higher deficits to finance her agenda.[140][141] Drawing a parallel with the Great Depression, she explains that the Green New Deal needs deficit spending like the original New Deal.[142]

Immigration

Ocasio-Cortez has expressed support for defunding and abolishing the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency on multiple occasions. In February 2018, she called it “a product of the Bush-era Patriot Act suite of legislation” and “an enforcement agency that takes on more of a paramilitary tone every single day”.[143][144] That June, she said she would “stop short of fully disbanding the agency”, and would rather “create a pathway to citizenship for more immigrants through decriminalization”.[145] She later clarified that this does not mean ceasing all deportations.[146] She has called the Department of Homeland Security‘s immigration detention centers “black sites“, citing limited public access to them.[147] Two days before the primary election, Ocasio-Cortez attended a protest at an ICE child-detention center in Tornillo, Texas.[148] She was the only Democrat to vote against H.R. 648, a bill to fund and reopen the government, because it funded ICE.[149]

Healthcare

Ocasio-Cortez supports transitioning to a single-payer healthcare system, recognizing medical care as a human right.[150][151] She says that a single government health insurer should cover every American, reducing overall costs.[116] On her campaign website, Ocasio-Cortez says “Almost every other developed nation in the world has universal healthcare. It’s time the United States catch up to the rest of the world in ensuring all people have real healthcare coverage that doesn’t break the bank.”[151] The Medicare-for-all proposal has been adopted by many likely Democratic 2020 presidential contenders.[117]

LGBTQ equality

Ocasio-Cortez is a staunch proponent of LGBTQ rights and LGBTQ equality. She has said she supports the LGBTQ community and thanked its members for its role in her campaign.[152][119] She publicized and later appeared on a video game live stream to help raise money for Mermaids, a charity for trans children.[153] At the January 2019 New York City Women’s March in Manhattan, Ocasio-Cortez gave a detailed speech in support of measures needed to ensure LGBTQ equality in the workplace and elsewhere.[154] She has also made a point of recognizing transgender rights specifically, saying, “It’s a no-brainer … trans rights are civil rights are human rights.”[155]

Israeli–Palestinian conflict

In May 2018, Ocasio-Cortez criticized the Israel Defense Forces‘ use of deadly force against Palestinians participating in the 2018 Gaza border protests, calling it a “massacre” in a tweet.[156] In a July 2018 interview with the PBS series Firing Line, Ocasio-Cortez said that she is “a proponent of a two-state solution[157] and called Israel’s presence in the West Bank an “occupation of Palestine“.[158] Her use of the term “occupation” drew backlash from a number of pro-Israel groups and commentators.[159][160] Others defended her remarks, citing the United Nations’ designation of the territory in the West Bank as occupied.[161][162]

Puerto Rico

Ocasio-Cortez has called for “solidarity with Puerto Rico”. She has advocated for granting Puerto Ricans further civil rights, regardless of Puerto Rico’s legal classification. She advocates for voting rights and disaster relief. Ocasio-Cortez was critical of FEMA‘s response to Hurricane Maria and the federal government’s unwillingness to address Puerto Rico’s political status.[163] She believes the federal government should increase investment in Puerto Rico.[119]

Other issues

  • Education: Ocasio-Cortez campaigned in favor of establishing tuition-free public colleges and trade schools. She has said she is still paying off student loans herself and wants to cancel all student debt.[151]
  • Impeachment of President Trump: On June 28, 2018, Ocasio-Cortez told CNN she would support the impeachment of President Trump, citing Trump’s alleged violations of the Emoluments Clause and stating that “we have to hold everyone accountable and that no person is above that law.”[164][165]
  • Amazon HQ2: Ocasio-Cortez opposed a planned deal by New York City to give Amazon.com $3 billion in state and city subsidies and tax breaks to build secondary headquarters in an area near her congressional district. Ocasio-Cortez said that they should instead invest the $3 billion in their district themselves.[166][167][168][169]

Awards and honors

The MIT Lincoln Laboratory named the asteroid 23238 Ocasio-Cortez after her when she was a senior in high school in recognition of her second-place finish in the 2007 Intel International Science and Engineering Fair.[23][24] Ocasio-Cortez was named the 2017 National Hispanic Institute Person of the Year by Ernesto Nieto.[25]

Personal life

Ocasio-Cortez has family in Puerto Rico, where her grandfather lived in a nursing home[163] before dying in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria.[170] After Ocasio-Cortez’s father’s death in 2008, her mother and grandmother relocated to Florida due to financial hardship.[18][33]She identifies as Catholic[171] and described her faith and its impact on her life and campaign for criminal justice reform in an article in America, the magazine of the Jesuit order in the United States.[172] Ocasio-Cortez said that she has Sephardic Jewish ancestry, although she does not practice the faith.[171] She has said “to be Puerto Rican is to be the descendant of… African Moors [and] slavesTaino Indians, Spanish colonizers, Jewish refugees, and likely others. We are all of these things and something else all at once—we are Boricua.”[20]

During the 2018 election campaign, Ocasio-Cortez resided in Parkchester, Bronx with her boyfriend, Riley Roberts.[5][173][174][175]

See also

References …

Story 4: Radical Extremist Democrat Socialist (REDs) Want To Replace The Electoral College With Majority Rule Democracy or Tyranny of The Majority And Lowering The Voting Age To 16 Years Old — Founding Fathers Were Right and Wise in Establishing The Electoral College — American People Vote By State For President of The United States of America — Videos

Warren calls for abolishing Electoral College, moving to national popular vote

Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez calls to abolish Electoral College

Professor makes case for the Electoral College

Professor explains the Electoral College process

Case Against the Electoral College

Elizabeth Warren: Replace Electoral College with Popular Vote

The Electoral College and Its Importance

Now Desperate Dems seek to abolish electoral college & drop voting age to 16

[youtube-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yrMkM1rRvZw]

Top 2020 Candidates Push To Abolish Electoral College and Lower Voting Age To 16 These People Are

Bill Bennett: There’s a reason for the Electoral College

Would election by popular vote be better than the Electoral College?

