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The Pronk Pops Show 961, September 11, 2017, Story 1: Hurricane/Tropical Storm Irma is History — Storm Surge and Rain Floods Jacksonville, Miami, Naples , Charleston and Many Others –Wind and Flood Damage In Billions — More Than 25 Dead and Over 7 Million Without Electrical Power — Looting — Videos — Story 2: Bannon on Sixty Minutes — Republican Leadership Promises Not Kept — Firing of FBI Director Comey — A Big Mistake — DACA May Lead To Republican Civil War — Videos

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 961, September 11, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 960, September 8, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 959, September 7, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 958, September 6, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 957, September 5, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 956, August 31, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 955, August 30, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 954, August 29, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 953, August 28, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 952, August 25, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 951, August 24, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 950, August 23, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 949, August 22, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 948, August 21, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 947, August 16, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 946, August 15, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 945, August 14, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 944, August 10, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 943, August 9, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 942, August 8, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 941, August 7, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 940, August 3, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 939,  August 2, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 938, August 1, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 937, July 31, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 936, July 27, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 935, July 26, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 934, July 25, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 934, July 25, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 933, July 24, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 932, July 20, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 931, July 19, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 930, July 18, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 929, July 17, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 928, July 13, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 927, July 12, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 926, July 11, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 925, July 10, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 924, July 6, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 923, July 5, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 922, July 3, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 921, June 29, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 920, June 28, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 919, June 27, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 918, June 26, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 917, June 22, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 916, June 21, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 915, June 20, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 914, June 19, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 913, June 16, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 912, June 15, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 911, June 14, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 910, June 13, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 909, June 12, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 908, June 9, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 907, June 8, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 906, June 7, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 905, June 6, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 904, June 5, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 903, June 1, 2017

Image result for tropical storm irma Image result for hurricane irma advisory as on 5 pm Monday Sep 11, 2017Image result for steve bannon 60 minutes

Image result for jacksonvill3e flooding due to Hurricane Irma

Flooding In Jacksonville After Hurricane Irma | NBC News

Irma updates: Flash flood emergency for downtown Jacksonville CNN Breaking News Live

Hurricane Irma Live Tracking Updates Today 9/11/2017 – Hurricane Irma Forecast Discussion

Flood Waters In Jacksonville, Florida At A 53-Year High

Irma’s storm surge historic for Jacksonville area

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Miami gets hit harder than expected by Hurricane Irma

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HURRICANE IRMA VS FLORIDA (INSANE FOOTAGE) STORM SURGE WARNING

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MOST SHOCKING : Live Footage as Hurricane Irma SLAMS Florida , #irma, #hurricane irma florida

LOOTERS IN THE HURRICANE : MOST CRAZIEST Footage EVER Of Florida Hurricane Irma (SEP. 10, 2017)

Hurricane Irma: Nearly half of Florida in the dark, Tampa takes pounding

The hurricane’s maximum sustained winds weakened to 85 mph with additional weakening expected. As of 2 a.m. EDT, the storm was centered about 25 miles northeast of Tampa and moving north-northwest near 15 mph.

Irma continues its slog north along Florida’s western coast having blazed a path of unknown destruction. With communication cut to some of the Florida Keys, where Irma made landfall Sunday, and rough conditions persisting across the peninsula, many are holding their breath for what daylight might reveal.

Forecasters say they expert Irma’s center to stay inland over Florida and then move into Georgia, Alabama and Tennessee.

They also expect Irma to weaken further into a tropical storm over far northern Florida or southern Georgia on Monday as it speeds up its forward motion. The hurricane center says the storm is still life-threatening with dangerous storm surge, wind and heavy rains.

More than 3.3 million homes and businesses — and counting — have lost power in Florida as Hurricane Irma moves up the peninsula.

The widespread outages stretch from the Florida Keys all the way into central Florida.

Florida Power & Light, the state’s largest electric utility, said there were nearly 1 million customers without power in Miami-Dade County alone.

There are roughly 7 million residential customers in the state.

The county administrator in the Florida Keys says crews will begin house to house searches Monday morning, looking for people who need help and assessing damage from Hurricane Irma.

Monroe County Administrator Roman Gastesi says relief will arrive on a C-130 military plane Monday morning at the Key West International Airport.

Once it’s light out, they’ll check on survivors. They suspect they may find fatalities.

Gastesi says they are “prepared for the worst.”

Hurricane Irma made landfall Sunday morning in Cudjoe Key.

But The Associated Press has been texting with John Huston, who has been riding out the storm in his house on Key Largo, on the Atlantic side of the island, just south of John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park.

Every few minutes during the height of the storm, he sent another dispatch.

He described whiteout conditions, with howling winds that sucked dry the gulf side of the narrow island, where the tide is usually 8 feet deep. He kept his humor though, texting to “send cold beer” at one point. Now he sees furniture floating down the street with small boats.

He says the storm surge was at least 6 feet deep on his island, 76 miles from Irma’s eye. He can see now that structures survived, but the storm left a big mess at ground level.

Irma set all sorts of records for brute strength before crashing into Florida, flattening islands in the Caribbean and swamping the Florida Keys.

It finally hit the mainland as a big wide beast, but not quite as monstrous as once feared. The once-Category 5 storm lost some of its power on the northern Cuba coast.

http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/U/US_HURRICANE_IRMA_THE_LATEST?SITE=AP&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT&CTIME=2017-09-11-07-05-11

Florida picks up the pieces of Irma’s devastation: 7.2million left without power and at least seven dead after hurricane beat a path across the state before being downgraded to a tropical storm

  • Irma weakened to a tropical storm on Monday, as it continued to pummel northern Florida 
  • The storm is expected to move into Georgia later today, where Atlanta has been put on a tropical storm warning for the first time ever and schools are closed for the day 
  • More than 4,000 flights were cancelled on Monday, mostly out of Atlanta, Miami, Orlando, Fort Lauderdale and Tampa’s airports  
  • About 7.2 million people are without power and it could take a few days to by fully restored 
  • Irma made landfall in the Florida Keys early Sunday morning then pushed up the Gulf Coast
  • The National Hurricane Center said water levels in Naples rose 7ft in just 90 minutes with substantial flooding
  • Seven deaths reported in Florida so far but officials admit they do not have a definitive number of fatalities yet
  • The storm has toppled cranes, swallowed streets and ripped the roofs off homes  
  • Nearly seven million people had been told to leave their homes in mandatory or voluntary evacuation orders
  • More than 200,000 people waited in shelters statewide as Irma headed up the coast 
  • The storm has already claimed at least 25 lives across the Caribbean since it took hold earlier in the week 

The first Floridians are returning home today to survey the damage wreaked by Hurricane Irma.

The powerful hurricane made landfall Sunday morning in the Florida Keys as a category 4 storm and then made it’s way up the Golf Coast – knocking out power to some 7.2million people in the southeast, swamping downtown Miami with storm surge and blowing the roofs off homes.

More than 200,000 people waited in shelters statewide as Irma headed up the coast.

As of Monday morning, the storm was still pummeling northern Florida but had been downgraded to a tropical storm. Irma’s maximum sustained winds were down to 60 mph as the storm was about 50 miles south-southeast of Albany’ Georgia Monday afternoon. It’s moving at 17 mph.

Northern Florida and southern Georgia should keep getting soaked, with rain totals eventually accumulating to 8 to 15 inches. Isolated parts of central Georgia, eastern Alabama and southern South Carolina may get up to 10 inches of rain.

So far, the storm is believed to have caused seven deaths – including two in the Florida Keys, which was under mandatory evacuation.

But this morning, Florida Director of Emergency Management Bryan Koon said he could not confirm or deny reports of multiple deaths or extensive damage, admitting: ‘I don’t have any numbers on fatalities at this point.’

Scroll down for video 

A person walks through the flooded streets of a trailer park in the aftermath of Hurricane Irma on Monday in Key Largo, Florida

Marie Powell surveys damage to her property at a mobile home park after Hurricane Irma in Naples, Florida, U.S. September 11, 2017

Tommy Nevitt carries Miranda Abbott, 6, through floodwater caused by Hurricane Irma on the west side of Jacksonville, Florida on Monday

Debris from destroyed mobile sit in the Naples Estates mobile home park in the aftermath of Hurricane Irma in Naples, Florida Monday, September 11, 2017

Kelly McClenthen returns to see the flood damage to her home with her boyfriend Daniel Harrison in the aftermath of Hurricane Irma in Bonita Springs, Fla., Monday, Sept. 11, 2017

Wrecked boats that have come ashore are pictured in Coconut Grove following Hurricane Irma in Miami, Florida, U.S., September 11, 2017

The Sunrise Motel remains flooded after Hurricane Irma hit the area on September 11, 2017 in East Naples, Florida

Water rises in a neighborhood after Hurricane Irma brought floodwaters to Jacksonville, Florida Monday, September 11, 2017

Floodwaters surround a marina in the aftermath of Hurricane Irma on Monday in Key Largo, Florida 

Floodwaters surround a marina in the aftermath of Hurricane Irma on Monday in Key Largo, Florida

Hurricane Irma will cross into Georgia on Monday, bringing heavy wind and rain to the state 

A van remains in a sinkhole on Monday  in Winter Springs, Florida after Hurricane Irma passed through the state

People walk around branches and trees that were downed when hurricane Irma passed through Miami, Florida on Monday

A man walks by damage from Hurricane Irma at Sundance Marine in Palm Shores, Florida, Monday, September 11, 2017

Boats sit on the bottom in the north Florida panhandle community of Shell Point Beach as Hurricane Irma pulls the water out September 11, 2017 in Crawfordville, Florida

Downed power lines are seen in Bonita Springs, Florida, northeast of Naples, on September 11, 2017 after Hurricane Irma hit Florida

The roof of a gas station is shown damaged by Hurricane Irma winds on September 11, 2017 in Bonita Springs, Florida

A gas station is shown damaged by Hurricane Irma winds on September 11, 2017 in Bonita Springs, Florida

Pedestrians try to walk as waves crash at The Battery as Tropical Storm Irma hits Charleston, South Carolina on Monday

This satellite image shows Tropical Storm Irma as it moves up Florida's West Coast Monday morning

Florida Gov. Rick Scott says there’s damage across the state caused by Hurricane Irma and it’s still too dangerous for residents to go outside or return from evacuation.

Scott said Monday on Fox News that he’s concerned about flooding now unfolding in Jacksonville and the amount of damage in the Florida Keys. The governor will be flying out of Mobile, Alabama, on a U.S. Coast Guard plane down to the Keys where he plans to inspect the extent of the damage there.

Scott asked Floridians to be patient and warned that roads are impassable and that there are downed power lines.

A Fort Lauderdale police officer holds the paw of his K-9 as the two take a nap during the storm on Sunday 

While Irma has been downgraded to a tropical storm over Florida, it still has winds near hurricane force.

Jacksonville, Florida, authorities are telling residents near the St. Johns river to leave quickly as floodwaters rise.

The Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office warned people in evacuation zones A and B along the St. Johns River to ‘Get out NOW.’

They say river is at historic flood levels and likely to get worse at high tide around 2pm.

On its Facebook page, the sheriff’s office told those who need help evacuating to ‘put a white flag in front of your house. A t-shirt, anything white.’

Rescue teams were ready to deploy.

The storm surge flooding in downtown Jacksonville has already exceeded a record set during a 1965 hurricane by at least a foot. A river gauge downtown in the Atlantic Coast city measured 3 feet above flood stage.

John Ward, the emergency operations manager of Clay County, says crews have pulled 46 people from flooded homes by early Monday and an undetermined number are still stranded as the area’s creeks and ponds are getting record flooding.

Ward says between 400 and 500 homes received severe flood damage but there have been no serious injuries or deaths.

To the south, winds knocked a utility pole and power lines onto a sheriff’s cruiser late Sunday in Polk County, illustrating the dangerous conditions for emergency personnel. A deputy and a paramedic, who had just escorted an elderly patient to safety, were trapped for two hours until a crew could free them. Both were unhurt.

Property damage is seen at a mobile home park after Hurricane Irma in Naples, Florida, U.S. September 11, 2017

A man walks through a flooded street in a rural area the morning after Hurricane Irma swept through the area on September 11, 2017 in Naples, Florida

A tree blocks a road after it was downed by winds from Hurricane Irma on September 11, 2017 in Miami, Florida

People take photos of boats that have come ashore in Coconut Grove following Hurricane Irma in Miami, Florida, on Monday

Partially submerged boats caused by Hurricane Irma sit in the water in a marina in downtown Miami, Florida on Monday

People wade through a flooded neighborhood in Bonita Springs, Florida, northeast of Naples, on September 11, 2017, after Hurricane Irma hit Florida

People wade through a flooded neighborhood in Bonita Springs, Florida, northeast of Naples, on September 11, 2017, after Hurricane Irma hit Florida

Kelly McClenthen walks through her flooded neighborhood, as she returns to see the damage to her home in the aftermath of Hurricane Irma in Bonita Springs, Florida on Monday

A boat is seen washed ashore at the Dinner Key marina after hurricane Irma passed through the area on September 11, 2017 in Miami, Florida

Street flooding is prevalent on the Southbank of downtown as Hurricane Irma passes by in Jacksonville, Florida on Monday

A fire truck is shown in a flooded area in the wake of Hurricane Irma on Monday in Key Largo, Florida 

The entirety of the Florida Keys was under evacuation during Irma but an estimated 10,000 stuck around to weather the storm 

Above, another flooded neighborhood in Key Largo, Florida on Monday 

A pickup truck drives through a flooded area of Key Largo, Florida on Monday 

The winds ripped the roofs off of these two homes in Key Largo, Florida, as seen on Monday

The heavy winds left many of the trees in Key Largo, Florida barren after the storm 

And more than 120 homes were being evacuated early Monday in Orange County, just outside the city of Orlando, as floodwaters started to pour in. Firefighters and the National Guard were going door-to-door and using boats to ferry families to safety. A few miles away, 30 others had to be evacuated when a 60-foot sinkhole opened up under an apartment building. No injuries were reported in either case.

Much of central Florida, including Orlando, suffered significant damage as Irma blew through Sunday night and into Monday morning.

Orange County Mayor Teresa Jacobs said Monday morning that there’s been widespread damage and significant power loss throughout the area.

Jacobs said approximately 300,000 residents in Orlando are without power. She also said 60 per cent of the fire stations are operating on backup generators and dispatchers received 1,381 calls between Sunday at midnight and 5:45 a.m. Monday morning.

Residents are being asked to minimize usage such as flushing toilets, bathing, along with washing dishes and laundry.

SeaTow workers attempt to save a damaged motor yacht in the Pompano Beach, Florida on Monday, following the passing of Hurricane Irma

A driver guides his pickup truck through a neighborhood flooded by Hurricane Irma on Monday in Bonita Springs, Florida

A driver guides his pickup truck through a neighborhood flooded by Hurricane Irma on Monday in Bonita Springs, Florida

A man walks through Hurricane Irma floodwaters on Monday in Bonita Springs, Florida

A man walks through Hurricane Irma floodwaters on Monday in Bonita Springs, Florida

People move around branches and trees that were downed when hurricane Irma passed through the area on September 11, 2017 in Miami, Florida

People move around branches and trees that were downed when hurricane Irma passed through the area on September 11, 2017 in Miami, Florida

A boat is seen washed ashore at the Dinner Key marina after hurricane Irma passed through the area on September 11, 2017 in Miami, Florida

A boat is seen washed ashore at the Dinner Key marina after hurricane Irma passed through the area on September 11, 2017 in Miami, Florida

ouis Castro picks up a coconut downed by the winds of Hurricane Irma on September 11, 2017 in Naples, Florida

ouis Castro picks up a coconut downed by the winds of Hurricane Irma on September 11, 2017 in Naples, Florida

Members of the Bonita Springs Fire Department set off to survey damage in a flooded neighborhood in Bonita Springs, Florida, northeast of Naples, on September 11, 2017 after Hurricane Irma hit Florida

Members of the Bonita Springs Fire Department set off to survey damage in a flooded neighborhood in Bonita Springs, Florida, northeast of Naples, on September 11, 2017 after Hurricane Irma hit Florida

A woman walks past trees downed by the winds of Hurricane Irma on September 11, 2017 in Naples, Florida

A woman walks past trees downed by the winds of Hurricane Irma on September 11, 2017 in Naples, Florida

Some street flooding persists on Biscayne Boulevard after Hurricane Irma struck in Miami, Florida, USA, 11 September 2017

In Redington Shores west of Tampa, attorney Carl Roberts spent a sleepless night riding out Irma in his 17th floor beachfront condo. After losing power late Sunday, he made it through the worst of the storm shaken but unhurt.