Do You Understand the Electoral College?

The Popular Vote vs. the Electoral College

Levin: Left’s agenda is incompatible with constitutionalism

 

What is the Electoral College?

https://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/caRt0eHA0Pk?flag=1&enablejsapi=1&origin=www.archives.gov

The Electoral College is a process, not a place. The founding fathers established it in theConstitution as a compromise between election of the President by a vote in Congress and election of the President by a popular vote of qualified citizens.

The Electoral College process consists of the selection of the electors, the meeting of the electors where they vote for President and Vice President, and the counting of the electoral votes by Congress.

The Electoral College consists of 538 electors. A majority of 270 electoral votes is required to elect the President. Your state’s entitled allotment of electors equals the number of members in its Congressional delegation: one for each member in the House of Representatives plus two for your Senators. Read more about the allocation of electoral votes.

Under the 23rd Amendment of the Constitution, the District of Columbia is allocated 3 electors and treated like a state for purposes of the Electoral College. For this reason, in the following discussion, the word “state” also refers to the District of Columbia.

Each candidate running for President in your state has his or her own group of electors. The electors are generally chosen by the candidate’s political party, but state laws vary on how the electors are selected and what their responsibilities are. Read more about the qualifications of the Electors and restrictions on who the Electors may vote for.

The presidential election is held every four years on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. You help choose your state’s electors when you vote for President because when you vote for your candidate you are actually voting for your candidate’s electors.

Most states have a “winner-take-all” system that awards all electors to the winning presidential candidate. However, Maine and Nebraska each have a variation of “proportional representation.” Read more about the allocation of Electors among the states and try to predict the outcome of the Electoral College vote.

After the presidential election, your governor prepares a “Certificate of Ascertainment” listing all of the candidates who ran for President in your state along with the names of their respective electors. The Certificate of Ascertainment also declares the winning presidential candidate in your state and shows which electors will represent your state at the meeting of the electors in December of the election year. Your state’s Certificates of Ascertainments are sent to the Congress and the National Archives as part of the official records of the presidential election. See the key dates for the 2016 election and information about the roles and responsibilities of state officialsthe Office of the Federal Register and the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), and the Congress in the Electoral College process.

The meeting of the electors takes place on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December after the presidential election. The electors meet in their respective states, where they cast their votes for President and Vice President on separate ballots. Your state’s electors’ votes are recorded on a “Certificate of Vote,” which is prepared at the meeting by the electors. Your state’s Certificates of Votes are sent to the Congress and the National Archives as part of the official records of the presidential election. See the key dates for the 2016 election and information about the roles and responsibilities of state officials and the Congress in the Electoral College process.

Each state’s electoral votes are counted in a joint session of Congress on the 6th of January in the year following the meeting of the electors. Members of the House and Senate meet in the House chamber to conduct the official tally of electoral votes. See the key dates for the 2016 election and information about the role and responsibilities of Congress in the Electoral College process.

The Vice President, as President of the Senate, presides over the count and announces the results of the vote. The President of the Senate then declares which persons, if any, have been elected President and Vice President of the United States.

The President-Elect takes the oath of office and is sworn in as President of the United States on January 20th in the year following the Presidential election.

 

Learn about the Electors

 

Roles and Responsibilities in the Electoral College Process

The Office of the Federal Register coordinates the functions of the Electoral College on behalf of the Archivist of the United States, the States, the Congress, and the American People. The Office of the Federal Register operates as an intermediary between the governors and secretaries of state of the States and the Congress. It also acts as a trusted agent of the Congress in the sense that it is responsible for reviewing the legal sufficiency of the certificates before the House and Senate accept them as evidence of official State action.

See the key dates for the 2016 election and information about the roles and responsibilities of state officialsthe Office of the Federal Register and the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), and the Congress in the Electoral College process.

https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/about.html

 

United States Electoral College

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Map of the Electoral College for the 2016 presidential election

The United States Electoral College is a body of electors established by the United States Constitution, constituted every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president of the United States. The Electoral College consists of 538 electors, and an absolute majority of 270 electoral votes is required to win an election. Pursuant to Article II, Section 1, Clause 2, the legislature of each state determines the manner by which its electors are chosen. Each state’s number of electors is equal to the combined total of the state’s membership in the Senate and House of Representatives; currently there are 100 senators and 435 representatives.[1][2][3] Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia (D.C.) is entitled to a number of electors no greater than that of the least populous state (i.e. 3).[4]

Following the national presidential election day in the first week of November, each state counts its popular votes pursuant to that state’s laws to designate presidential electors. State electors meet in their respective state capitals in December to cast their votes. The results are certified by the states and D.C. to Congress, where they are tabulated nationally in the first week of January before a joint meeting of the Senate and House of Representatives. If a majority of votes are not cast for a candidate, the House resolves itself into a presidential election session with one presidential vote assigned to each of the fifty state delegations, excluding the District of Columbia. The elected president and vice president are inaugurated on January 20. While the electoral vote has given the same result as the popular vote in most elections, this has not been the case in a few elections, including the 2000 and 2016 elections.

The Electoral College system is a matter of ongoing debate, with some defending it and others calling for its abolition. Supporters of the Electoral College argue that it is fundamental to American federalism, that it requires candidates to appeal to voters outside large cities, increases the political influence of small states, discourages the excessive growth of political parties and preserves the two-party system, and makes the electoral outcome appear more legitimate than that of a nationwide popular vote.[5] Opponents of the Electoral College argue that it can result in a person becoming president even though an opponent got more votes (which occurred in two of the five presidential elections from 2000 to 2016); that it causes candidates to focus their campaigning disproportionately in a few “swing states” while ignoring most areas of the country; and that its allocation of Electoral College votes gives citizens in less populated rural states as much as four times the voting power as those in more populous urban states.[6][7][8][9][10]Polls since 1967 have shown that a majority of Americans favor the president and vice president being elected by the nationwide popular vote, instead of by the Electoral College.[11][12]

 