‘The hurricane winds lashed the shutters violently, throughout the night,’ he wrote in a text message, ‘making sleep impossible.’

As morning broke, he couldn’t open the electric shutters to see outside.

‘It’s so dark in here,’ he said.

Nearly 5.8 million homes and businesses across Florida lost power, and utility officials said it will take weeks to restore electricity to everyone. More than 125,000 were in the dark in Georgia.

Downtown Savannah was getting soaked Monday morning, with winds just strong enough to rustle treetops and shake small branches onto the roads. Impacts from the storm were expected throughout the day.

People walk through flooded streets the morning after Hurricane Irma swept through the area on September 11, 2017 in Naples, Florida

A Miami Beach Police officer watches residents attempting to return to their homes after Hurricane Irma struck in Miami, Florida, USA, 11 September 2017

Mike Getman (left) and Rob Beaton (right), residents of the north Florida community of Shell Point Beach, walk the newly exposed Gulf bottom as Hurricane Irma pulls the water out on September 11, 2017 in Crawfordville, Florida

Neighbors emerge from their homes to get a first look at the damage to their neighborhood caused by Hurricane Irma on September 11, 2017 in Fort Meade, Florida

A women stands near trees downed by Hurricane Irma on September 11, 2017 in Bonita Springs, Florida

A women stands near trees downed by Hurricane Irma on September 11, 2017 in Bonita Springs, Florida

Zachary Harrison, his fiance Cheyanne O'Donnell and their three children, Jaiden, 14, Jackson, 9, and Ella, 10-months, get their first look at the damage to their neighborhood caused by Hurricane Irma on Monday in Fort Meade, Florida

A large tree is seen laying on top of a home after high winds from Hurricane Irma came through the area on Monday in Fort Meade, Florida

A large tree is seen laying on top of a home after high winds from Hurricane Irma came through the area on Monday in Fort Meade, Florida

The National Weather Service said the threat of storm surge had decreased Monday along Georgia’s 100 miles of coast, but flooding rains could still cause swollen rivers, streams and creeks to overflow.

Officials say at least one tornado has been reported in coastal Georgia as strong winds and drenching rains from Tropical Storm Irma hammer the state.

The National Weather Service also issued a flash-flood emergency for Charleston,  South Carolina as heavy rains begin to move into areas already flooding by ocean surge from Tropical Storm Irma.

Irma has now knocked out power to around 190,000 customers in South Carolina.

Firefighters on one of South Carolina’s Hilton Head Island are staying inside until the worst weather from Tropical Storm Irma passes.

Irma’s center was about 105 miles north of Tampa when forecasters announced it had weakened to a tropical storm. However, they warned its maximum sustained winds were 70 mph, and the storm was still producing higher gusts.

The monster storm, which arrived in Florida as a Category 4 hurricane, has toppled at least three constructions cranes – two over downtown Miami and one in Fort Lauderdale.

People in the heavily populated Tampa-St. Petersburg area had feared a first direct hit from a major hurricane since 1921, but the storm weakened to a Category 2 as it approached that area.

A Florida Highway Patrol vehicle drives by part of a roof and ceiling torn off of a nearby home from the high winds from Hurricane Irma at an intersection on September 11, 2017 in Bowling Green, Florida

A Florida Highway Patrol vehicle drives by part of a roof and ceiling torn off of a nearby home from the high winds from Hurricane Irma at an intersection on September 11, 2017 in Bowling Green, Florida

A car sits in a flooded parking lot outside the Germain Arena, which was used as an evacuation shelter for Hurricane Irma, which passed through yesterday, in Estero, Florida on Monday

A car sits in a flooded parking lot outside the Germain Arena, which was used as an evacuation shelter for Hurricane Irma, which passed through yesterday, in Estero, Florida on Monday

Above, another view of downed trees in Miami, Florida on Monday  

Above, another view of downed trees in Miami, Florida on Monday

A couple leave their flooded home the morning after Hurricane Irma swept through the area on September 11, 2017 in Fort Myers, Florida

A couple leave their flooded home the morning after Hurricane Irma swept through the area on September 11, 2017 in Fort Myers, Florida

A home with a religious message taped to the front door sits apparently undamaged just hours after Hurricane Irma passed through the area on September 11, 2017 in Fort Meade, Florida

A home with a religious message taped to the front door sits apparently undamaged just hours after Hurricane Irma passed through the area on September 11, 2017 in Fort Meade, Florida

Cars make their away through a flooded street the morning after Hurricane Irma swept through the area on September 11, 2017 in Bonita Springs, Florida

Hurricane Irma whips an aluminum carport in the north Florida panhandle community of Shell Point Beach on Monday

Above, the aftermath of Hurricane Irma in Marco Island, Florida 

A fallen palm tree and a roof litters a street as Rick Freedman checks his neighborhood's damage from Hurricane Irma in Marco Island, Florida on Monday

The front staircase sits damaged as Rick Freedman surveys the aftermath on his home with his parrot Mango from Hurricane Irma in Marco Island, Florida on Monday

Hotel guests are served breakfast by lamplight as the power remains off at the Courtyard by Marriott one day after Hurricane Irma struck the state on Monday in Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Tampa Mayor Bob Buckhorn said the situation was not as bad as it could have been, but warned residents that dangerous storm surge continued. He also described downed power lines and other debris.

Speaking Monday morning on MSNBC’s ‘Morning Joe,’ Buckhorn said ‘What we thought was going to be a punch in the face was a glancing blow.’

Buckhorn did say there are a lot of downed power lines and debris.

He said Tampa’s officials have vehicles positioned ‘to be sure that when that surge comes in we can keep people out of the streets.’

He said he expected power to be out for some sections of Tampa for at least a couple more days.

Meanwhile, rescue efforts ramped up in the evacuated neighborhood near Orlando as Guardsmen in helmets and fatigues rolled through standing water in a high-clearance vehicle. Firefighters rescued a puppy from one of the homes there and leashed the anxious dog to the front of one of their trucks to give it water and snacks.

As the sun rose in Orlando, many tried to survey the damage, but authorities warned that conditions remain dangerous and asked people not to venture outside because of a curfew.

Sedat Esenbahar carries his bird Maxiy after checking out of at the Courtyard by Marriott, where he stayed during Hurricane Irma on Monday

Sedat Esenbahar carries his bird Maxiy after checking out of at the Courtyard by Marriott, where he stayed during Hurricane Irma on Monday

Seat Turtle Overshight Protection co-founder Richard WhiteCloud works to recover and re-bury sea turtle eggs that were destroyed during Hurricane Irma along Fort Lauderdale Beach on Monday 

Seat Turtle Overshight Protection co-founder Richard WhiteCloud works to recover and re-bury sea turtle eggs that were destroyed during Hurricane Irma along Fort Lauderdale Beach on Monday

A bicycle rack is half buried in blown sand at Fort Lauderdale Beach the day after Hurricane Irma slammed into the state on Monday

A homeless man lays on a bench on Historic River Street on Monday in Savannah, Georgia 

Evacuees, from left, Dennis Larios, Odaliz Larios, Jennifer Larios and Kevin Renoso, wait to leave the Germain Arena, which was used as an evacuation shelter for Hurricane Irma, which passed through yesterday, in Estero, Florida on Monday

Tony Lobato works on removing tree branches and debris downed in the early morning hours by Hurricane Irma from his home on September 11, 2017 in Bowling Green, Florida

Tony Lobato works on removing tree branches and debris downed in the early morning hours by Hurricane Irma from his home on September 11, 2017 in Bowling Green, Florida

Sam Parish wades through a flooded neighborhood in Bonita Springs, Florida, northeast of Naples, on September 11, 2017 after Hurricane Irma hit Florida

Miami downtown residents return home after evacuating before Hurricane Irma struck in Miami, Florida, USA, 11 September 2017

Road crews clear debris after Hurricane Irma passed through on September 11, 2017 in Naples, Florida

A woman walks past trees downed by the winds of Hurricane Irma on September 11, 2017 in Naples, Florida

Kristen Bell sings for Hurricane Irma evacuees

Actress Kristen Bell says she’s ‘singing in a hurricane’ while riding out Irma in Florida.

The ‘Frozen’ star is in Orlando filming a movie and staying at a hotel at the Walt Disney World resort. She stopped by an Orlando middle school that was serving as a shelter and belted out songs from ‘Frozen.’

Back at the hotel, Bell posted pictures on Instagram of her singing with one guest and dining with a group of seniors.

Bell also helped out the parents of ‘Frozen’ co-star Josh Gad by securing them a room at the hotel.

Bell tells Sacramento, California, station KMAX-TV – where her father is news director – that the experience is her version of one of her favorite movies, ‘Singin’ in the Rain.’

Actress Kristen Bell performed at a shelter during Hurricane Irma on Sunday, belting out songs from the movie Frozen

Irma has so far claimed seven lives so far in the U.S.

Two of the people killed were in Monroe County, which includes the Florida Keys. One of the bodies was found in a Shark Key home while another man was killed when he lost control of a truck carrying a generator.

A sheriff’s deputy and corrections officer were killed in a two-car crash in Hardee county during heavy rains.

Hardee County Sheriff’s deputy and mother-of-one Julie Bridges and Hardee Correctional Institute sergeant Joseph Ossman crashed and died around 60 miles from Saratosa.

Another victim was killed in Miami-Dade county from carbon monoxide poisoning from a generator while one person died in a car crash in Orange County.

Georgia Emergency Management Agency spokeswoman Catherine Howden said Monday that one storm-related death has been confirmed in Worth County, about 170 miles (270 kilometers) south of Atlanta. She had no further details.

In the Caribbean, at least 37 were people were killed during Irma’s destructive trek across exclusive islands known as the vacation playground for the rich. Ten of those deaths were in Cube.

Randy Bresnik took this picture of Hurricane Jose's eye from the International Space Station

Hurricane Irma, taken by NASA astronaut Randy Bresnik, seen from the International Space Station.

INSIDE THE EYE OF HURRICANE JOSE – Taken by Randy Bresnik aboard the ISS – ‘A walk inside the Eye of #Jose. Just amazing to see through the eye to the surface!’

Bridges, one of the people killed during the hurricane, had been collecting supplies to keep helping civilians when she collided with Ossman, 53, who had been going to work.

‘She worked the shelter all night and was going home to retrieve some more items and then go back to the shelter,’ Hardee County Sheriff Arnold Lanier told the Herald-Advocate.

The wreck was reported at 6.53am, having been found at the intersection of Old Crewsville Road and SR 66 in Zolfo Springs. No other vehicles or people were involved.

Florida Highway Patrol is investigating the incident, and has not yet ruled whether the winds and rain caused by Irma at the time of the crash directly influenced the accident.

Bridges was a mother of an eight-year-old boy and a member of the sheriff’s Honor Guard. Ossman, meanwhile, had been working at the Hardee Correctional Institute for 21 years.

‘We are heartbroken by this loss, and our thoughts and prayers are with his family and fellow officers at this time,’ Corrections Secretary Julie Jones told the Miami Herald.

They were not the only people to die amid the deluge.

Evacuees leave the Germain Arena, which was used as an evacuation shelter for Hurricane Irma, which passed through yesterday, in Estero, Florida on Monday

Tony Loduca walks back to his apartment past a roof whose tiles where torn off from Hurricane Irma in Marco Island, Florida on Monday

A roof is strewn across a home's lawn as Rick Freedman checks his neighbor's damage from Hurricane Irma in Marco Island, Florida on Monday
A roof is strewn across a home’s lawn as Rick Freedman checks his neighbor’s damage from Hurricane Irma in Marco Island, Florida on Monday

Brian Baker, of Valrico, Florida, cuts up an Oak tree that fell across Falling Leaves Drive after Hurricane Irma passed through the area on Monday in Valrico, Florida

Wind from Hurricane Irma whip the flags on City Hall, Monday, Sept., 11, 2017, in Savannah, Georgia
Wind from Hurricane Irma whip the flags on City Hall, Monday, Sept., 11, 2017, in Savannah, Georgia

A large tree is seen laying in the front yard of a home after high winds from Hurricane Irma came through the area on Monday in Fort Meade, Florida 

Ducks swim through a street the morning after Hurricane Irma swept through the area on September 11, 2017 in Naples, Florida. Hurricane Irma made another landfall near Naples yesterday after inundating the Florida Keys

People inspect their neighborhood that was flooded by Hurricane Irma on September 11, 2017 in Bonita Springs, Florida

Men clear debris from a roadway the morning after Hurricane Irma swept through the area on September 11, 2017 in Naples, Florida

Another man was killed after tropical-storm-strength winds caused him to lose control of the truck he was driving through Monroe County, which contains Key West. He had been carrying a generator, local officials told ABC News.

And an elderly man died of natural causes while sheltering in a school in the city of Marathon on the Keys, Larry Kahn, an editor for FlKeysNews.com, said.

‘He was staying in one of the classrooms,’ Khan explained. ‘Police came up, along with a couple of nurses who are here, actually, got everyone out of the room and sealed it off.’

Those deaths come after Irma claimed at least 25 lives in the Caribbean as it swept over several countries, destroying entire islands. Yesterday, Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte announced that the confirmed death toll on the Caribbean island of St Maarten had increased to four.

In one of the largest U.S. evacuations, nearly 7 million people in the Southeast were warned to seek shelter, including 6.4 million in Florida alone. More than 200,000 people waited in shelters across Florida.

An overnight curfew was imposed in Miami to stop opportunistic looters taking advantage of the countless coastal homes that now stand abandoned.

But at least 32 people have been arrested across Florida for trying to loot the empty businesses and homes.

Two people burst into an Orlando sporting store and allegedly stole guns, before facing off with SWAT in a standoff. Shocking videos also emerged of gangs trying to break into stores and take advantage of deserted properties.

Bryan Koon, Florida’s emergency management director, said late Sunday that authorities had only scattered information about damage.

‘I’ve not heard of catastrophic damage. It doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist. It means it hasn’t gotten to us yet,’ Koon said.

Pedestrians walk by a flooded car on a street as Tropical Storm Irma hits Charleston, South Carolina on Monday 

A pet owner protects her dog as pedestrians prepare for waves crashing over The Battery as Hurricane Irma hits Charleston, South Carolina on Monday

Mattson Wiksell picks up debris at Waterfront Park as Hurricane Irma hits Charleston, South Carolina on Monday

Mattson Wiksell picks up debris at Waterfront Park as Hurricane Irma hits Charleston, South Carolina on Monday

A man takes pictures as people prepare for huge wave crashing over The Battery as Hurricane Irma hits Charleston, South Carolina on Monday

In the low-lying Keys, appliances and furniture were seen floating away, and Monroe County spokeswoman Cammy Clark said the ocean waters were filled with navigation hazards, including sunken boats.

The county administrator, Roman Gastesi, said crews would begin house-to-house searches Monday morning to check on survivors. They suspect they may find fatalities. Gastesi says they are ‘prepared for the worst.’

About 30,000 people heeded orders to leave the Keys as the storm closed in, but about 10,000 refused, in part because, to many storm-hardened residents, staying behind in the face of danger is a point of pride.

Koon said it was likely they did not have power or water and that there would have been ‘fairly significant impact to homes’.

‘It is obvious we need to get in there, assess the damage and figure out what we need to do for helping those folks,’ he said.

John Huston, who stayed in his Key Largo home, watched his yard flood even before the arrival of high tide.

‘Small boats floating down the street next to furniture and refrigerators. Very noisy,’ he said by text message. ‘Shingles are coming off.’

As the nation’s eyes turned to follow Irma up the west coast of Florida, the Keys began to take in the immensity of the damage done.

Another victim of the storm was claimed when his truck (pictured) was swept off the road and into a tree in Monroe County. He has not yet been named

People drive through a neighborhood that was flooded by Hurricane Irma on September 11, 2017 in Bonita Springs, Florida

Workers from Orange County rescue make a final check of an area on a flooded street after they were called to rescue residents from their homes during Hurricane Irma on Monday in Lake Buena Vista, Florida

An abandoned car that was stranded in storm surge remains on North Fort Lauderdale Beach Boulevard one day after Hurricane Irma slamed into the southern part of the state on September 11, 2017

Florida responded with the launch of a massive airborne relief mission by Monroe County Emergency Management, whose director, Martin Senterfitt, called the damage done to the Keys a ‘humanitarian crisis.’

He promised disaster mortuary teams, as well as C-130 cargo planes, which United States Air Force special operations pilots are testing flights around the massive storm. Also on the mission will be Air National Guard flights of more C-130s, backed up by squadrons of helicopters. They are expected to start arriving early Monday morning.

The first load will head to Florida Keys Marathon Airport. As it can handle about two C-130 planes at a time, the plan is to land two every two hours, keeping a steady flow of good.

‘The help is on its way,’ Senterfitt said, adding: ‘We’re going to get more aid than we’ve ever seen in our lives.’

It has been difficult to determine the extent of damage Hurricane Irma caused in the Florida Keys due to difficulties with communication.

The Navy is sending an aircraft carrier to Key West to provide emergency services.

An update from Monroe County describes ‘an astounding recovery effort’ taking place in the Florida Keys.

The USS Lincoln aircraft carrier will be anchored off Key West to provide emergency services, and three other Navy vessels are en route.

Officials said the National Guard has arrived in the island chain, and state transportation officials have cleared six of 42 bridges as safe for travel. However, roads remain closed because of debris, and fuel is still a concern. There is no water, power or cell service in the Keys.

Irma once was the most powerful hurricane ever recorded in the open Atlantic, a Category 5 with a peak wind speed of 185 mph (300 kph). For days, forecasters had warned Irma was taking dead aim at Florida. Irma made landfall as a Category 4 hurricane Sunday morning at Cudjoe Key, not far from Key West. It then rounded Florida’s southwestern corner and hugged the coast closely as it pushed north.

Meanwhile, an Atlanta airport official says there’ve been around 800 cancellations due to the threat of Irma, which weakened to a tropical storm Monday morning.

Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport spokesman Andrew Gobeil says the airport will still be operational Monday and will monitor storm conditions.

Gobeil says the airport created an overflow parking plan to allow planes unable to land in areas such as Florida to park at the airport in Atlanta.

Miami International Airport has announced it will be closed today and there has been no confirmation flights will resume on Tuesday.

Orlando International Airport closed Saturday and won’t reopen to passenger traffic until after Irma has passed, a damage assessment has been completed, necessary recovery efforts made and the airlines are consulted to determine when best to resume operations.

Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport says on its website it has no timetable yet to reopen. Its last flights were Friday. Tampa International Airport also is closed as Hurricane Irma moves up the Florida peninsula.

Airlines are preparing their recovery schedules, which may take several days to execute.

As the remnants of Hurricane Irma move out of Florida, work is underway to resupply the state with gasoline. Hurricane Irma caused a huge spike in gasoline demand as residents evacuated, topped of their tanks, and/or filled gas cans to power generators. This led to outages at various gas stations throughout Florida and neighboring states, and it could take a week for supply conditions to return to normal.

Suppliers face an uphill battle in the coming days, trying to keep gas stations supplied, as Florida evacuees return home in large numbers after the storm. Gas stations not located along major highways should have an easier time keeping supplies, as residents are no longer ‘panic pumping’, since the storm is no longer a threat. Refueling gas stations along major evacuation routes will be a top priority, as it was before the storm. Motorists are still likely to find long lines, which could lead to temporary outages, due to the surge in demand.

Heavy westbound traffic comes to a stop at a back up on I-4 near the Celebration exit as Florida residents attempt to make their way back home after evacuating Hurricane Irma on September 11, 2017 in Lake Buena Vista, Florida

Steve Slonan inspects a friend's home after Hurricane Irma hit the area on September 11, 2017 in East Naples, Florida

: A man walks through a flooded street in a rural part of Naples the morning after Hurricane Irma swept through the area on September 11, 2017 in Naples, Florida

A family leaves their flooded home in a rural area the morning after Hurricane Irma swept through the area on September 11, 2017 in Naples, Florida

A home is shown damaged after Hurricane Irma hit the area on September 11, 2017 in East Naples, Florida

A home is shown damaged after Hurricane Irma hit the area on September 11, 2017 in East Naples, Florida

A home is shown damaged after Hurricane Irma hit the area on September 11, 2017 in East Naples, Florida

A home is shown damaged after Hurricane Irma hit the area on September 11, 2017 in East Naples, Florida

A swamped boat off Watson Island marina after Hurricane Irma struck in Miami, Florida, USA, 11 September 2017

A damaged boat is seen at the Dinner Key marina after Hurricane Irma passed through the area on September 11, 2017 in Miami, Florida

‘Florida evacuees should plan their return home very carefully,’ said Mark Jenkins, spokesman, AAA – The Auto Club Group. ‘First, ensure you know there are no major hazards at home or along your travel route. Expect congestion on the roadways, as the first few days after the storm will be the busiest. Pay close attention to traffic reports. Ensure you have a full tank of gas before you hit the road. Do not let your fuel gauge fall below a quarter tank before you start looking for a place to refuel. Bring a gas can in case you run out of fuel. It is not safe to drive with a full gas can inside an enclosed vehicle.’

President Donald Trump said last night that the U.S. may have gotten a ‘little bit lucky’ after Hurricane Irma veered from its original course and headed west along Florida’s coast.

He said Irma might not have been quite as destructive as a result, but that things will play out over the next several hours. Trump added that Irma would cost ‘a lot of money’ but he wasn’t thinking about that because ‘right now, we’re worried about lives, not cost.’

He declared a major disaster in the state of Florida, making federal aid available to people affected by Hurricane Irma in nine counties already hit by the storm.

The federal help includes temporary housing and home repairs, low-cost loans for uninsured property losses and other programs to help individuals and business owners recover in the counties of Charlotte, Collier, Hillsborough, Lee, Manatee, Miami-Dade, Monroe, Pinellas, and Sarasota.

Property damage is seen at a mobile home park after Hurricane Irma in Naples, Florida, U.S. September 11, 2017

Property damage is seen at a mobile home park after Hurricane Irma in Naples, Florida, U.S. September 11, 2017

Property damage is seen at a mobile home park after Hurricane Irma in Naples, Florida, U.S. September 11, 2017

With no gas stations open anywhere in the area, motorists running low on fuel stop at an on ramp to westbound I-4 and get a few gallons of gas from Javier Franqui, a Florida Department of Transportation Road Ranger, on September 11, 2017 in Lake Helen, Florida

With no gas stations open anywhere in the area, motorists running low on fuel stop at an on ramp to westbound I-4 to refuel from tanks strapped to their vehicle's roof on September 11, 2017 in Lake Helen, Florida

Debris is shown strewn along a roadway in the wake of powerful Hurricane Irma on September 11, 2017 in Isamorada, a village encompassing six of the Florida Keys

A road is partially blocked by a tree downed in the high winds from Hurricane Irma on September 11, 2017 in Miami, Florida

Residents make their way across a flooded street after Hurricane Irma brought floodwaters to Jacksonville, Florida Monday, Sept. 11, 2017

Lawrence Buckmen rides his motorcycle through Hurricane Irma flood waters on September 11, 2017 in East Naples, Florida

Lawrence Buckmen rides his motorcycle through Hurricane Irma flood waters on September 11, 2017 in East Naples, Florida

The crumbled canopy of a gas station damaged by Hurricane Irma in Naples, Florida, U.S., September 11, 2017

A patient is evacuated by boat from the St. Vincent's Medical Center after floodwaters from Hurricane Irma covered the first floor of the hospital in Jacksonville, Florida, Monday, Sept. 11, 2017

A patient is evacuated by boat from the St. Vincent’s Medical Center after floodwaters from Hurricane Irma covered the first floor of the hospital in Jacksonville, Florida, Monday, Sept. 11, 2017

A lamp post is wrapped around a car in the wake of Hurricane Irma in Kissimmee, Florida September 11, 2017

Federal funding also is available to governments and non-profit organizations for emergencies in all 67 Florida counties. For the first 30 days, that money will cover 100 percent of the costs of some emergency responses.

As Irma swept over the country, people trapped in its midst told DailyMail.com of the drama they were enduring. One of them was lifelong Floridian Jacqueline Cobb of Pembroke Pines, which is near Miami.

She had been forced to bunker down in a school as it was the only shelter she could find for people with special needs, like her friend Stephen Herndon who has problems with his autonomic nervous system that can cause severe nosebleeds, fainting and overheating.

She had originally found a hotel for them to stay in, but it canceled their booking, saying that the lack of impact windows and a backup generator meant they had to shut down.

Cobb helped out as a Red Cross volunteer in Hurricane Andrew in 1992, but says Irma is on another level. ‘It was nothing like this, because Hurricane Andrew was a smaller, more compact hurricane, so you could get away from it,’ she said.

‘We did not feel the wrath, so to speak, in the northern part of the county, but in the southern part it was a battle field. It was completely decimated, some houses were completely destroyed, others were partially damaged.’

Cobb and her friend are safe in her shelter, but a shocking text message left her worried about her home and neighbors.

‘I received a code red tornado alert,’ she said. ‘I have a two-story townhouse and there is a three-and-a-half-ton air conditioner on the rooftop. I’m on a lake in the first house, so If the tornado rips that off, it will open up my house and let water into the building,’ she said.

Heavy rainfall is predicted to continue falling through Tuesday, even as Irma moves on, breaks up and dissipates

Also in the line of the storm was British tourist Stephanie Jay, who took shelter in Naples with her husband Elliot and their two-year-old daughter Isabella.

The family, from St Albans outside London, had enjoyed a week’s holiday in Miami until they were unceremoniously evicted from their hotel.

‘We went down to reception to ask what was happening and were told to pack our bags and move out of the hotel,’ she told DailyMail.com.

‘They weren’t very helpful considering they knew we were very worried, especially as we don’t know many people in Florida… They clearly didn’t want us to be there and made our one night there very difficult.’

‘We tried to get out of Florida but all the flights were booked and we knew they would be closing the airport so didn’t want to be stranded with a two year old,’ she said.

Instead, they spent a night in Naples with a friend before heading to Bradenton, south of Tampa. That has left them in the path of the oncoming Irma – but they are remaining positive and hope to return home as planned next week.

In more serious trouble were a pair of would-be sailors who called Martin County Sheriff’s Office for help after they remained on their boat in the storm – even though they could not swim.

‘MCSO Marine Rescue and Strike Teams are launching into treacherous waters to begin a marine rescue of two people who remained on their boat near the causeway,’ a post on the sheriff’s office’s Facebook page.

‘The mariners say they are unable to swim. We will keep you posted on this. Please pray for the safety of our brave first responders.’

Video later showed the paid being led off their boat safely onto the docks.

Reader Jenny Williams sent in this photograph from her Saratosa neighborhood where she and many of her neighbors had decided to weather out the storm

Key West's streets started to flood as Hurricane Irma struck the area. Even with the eye 15-20 miles out, winds and rain had made it too dangerous to drive

Water levels rose rapidly in Naples (above) from Hurricane Irma's storm surge with a reported a seven foot rise of water in just 90 minutes. The storm kept its top sustained wind speed of 110 mph yesterday

People tend to a car that flipped over on Cape Coral Parkway during Hurricane Irma last night in Cape Coral

A tree is seen toppled onto a pickup truck in Miami after being battered by Irma's winds. Flying debris is an omnipresent danger for those outside in the terrifying weather

Dramatic pictures have emerged showing the moment Hurricane Irma's powerful 130mph winds ripped the roof off a Miami home

Dramatic pictures have emerged showing the moment Hurricane Irma's powerful 130mph winds ripped the roof off a Miami home

A car sits abandoned in storm surge along North Fort Lauderdale Beach Boulevard. Irma made initial landfall at 9:10am on the Florida Keys, which are now the subject of a massive relief effort. Five people have been confirmed dead in the disaster

A car sits abandoned in storm surge along North Fort Lauderdale Beach Boulevard. Irma made initial landfall at 9:10am on the Florida Keys, which are now the subject of a massive relief effort. Five people have been confirmed dead in the disaster

Irma tore down a construction crane atop a skyscraper high over Miami

The crane can also be seen here. Cranes are designed to withstand strong winds and twist like weather vanes to reduce resistance, but Irma was too much

Palm Bay officer Dustin Terkoski walks over debris from a partially collapsed two-story home at Palm Point Subdivision in Brevard County

Large waves produced by Hurricane Irma crash all the way over the top of Anglins Fishing Pier in Fort Lauderdale as Irma picks up steam in the area

Large waves produced by Hurricane Irma crash all the way over the top of Anglins Fishing Pier in Fort Lauderdale as Irma picks up steam in the area

Recently planted palm trees lie strewn across the road as Hurricane Irma passes through Miami Beach

At least 32 people have been arrested across Florida for trying to loot empty businesses and homes that have been evacuated in preparation for Hurricane Irma

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4872940/The-sun-rises-devastation-wreaked-Irma-Florida.html#ixzz4sP9v0kAu

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The Pronk Pops Show 951, August 24, 2017,Weather Warning — Part 1 of 2 — Will Be Revised and Updated Friday —  Story 1: Hurricane Harvey Tracking Towards Texas Gulf Coast — Stock Up On Gasoline, Water, Bread, Milk — Up to 3 Feet of Rain and Wind Speeds From 111-130 Miles Per Hour — Winds Will Hit Late Friday or Early Saturday Morning — Category 3 Hurricane — Damage Extensive — Will Hurricane Harvey  Change Course? — Videos

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Weather Warning — Part 1 of 2 — Will Be Revised and Updated Friday —  Story 1: Hurricane Harvey Tracking Towards Texas Gulf Coast — Stock Up On Gasoline, Water, Bread, Milk — Up to 3 Feet of Rain and Wind Speeds From 111-130 Miles Per Hour — Winds Will Hit Late Friday or Early Saturday Morning — Category 3 Hurricane — Damage Extensive — Will Hurricane Harvey  Change Course? — Videos

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Galveston Storm of 1900

Galveston: Home of America’s Deadliest Natural Disaster

Published on Sep 28, 2011

On Sept. 8, 1900, an unnamed hurricane slammed into the unprotected barrier island of Galveston, Texas, killing between 6,000 and 8,000 people. More than 111 years later, the natural disaster stands as the worst in the history of the United States. Watch the NewsHour Health Unit’s report on long-term recovery efforts after Hurricane Ike, Galveston’s most recent disaster: http://to.pbs.org/oFWSso.

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Published on Sep 1, 2014

This educational HD video explains the phenomena known as a typhoon or cyclone the the people survived. Typhoons originate mostly in Asia with six conditions required for formation: warm sea surface temperatures, atmospheric instability, high humidity in the lower to middle levels of the troposphere, enough Coriolis force to develop a low pressure center, a pre-existing low level focus or disturbance, and low vertical wind shear.

 

Saffir–Simpson scale

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Saffir–Simpson scale
Category Wind speeds
Five ≥70 m/s, ≥137 knots
≥157 mph, ≥252 km/h
Four 58–70 m/s, 113–136 knots
130–156 mph, 209–251 km/h
Three 50–58 m/s, 96–112 knots
111–129 mph, 178–208 km/h
Two 43–49 m/s, 83–95 knots
96–110 mph, 154–177 km/h
One 33–42 m/s, 64–82 knots
74–95 mph, 119–153 km/h
Related classifications
Tropical
storm
18–32 m/s, 34–63 knots
39–73 mph, 63–118 km/h
Tropical
depression
≤17 m/s, ≤33 knots
≤38 mph, ≤62 km/h

The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS), formerly the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale (SSHS), classifies hurricanes – Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions, and tropical storms – into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds. To be classified as a hurricane, a tropical cyclone must have maximum sustained winds of at least 74 mph (33 m/s; 64 kn; 119 km/h) (Category 1). The highest classification in the scale, Category 5, is reserved for storms with winds exceeding 156 mph (70 m/s; 136 kn; 251 km/h).

The classifications can provide some indication of the potential damage and flooding a hurricane will cause upon landfall.

Officially, the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale is used only to describe hurricanes forming in the Atlantic Ocean and northern Pacific Ocean east of the International Date Line. Other areas use different scales to label these storms, which are called “cyclones” or “typhoons“, depending on the area.

There is some criticism of the SSHS for not taking rain, storm surge, and other important factors into consideration, but SSHS defenders say that part of the goal of SSHS is to be straightforward and simple to understand.

History

In 1967 Robert Simpson became the director of the National Hurricane Center and started to look at the problem of communicating the forecasts to the public better. During 1968 Robert spoke to Herbert Saffir about work that he had just completed for the United Nations, about damage to structures that was expected by winds of different strengths.

The scale was developed in 1971 by civil engineer Herbert Saffir and meteorologist Robert Simpson, who at the time was director of the U.S. National Hurricane Center (NHC).[1] The scale was introduced to the general public in 1973,[2] and saw widespread use after Neil Frank replaced Simpson at the helm of the NHC in 1974.[3]

The initial scale was developed by Saffir, a structural engineer, who in 1969 went on commission for the United Nations to study low-cost housing in hurricane-prone areas.[4] While performing the study, Saffir realized there was no simple scale for describing the likely effects of a hurricane. Mirroring the utility of the Richter magnitude scale in describing earthquakes, he devised a 1–5 scale based on wind speed that showed expected damage to structures. Saffir gave the scale to the NHC, and Simpson added the effects of storm surgeand flooding.