Background

The Constitutional Convention in 1787 used the Virginia Plan as the basis for discussions, as the Virginia proposal was the first. The Virginia Plan called for the Congress to elect the president.[13] Delegates from a majority of states agreed to this mode of election. After being debated, however, delegates came to oppose nomination by congress for the reason that it could violate the separation of powers. James Wilson then made motion for electors for the purpose of choosing the president.[14]

Later in the convention, a committee formed to work out various details including the mode of election of the president, including final recommendations for the electors, a group of people apportioned among the states in the same numbers as their representatives in Congress (the formula for which had been resolved in lengthy debates resulting in the Connecticut Compromise and Three-Fifths Compromise), but chosen by each state “in such manner as its Legislature may direct.” Committee member Gouverneur Morris explained the reasons for the change; among others, there were fears of “intrigue” if the president were chosen by a small group of men who met together regularly, as well as concerns for the independence of the president if he were elected by the Congress.[15]

However, once the Electoral College had been decided on, several delegates (Mason, Butler, Morris, Wilson, and Madison) openly recognized its ability to protect the election process from cabal, corruption, intrigue, and faction. Some delegates, including James Wilson and James Madison, preferred popular election of the executive. Madison acknowledged that while a popular vote would be ideal, it would be difficult to get consensus on the proposal given the prevalence of slavery in the South:

There was one difficulty however of a serious nature attending an immediate choice by the people. The right of suffrage was much more diffusive in the Northern than the Southern States; and the latter could have no influence in the election on the score of Negroes. The substitution of electors obviated this difficulty and seemed on the whole to be liable to the fewest objections.[16]

The Convention approved the Committee’s Electoral College proposal, with minor modifications, on September 6, 1787.[17] Delegates from states with smaller populations or limited land area such as Connecticut, New Jersey, and Maryland generally favored the Electoral College with some consideration for states.[18] At the compromise providing for a runoff among the top five candidates, the small states supposed that the House of Representatives with each state delegation casting one vote would decide most elections.[19]

In The Federalist PapersJames Madison explained his views on the selection of the president and the Constitution. In Federalist No. 39, Madison argued the Constitution was designed to be a mixture of state-based and population-based government. Congress would have two houses: the state-based Senate and the population-based House of Representatives. Meanwhile, the president would be elected by a mixture of the two modes.[20]

Alexander Hamilton in Federalist No. 68 laid out what he believed were the key advantages to the Electoral College. The electors come directly from the people and them alone for that purpose only, and for that time only. This avoided a party-run legislature, or a permanent body that could be influenced by foreign interests before each election.[21] Hamilton explained the election was to take place among all the states, so no corruption in any state could taint “the great body of the people” in their selection. The choice was to be made by a majority of the Electoral College, as majority rule is critical to the principles of republican government. Hamilton argued that electors meeting in the state capitals were able to have information unavailable to the general public. Hamilton also argued that since no federal officeholder could be an elector, none of the electors would be beholden to any presidential candidate.[21]

Another consideration was the decision would be made without “tumult and disorder” as it would be a broad-based one made simultaneously in various locales where the decision-makers could deliberate reasonably, not in one place where decision-makers could be threatened or intimidated. If the Electoral College did not achieve a decisive majority, then the House of Representatives was to choose the president from among the top five candidates,[22] ensuring selection of a presiding officer administering the laws would have both ability and good character. Hamilton was also concerned about somebody unqualified, but with a talent for “low intrigue, and the little arts of popularity” attaining high office.[21]

Additionally, in the Federalist No. 10, James Madison argued against “an interested and overbearing majority” and the “mischiefs of faction” in an electoral system. He defined a faction as “a number of citizens whether amounting to a majority or minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community.” What was then called republican government (i.e., representative democracy, as opposed to direct democracy) combined with the principles of federalism (with distribution of voter rights and separation of government powers) would countervail against factions. Madison further postulated in the Federalist No. 10 that the greater the population and expanse of the Republic, the more difficulty factions would face in organizing due to such issues as sectionalism.[23]

Although the United States Constitution refers to “Electors” and “electors”, neither the phrase “Electoral College” nor any other name is used to describe the electors collectively. It was not until the early 19th century the name “Electoral College” came into general usage as the collective designation for the electors selected to cast votes for president and vice president. The phrase was first written into federal law in 1845 and today the term appears in 3 U.S.C. § 4, in the section heading and in the text as “college of electors.”[24]

History

Historically, the state legislatures chose the electors in more than half the states. That practice changed during the early 19th century, as states extended the right to vote to wider segments of the population. By 1832, only South Carolina had not transitioned to popular election. Since 1880, the electors in every state have been chosen based on a popular election held on Election Day.[1] The popular election for electors means the president and vice president are in effect chosen through indirect election by the citizens.[25] Since the mid-19th century when all electors have been popularly chosen, the Electoral College has elected the candidate who received the most popular votes nationwide, except in four elections: 187618882000, and 2016. In 1824, there were six states in which electors were legislatively appointed, rather than popularly elected, so the true national popular vote is uncertain; the electors failed to select a winning candidate, so the matter was decided by the House of Representatives.[26]

Original plan

Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the Constitution states:

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

Article II, Section 1, Clause 4 of the Constitution states:

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing [sic] the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution provided the original plan by which the electors voted for president. Under the original plan, each elector cast two votes for president; electors did not vote for vice president. Whoever received a majority of votes from the electors would become president, with the person receiving the second most votes becoming vice president.

The original plan of the Electoral College was based upon several assumptions and anticipations of the Framers of the Constitution:[27]

  1. Choice of the president should reflect the “sense of the people” at a particular time, not the dictates of a cabal in a “pre-established body” such as Congress or the State legislatures, and independent of the influence of “foreign powers”.[28]
  2. The choice would be made decisively with a “full and fair expression of the public will” but also maintaining “as little opportunity as possible to tumult and disorder”.[29]
  3. Individual electors would be elected by citizens on a district-by-district basis. Voting for president would include the widest electorate allowed in each state.[30]
  4. Each presidential elector would exercise independent judgment when voting, deliberating with the most complete information available in a system that over time, tended to bring about a good administration of the laws passed by Congress.[31]
  5. Candidates would not pair together on the same ticket with assumed placements toward each office of president and vice president.
  6. The system as designed would rarely produce a winner, thus sending the presidential election to the House of Representatives.