In 2009, the NHC made moves to eliminate pressure and storm surge ranges from the categories, transforming it into a pure wind scale, called the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale (Experimental) [SSHWS].[5] The new scale became operational on May 15, 2010.[6]The scale excludes flood ranges, storm surge estimations, rainfall, and location, which means a Category 2 hurricane which hits a major city will likely do far more cumulative damage than a Category 5 hurricane that hits a rural area.[7] The agency cited various hurricanes as reasons for removing the “scientifically inaccurate” information, including Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Hurricane Ike (2008), which both had stronger than estimated storm surges, and Hurricane Charley (2004), which had weaker than estimated storm surge.[8] Since removed from the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, storm surge predicting and modeling is now handled with the use of a computerized numerical model developed by the National Weather Service called “Sea, Lake, and Overland Surge from Hurricanes” (SLOSH).

In 2012, the NHC expanded the windspeed range for Category 4 by 1 mph in both directions, to 130–156 mph, with corresponding changes in the other units (113–136 kn, 209–251 km/h), instead of 131–155 mph (114–135 kn, 210–249 km/h). The NHC and the Central Pacific Hurricane Center assign tropical cyclone intensities in 5 knot increments, and then convert to mph and km/h with a similar rounding for other reports. So an intensity of 115 knots is rated Category 4, but the conversion to miles per hour (132.3 mph) would round down to 130 mph, making it appear to be a Category 3 storm. Likewise, an intensity of 135 knots (~155 mph, and thus Category 4) is 250.02 km/h, which according to the definition used before the change would be Category 5. To resolve these issues, the NHC had been obliged to incorrectly report storms with wind speeds of 115 kn as 135 mph, and 135 kn as 245 km/h. The change in definition allows storms of 115 kn to be correctly rounded down to 130 mph, and storms of 135 kn to be correctly reported as 250 km/h, and still qualify as Category 4. Since the NHC had previously rounded incorrectly to keep storms in Category 4 in each unit of measure, the change does not affect the classification of storms from previous years.[5] The new scale became operational on May 15, 2012.[9]

Categories

The scale separates hurricanes into five different categories based on wind. The U.S. National Hurricane Center classifies hurricanes of Category 3 and above as major hurricanes, and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center classifies typhoons of 150 mph or greater (strong Category 4 and Category 5) as super typhoons (although all tropical cyclones can be very dangerous). Most weather agencies use the definition for sustained winds recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), which specifies measuring winds at a height of 33 ft (10.1 m) for 10 minutes, and then taking the average. By contrast, the U.S. National Weather ServiceCentral Pacific Hurricane Center and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center define sustained winds as average winds over a period of one minute, measured at the same 33 ft (10.1 m) height,[10][11] and that is the definition used for this scale. Intensity of example hurricanes is from both the time of landfall and the maximum intensity.

The scale is roughly logarithmic in wind speed, and the top wind speed for Category “c” (c=1 to 4, as there is no upper limit for category 5) can be expressed as 83×10^(c/15) miles per hour rounded to the nearest multiple of 5 – except that after the change mentioned above, Category 4 is now widened by 1 mph in each direction.

The five categories are, in order of increasing intensity:

Category 1

Category 1
Sustained winds Example
33–42 m/s
64–82 kn
119–153 km/h
74–95 mph
Newton 2016-09-06 1825Z.jpg
Hurricane Newton in 2016 making landfall.

Very dangerous winds will produce some damage

Category 1 storms usually cause no significant structural damage to most well-constructed permanent structures; however, they can topple unanchored mobile homes, as well as uproot or snap weak trees. Poorly attached roof shingles or tiles can blow off. Coastal flooding and pier damage are often associated with Category 1 storms. Power outages are typically widespread to extensive, sometimes lasting several days. Even though it is the least intense type of hurricane, the storm can still produce widespread damage and can be a life-threatening storm.[5]

Hurricanes that peaked at Category 1 intensity, and made landfall at that intensity include: Flossy (1956), Gladys (1968), Agnes (1972), Juan (1985), Ismael (1995), Claudette (2003), Gaston (2004), Stan (2005), Humberto (2007), Isaac (2012), Manuel (2013), Earl (2016), Hermine (2016), Newton (2016), and Franklin (2017).

Category 2

Category 2
Sustained winds Example
43–49 m/s
83–95 kn
154–177 km/h
96–110 mph
Arthur Jul 3 2014 1615Z.jpg
Arthur in 2014 approaching North Carolina

Extremely dangerous winds will cause extensive damage

Storms of Category 2 intensity often damage roofing material (sometimes exposing the roof) and inflict damage upon poorly constructed doors and windows. Poorly constructed signs and piers can receive considerable damage and many trees are uprooted or snapped. Mobile homes, whether anchored or not, are typically damaged and sometimes destroyed, and many manufactured homes also suffer structural damage. Small craft in unprotected anchorages may break their moorings. Extensive to near-total power outages and scattered loss of potable water are likely, possibly lasting many days.[5]

Hurricanes that peaked at Category 2 intensity, and made landfall at that intensity include: Alice (1954), Fifi (1974), Diana (1990), Calvin (1993), Gert (1993), Rosa (1994), Erin (1995), Alma (1996), Juan (2003), Alex(2010), Tomas (2010), Carlotta (2012), Ernesto (2012), Richard (2012), and Arthur (2014).

Category 3

Category 3
Sustained winds Example
50–58 m/s
96–112 kn
178–208 km/h
111–129 mph
Otto 2016-11-24 1605Z.jpg
Hurricane Otto near its landfall on Nicaragua.

Devastating damage will occur

Tropical cyclones of Category 3 and higher are described as major hurricanes in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific basins. These storms can cause some structural damage to small residences and utility buildings, particularly those of wood frame or manufactured materials with minor curtain wall failures. Buildings that lack a solid foundation, such as mobile homes, are usually destroyed, and gable-end roofs are peeled off. Manufactured homes usually sustain severe and irreparable damage. Flooding near the coast destroys smaller structures, while larger structures are struck by floating debris. A large number of trees are uprooted or snapped, isolating many areas. Additionally, terrain may be flooded well inland. Near-total to total power loss is likely for up to several weeks and water will likely also be lost or contaminated.[5]

Hurricanes that peaked at Category 3 intensity, and made landfall at that intensity include: Carol (1954), Hilda (1955), Audrey (1957), Celia (1970), Eloise (1975), Olivia (1975), Alicia (1983), Elena (1985), Roxanne(1995), Fran (1996), Isidore (2002), Lane (2006), Karl (2010), Sandy (2012) and Otto (2016).

Category 4

Category 4
Sustained winds Example
58–70 m/s
113–136 kn
209–251 km/h
130–156 mph
Joaquin 2015-10-02 1530Z.jpg
Joaquin at Bahamian landfall

Catastrophic damage will occur

Category 4 hurricanes tend to produce more extensive curtainwall failures, with some complete structural failure on small residences. Heavy, irreparable damage and near complete destruction of gas station canopies and other wide span overhang type structures are common. Mobile and manufactured homes are often flattened. Most trees, except for the heartiest, are uprooted or snapped, isolating many areas. These storms cause extensive beach erosion, while terrain may be flooded far inland. Total and long-lived electrical and water losses are to be expected, possibly for many weeks.[5]

The 1900 Galveston hurricane, the deadliest natural disaster to hit the United States, peaked at an intensity that corresponds to a modern-day Category 4 storm. Other examples of storms that peaked at Category 4 intensity, and made landfall at that intensity include: Hazel (1954), Gracie (1959), Flora (1963), Cleo (1964), Madeline (1976), Frederic (1979), Joan (1988), Iniki (1992), Luis (1995), Iris (2001), Charley (2004), Dennis (2005), Gustav (2008), Ike (2008) and Joaquin (2015).

Category 5

Category 5
Sustained winds Example
≥ 70 m/s
≥ 137 kn
≥ 252 km/h
≥ 157 mph
Felix from ISS 03 sept 2007 1138Z.jpg
Felix near peak intensity

Catastrophic damage will occur

Category 5 is the highest category of the Saffir–Simpson scale. These storms cause complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings, and some complete building failures with small utility buildings blown over or away. Collapse of many wide-span roofs and walls, especially those with no interior supports, is common. Very heavy and irreparable damage to many wood frame structures and total destruction to mobile/manufactured homes is prevalent. Only a few types of structures are capable of surviving intact, and only if located at least 3 to 5 miles (5 to 8 km) inland. They include office, condominium and apartment buildings and hotels that are of solid concrete or steel frame construction, public multi-story concrete parking garages, and residences that are made of either reinforced brick or concrete/cement block and have hipped roofs with slopes of no less than 35 degrees from horizontal and no overhangs of any kind, and if the windows are either made of hurricane-resistant safety glass or covered with shutters. Unless all of these requirements are met, the absolute destruction of a structure is certain.[5]

The storm’s flooding causes major damage to the lower floors of all structures near the shoreline, and many coastal structures can be completely flattened or washed away by the storm surge. Virtually all trees are uprooted or snapped and some may be debarked, isolating most communities impacted. Massive evacuation of residential areas may be required if the hurricane threatens populated areas. Total and extremely long-lived power outages and water losses are to be expected, possibly for up to several months.[5]

Historical examples of storms that made landfall at Category 5 status include: Janet (1955), Camille (1969), Edith (1971), Anita (1977), David (1979), Gilbert (1988), Andrew (1992),Katrina (2005), Dean (2007), and Felix (2007). No Category 5 hurricane is known to have made landfall as such in the eastern Pacific basin.

Criticism

Some scientists, including Kerry Emanuel and Lakshmi Kantha, have criticized the scale as being simplistic, indicating that the scale takes into account neither the physical size of a storm nor the amount of precipitation it produces.[7] Additionally, they and others point out that the Saffir–Simpson scale, unlike the Richter scale used to measure earthquakes, is not continuous, and is quantized into a small number of categories. Proposed replacement classifications include the Hurricane Intensity Index, which is based on the dynamic pressure caused by a storm’s winds, and the Hurricane Hazard Index, which bases itself on surface wind speeds, the radius of maximum winds of the storm, and its translational velocity.[12][13] Both of these scales are continuous, akin to the Richter scale;[14] however, neither of these scales have been used by officials.

Should a ‘Category 6’ be introduced?

After the series of powerful storm systems of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, a few newspaper columnists and scientists brought up the suggestion of introducing Category 6, and they have suggested pegging Category 6 to storms with winds greater than 174 or 180 mph (78 or 80 m/s; 151 or 156 kn; 280 or 290 km/h).[7][15] Only a few storms of this intensity have been recorded. Of the 31 hurricanes currently considered to have attained Category 5 status in the Atlantic, only 16 had wind speeds at 175 mph (78 m/s; 152 kn; 282 km/h) or greater and only 6 had wind speeds at 180 mph (80 m/s; 160 kn; 290 km/h) or greater. Of the 15 hurricanes currently considered to have attained Category 5 status in the eastern Pacific, only five had wind speeds at 175 mph (78 m/s; 152 kn; 282 km/h) or greater (PatsyJohnLindaRick and Patricia), and only three had wind speeds at 180 mph (80 m/s; 160 kn; 290 km/h) or greater (Linda, Rick and Patricia). However, most storms which would be eligible for this category were typhoons in the western Pacific, most notably Typhoon Tip in 1979 with sustained winds of 190 mph (310 km/h) and typhoons Haiyan and Meranti in 2013 and 2016, respectively, with sustained winds of 195 mph (314 km/h).[16]

According to Robert Simpson, there are no reasons for a Category 6 on the Saffir–Simpson Scale because it is designed to measure the potential damage of a hurricane to man-made structures. Simpson stated that “…when you get up into winds in excess of 155 mph (249 km/h) you have enough damage if that extreme wind sustains itself for as much as six seconds on a building it’s going to cause rupturing damages that are serious no matter how well it’s engineered”.[3]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Williams, Jack (May 17, 2005). “Hurricane scale invented to communicate storm danger”USA Today. Retrieved February 25, 2007.
  2. Jump up^ Staff writer (May 9, 1973). “’73, Hurricanes to be Graded”. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 19, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
  3. Jump up to:a b Debi Iacovelli (July 2001). “The Saffir/Simpson Hurricane Scale: An Interview with Dr. Robert Simpson”Sun-Sentinel. Fort Lauderdale, Fla. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
  4. Jump up^ Press Writer (August 23, 2001). “Hurricanes shaped life of scale inventor”. Retrieved March 20, 2016.[dead link]
  5. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h The Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale National Hurricane Center. Accessed 2009-05-15.
  6. Jump up^ National Hurricane Operations PlanNOAA. Accessed July 3, 2010.
  7. Jump up to:a b c Ker Than (October 20, 2005). “Wilma’s Rage Suggests New Hurricane Categories Needed”LiveScience. Retrieved October 20, 2005.
  8. Jump up^ “Experimental Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale” (PDF). National Hurricane Center. 2009.
  9. Jump up^ Public Information StatementNOAA. Accessed March 9, 2012.
  10. Jump up^ Tropical Cyclone Weather Services Program (June 1, 2006). “Tropical cyclone definitions” (PDF). National Weather Service. Retrieved November 30, 2006.
  11. Jump up^ Federal Emergency Management Agency (2004). “Hurricane Glossary of Terms”. Archived from the original on December 14, 2005. Retrieved March 24, 2006. Accessed through the Wayback Machine.
  12. Jump up^ Kantha, L. (January 2006). “Time to Replace the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale?” (PDF). Eos87 (1): 3, 6. Bibcode:2006EOSTr..87….3Kdoi:10.1029/2006eo010003. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
  13. Jump up^ Kantha, Lakshmi (February 2008). “Tropical Cyclone Destructive Potential by Integrated Kinetic Energy” (PDF). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. Boston: American Meteorological Society89 (2): 219–221. Bibcode:2008BAMS…89..219Kdoi:10.1175/BAMS-89-2-219.
  14. Jump up^ Benfield Hazard Research Centre (2006). “Atmospheric Hazards”Hazard & Risk Science Review 2006University College London. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
  15. Jump up^ Bill Blakemore (May 21, 2006). “Category 6 Hurricanes? They’ve Happened: Global Warming Winds Up Hurricane Scientists as NOAA Issues Its Atlantic Hurricane Predictions for Summer 2006”ABC News. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
  16. Jump up^ Debi Iacovelli and Tim Vasquez (1998). “Supertyphoon Tip: Shattering all records” (PDF). Monthly Weather Log. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 19, 2010.

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saffir%E2%80%93Simpson_scale

List of United States hurricanes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Continental United States hurricane strikes 1950-2007

The list of United States hurricanes includes all tropical cyclones officially recorded to have produced sustained winds of greater than 74 mph (118 km/h) in the United States, which is the minimum threshold for hurricane intensity. The list, which is sorted by U.S. state, begins in 1851 with the start of the official Atlantic hurricane database (HURDAT), as provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration‘s Hurricane Research Division; the data from 1951 to 1979 is subject to change, due to the lack of official wind speed estimates during the time period. Since 1851, a total of 291 North Atlantic hurricanes produced hurricane-force winds in 19 states along the Atlantic coast. Some of these storms may not have made a direct landfall (i.e. remained just offshore) while producing hurricane-force winds on land; some of them may have weakened to a tropical storm or became extratropical before landfall but produced hurricane conditions on land while still a hurricane and some of them made landfall in an adjacent state but produced hurricane conditions over multiple states. This list does not include storms that only produced tropical storm conditions on land in the United States.

Additionally, three Pacific hurricanes struck Hawaii, and one Pacific tropical cyclone brought hurricane-force winds to California. The tables list hurricanes by category on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, based on winds that occurred in each state.

Statistics

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Delaware Maryland New Hampshire New Jersey Massachusetts Connecticut West Virginia Vermont Rhode Island

Map of USA with state names.svg

About this image
Map of the United States; click on individual states to be directed to its article,
or click on some coastal states to be directed to a list of tropical cyclones in those locations

A total of 291 Atlantic tropical cyclones have produced hurricane-force winds in every state along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, as well as PennsylvaniaFlorida was affected by 118 hurricanes, which is more than any other state; Texas ranked second. Hurricane Donna affected a total of eight states—more than any other hurricane.[1]

The earliest time in the year for a hurricane to strike the nation was June 9, which was set by Hurricane Alma in 1966. The earliest major hurricane to strike the nation occurred in 1934, when an unnamed tropical cyclone made landfall on June 16. The latest in the year for a hurricane to strike the nation was on November 24 with Hurricane Iwa in Hawaii; for the Atlantic basin the latest was on November 22, which was set by Hurricane Kate in 1985. The latest in the year for a major hurricane to strike the nation was from the 1921 Tampa Bay hurricane, which moved ashore on October 25.[1]

The 1880s were the most active decade for the United States, with a total of 25 hurricanes affecting the nation. By contrast, the least active decade was the 1970s, with a total of only 12 hurricanes affecting the American coastline. A total of 33 seasons on record passed without an Atlantic hurricane affecting the country—the most recent of which was the 2015 season. Seven Atlantic hurricanes affected the country in the 1886 season, which was the year with the most United States hurricanes.[1]

Impact

The Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 was the most intense hurricane to make landfall on the country, having struck the Florida Keys with a pressure of 892 mbar. It was one of only three hurricanes to move ashore as a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale; the others were Hurricane Camille in 1969 and Hurricane Andrew in 1992, which had a landfalling pressure of 900 mbar and 922 mbar, respectively. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 was the third most intense hurricane to strike the country with a pressure of 920 mbar, though its winds were not as strong as Andrew.[2]

The Galveston Hurricane of 1900 was the deadliest hurricane in the history of the United States, killing at least 8,000 people. The 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane caused at least 2,500 casualties, and in 2005, Hurricane Katrina killed about 1,500 people. In the 1893 season, two hurricanes each caused over 1,000 deaths.[2]

Accounting for inflation, nine Atlantic hurricanes caused a damage total of over $10 billion (2006 USD), including three from the 2005 season. The costliest was Hurricane Katrina, with damage amounting to $84.6 billion, though in normalized dollars it may only be second to the Great Miami Hurricane of 1926. Of the thirty costliest United States hurricanes, ten were after the year 2000.[2]

A 2010 study published in Natural Hazards Review, a journal of the American Society of Civil Engineers, “Normalized Hurricane Damage in the United State: 1900-2005” (PDF), analyzed storm-related property damage figures from 1900 through 2005 adjusted (“normalized”) for inflation, wealth and population factors over time. The study found that: 1) Using normalized figures, hurricane-related damages steadily increased from 1900 to 2005; 2) Based on the adjusted data, Hurricane Katrina is the second-most destructive storm in U.S. history. The top-ranking storm in terms of property damage is the Great Miami Hurricane of 1926, with losses between $140–157 billion in 2005 dollars; 3) While 1996–2005 was the second-most costly period for storm-related damages, the preceding periods of 1976–1985 and 1986–1995 were “anomalously benign,” accounting for only 10% of all storm damage reported since 1900; 4) Approximately 85% of all storm-related damages occur in the months of August (35%) and September (50%).[3]

States bordering the Atlantic Ocean

The category listed for each state indicates the maximum category of sustained winds that was recorded or analyzed to have occurred in that state. It is not necessarily the category of the storm at the time of landfall or closest approach (if the strongest winds were occurring elsewhere or only over water at the time).

Alabama

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 3 August 26 1852 Unnamed 2 October 18 1916
Unnamed 1 September 29 1917 Unnamed 3 August 21 1926
Unnamed 1[notes 1] August 31 1856 Unnamed 1 September 1 1932
Unnamed 1 September 16 1859 Baker 1 August 31 1950
Unnamed 2 August 12 1860 Camille 1 August 18 1969
Unnamed 1 September 16 1860 Eloise 1[notes 1] September 23 1975
Unnamed 1 July 30 1870 Frederic 3 September 13 1979
Unnamed 1[notes 1] September 10 1882 Elena 3 September 2 1985
Unnamed 2 October 3 1893 Opal 1[notes 1] October 4 1995
Unnamed 1 August 15 1901 Danny 1 July 19 1997
Unnamed 2 September 27 1906 Ivan 3 September 16 2004
Unnamed 1 September 14 1912 Dennis 1[notes 1] July 10 2005
Unnamed 2 July 5 1916 Katrina 1 August 29 2005
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]
Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT[4]

Connecticut

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 September 16 1858 Carol 3 August 31 1954
Unnamed 1 September 8 1869 Donna 1 September 12 1960
Unnamed 1 August 24 1893 Agnes 1 June 22 1972
Unnamed 1 October 10 1894 Gloria 2 September 27 1985
Unnamed 3 September 21 1938 Bob 2 August 19 1991
Unnamed 2 September 15 1944
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Delaware

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 October 23 1878
Unnamed 1 September 16 1903
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Florida

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 3 August 23 1851 Unnamed 1 October 21 1924
Unnamed 1 August 26 1852 Unnamed 2 July 27 1926
Unnamed 1 September 12 1852 Unnamed 4 September 18 1926
Unnamed 2 October 9 1852 Unnamed 1[notes 2] October 21 1926
Unnamed 1 September 8 1854 Unnamed 2 August 8 1928
Unnamed 2 August 31 1856 Unnamed 4 September 17 1928
Unnamed 1 September 16 1859 Unnamed 3 September 28 1929
Unnamed 1 October 28 1859 Unnamed 1 September 1 1932
Unnamed 1[notes 2] August 16 1861 Unnamed 1 July 30 1933
Unnamed 2 October 23 1865 Unnamed 3 September 4 1933
Unnamed 1 October 6 1867 “Labor Day” 5 September 3 1935
Unnamed 1[notes 2] October 9 1870 Unnamed 2 November 4 1935
Unnamed 1 October 20 1870 Unnamed 2 July 31 1936
Unnamed 3 August 16 1871 Unnamed 1 August 11 1939
Unnamed 2 August 25 1871 Unnamed 2 October 6 1941
Unnamed 1 September 6 1871 Unnamed 3 October 19 1944
Unnamed 1 September 19 1873 Unnamed 1 June 24 1945
Unnamed 3 October 7 1873 Unnamed 3 September 15 1945
Unnamed 1 September 28 1874 Unnamed 1 October 8 1946
Unnamed 2 October 20 1876 Unnamed 4 September 17 1947
Unnamed 1 September 19 1877 Unnamed 1 October 11 1947
Unnamed 3 October 3 1877 Unnamed 4 September 21 1948
Unnamed 2 September 10 1878 Unnamed 2 October 5 1948
Unnamed 2 August 29 1880 Unnamed 4 August 26 1949
Unnamed 1 October 8 1880 Easy 3 September 5 1950
Unnamed 3 September 10 1882 King 4 October 18 1950
Unnamed 1 October 11 1882 Florence 1 September 26 1953
Unnamed 1 August 24 1885 Hazel 1 October 9 1953
Unnamed 2 June 21 1886 Flossy 1 September 24 1956
Unnamed 2 June 30 1886 Donna 4 September 10 1960
Unnamed 1 July 18 1886 Cleo 2 August 27 1964
Unnamed 1 July 27 1887 Dora 2 September 10 1964
Unnamed 3 August 16 1888 Isbell 2 October 14 1964
Unnamed 2 October 11 1888 Betsy 3 September 8 1965
Unnamed 1 August 24 1891 Alma 2 June 9 1966
Unnamed 1 August 27 1893 Inez 1 October 8 1966
Unnamed 2 September 25 1894 Gladys 2 October 19 1968
Unnamed 3 October 9 1894 Agnes 1 June 19 1972
Unnamed 2 July 7 1896 Eloise 3 September 23 1975
Unnamed 3 September 29 1896 David 2 September 3 1979
Unnamed 1 August 3 1898 Elena 3 September 1 1985
Unnamed 2 October 2 1898 Kate 2 November 21 1985
Unnamed 2 August 1 1899 Floyd 1 October 12 1987
Unnamed 1 August 11 1903 Andrew 5 August 24 1992
Unnamed 1 October 17 1904 Erin 2 August 3 1995
Unnamed 1 June 16 1906 Opal 3 October 4 1995
Unnamed 2 September 27 1906 Earl 1 September 3 1998
Unnamed 3 October 18 1906 Georges 2 September 25 1998
Unnamed 3 October 11 1909 Irene 1 October 15 1999
Unnamed 2 October 18 1910 Charley 4 August 13 2004
Unnamed 1 August 11 1911 Frances 2 September 5 2004
Unnamed 1 September 14 1912 Ivan 3 September 16 2004
Unnamed 1 August 1 1915 Jeanne 3 September 26 2004
Unnamed 1 September 4 1915 Dennis 3 July 10 2005
Unnamed 2 July 5 1916 Katrina 1 August 25 2005
Unnamed 2 October 18 1916 Rita 1[notes 2] September 20 2005
Unnamed 3 September 29 1917 Wilma 3 October 24 2005
Unnamed 4 September 10 1919 Hermine 1 September 2 2016
Unnamed 3 October 25 1921 Matthew 2[notes 2] October 7 2016
Unnamed 1 September 15 1924
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Georgia

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1[notes 1] August 24 1851 Unnamed 2 September 29 1896
Unnamed 1[notes 1] October 10 1852 Unnamed 1 August 31 1898
Unnamed 1 October 21 1853 Unnamed 4 October 2 1898
Unnamed 3 September 8 1854 Unnamed 1 August 28 1911
Unnamed 1[notes 1] August 31 1856 Unnamed 1 September 18 1928
Unnamed 1[notes 1] October 3 1877 “Labor Day” 1[notes 1] September 5 1935
Unnamed 1 September 11 1878 Unnamed 1 August 11 1940
Unnamed 2 August 28 1881 Unnamed 2 October 15 1947
Unnamed 1 August 25 1885 Unnamed 1 August 27 1949
Unnamed 1[notes 1] June 21 1886 David 2 September 4 1979
Unnamed 1[notes 1] June 30 1886 Kate 1[notes 1] November 22 1985
Unnamed 3 August 28 1893 Matthew 1[notes 2] October 8 2016
Unnamed 1[notes 1] October 9 1894
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]
Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT[4]

Louisiana

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 2 August 25 1852 Unnamed 3 August 26 1926
Unnamed 3 September 16 1855 Unnamed 2 June 16 1934
Unnamed 4 August 11 1856 Unnamed 1 August 15 1938
Unnamed 3 August 11 1860 Unnamed 2 August 7 1940
Unnamed 2 September 15 1860 Unnamed 2 September 19 1947
Unnamed 2 October 2 1860 Unnamed 1 September 4 1948
Unnamed 2 September 13 1865 Flossy 2 September 24 1956
Unnamed 2 October 4 1867 Audrey 3 June 27 1957
Unnamed 1 September 5 1869 Ethel 1 September 15 1964
Unnamed 1 September 18 1877 Hilda 3 October 3 1964
Unnamed 2 August 23 1879 Betsy 3 September 10 1965
Unnamed 3 September 1 1879 Camille 5 August 17 1969
Unnamed 2 June 14 1886 Edith 2 September 16 1971
Unnamed 3 October 12 1886 Carmen 3 September 8 1974
Unnamed 1 October 19 1887 Babe 1 September 5 1977
Unnamed 2 August 19 1888 Bob 1 September 11 1979
Unnamed 1 September 23 1889 Danny 1 August 15 1985
Unnamed 2 September 7 1893 Juan 1 October 28 1985
Unnamed 4 October 2 1893 Florence 1 September 10 1988
Unnamed 1 September 12 1897 Andrew 3 August 26 1992
Unnamed 1 August 14 1901 Danny 1 July 18 1997
Unnamed 1 September 27 1906 Lili 1 October 3 2002
Unnamed 3 September 20 1909 Cindy 1 July 6 2005
Unnamed 1 August 17 1915 Katrina 3 August 29 2005
Unnamed 3 September 29 1915 Rita 3 September 24 2005
Unnamed 2 September 29 1917 Humberto 1 September 13 2007
Unnamed 3 August 7 1918 Gustav 2 September 1 2008
Unnamed 2 September 21
Unnamed 1 October 16 1923 Isaac 1 August 28 2012
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]
Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT[4]

Maine

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 2 October 4 1869
Gerda 1 September 10 1969
Gloria 1 September 27 1985
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Maryland

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 October 23 1878
Unnamed 1 August 23 1933
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Massachusetts

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 September 16 1858 Unnamed 2 September 21 1938
Unnamed 3 September 8 1869 Unnamed 1 September 15 1944
Unnamed 1 October 4 1869 Carol 2 August 31 1954
Unnamed 1 August 19 1879 Edna 2 September 11 1954
Unnamed 1 September 10 1896 Donna 1 September 12 1960
Unnamed 1 August 26 1924 Bob 2 August 19 1991
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Mississippi

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 3 August 26 1852 Unnamed 3 July 6 1916
Unnamed 3 August 16 1855 Unnamed 1 October 16 1923
Unnamed 3 August 12 1860 Unnamed 1 September 21 1926
Unnamed 2 September 15 1860 Unnamed 2 September 19 1947
Unnamed 1[notes 1] August 20 1888 Ethel 1 September 15 1960
Unnamed 2 October 2 1893 Camille 5 August 18 1969
Unnamed 1 August 15 1901 Frederic 3 September 13 1979
Unnamed 2 September 27 1906 Elena 3 September 2 1985
Unnamed 2 September 21 1909 Georges 2 September 29 1998
Unnamed 2 September 29 1915 Katrina 3 August 29 2005
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

New Hampshire

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Gloria 2 September 27 1985
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

New Jersey

Although Hurricane Sandy struck the state in October 2012 and produced hurricane-force winds, it became an extratropical cyclone before landfall or producing any hurricane-strength winds.[5]

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1[notes 2] October 23 1878
Unnamed 1 September 16 1903
Unnamed 1[notes 2] September 8 1934
Unnamed 1[notes 2] September 14 1944
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

New York

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 September 16 1858 Edna 1 September 11 1954
Unnamed 1 September 8 1869 Donna 2 September 12 1960
Unnamed 1 August 24 1893 Agnes 1 June 22 1972
Unnamed 1 October 10 1894 Belle 1 August 10 1976
Unnamed 1 September 8 1934 Gloria 3 September 27 1985
Unnamed 3 September 21 1938 Bob 2 August 19 1991
Unnamed 2 September 15 1944 Sandy 1[notes 3] October 29 2012
Carol 3 August 31 1954
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

North Carolina

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 September 13 1857 Unnamed 2[notes 2] September 14 1944
Unnamed 1 September 27 1861 Unnamed 1[notes 2] August 24 1949
Unnamed 1 November 2 1861 Barbara 1 August 14 1953
Unnamed 1 September 24 1874 Carol 1[notes 2] August 31 1954
Unnamed 1 September 17 1876 Edna 1[notes 2] September 11 1954
Unnamed 2 October 23 1878 Hazel 4 October 15 1954
Unnamed 3 August 18 1879 Connie 2 August 12 1955
Unnamed 1 September 9 1880 Ione 2 September 19 1955
Unnamed 2 September 9 1881 Helene 3[notes 2] September 27 1958
Unnamed 2 September 11 1883 Donna 2 September 12 1960
Unnamed 2 September 25 1885 Ginger 1 September 30 1971
Unnamed 1[notes 2] August 20 1887 Diana 2 September 13 1984
Unnamed 1[notes 1] August 28 1893 Gloria 3 September 27 1985
Unnamed 1 October 13 1893 Charley 1 August 17 1986
Unnamed 1[notes 1] September 29 1896 Hugo 1[notes 1] September 22 1989
Unnamed 3 August 18 1899 Emily 3[notes 2] August 31 1993
Unnamed 2 October 31 1899 Bertha 2 July 12 1996
Unnamed 1 July 11 1901 Fran 3 September 6 1996
Unnamed 1 September 17 1906 Bonnie 2 August 27 1998
Unnamed 1 July 31 1908 Floyd 2 September 16 1999
Unnamed 1 September 3 1913 Irene 2[notes 2] October 18 1999
Unnamed 1 August 24 1918 Isabel 2 September 18 2003
Unnamed 1[notes 2] August 26 1924 Alex 1[notes 2] August 3 2004
Unnamed 1 August 23 1933 Charley 1 August 14 2004
Unnamed 2[notes 2] September 16 1933 Ophelia 1[notes 2] September 14 2005
Unnamed 1[notes 2] September 9 1934 Irene 1 August 27 2011
Unnamed 1 September 18 1936 Arthur 2 July 4 2014
Unnamed 1 August 1 1944 Matthew 1[notes 2] October 8 2016
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]
Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT[4]

Pennsylvania

Though not directly bordering the Atlantic Ocean, the Gale of 1878 produced hurricane-force winds in the state, the only tropical cyclone on record to do so.[1] Furthermore, Hurricane Agnes (1972) had a severe impact on the state. Although it had been only a Category 1 storm, and had weakened to a tropical depression by the time it reached Pennsylvania, Hurricane Agnes nevertheless caused severe flooding, as well as enormous economic damage.