According to the text of Article II, however, each state government was free to have its own plan for selecting its electors, and the Constitution does not explicitly require states to popularly elect their electors. Several methods for selecting electors are described below.

Breakdown and revision

The emergence of political parties and nationally coordinated election campaigns soon complicated matters in the elections of 1796 and 1800. In 1796, Federalist Party candidate John Adams won the presidential election. Finishing in second place was Democratic-Republican Party candidate Thomas Jefferson, the Federalists’ opponent, who became the vice president. This resulted in the president and vice president being of different political parties.

In 1800, the Democratic-Republican Party again nominated Jefferson for president and also nominated Aaron Burr for vice president. After the election, Jefferson and Burr tied one another with 73 electoral votes each. Since ballots did not distinguish between votes for president and votes for vice president, every ballot cast for Burr technically counted as a vote for him to become president, despite Jefferson clearly being his party’s first choice. Lacking a clear winner by constitutional standards, the election had to be decided by the House of Representatives pursuant to the Constitution’s contingency election provision.

Having already lost the presidential contest, Federalist Party representatives in the lame duck House session seized upon the opportunity to embarrass their opposition by attempting to elect Burr over Jefferson. The House deadlocked for 35 ballots as neither candidate received the necessary majority vote of the state delegations in the House (the votes of nine states were needed for a conclusive election). Jefferson achieved electoral victory on the 36th ballot, but only after Federalist Party leader Alexander Hamilton—who disfavored Burr’s personal character more than Jefferson’s policies—had made known his preference for Jefferson.

Responding to the problems from those elections, the Congress proposed on December 9, 1803, and three-fourths of the states ratified by June 15, 1804, the Twelfth Amendment. Starting with the 1804 election, the amendment requires electors cast separate ballots for president and vice president, replacing the system outlined in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3.

Evolution to the general ticket

Alexander Hamilton described the Founding Fathers’ view of how electors would be chosen:

A small number of persons, selected by their fellow-citizens from the general mass, will be most likely to possess the information and discernment requisite to such complicated [tasks].[32]

They assumed this would take place district by district. That plan was carried out by many states until the 1880s. For example, in Massachusetts in 1820, the rule stated “the people shall vote by ballot, on which shall be designated who is voted for as an Elector for the district.”[33] In other words, the people did not place the name of a candidate for a president on the ballot, instead they voted for their local elector, whom they trusted later to cast a responsible vote for president.

Some states reasoned that the favorite presidential candidate among the people in their state would have a much better chance if all of the electors selected by their state were sure to vote the same way—a “general ticket” of electors pledged to a party candidate.[34] So the slate of electors chosen by the state were no longer free agents, independent thinkers, or deliberative representatives. They became “voluntary party lackeys and intellectual non-entities.”[35] Once one state took that strategy, the others felt compelled to follow suit in order to compete for the strongest influence on the election.[34]

When James Madison and Hamilton, two of the most important architects of the Electoral College, saw this strategy being taken by some states, they protested strongly. Madison and Hamilton both made it clear this approach violated the spirit of the Constitution. According to Hamilton, the selection of the president should be “made by men most capable of analyzing the qualities adapted to the station [of president].”[32] According to Hamilton, the electors were to analyze the list of potential presidents and select the best one. He also used the term “deliberate”. Hamilton considered a pre-pledged elector to violate the spirit of Article II of the Constitution insofar as such electors could make no “analysis” or “deliberate” concerning the candidates. Madison agreed entirely, saying that when the Constitution was written, all of its authors assumed individual electors would be elected in their districts and it was inconceivable a “general ticket” of electors dictated by a state would supplant the concept. Madison wrote to George Hay:

The district mode was mostly, if not exclusively in view when the Constitution was framed and adopted; & was exchanged for the general ticket [many years later].[36]

The Founding Fathers assumed that electors would be elected by the citizens of their district and that elector was to be free to analyze and deliberate regarding who is best suited to be president.

Madison and Hamilton were so upset by what they saw as a distortion of the original intent that they advocated a constitutional amendment to prevent anything other than the district plan: “the election of Presidential Electors by districts, is an amendment very proper to be brought forward,” Madison told George Hay in 1823.[36] Hamilton went further. He actually drafted an amendment to the Constitution mandating the district plan for selecting electors.[37]

Evolution of selection plans

In 1789, at-large popular vote, the winner-take-all method, began with Pennsylvania and Maryland; Virginia and Delaware used a district plan by popular vote, and in the five other states participating in the election (Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, and South Carolina),[38] state legislatures chose. By 1800, Virginia and Rhode Island voted at-large, Kentucky, Maryland, and North Carolina voted popularly by district, and eleven states voted by state legislature. Beginning in 1804 there was a definite trend towards the winner-take-all system for statewide popular vote.[39]

By 1832, only South Carolina chose their electors this way, and it abandoned the method after 1860.[39] States using popular vote by district have included ten states from all regions of the country. By 1832, there was only Maryland, and from 1836 district plans fell out of use until the 20th century, though Michigan used a district plan for 1892 only.[40]

Since 1836, statewide winner-take-all popular voting for electors has been the almost universal practice. As of 2016, Maine (from 1972) and Nebraska (from 1996) use the district plan, with two at-large electors assigned to support the winner of the statewide popular vote.[41]

Fourteenth Amendment

Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment allows for a state’s representation in the House of Representatives to be reduced if a state unconstitutionally denies people the right to vote. The reduction is in keeping with the proportion of people denied a vote. This amendment refers to “the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States” among other elections, the only place in the Constitution mentioning electors being selected by popular vote.