Rhode Island

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 September 16 1858 Unnamed 2 September 15 1944
Unnamed 1 September 8 1869 Carol 3 August 31 1954
Unnamed 1 October 10 1894 Edna 1 September 11 1954
Unnamed 1 September 10 1896 Donna 1 September 12 1960
Unnamed 3 September 21 1938 Bob 2 August 19 1991
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

South Carolina

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 2 September 8 1854 Unnamed 1 October 8 1913
Unnamed 1 June 22 1867 Unnamed 2 July 14 1916
Unnamed 1 September 28 1874 Unnamed 1 September 18 1928
Unnamed 1 September 12 1878 Unnamed 2 August 11 1940
Unnamed 1 August 28 1881 Unnamed 2 October 15 1947
Unnamed 1 September 11 1883 Able 2 August 31 1952
Unnamed 3 August 25 1885 Hazel 4 October 15 1954
Unnamed 3 August 28 1893 Cindy 1 July 9 1959
Unnamed 3 October 13 1893 Gracie 4 September 29 1959
Unnamed 1 September 27 1894 David 2 September 4 1979
Unnamed 1 September 29 1896 Bob 1 July 25 1985
Unnamed 1 August 31 1898 Hugo 4 September 22 1989
Unnamed 2 October 31 1899 Charley 1 August 14 2004
Unnamed 1 September 14 1904 Gaston 1 August 29 2004
Unnamed 1 September 17 1906 Matthew 1 October 8 2016
Unnamed 2 August 28 1911
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Texas

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 June 25 1851 Unnamed 4 August 14 1932
Unnamed 1 June 26 1854 Unnamed 2[notes 4] August 7 1933
Unnamed 2 September 18 1854 Unnamed 3 September 5 1933
Unnamed 1 September 13 1865 Unnamed 2 July 25 1934
Unnamed 2 July 15 1866 Unnamed 1 June 27 1936
Unnamed 1 October 2 1867 Unnamed 2 August 8 1940
Unnamed 2 August 17 1869 Unnamed 3 September 23 1941
Unnamed 3 September 16 1875 Unnamed 1 August 21 1942
Unnamed 2 August 23 1879 Unnamed 3 August 30 1942
Unnamed 3[notes 4] August 13 1880 Unnamed 2 July 27 1943
Unnamed 2 June 14 1886 Unnamed 2 August 27 1945
Unnamed 4 August 20 1886 Unnamed 1 August 24 1947
Unnamed 1[notes 4] September 23 1886 Unnamed 2 October 4 1949
Unnamed 2 October 12 1886 Audrey 2 June 27 1957
Unnamed 2 September 21 1887 Debra 1 July 25 1959
Unnamed 1 June 17 1888 Carla 4 September 11 1961
Unnamed 1 July 5 1891 Cindy 1 September 17 1963
Unnamed 1[notes 4] August 30 1895 Beulah 3 September 20 1967
Unnamed 1 September 13 1897 Celia 3 August 3 1970
Unnamed 4 September 9 1900 Fern 1 September 10 1971
Unnamed 2 June 29 1909 Allen 3 August 10 1980
Unnamed 3 July 21 1909 Alicia 3 August 18 1983
Unnamed 1[notes 4] August 27 1909 Bonnie 1 June 28 1986
Unnamed 2 September 14 1910 Chantal 1 August 1 1989
Unnamed 2 October 16 1912 Jerry 1 October 16 1989
Unnamed 1 June 27 1913 Bret 3 August 23 1999
Unnamed 4 August 17 1915 Claudette 1 July 15 2003
Unnamed 4 August 18 1916 Rita 2 September 24 2005
Unnamed 1 August 7 1918 Humberto 1 September 13 2007
Unnamed 3 September 14 1919 Dolly 1 July 23 2008
Unnamed 1 June 22 1921 Ike 2 September 13 2008
Unnamed 1 June 28 1929
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Virginia

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 September 17 1876 Unnamed 1[notes 2] September 16 1933
Unnamed 1 October 23 1878 Unnamed 1 September 18 1936
Unnamed 2 August 18 1879 Unnamed 2[notes 2] September 14 1944
Unnamed 1[notes 1] October 13 1893 Connie 1 August 12 1955
Unnamed 1 September 29 1894 Donna 1[notes 2] September 12 1960
Unnamed 1[notes 1] September 30 1896 Isabel 1 September 18 2003
Unnamed 1 August 23 1933
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

States bordering the Pacific Ocean

Southwestern United States

The 1858 San Diego Hurricane is the only Pacific tropical cyclone known to have produced hurricane-force winds in California; it affected San Diego on October 2, 1858, though its center remained just offshore. In the 20th century, only four tropical cyclones produced tropical storm force winds in the southwestern United States: a tropical storm in September 1939 in California, Hurricane Joanne in October 1972 in Arizona, Hurricane Kathleen in September 1976 in Arizona and California, and Hurricane Nora in September 1997 in Arizona.[6]

Hawaii

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Dot 1 August 7 1959
Iwa 1 November 24 1982
Iniki 4 September 11 1992
Source: 1959 Central Pacific Hurricane Season[7]
1982 Central Pacific Hurricane Season[8]
1992 Central Pacific Hurricane Season[9]

Climatological statistics

See also

Notes

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Hurricane conditions in this state were limited to inland areas.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z This hurricane did not made landfall, but produced hurricane conditions over the state indicated.
  3. Jump up^ This storm became extratropical before landfall, but produced hurricane conditions over the state indicated while still a tropical cyclone.
  4. Jump up to:a b c d e This hurricane made landfall in Mexico but produced hurricane conditions in Texas.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Hurricane Research Division (2012). “Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012”. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2014-02-10. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
  2. Jump up to:a b c Eric S. Blake; Edward N. Rappaport; Christopher W. Landsea (2007). “The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones From 1851 to 2006” (PDF). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-05-05.
  3. Jump up^ “Normalized Hurricane Damage in the United States: 1900–2005”. Journalist’s Resource.org.
  4. Jump up to:a b c d Hurricane Research Division (2008). “Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT”. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2011-06-04. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
  5. Jump up^ Eric S. Blake; et al. (2013-02-12). Hurricane Sandy Tropical Cyclone Report (PDF) (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
  6. Jump up^ Michael Chenoweth & Chris Landsea (2004). “The San Diego Hurricane of October 2, 1858” (PDF). American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
  7. Jump up^ Central Pacific Hurricane Season. “1959 Central Pacific Hurricane Season”. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
  8. Jump up^ Central Pacific Hurricane Season. “1982 Central Pacific Hurricane Season”. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
  9. Jump up^ Central Pacific Hurricane Season. “1992 Central Pacific Hurricane Season”. Retrieved 2008-01-26.

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_hurricanes

List of natural disasters by death toll

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

natural disaster is a sudden event that causes widespread destruction, lots of collateral damage or loss of life, brought about by forces other than the acts of human beings. A natural disaster might be caused by earthquakes, flooding, volcanic eruption, landslide, hurricanes etc. In order to be classified as a disaster, it will have profound environmental effect and/or human loss and frequently incurs financial loss.

Ten deadliest natural disasters

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. 1,000,000–4,000,000*[1] 1931 China floods China July 1931
2. 900,000–2,000,000[2] 1887 Yellow River flood China September 1887
3. 830,000[3] 1556 Shaanxi earthquake China January 23, 1556
4. 300,000[4] 1839 India cyclone India November 26, 1839
4. 300,000[5] 1737 Calcutta cyclone India October 7, 1737
5. 280,000 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami Indian Ocean December 26, 2004
6. 273,400[6] 1920 Haiyuan earthquake China December 16, 1920
7. 250,000–500,000[1] 1970 Bhola cyclone East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) November 13, 1970
7. 250,000–300,000[7] 526 Antioch earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) May 526
8. 242,000–655,000 1976 Tangshan earthquake China July 28, 1976
9. 230,000 1138 Aleppo earthquake Zengid dynasty (now Syria) October 11, 1138
10. 229,000 Typhoon Nina—contributed to Banqiao Dam failure China August 7, 1975

* Estimate by Nova’s sources are close to 4 million and yet Encarta’s sources report as few as 1 million. Expert estimates report wide variance.

The list does not include several volcanic eruptions with uncertain death tolls resulting from collateral effects (crop failures, etc.), though these may have numbered in the millions; see List of volcanic eruptions by death toll.

The list does not include the man-made 1938 Yellow River flood, caused entirely by a deliberate man-made act (an act of war, destroying dikes).

An alternative listing is given by Peter Hough in his 2008 book Global Security.[8]

Ten deadliest natural disasters since 1900

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event* Location Date
1. 1,000,000–4,000,000 1931 China floods China July 1931
2. 280,000 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami Indian Ocean December 26, 2004
3. 273,400 1920 Haiyuan earthquake China December 16, 1920
4. 250,000–500,000 1970 Bhola cyclone East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) November 1970
5. 242,000–655,000 1976 Tangshan earthquake China July 28, 1976
6. 229,000 Typhoon Nina—contributed to Banqiao Dam failure China August 7, 1975
7. 160,000[9] 2010 Haiti earthquake Haiti January 12, 2010
8. 145,000 1935 Yangtze river flood China 1935
9. 143,000 1923 Great Kanto earthquake Japan September 1, 1923
10. 138,866 1991 Bangladesh cyclone Bangladesh April 1991

This list does not include industrial or technological accidents, epidemics, or the 1938 Yellow River flood.

Lists of natural disasters by cause

Deadliest earthquakes

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. 820,000–830,000 1556 Shaanxi earthquake China January 23, 1556
2. 280,000 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake Indonesia December 26, 2004
3. 242,769–700,000[10][11][12] 1976 Tangshan earthquake China July 28, 1976
4. 273,400[6] 1920 Haiyuan earthquake NingxiaChina December 16, 1920
5. 250,000–300,000[7] 526 Antioch earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) May 526
6. 260,000[13] 115 Antioch earthquake Roman Empire (now Turkey) December 13, 115
7. 230,000 1138 Aleppo earthquake Zengid dynasty (now Syria) October 11, 1138
8. 200,000[14] 1303 Hongdong earthquake Mongol Empire (now China) September 17, 1303
8. 200,000 856 Damghan earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran) December 22, 856
8. 200,000[15] 1780 Tabriz earthquake Iran January 8, 1780
9. 170,000[16] 896 Udaipur earthquake India 896
10. 160,000[9] 2010 Haiti earthquake Haiti January 12, 2010
11. 150,000 893 Ardabil earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran) March 23, 893
12. 142,807[17][18] 1923 Great Kanto earthquake Japan September 1, 1923
13. 130,000[19] 533 Aleppo earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Syria) November 29, 533
14. 123,000[1] 1908 Messina earthquake Italy December 28, 1908
15. 110,000 1948 Ashgabat earthquake Turkmen SSRSoviet Union (now Turkmenistan) October 5, 1948
16. 100,000 1290 Chihli earthquake Mongol Empire (now China) September 27, 1290
16. 100,000[20] 2005 Kashmir earthquake Pakistan (Azad Kashmir) October 8, 2005
17. 87,587[21][22] 2008 Sichuan earthquake China May 12, 2008
18. 80,000[23] 1721 Tabriz earthquake Iran April 26, 1721
18. 80,000[24] 458 Antioch earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) September 458
18. 80,000 1667 Shamakhi earthquake Safavid dynasty (now Azerbaijan) November 1667
18. 80,000 1854 Great Nankaidō earthquake Japan November 1854
18. 80,000[25][26] 1169 Aleppo earthquake Zengid dynasty (now Syria) 1169
19. 77,000 1727 Tabriz earthquake Iran November 18, 1727
20. 73,000[27] 1718 Gansu earthquake Qing Empire (now China) June 19, 1718
21. 70,000 1970 Ancash earthquake Peru May 31, 1970[28]
21. 70,000[29] 1033 Ramala earthquake Fatimid Caliphate (now West Bank) December 10, 1033
21. 70,000[30] 847 Damascus earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria) 847
21. 70,000[31] 1868 Ecuador earthquakes Ecuador August 15, 1868 and August 16, 1868
22. 60,000[32] 587 Antioch earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) September 30, 587
22. 60,000[33] 1101 Khorasan earthquake Great Seljuq Empire (now Iran) 1101
22. 60,000 1268 Cilicia earthquake Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (now Turkey) 1268
22. 60,000 1693 Sicily earthquake Kingdom of Sicily (now Italy) January 11, 1693
22. 60,000 1935 Quetta earthquake India (now part of Pakistan) May 31, 1935
23. 50,000[34] 844 Damascus earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria) September 18, 844
23. 50,000[35] 1042 Tabriz earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran) November 4, 1042
23. 50,000 1783 Calabrian earthquakes Kingdom of Naples (now Italy) 1783
23. 50,000 1990 Manjil–Rudbar earthquake Iran June 21, 1990
24. 40,000–50,000[36] 1755 Lisbon earthquake Portugal November 1, 1755
25. 45,000[37] 850 Iran earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran) July 15, 850
25. 45,000[38] 856 Corinth earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Greece) November 856
25. 45,000[39][40] 856 Tunisia earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Tunisia) December 3, 856
26. 42,571[41] 1668 Shandong earthquake Qing Empire (now China) July 25, 1668
27. 40,900 1927 Gulang earthquake GansuChina May 22, 1927
28. 40,000[42] 342 Antioch earthquake Roman Empire (now Turkey) 342
28. 40,000[43] 662 Damghan earthquake Umayyad Caliphate (now Iran) April 26, 662
28. 40,000[44] 1455 Naples earthquake Crown of Aragon (now Italy) December 5, 1455
28. 40,000[45] 1754 Cairo earthquake Ottoman Empire (now Egypt) September 2, 1754
28. 40,000[46] 1755 Tabriz earthquake Iran June 7, 1755
28. 40,000 1797 Riobamba earthquake Spanish Empire (now Ecuador) February 4, 1797

Deadliest famines

Note: Some of these famines may be caused or partially caused by humans.

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 15,000,000–43,000,000 Great Chinese Famine China 1958–1961
2. 25,000,000[citation needed] Chinese Famine of 1907 China 1907
3. 13,000,000[47] Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879 China 1876–1879
4. 11,000,000 Doji bara famine or Skull famine India 1789–1792
5. 10,000,000 Bengal famine of 1770, incl. Bihar & Orissa India 1769–1771
6. 6,000,000+ Indian Famine British India 1896–1902
7. 7,500,000 Great European Famine Europe (all) 1315–1317
8. 7,000,000–10,000,000 Soviet famine of 1932–1933 (Holodomor in Ukraine) Soviet Union 1932–1934
9. 5,250,000 Indian Great Famine of 1876–78 India 1876–1878
10. 5,000,000 Chinese Famine of 1936 China 1936
10. 5,000,000 Russian famine of 1921 RussiaUkraine 1921–1922
11. 3,000,000 Chinese famine of 1928–1930 China 1928–1930
12. 2,000,000–3,000,000 Chinese Drought 1941 China 1942–1943
12. 2,000,000 Russian famine of 1601–1603 Russia (Muscovy) 1601–1603
12. 2,000,000 Deccan Famine of 1630–32 India 1630–1632
12. 2,000,000 Upper Doab famine of 1860–61 India 1860–1861
12. 2,000,000 French Famine France 1693–1694
12. 2,000,000 Great Persian Famine of 1870–71 Persia 1870–1871
13. 1,500,000–7,000,000 Bengal Famine of 1943 India 1943
14. 1,500,000 Great Irish Famine Ireland 1846–1849

Deadliest impact events

Note: Although there have been no scientifically verified cases of astronomical objects resulting in human fatalities, there have been several reported occurrences throughout human history. Consequently, the casualty figures for all events listed are considered unofficial.

Rank Death toll (unofficial) Location Date Notes
1. 10,000+ QingyangGansu, China 1490 1490 Ch’ing-yang event
2. Tens Changshou District, China 1639 10 homes destroyed[48][49]
3. 10+ China 616 AD a large shooting star fell onto the rebel Lu Ming-Yueh’s camp, destroying a wall-attacking tower[49]
4. 2 Malacca ship, Indian Ocean 1648 2 sailors killed on board a ship[49]
4. 2 Podkamennaya Tunguska RiverSiberiaRussian Empire 1908 Tunguska event[48]
5. 1 CremonaLombardy, Italy 1511 monk and several animals were killed by stones weighing up to 50 kg[49]
5. 1 Milan, Italy 1633 or 1664 a monk died after being struck on the thigh by a meteorite[49]
5. 1 Gascony, France 1790 a farmer was reportedly struck and killed by a meteorite[49]
5. 1 Oriang, Malwate, India 1825 [48][50]
5. 1 Chin-kuei Shan, China 1874 cottage was crushed by a meteorite, killing a child[48][51]
5. 1 Newtown, Indiana, United States 1879 a man was killed in bed by a meteorite[48]
5. 1 Dun-le-Poëlier, France 1879 a farmer was killed by a meteorite[48]
5. 1 Zvezvan, Yugoslavia 1929 a meteorite hit a bridal party[48]

Deadliest limnic eruptions

(Only 2 recorded cases.)

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 1,744 Lake Nyos Cameroon 1986
2. 37 Lake Monoun Cameroon 1984

Ten deadliest avalanches

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. 20,000 1970 Huascarán avalanche; triggered by the 1970 Ancash earthquake[52] Peru 1970
2. 10,000 Tyrolean Alps Avalanche[53][54] Italy 1916
3. 4,000 1962 Huascarán avalanche[52] Peru 1962
4. 310 2015 Afghanistan avalanches Afghanistan 2015
5. 265 Winter of Terror AustriaSwitzerland 1951
6. 201 2012 Afghanistan avalanches Afghanistan 2012
7. 172 2010 Salang avalanches Afghanistan 2010
8. 140 2012 Siachen Glacier avalanche Pakistan 2012
9. 125 Kolka-Karmadon rock ice slide Russia 2002
10. 107 Saint-Martin (Hautes-Pyrénées) France 1600

Ten deadliest blizzards

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. 4,000 1972 Iran blizzard Iran 1972
2. 3,000 Carolean Death March Sweden/Norway 1719
3. 926 2008 Afghanistan blizzard Afghanistan 2008
4. 400 Great Blizzard of 1888 United States 1888
5. 353 Great Appalachian Storm of 1950 United States 1950
6. 318 1993 Storm of the Century United States 1993
7. 250 Great Lakes Storm of 1913 United States and Canada (Great Lakes region) 1913
8. 235 Schoolhouse Blizzard United States 1888
9. 199 Hakko-da Mountains incident Japan 1902
10. 154 1940 Armistice Day Blizzard United States 1940
10. 154 North American blizzard of 1996 United States 1996

Ten deadliest floods / landslides

Note: Some of these floods and landslides may be partially caused by humans – for example, by failure of damsleveesseawalls or retaining walls.

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 1,000,000–4,000,000[55] 1931 China floods China 1931
2. 900,000–2,000,000 1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1887
3. 229,000[56] Failure of 62 dams, the largest of which was Banqiao Dam, result of Typhoon Nina. China 1975
4. 145,000 1935 Yangtze river flood China 1935
5. more than 100,000 St. Felix’s Flood, storm surge Netherlands 1530
6. 100,000 Hanoi and Red River Delta flood North Vietnam 1971
7. up to 100,000[citation needed] 1911 Yangtze River flood China 1911
8. 50,000–80,000 St. Lucia’s flood, storm surge Netherlands 1287
9. 60,000 North Sea flood, storm surge Netherlands 1212
10. 36,000 St. Marcellus flood, storm surge Netherlands 1219

The list does not include the man-made 1938 Yellow River flood caused entirely by a deliberate man-made act (an act of war, destroying dikes).

Ten deadliest heat waves

Measuring the number of deaths caused by a heat wave requires complicated statistical analysis, since heat waves tend to cause large numbers of deaths among people weakened by other conditions. As a result, the number of deaths is only known with any accuracy for heat waves in the modern era in countries with developed healthcare systems.

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 70,000 2003 European heat wave Europe 2003
2. 56,000 2010 Russian heat wave Russia 2010
3. 9,500 1901 eastern United States heat wave United States 1901
4. 5,000–10,000 1988 United States heat wave United States 1988
5. 3,418 2006 European heat wave Europe 2006[57]
6. 2,541 1998 India heat wave India 1998[57]
7. 2,500 2015 Indian heat wave India 2015
7. 2,500 2015 Pakistan heat wave Pakistan 2015
8. 1,700–5,000 1980 United States heat wave United States 1980
9. 1,718 2010 Japanese heat wave Japan 2010[58]
10. 1,693 1936 North American heat wave North America 1936[57]

Ten deadliest storms (non-cyclones)

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 10,000–30,000 Vargas tragedy Venezuela 1999
2. 903 Rio de Janeiro floods and mudslides Brazil 2011
3. 500 Lofoten, Heavy storm Norway 1849
4. 329 Mocoa tragedy Colombia 2017
5. 246 1888 Moradabad hailstorm India 1888
6. 242 1996 Amarnath Yatra tragedy India 1996
7. 210 Trøndelag, storm (“Follastormen”) Norway 1625
8. 189 Eyemouth, Scotland, storm (“Black Friday“) United Kingdom 1881
9. 156 1972 Hong Kong rainstorm disasters Hong Kong 1972
10. 140 Trøndelag, storm (“Titran disaster”) Norway 1899

Ten deadliest tornadoes

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 1,300 The Daulatpur-Salturia Tornado ManikganjBangladesh 1989
2. 695 The Tri-State Tornado United States (MissouriIllinoisIndiana) 1925
3. 681 1973 Dhaka Tornado Bangladesh 1973
4. 660 1969 East Pakistan Tornado East PakistanPakistan (now Bangladesh) 1969
5. 600 The Valletta, Malta Tornado Malta 1551 or 1556
6. 500 The Sicily Tornadoes SicilyTwo Sicilies (now Italy) 1851
6. 500 The Narail-Magura Tornado JessoreEast PakistanPakistan (now Bangladesh) 1964
6. 500 The Madaripur-Shibchar Tornado Bangladesh 1977
7. 400 The Ivanovo-Yaroslavl, Russia, Tornado Soviet Union (now Russia) 1984
8. 317 The Great Natchez Tornado United States (MississippiLouisiana) 1840
9. 300 Cooch, Behar Tornado India, Bangladesh 1963
9. 300 Bhakua-Haripur Tornado Bangladesh 1972
10. 263 Comilla Tornado Bangladesh 1969

Ten deadliest tropical cyclones

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 375,000 (250,000–500,000) 1970 Bhola cyclone East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) November 13, 1970
2. 300,000[5] 1737 Calcutta cyclone India October 7, 1737
2. 300,000[4] 1839 India Cyclone India November 25, 1839
3. 229,000 Super Typhoon Nina—contributed to Banqiao Dam failure China August 7, 1975
4. 200,000[59] Great Backerganj Cyclone of 1876 India (now Bangladesh) October 30, 1876
5. 150,000 (30,000 to 300,000)[60] 1881 Haiphong Typhoon Vietnam October 8, 1881
6. 138,866 1991 Bangladesh cyclone Bangladesh April 29, 1991
7. 138,366 Cyclone Nargis Myanmar May 2, 2008
8. 100,000[61] July 1780 Typhoon Philippines 1780
8. 100,000[62] 1882 Bombay cyclone India 1882
9. 80,000[63] 1874 Bengal cyclone India October 1874
10. 60,000[64] 1922 Swatow Typhoon China August 1922

Ten deadliest tsunamis

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 300,000–500,000 (est.) 365 Crete earthquake Greece July 21, 365
2. 280,000 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami Indian Ocean December 26, 2004
3. 123,000[1] 1908 Messina earthquake Italy December 28, 1908
4. 36,417–120,000 1883 eruption of Krakatoa Indonesia August 26, 1883
5. 40,000–50,000[36] 1755 Lisbon earthquake Portugal November 1, 1755
6. 30,000-100,000 (est.) Minoan Eruption Greece 2nd Millennium BC
7. 31,000 1498 Meiō Nankaidō earthquake Japan September 20, 1498
8. 30,000 1707 Hōei earthquake Japan October 28, 1707
9. 27,122[65] 1896 Sanriku earthquake Japan June 15, 1896
10. 25,674 1868 Arica earthquake Chile August 13, 1868

A 1782 possible tsunami causing about 40,000 deaths in the Taiwan Strait area may have been of “meteorological” origin (a cyclone)[66]

Ten deadliest volcanic eruptions

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 5,000,000~[67][better source needed] about 1 million in France,[68]
many in the rest of northern Europe and in Egypt,
9,350 people in Iceland, about 25% of the island’s population.[67]
Laki (Grímsvötn) Iceland June 8, 1783
2. 2,000,000 max, or one-third of the population of Russia;
(see also Russian famine of 1601–1603)
Huaynaputina Peru February 19, 1600
3. 71,000+[69] 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora (see also Year Without a Summer) Indonesia April 10, 1815
4. 36,000+[70] 1883 eruption of Krakatoa Indonesia August 26, 1883
5. 30,000[71] Mount Pelée Martinique May 7, 1902
6. 23,000[72] Armero tragedy Colombia November 13, 1985
7. 15,000[73] 1792 Unzen earthquake and tsunami Japan May 21, 1792
8. 10,000 Mount Kelud Indonesia 1586
9. 6,000[74] Santa Maria Guatemala October 24, 1902
10. 5,000[75] Mount Kelud Indonesia May 19, 1919

Ten deadliest wildfires / bushfires

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 1,200–2,500 Peshtigo FireWisconsin United States October 8, 1871
2. 1,200 Kursha-2 Fire Soviet Union August 3, 1936
3. 453 Cloquet FireMinnesota United States October 12, 1918
4. 418 Great Hinckley FireMinnesota United States September 1, 1894
5. 282 Thumb FireMichigan United States September 5, 1881
6. 273 Matheson FireOntario Canada July 29, 1916
7. 240 Sumatra and Kalimantan Fires Indonesia 1997
8. 213 Black Dragon Fire China May 1, 1987
9. 173 Black Saturday bushfires Australia February 7, 2009
10. 160 Miramichi Fire Canada October 1825

See also

Other lists organized by death toll

References

 

 

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The Pronk Pops Show 940, August 3, 2017, Breaking News — Story 1: Special Counsel Robert Mueller III Impanels Grand Jury for Russian Investigation and Alleged Russia/Trump Collusion Conspiracy Theory — Videos — Story 2: Proposed Reforming American Immigration for Strong Employment (RAISE) Act will Expose Hypocrisy of Democrats and Republicans In Promoting Open Borders with 30-60 Million Illegal Invasion of United States Over The Last 30 Years and  Rising Legal Immigration Instead of Protecting The American Worker and Middle Class — The Betrayal Of American People By The Political Elitist Establishment — Videos

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Breaking News — Story 1: Special Counsel Robert Mueller III Impanels Grand Jury for Russian Investigation and Alleged Russia/Trump Collusion Conspiracy Theory — Videos —

TRUMP BREAKING NEWS 8/3/17 WSJ: MUELLER IMPANELS GRAND JURY IN RUSSIA PROBE

Report: Mueller empowers grand jury in Russia investigation

Trump attorney: Grand jury not a surprise, not unusual

Mueller using grand jury as part of Russia investigation

Senators Take Action to Protect Robert Mueller’s Trump Investigation

Mary Clare Jalonick / AP
10:54 AM ET

(WASHINGTON) — Two members of the Senate Judiciary Committee are moving to protect Special Counsel Robert Mueller’s job, putting forth new legislation that aims to ensure the integrity of current and future independent investigations.

Republican Sen. Thom Tillis of North Carolina and Democratic Sen. Chris Coons of Delaware plan to introduce the legislation Thursday. The bill would allow any special counsel for the Department of Justice to challenge his or her removal in court, with a review by a three-judge panel within 14 days of the challenge.

The bill would apply retroactively to May 17, 2017 — the day Mueller was appointed by Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein to investigate allegations of Russian meddling in the 2016 election and possible ties between Russia and Donald Trump’s campaign.

“It is critical that special counsels have the independence and resources they need to lead investigations,” Tillis said in a statement. “A back-end judicial review process to prevent unmerited removals of special counsels not only helps to ensure their investigatory independence, but also reaffirms our nation’s system of check and balances.”

Mueller was appointed as special counsel following Trump’s abrupt firing of FBI Director James Comey. Mueller, who was Comey’s predecessor as FBI director, has assembled a team of prosecutors and lawyers with experience in financial fraud, national security and organized crime to investigate contacts between Moscow and the Trump campaign.

Trump has been critical of Mueller since his appointment, and the president’s legal team is looking into potential conflicts surrounding the team Mueller has hired, including the backgrounds of members and political contributions by some members of his team to Hillary Clinton. He has also publicly warned Mueller that he would be out of bounds if he dug into the Trump family’s finances.

Mueller has strong support on Capitol Hill. Senators in both parties have expressed concerns that Trump may try to fire Mueller and have warned him not to do so.

“Ensuring that the special counsel cannot be removed improperly is critical to the integrity of his investigation,” Coons said.

Republican Sen. Lindsey Graham of South Carolina, another member of the judiciary panel, said last week that he was working on a similar bill that would prevent the firing of a special counsel without judicial review. Graham said then that firing Mueller “would precipitate a firestorm that would be unprecedented in proportions.”

Democratic Sen. Cory Booker of New Jersey is also working on Graham’s legislation, according to Booker’s office. Senate Judiciary Chairman Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, has yet to signal support for either measure.

The Tillis and Coons bill would allow review after the special counsel had been dismissed. If the panel found there was no good cause for the counsel’s removal, the person would be immediately reinstated. The legislation would also codify existing Justice Department regulations that a special counsel can only be removed for misconduct, dereliction of duty, incapacity, conflict of interest or other good cause, such as a violation of departmental policies.

In addition, only the attorney general or the most senior Justice Department official in charge of the matter could fire the special counsel.

In the case of the current investigation, Rosenstein is charged with Mueller’s fate because Attorney General Jeff Sessions recused himself from all matters having to do with the Trump-Russia investigation.

http://time.com/4885770/robert-mueller-investigation-senate-legislation/

 

Exclusive: top FBI officials could testify against Trump

The acting head of the bureau told top officials to prepare.

Shortly after the appointment of special counsel Robert Mueller in May, acting FBI Director Andrew McCabe told several of the highest-ranking managers of the bureau they should consider themselves possible witnesses in any investigation into whether President Donald Trump engaged in obstruction of justice, according to two senior federal law enforcement officials.

McCabe has told colleagues that he too is a potential witness in the probe of whether Trump broke the law by trying to thwart the FBI’s Russia investigation and the investigation into whether the Trump campaign colluded with the Russian government to defeat Hillary Clinton in the 2016 election.

Two senior federal law enforcement officials have told me that the new revelations illustrate why they believe the potential case against Trump is stronger than outsiders have thought.

“What you are going to have is the potential for a powerful obstruction case,” a senior law enforcement official said. “You are going to have the [former] FBI director testify, and then the acting director, the chief of staff to the FBI director, the FBI’s general counsel, and then others, one right after another. This has never been the word of Trump against what [James Comey] has had to say. This is more like the Federal Bureau of Investigation versus Donald Trump.”

Trump and his supporters have long argued that it would be difficult, if not impossible, for the special counsel to bring an obstruction case against Trump. The case would rely on the word of one man versus another, that of the president of the United States versus the FBI director he fired. But this was never the case.

Including Comey, as many as 10, and possibly more, of the nation’s most senior law enforcement officials are likely to be questioned as part of the investigation into whether Trump committed obstruction of justice, according to two government investigators with firsthand knowledge of the matter. Comey’s notes on his conversations could also be used as evidence, according to many reports.

The White House declined to comment. First contacted by email by on July 27, White House spokesperson Kelly Love responded late Wednesday saying, “This would be a question for outside counsel.” Love did not name which of the president’s many lawyers to contact. Marc E. Kasowitz, an attorney for the president, did not respond to a phone message Wednesday evening. The FBI also declined to comment.

FBI agents are experienced witnesses who routinely testify in high-pressure cases. Plus, the FBI itself is a rare public institution that is widely respected and trusted by the American public. The witness list and breadth of possible evidence, including notes Comey and several other senior FBI officials made at the time, could add up to a much stronger obstruction of justice case than Trump ever could have imagined.

Among those who McCabe and other law enforcement officials have privately believed are potential witnesses are six of the highest-ranking officials of the agency: They include McCabe himself; Jim Rybicki, Comey’s chief of staff; James Baker, the general counsel of the FBI; David Bowdich, who as the FBI’s associate director is the agency’s third-highest official; and Carl Ghattas, the head of the FBI’s national security division and a legal adviser to McCabe. McCabe was deputy director of the FBI until May, when he became acting director after President Trump fired Comey.

Attorney General Jeff Sessions, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein, and a third senior Justice Department official are believed by law enforcement officials to be crucial fact witnesses in the obstruction probe. Their testimony is likely to support Comey and harm Trump, according to investigators and outside experts.

Mueller’s case is looking stronger than Trump surrogates say

In May, Mueller was appointed special counsel to investigate whether Trump colluded with the Russian government to help defeat Hillary Clinton during the 2016 presidential election. A related area of inquiry for the special counsel is whether Trump obstructed justice when he allegedly asked Comey to shut down his inquiry of Trump’s former National Security Adviser Michael Flynn.

Trump made sure he and Comey were alone when he allegedly pressured the then-FBI director to curtail the FBI’s Russia investigation. At a private White House dinner on January 27, Trump allegedly pressed Comey to pledge his personal loyalty. The dinner came right after the president learned Flynn was under criminal investigation.