On May 8, 1866, during a debate on the Fourteenth Amendment, Thaddeus Stevens, the leader of the Republicans in the House of Representatives, delivered a speech on the amendment’s intent. Regarding Section 2, he said:[42]

The second section I consider the most important in the article. It fixes the basis of representation in Congress. If any State shall exclude any of her adult male citizens from the elective franchise, or abridge that right, she shall forfeit her right to representation in the same proportion. The effect of this provision will be either to compel the States to grant universal suffrage or so shear them of their power as to keep them forever in a hopeless minority in the national Government, both legislative and executive.[43]

Federal law (2 U.S.C. § 6) implements Section 2’s mandate.

Meeting of electors

Since 1936, federal law has provided that the electors in all the states and the District of Columbia, meet “on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December next following their appointment” to vote for president and vice president.[44][45]

Under Article II, Section 1, Clause 2, all elected and appointed federal officials are prohibited from being electors. The Office of the Federal Register is charged with administering the Electoral College.[46]

After the vote, each state then sends a certified record of their electoral votes to Congress. The votes of the electors are opened during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January, and read aloud by the incumbent vice president, acting in his capacity as President of the Senate. If any person received an absolute majority of electoral votes that person is declared the winner.[47] If there is a tie, or if no candidate for either or both offices receives a majority, then choice falls to Congress in a procedure known as contingent election.

Modern mechanics

The 2012 Certificate of Vote issued by Maryland’s delegation to the Electoral College

Summary

Even though the aggregate national popular vote is calculated by state officials, media organizations, and the Federal Election Commission, the people only indirectly elect the president, as the national popular vote is not the basis for electing the president or vice president. The president and vice president of the United States are elected by the Electoral College, which consists of 538 presidential electors from the fifty states and Washington, D.C.Presidential electors are selected on a state-by-state basis, as determined by the laws of each state. Since the election of 1824,[48] most states have appointed their electors on a winner-take-all basis, based on the statewide popular vote on Election DayMaine and Nebraska are the only two current exceptions, as both states use the congressional district method. Although ballots list the names of the presidential and vice presidential candidates (who run on a ticket), voters actually choose electors when they vote for president and vice president. These presidential electors in turn cast electoral votes for those two offices. Electors usually pledge to vote for their party’s nominee, but some “faithless electors” have voted for other candidates or refrained from voting.

A candidate must receive an absolute majority of electoral votes (currently 270) to win the presidency or the vice presidency. If no candidate receives a majority in the election for president or vice president, the election is determined via a contingency procedure established by the Twelfth Amendment. In such a situation, the House chooses one of the top three presidential electoral vote-winners as the president, while the Senate chooses one of the top two vice presidential electoral vote-winners as vice president.

Electors

Apportionment

State population per electoral vote for the 50 states and Washington D.C.

A state’s number of electors equals the number of representatives plus two electors for both senators the state has in the United States Congress.[49][50] The number of representatives is based on the respective populations, determined every 10 years by the United States Census. Each representative represents on average 711,000 persons.[51]

Under the Twenty-third AmendmentWashington, D.C., is allocated as many electors as it would have if it were a state, but no more electors than the least populous state. The least populous state (which is Wyoming, according to the 2010 census) has three electors; thus, D.C. cannot have more than three electors. Even if D.C. were a state, its population would entitle it to only three electors; based on its population per electoral vote, D.C. has the second highest per capita Electoral College representation, after Wyoming.[52]

Currently, there are 538 electors; based on 435 representatives, 100 senators, and three electors allocated to Washington, D.C. The six states with the most electors are California (55), Texas (38), New York (29), Florida (29), Illinois (20), and Pennsylvania (20). The seven least populous states—AlaskaDelawareMontanaNorth DakotaSouth DakotaVermont, and Wyoming—have three electors each. This is because each of these states has one representative and two senators.

Nomination

The custom of allowing recognized political parties to select a slate of prospective electors developed early. In contemporary practice, each presidential-vice presidential ticket has an associated slate of potential electors. Then on Election Day, the voters select a ticket and thereby select the associated electors.[1]

Candidates for elector are nominated by state chapters of nationally oriented political parties in the months prior to Election Day. In some states, the electors are nominated by voters in primaries, the same way other presidential candidates are nominated. In some states, such as OklahomaVirginia and North Carolina, electors are nominated in party conventions. In Pennsylvania, the campaign committee of each candidate names their respective electoral college candidates (an attempt to discourage faithless electors). Varying by state, electors may also be elected by state legislatures, or appointed by the parties themselves.[53]

Selection

Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the Constitution requires each state legislature to determine how electors for the state are to be chosen, but it disqualifies any person holding a federal office, either elected or appointed, from being an elector.[54] Under Section 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment, any person who has sworn an oath to support the United States Constitution in order to hold either a state or federal office, and later rebelled against the United States directly or by giving assistance to those doing so, is disqualified from being an elector. However, the Congress may remove this disqualification by a two-thirds vote in each House.

Since the Civil War, all states have chosen presidential electors by popular vote. This process has been normalized to the point the names of the electors appear on the ballot in only eight states: Rhode Island, Tennessee, Louisiana, Arizona, Idaho, Oklahoma, North Dakota and South Dakota.[55][56]

Since 1996, all but two states have followed the winner takes all method of allocating electors by which every person named on the slate for the ticket winning the statewide popular vote are named as presidential electors.[57][58] Maine and Nebraska are the only states not using this method. In those states, the winner of the popular vote in each of its congressional districts is awarded one elector, and the winner of the statewide vote is then awarded the state’s remaining two electors.[57][59]

The Tuesday following the first Monday in November has been fixed as the day for holding federal elections, called the Election Day.[60] In 48 states and Washington, D.C., the “winner-takes-all method” is used (electors selected as a single bloc). Maine and Nebraska use the “congressional district method”, selecting one elector within each congressional district by popular vote and selecting the remaining two electors by a statewide popular vote. This method has been used in Maine since 1972 and in Nebraska since 1996.[61]

The current system of choosing electors is called the “short ballot”. In most states, voters choose a slate of electors, and only a few states list on the ballot the names of proposed electors. In some states, if a voter wants to write in a candidate for president, the voter is also required to write in the names of proposed electors.

After the election, each state prepares seven Certificates of Ascertainment, each listing the candidates for president and vice president, their pledged electors, and the total votes each candidacy received.[62] One certificate is sent, as soon after Election Day as practicable, to the National Archivist in Washington D.C. The Certificates of Ascertainment are mandated to carry the State Seal, and the signature of the Governor (in the case of the District of Columbia, the Certificate is signed by the Mayor of the District of Columbia.[63])

Meetings

Certificate for the electoral votes for Rutherford B. Hayes and William A. Wheeler for the State of Louisiana (1876)

The Electoral College never meets as one body. Electors meet in their respective state capitals (electors for the District of Columbia meet within the District) on the Monday after the second Wednesday in December, at which time they cast their electoral votes on separate ballots for president and vice president.[64][65][66]

Although procedures in each state vary slightly, the electors generally follow a similar series of steps, and the Congress has constitutional authority to regulate the procedures the states follow. The meeting is opened by the election certification official – often that state’s secretary of state or equivalent – who reads the Certificate of Ascertainment. This document sets forth who was chosen to cast the electoral votes. The attendance of the electors is taken and any vacancies are noted in writing. The next step is the selection of a president or chairman of the meeting, sometimes also with a vice chairman. The electors sometimes choose a secretary, often not himself an elector, to take the minutes of the meeting. In many states, political officials give short speeches at this point in the proceedings.

When the time for balloting arrives, the electors choose one or two people to act as tellers. Some states provide for the placing in nomination of a candidate to receive the electoral votes (the candidate for president of the political party of the electors). Each elector submits a written ballot with the name of a candidate for president. In New Jersey, the electors cast ballots by checking the name of the candidate on a pre-printed card; in North Carolina, the electors write the name of the candidate on a blank card. The tellers count the ballots and announce the result. The next step is the casting of the vote for vice president, which follows a similar pattern.

Each state’s electors must complete six Certificates of Vote. Each Certificate of Vote must be signed by all of the electors and a Certificate of Ascertainment must be attached to each of the Certificates of Vote. Each Certificate of Vote must include the names of those who received an electoral vote for either the office of president or of vice president. The electors certify the Certificates of Vote and copies of the Certificates are then sent in the following fashion:[67]

A staff member of the President of the Senate collects the Certificates of Vote as they arrive and prepares them for the joint session of the Congress. The Certificates are arranged – unopened – in alphabetical order and placed in two special mahogany boxes. Alabama through Missouri (including the District of Columbia) are placed in one box and Montana through Wyoming are placed in the other box.[68] Before 1950, the Secretary of State’s office oversaw the certifications, but since then the Office of Federal Register in the Archivist’s office reviews them to make sure the documents sent to the archive and Congress match and that all formalities have been followed, sometimes requiring states to correct the documents.[46]

Faithlessness

An elector may vote for whomever he or she wishes for each office provided that at least one of their votes (president or vice president) is for a person who is not a resident of the same state as themselves.[69] But “faithless electors” are those who either cast electoral votes for someone other than the candidate of the party that they pledged to vote for or who abstain. Twenty-nine states plus the District of Columbia have passed laws to punish faithless electors, although none have ever been enforced. Many constitutional scholars claim that state restrictions would be struck down if challenged based on Article II and the Twelfth Amendment.[70] In 1952, the constitutionality of state pledge laws was brought before the Supreme Court in Ray v. Blair343 U.S. 214 (1952).

Some states, however, do have laws requiring that state’s electors to vote for the candidate to whom they are pledged. Electors who break their pledge are called “faithless electors.” Only once, in 1836, has an election’s outcome been influenced by faithless electors. In that instance, Virginia’s 23 electors were pledged to vote for Richard Mentor Johnson to be vice-president, but instead voted for former South Carolina senator William Smith, leaving Johnson one vote short of the majority needed to be elected. In accordance with the Twelfth Amendment, the Senate then chose between the top two receivers of electoral votes for vice-president, electing Johnson on the first ballot. Over the course of 58 presidential elections since 1789, only 0.67% of all electors have been unfaithful.[71]

The Court ruled in favor of state laws requiring electors to pledge to vote for the winning candidate, as well as removing electors who refuse to pledge. As stated in the ruling, electors are acting as a functionary of the state, not the federal government. Therefore, states have the right to govern the process of choosing electors. The constitutionality of state laws punishing electors for actually casting a faithless vote, rather than refusing to pledge, has never been decided by the Supreme Court. However, in his dissent in Ray v. Blair, Justice Robert Jackson wrote: “no one faithful to our history can deny that the plan originally contemplated what is implicit in its text—that electors would be free agents, to exercise an independent and nonpartisan judgment as to the men best qualified for the Nation’s highest offices.”

While many laws punish a faithless elector only after the fact, states like Michigan also specify a faithless elector’s vote be voided.[72]

As electoral slates are typically chosen by the political party or the party’s presidential nominee, electors usually have high loyalty to the party and its candidate: a faithless elector runs a greater risk of party censure than of criminal charges.

In 2000, elector Barbara Lett-Simmons of Washington, D.C., chose not to vote, rather than voting for Al Gore as she had pledged to do.[73] In 2016, seven electors voted contrary to their pledges. Faithless electors have never changed the outcome of any presidential election.[74]

Joint session of Congress

The Twelfth Amendment mandates Congress assemble in joint session to count the electoral votes and declare the winners of the election.[75] The session is ordinarily required to take place on January 6 in the calendar year immediately following the meetings of the presidential electors.[76] Since the Twentieth Amendment, the newly elected Congress declares the winner of the election; all elections before 1936 were determined by the outgoing House.

The Office of the Federal Register is charged with administering the Electoral College.[46] The meeting is held at 1 p.m. in the Chamber of the U.S. House of Representatives.[76] The sitting vice president is expected to preside, but in several cases the president pro tempore of the Senate has chaired the proceedings. The vice president and the Speaker of the House sit at the podium, with the vice president in the seat of the Speaker of the House. Senate pages bring in the two mahogany boxes containing each state’s certified vote and place them on tables in front of the senators and representatives. Each house appoints two tellers to count the vote (normally one member of each political party). Relevant portions of the Certificate of Vote are read for each state, in alphabetical order.

Members of Congress can object to any state’s vote count, provided objection is presented in writing and is signed by at least one member of each house of Congress. An objection supported by at least one senator and one representative will be followed by the suspension of the joint session and by separate debates and votes in each House of Congress; after both Houses deliberate on the objection, the joint session is resumed. A state’s certificate of vote can be rejected only if both Houses of Congress vote to accept the objection. In that case, the votes from the State in question are simply ignored. The votes of Arkansas and Louisiana were rejected in the presidential election of 1872.[77]

Objections to the electoral vote count are rarely raised, although it did occur during the vote count in 2001 after the close 2000 presidential election between Governor George W. Bush of Texas and the vice president of the United States, Al Gore. Gore, who as vice president was required to preside over his own Electoral College defeat (by five electoral votes), denied the objections, all of which were raised by only several representatives and would have favored his candidacy, after no senators would agree to jointly object. Objections were again raised in the vote count of the 2004 elections, and on that occasion the document was presented by one representative and one senator. Although the joint session was suspended, the objections were quickly disposed of and rejected by both Houses of Congress. If there are no objections or all objections are overruled, the presiding officer simply includes a state’s votes, as declared in the certificate of vote, in the official tally.

After the certificates from all states are read and the respective votes are counted, the presiding officer simply announces the final result of the vote and, provided the required absolute majority of votes was achieved, declares the names of the persons elected president and vice president. This announcement concludes the joint session and formalizes the recognition of the president-elect and of the vice president-elect. The senators then depart from the House Chamber. The final tally is printed in the Senate and House journals.

Contingencies

Contingent presidential election by House

The Twelfth Amendment requires the House of Representatives to go into session immediately to vote for a president if no candidate for president receives a majority of the electoral votes (since 1964, 270 of the 538 electoral votes).

In this event, the House of Representatives is limited to choosing from among the three candidates who received the most electoral votes for president. Each state delegation votes en bloc—each delegation having a single vote; the District of Columbia does not get to vote. A candidate must receive an absolute majority of state delegation votes (i.e., at present, a minimum of 26 votes) in order for that candidate to become the president-elect. Additionally, delegations from at least two thirds of all the states must be present for voting to take place. The House continues balloting until it elects a president.

The House of Representatives has chosen the president only twice: in 1801 under Article II, Section 1, Clause 3; and in 1825 under the Twelfth Amendment.

Contingent vice presidential election by Senate

If no candidate for vice president receives an absolute majority of electoral votes, then the Senate must go into session to elect a vice president. The Senate is limited to choosing from the two candidates who received the most electoral votes for vice president. Normally this would mean two candidates, one less than the number of candidates available in the House vote. However, the text is written in such a way that all candidates with the most and second most electoral votes are eligible for the Senate election – this number could theoretically be larger than two. The Senate votes in the normal manner in this case (i.e., ballots are individually cast by each senator, not by state delegations). However, two-thirds of the senators must be present for voting to take place.

Additionally, the Twelfth Amendment states a “majority of the whole number” of senators (currently 51 of 100) is necessary for election.[78] Further, the language requiring an absolute majority of Senate votes precludes the sitting vice president from breaking any tie that might occur,[79] although some academics and journalists have speculated to the contrary.[80]

The only time the Senate chose the vice president was in 1837. In that instance, the Senate adopted an alphabetical roll call and voting aloud. The rules further stated, “[I]f a majority of the number of senators shall vote for either the said Richard M. Johnson or Francis Granger, he shall be declared by the presiding officer of the Senate constitutionally elected Vice President of the United States”; the Senate chose Johnson.[81]

Deadlocked election

Section 3 of the Twentieth Amendment specifies if the House of Representatives has not chosen a president-elect in time for the inauguration (noon EST on January 20), then the vice president-elect becomes acting president until the House selects a president. Section 3 also specifies Congress may statutorily provide for who will be acting president if there is neither a president-elect nor a vice president-elect in time for the inauguration. Under the Presidential Succession Act of 1947, the Speaker of the House would become acting president until either the House selects a president or the Senate selects a vice president. Neither of these situations has ever occurred.

Current electoral vote distribution

Electoral votes (EV) allocations for the 2012, 2016 and 2020 presidential elections.[82]
Triangular markers (IncreaseDecrease) indicate gains or losses following the 2010 Census.[83]
EV × States States*
55 × 1 = 55 California
38 × 1 = 38 IncreaseIncreaseIncreaseIncreaseTexas
29 × 2 = 58 IncreaseIncreaseFlorida, DecreaseDecreaseNew York
20 × 2 = 40 DecreaseIllinois, DecreasePennsylvania
18 × 1 = 18 DecreaseDecreaseOhio
16 × 2 = 32 IncreaseGeorgia, DecreaseMichigan
15 × 1 = 15 North Carolina
14 × 1 = 14 DecreaseNew Jersey
13 × 1 = 13 Virginia
12 × 1 = 12 IncreaseWashington
11 × 4 = 44 IncreaseArizona, Indiana, DecreaseMassachusetts, Tennessee
10 × 4 = 40 Maryland, Minnesota, DecreaseMissouri, Wisconsin
9 × 3 = 27 Alabama, Colorado, IncreaseSouth Carolina
8 × 2 = 16 Kentucky, DecreaseLouisiana
7 × 3 = 21 Connecticut, Oklahoma, Oregon
6 × 6 = 36 Arkansas, DecreaseIowa, Kansas, Mississippi, IncreaseNevada, IncreaseUtah
5 × 3 = 15 Nebraska**, New Mexico, West Virginia
4 × 5 = 20 Hawaii, Idaho, Maine**, New Hampshire, Rhode Island
3 × 8 = 24 Alaska, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, Wyoming
= 538 Total electors
The Twenty-third Amendment grants electors to DC as if it were a state, but not more than the least populous state. This has always been three.
** Maine’s four electors and Nebraska’s five are distributed using the Congressional district method.

Chronological table

Number of presidential electors by state and year
Election
year
1788–1800 1804–1900 1904–2000 2004–
’88 ’92 ’96
’00
’04
’08
’12 ’16 ’20 ’24
’28
’32 ’36
’40
’44 ’48 ’52
’56
’60 ’64 ’68 ’72 ’76
’80
’84
’88
’92 ’96
’00
’04 ’08 ’12
’16
’20
’24
’28
’32
’36
’40
’44
’48
’52
’56
’60 ’64
’68
’72
’76
’80
’84
’88
’92
’96
’00
’04
’08
’12
’16
’20
# Total 81 135 138 176 218 221 235 261 288 294 275 290 296 303 234 294 366 369 401 444 447 476 483 531 537 538
State
22 Alabama 3 5 7 7 9 9 9 9 0 8 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 11 11 11 11 10 9 9 9 9 9
49 Alaska 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
48 Arizona 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 7 8 10 11
25 Arkansas 3 3 3 4 4 0 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 6
31 California 4 4 5 5 6 6 8 9 9 10 10 13 22 25 32 32 40 45 47 54 55 55
38 Colorado 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 9
5 Connecticut 7 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7
D.C. 3 3 3 3 3 3
1 Delaware 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
27 Florida 3 3 3 0 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 7 8 10 10 14 17 21 25 27 29
4 Georgia 5 4 4 6 8 8 8 9 11 11 10 10 10 10 0 9 11 11 12 13 13 13 13 14 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 15 16
50 Hawaii 3 4 4 4 4 4 4
43 Idaho 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
21 Illinois 3 3 5 5 9 9 11 11 16 16 21 21 22 24 24 27 27 29 29 28 27 27 26 26 24 22 21 20
19 Indiana 3 3 5 9 9 12 12 13 13 13 13 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 13 13 13 13 13 12 12 11 11
29 Iowa 4 4 4 8 8 11 11 13 13 13 13 13 13 11 10 10 10 9 8 8 7 7 6
34 Kansas 3 3 5 5 9 10 10 10 10 10 9 8 8 8 7 7 7 6 6 6
15 Kentucky 4 4 8 12 12 12 14 15 15 12 12 12 12 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 11 11 10 10 9 9 9 8 8 8
18 Louisiana 3 3 3 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 0 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 8
23 Maine 9 9 10 10 9 9 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4
7 Maryland 8 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 10 10 8 8 8 8 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10
6 Massachusetts 10 16 16 19 22 22 15 15 14 14 12 12 13 13 12 12 13 13 14 15 15 16 16 18 17 16 16 16 14 14 13 12 12 11
26 Michigan 3 5 5 6 6 8 8 11 11 13 14 14 14 14 15 19 19 20 20 21 21 20 18 17 16
32 Minnesota 4 4 4 5 5 7 9 9 11 11 12 11 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 10 10
20 Mississippi 3 3 4 4 6 6 7 7 0 0 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 9 9 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 6
24 Missouri 3 3 4 4 7 7 9 9 11 11 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 18 15 15 13 13 12 12 11 11 11 10
41 Montana 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3
37 Nebraska 3 3 3 5 8 8 8 8 8 7 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5
36 Nevada 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 6
9 New Hampshire 5 6 6 7 8 8 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
3 New Jersey 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 9 9 9 10 10 12 12 14 16 16 16 16 17 17 16 15 15 14
47 New Mexico 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5
11 New York 8 12 12 19 29 29 29 36 42 42 36 36 35 35 33 33 35 35 36 36 36 39 39 45 47 47 45 45 43 41 36 33 31 29
12 North Carolina 12 12 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 11 11 10 10 0 9 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 14 14 14 13 13 13 14 15 15
39 North Dakota 3 3 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3
17 Ohio 3 8 8 8 16 21 21 23 23 23 23 21 21 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 24 26 25 25 25 26 25 23 21 20 18
46 Oklahoma 7 10 11 10 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7
33 Oregon 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7
2 Pennsylvania 10 15 15 20 25 25 25 28 30 30 26 26 27 27 26 26 29 29 30 32 32 34 34 38 36 35 32 32 29 27 25 23 21 20
13 Rhode Island 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
8 South Carolina 7 8 8 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 9 9 8 8 0 6 7 7 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9
40 South Dakota 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3
16 Tennessee 3 5 8 8 8 11 15 15 13 13 12 12 0 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 11 12 11 11 11 10 11 11 11 11
28 Texas 4 4 4 0 0 8 8 13 15 15 18 18 20 23 23 24 24 25 26 29 32 34 38
45 Utah 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6
14 Vermont 4 4 6 8 8 8 7 7 7 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
10 Virginia 12 21 21 24 25 25 25 24 23 23 17 17 15 15 0 0 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13
42 Washington 4 4 5 5 7 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 11 11 12
35 West Virginia 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 7 6 6 5 5 5
30 Wisconsin 4 5 5 8 8 10 10 11 12 12 13 13 13 12 12 12 12 12 11 11 11 10 10
44 Wyoming 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
# Total 81 135 138 176 218 221 235 261 288 294 275 290 296 303 234 294 366 369 401 444 447 476 483 531 537 538

Source: Presidential Elections 1789–2000 at Psephos (Adam Carr’s Election Archive)
Note: In 1788, 1792, 1796, and 1800, each elector cast two votes for president.

Number of electors from each state for the 2012, 2016 and 2020 presidential elections in which 12 electoral votes changed between 18 states, based on the 2010 census, eight states lost one electoral vote and two (New York and Ohio) each lost two electoral votes while eight states gained electoral votes, six gained one electoral vote, Florida gained two and Texas gained four

Alternative methods of choosing electors

Methods of presidential elector selection, by state, 1789–1832[84]
Year AL CT DE GA IL IN KY LA ME MD MA MS MO NH NJ NY NC OH PA RI SC TN VT VA
1789 L D L A H H L A L D
1792 L L L D A H H L L L A L L L D
1796 L