Later, on February 14, Trump allegedly leaned on Comey privately in an Oval Office meeting to shut down the FBI’s investigation of Flynn. Comey did not drop the investigation or take other steps Trump requested that the then-director of the FBI felt were improper. Trump then fired Comey on May 9.

Mueller is investigating whether Trump’s pressure on Comey to shut down his investigation — combined with other efforts to thwart the investigation, including firing Comey — are an obstruction of justice. As such, Comey is the central witness against Trump in any such obstruction investigation. That Trump was ordinarily alone with Comey when these various incidents occurred has led Trump and his surrogates to argue that it would be difficult for any obstruction of justice case to be brought because it would be based solely on Comey’s word.

“We have to keep in mind that is one person’s record of what happened,” Republican National Committee Chair Ronna Romney McDaniel said on Fox News in one typical comment repeated by White House surrogates. “The only two people who know what happened in these meeting are the president and James Comey.”

But even though Trump took great pains to try to be alone with Comey when they spoke, Comey regularly spoke to the six high-ranking FBI managers, often right after a distressing conversation with Trump about the Russia probe.

Comey spoke to these FBI officials almost always within 24 to 48 hours after such a contact took place, according to two senior federal law enforcement officials. A person familiar with the matter told me they know for certain there were at least eight such conversations — and likely more than a dozen — that Comey had with these high-ranking FBI managers, sometimes one on one, sometimes in groups of several officials. More than one such meeting was longer than an hour.

And in at least one previously unreported instance — that of a phone conversation between the president and Comey, during which Trump pressed Comey to say that Trump wasn’t personally under investigation — Rybicki, Comey’s chief of staff, was present for the entirety of the phone call.

Trump had unexpectedly called Comey while Comey was in a meeting with Rybicki. As Trump and the then-FBI director spoke, Rybicki stayed put and listened to the entirety of Comey’s side of the conversation, according to Comey’s testimony to Congress and a senior federal law enforcement official.

In addition, Comey often emailed Rybicki accounts of his troublesome discussions with Trump about the Russia investigation — if not immediately after, sometimes the same day, according to a senior federal law enforcement official.

Baker, the FBI general counsel, took methodical notes during his discussions with Comey and others in the FBI hierarchy about Trump’s efforts to thwart the FBI’s investigation, according to these same sources.

Law enforcement officials are likely to be questioned

I interviewed current and former law enforcement officials, including some who, though not directly involved in the investigation, have held key positions working for independent counsels or special prosecutors investigating earlier presidents. They told me they agree with McCabe’s assertions that the senior FBI managers are almost certainly to be questioned for any investigation of President Trump for obstruction of justice.

Sam Buell, a Duke University law professor who has previously served as a federal prosecutor in New York, Boston, Washington, DC, and Houston, similarly told me that Mueller will almost certainly interview all six senior FBI officials that Comey confided in, as well as Sessions and Rosenstein: “In any high-stakes matter, you are going to want to talk to anyone in the vicinity of a conversation. It doesn’t mean that they end up as trial witness. But at an investigative stage, you are going to talk to all of these people. You want their stories locked in. You want to know if what they have to say would help you or hurt you.”

John Keker, who during the Reagan and George H.W. Bush administrations prosecuted retired Lt. Oliver North for the Iran-Contra special prosecutor, explained to me: “Think of any crime. The defense might make the case that the accuser made it up. The questions for the witness are: ‘Did you just make this up?’ ‘Are you just saying this now?’ ‘Why didn’t you say something before?’ ‘Whom did you say something to? Did you write it down?’

“But if they told people when it happens, it makes their story more plausible. It helps their credibility. In this case, the people Comey told were multiple senior FBI officials.”

Other evidence is there too

In addition to the actual testimony of Comey and nine other senior federal law enforcement officials against the president, there is other related corroboratory evidence created as a result of those conversations. And this could bolster any potential obstruction of justice case against Trump.

There are Comey’s now-famous notes, which are careful, meticulous accounts of his meetings with the president. They are powerful not only for their detail but even for the atmospherics that tell a compelling story, according to people who have read portions of them.

Explaining why he took these notes, Comey told Congress: “I knew that there might come a day when I would need a record of what had happened, not just to defend myself but also to defend the FBI and our integrity as an institution and the independence of our investigative function. … [I]t was a combination of circumstances, subject matter, and the particular person.”

FBI agents and managers are inveterate note takers. It is part of the culture of the FBI. Several of the senior FBI managers Comey consulted with are also attorneys, who have similar traditions of memorializing important matters by taking careful and contemporaneous notes.

“That’s the culture of the FBI — you habitually document everything you do,” Lauren C. Anderson, a former senior FBI official who worked for the bureau for 29 years, told the New York Times, explaining why Comey made notes of his crucial conversations with the president. Her comments also would appear to explain why other senior FBI managers might have made similar sets of notes about their conversations with Comey.

Although it is unclear which FBI managers took notes and which did not, at least one person familiar with the matter said that James Baker, the FBI’s general counsel, made detailed notes of virtually every conversation with Comey or others about the Russia probe.

Those notes by Baker are crucial to investigators because Baker was a lively participant in discussions about whether to inform the Justice Department of the president’s pressure on Comey to end the Flynn investigation. During discussions about whether Comey or the Justice Department should give in to Trump’s request to say the investigation had not focused on him, Baker was the primary and strongest proponent that they not do so.

The potential testimony by Comey, McCabe, and so many other FBI witnesses could prove damning to Trump for other reasons. FBI agents and their managers are more than just highly credible witnesses. In the course of a typical FBI agent’s career, he or she works closely with federal prosecutors in making cases based on the testimony of witnesses first interviewed by the agent, and often testifies as a witness in cases, some dozens of times in the course of a career.

While most major governmental institutions have, according to most polls and surveys, faced some of their lowest ratings ever, the American public still retains strong confidence in its FBI. A November 2015 Pew Research national survey found that 68 percent of all Americans viewed the FBI favorably. Only four other federal agencies ranked higher: the US Postal Service, the National Park Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and NASA.

Even Trump allies could hurt Trump

Comey testified to Congress that he shared with senior managers of the FBI the president’s efforts to thwart the bureau’s Russia investigation. But he did not inform the Justice Department of those efforts prior to Trump firing him. A major reason he didn’t do so, Comey said, was because the FBI’s leaders told him, “Look, it’s your word against the president’s. There’s no way to corroborate this.”

But Comey testified that during a private meeting with Sessions about another matter — “the president’s concerns about leaks” — he took the opportunity “to implore the attorney general to prevent any future direct communication between the president and me.” Comey told Sessions that leaving him alone with Trump “was inappropriate and should never happen again.” Comey said that Sessions “did not reply at all, his body language suggesting he was helpless or unwilling to do anything.”

Comey also testified that he expressed similar concerns to Rosenstein: “I explained my serious concern about the way in which the president is interacting, especially with the FBI.”

In his own testimony to Congress, Sessions sharply disputed Comey’s claim that he said or did nothing when Comey raised these concerns, saying he told Comey “that the FBI and Department of Justice needed to follow department policies regarding appropriate contact with the White House.”

But more importantly, while taking issue with that one aspect of the story, Sessions largely corroborated Comey’s account under oath — about how uncomfortable the then-FBI director felt with the president’s interactions with the FBI. Sessions is a Trump loyalist, the first US senator to endorse Trump, and the Trump administration’s attorney general — this only enhances his credibility as a witness whose testimony would harm Trump. (Of course, that relationship is now severely strained.) That Sessions recommended Comey’s firing as FBI director also, ironically, enhances his credibility as a corroboratory witness of Comey’s and against the president.

Rosenstein is yet to be heard from.

https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2017/8/3/16084246/mueller-obstruction-case-stronger-trump-surrogates

Story 2: Proposed Reforming American Immigration for Strong Employment (RAISE) Act will Expose Hypocrisy of Democrats and Republicans In Promoting Open Borders with 30-60 Million Illegal Invasion of United States Over The Last 20 Years and  Rising Legal Immigration Instead of Protecting The American Worker and Middle Class — The Betrayal Of American People By The Political Elitist Establishment — Videos

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Immigration battle brewing in the GOP

Republicans are barreling toward a fight over immigration policy that could expose deep divisions in the party.

A renewed push by GOP Sens. Tom Cotton (Ark.) and David Perdue (Ga.) to crack down on legal immigration is threatening to pit President Trump, who endorsed their legislation, against GOP senators who want broader reforms.

The bill, which got a White House rollout on Wednesday, would fundamentally overhaul the immigration system. It would curtail the number of legal immigrants admitted into the country, cutting the total roughly in half.

The legislation, supporters say, would help enshrine a shift in Republican Party politics that was prominent in Trump’s campaign rhetoric, where he frequently warned that immigrants were taking American jobs.”As a candidate I campaigned on creating a merit-based immigration system that protects American workers and tax payers,” Trump said at the White House while standing next to Cotton and Perdue.

The measure faces a difficult path to 60 votes in the Senate, which would require the support of at least eight Democrats, not to mention every GOP senator — a scenario that appears highly unlikely.

Pressed Wednesday about how the bill could pass Congress, White House aide Stephen Miller said the legislation represented a “major promise” to Americans.

“This is what President Trump campaigned on. He talked about it throughout the campaign, throughout the transition, and since coming into office,” said Miller, who was formerly a staffer for then-Sen. Jeff Sessions (R-Ala.), one of the Senate’s most vocal immigration hawks who is now attorney general.

But many in the GOP are opposed to reshaping the party’s immigration policies in Trump’s image

Critics of Trump’s approach fear opposition to immigration reform will damage the party’s long-term electoral chances, given the nation’s growing Latino and Asian populations. Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton won 65 percent of the Latino and Asian vote in the 2016 presidential election, according to exit polling.

There are already early signs of pushback from multiple factions within the Senate GOP conference to the legal immigration limits, including members who are worried about the impact on businesses.

Sen. Ron Johnson (R-Wis.), the chairman of the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, said there could be an “awful lot” in the bill that he could support but warned against limiting his state’s labor pool.

“Dairy farmers need migrant labors. … So we really need to take a look at the reality of the situation,” Johnson, who has close ties to the business community, told reporters. “I don’t want to limit what our economy needs.”

Cotton, responding to some of his colleague’s criticism, noted the legislation wouldn’t touch the guest worker program, which allows immigrants to temporarily come into the country.

Meanwhile, Sen. Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.), part of the “Gang of Eight” that helped craft the 2013 immigration bill, ripped the Cotton–Perdue proposal within hours of its White House rollout.

“If this proposal were to become law, it would be devastating to our state’s economy, which relies on this immigrant workforce,” Graham said.

He added he is worried the legislation “incentivizes more illegal immigration,” saying “after dealing with this issue for more than a decade, I know that when you restrict legal labor to employers it incentivizes cheating.”

Illustrating the wider disagreement in the GOP about immigration policy, Graham has worked on two bills this year with Sen. Dick Durbin (D-Ill.) that would allow undocumented immigrants brought into country as children to remain here legally, at least temporarily.

GOP Sens. Jeff Flake (Ariz.), Dean Heller (Nev.) and Lisa Murkowski (Alaska) have signed on to at least one of Graham’s bills. Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.), who is currently undergoing treatment for brain cancer, also signaled earlier this year that he was opposed to attempts to crack down on legal immigration.

The Cotton–Perdue bill seems likely to rekindle the long-running debate over which section of the party — those who want broader immigration reforms or the protectionist strain that rose to new prominence with Trump — has the public’s support.

The legislation would curb the number of green cards, which give immigrants permanent residence, issued each year and establishes a “merit-based” points system for individuals who want to come into the country.

Cotton and Perdue will have to walk a political tightrope to get their bill enacted. They will be under pressure from moderate GOP senators and Democrats to make fundamental revisions to their bill, but any move to make it more lenient toward or address undocumented immigration could erode conservative support.

Perdue said for the moment he is focused on trying to garner support for the legislation.

“We have had conversations with them. We’ve met with [Senate Judiciary Committee] Chairman [Chuck] Grassley. … We know we’re going to work it through committee and go regular order, obviously. What we’re trying to do right now is garner support inside the Senate,” he said, when asked if he has talked to GOP leadership.

The bill could face its first test in the Senate Judiciary Committee, where Republicans have a two-seat advantage. Graham and Flake are both members of the committee and signaled concern about an earlier version of the legislation rolled out in February.

Meanwhile, Sen. John Cornyn (Texas), the No. 2 Senate Republican, is working on a border security bill that is expected to include some immigration components. That legislation is expected to unveiled on Thursday.

Asked if his legislation could be wrapped in with border security, Perdue said he wants the bill to move on its own.

“What we’ve done in the past with these immigration issues is we keep adding on and adding on and adding on. I think this one stands on its own merit,” he said.

Republican lawmakers have shown little appetite for another big debate on immigration.

But once Trump makes a decision on the 750,000 immigrants who are protected from deportation by former President Barack Obama‘s Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, they might not be able to avoid one.

Johnson warned against trying to package the legislation into a broader immigration bill.

“I don’t think we do a very good job at it. … If you demand comprehensive, you pretty well limit what you can accomplish,” he said.

Moderate GOP senators and Democrats will also be under pressure from conservative outside groups, not to mention the White House, to support the Cotton–Perdue bill.

Perdue noted that while it was early, he was hopeful that he would be able to win some Democratic backing for the bill.

“We’re trying to now get coordinated and start moving out to develop Republican and Democratic support,” he said. “I just think that we’ve got an opportunity to get some bipartisan support.”

There are 10 Senate Democrats running for reelection in states Trump won in 2016, and those members could face pressure to support tougher immigration laws.

“Ultimately members of Congress will have a choice to make … and whatever happens as a result of that would be somewhat predictable,” Miller said.

But Democratic senators are showing no immediate signs of being willing to support the bill. The earlier version of the legislation, introduced in February, garnered zero cosponsors.

“Instead of focusing on xenophobic half measures, the Trump administration should support comprehensive immigration reform and help create a pathway to citizenship for the millions of immigrants who are our family members, neighbors, co-workers and friends,” said Sen. Ed Markey (D-Mass.).

“Still shocking to see senior WH staff misunderstand American values,” Sen. Brian Schatz (D-Hawaii) said on Twitter. “I just realized I should be more specific. I’m talking about Miller.”

http://thehill.com/blogs/floor-action/senate/345052-immigration-battle-brewing-in-the-gop

RAISE Act

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
RAISE Act
Great Seal of the United States
Full title Reforming American Immigration for Strong Employment Act
Introduced in 115th United States Congress
Introduced on February 13, 2017
Sponsored by Tom Cotton and David Perdue
Legislative history

The RAISE (Reforming American Immigration for Strong Employment) Act is a bill introduced in the United States Senate in 2017. Co-sponsored by Republican senators Tom Cotton and David Perdue, the bill seeks to reduce levels of legal immigration to the United States by 50% by halving the number of green cards issued. The bill would also impose a cap of 50,000 refugee admissions a year and would end the visa diversity lottery. The bill received the support of President Donald Trump, who promoted a revised version of the bill in August 2017, but was opposed by Democrats, immigrant rights groups, and some Republicans.

History

The bill is co-sponsored by Republican senators Tom Cotton of Arkansas and David Perdue of Georgia, who introduced the bill to the Senate on February 13, 2017, as S. 354.[1][2][3] The bill was referred to the Senate Committee on the Judiciary.[2]

On August 2, 2017, Cotton introduced a revised version of the bill, designated S. 1720; this bill was also referred to the Senate Committee on the Judiciary.[4] President Donald Trump, along with Cotton and Perdue, announced it at the White House.[5] Within the Trump White House, Trump advisers Stephen Miller and Steve Bannon promoted and helped shape the bill.[6] The odds of the bill being enacted are seen as remote.[3][7][6] The bill has not attracted any additional co-sponsors, and Republican leaders in Congress have no plans to vote on immigration in 2017.[8]

Provisions and analysis

The bill would cut the legal immigration by half, reducing the number of green cards from more than 1 million to about 500,000.[3] The bill would also remove pathways for siblings and adult children of U.S. citizens and legal permanent residents to apply for permanent lawful residency status in the U.S., limiting the family path to spouses and minor children.[7] The bill would also impose a cap of 50,000 refugee admissions a year and would end the visa diversity lottery.[3]

In promoting the legislation, Trump administration officials contend that the bill would increase economic growth and increase wages.[9][10][11] This contention was challenged by economists,[10] who “overwhelmingly predict” that cuts in immigration would have a negative impact on GDP growth.[11] In April 2017, a group of more than 1,400 economists, with views ranging across the political spectrum, sent an open letter to Trump noting the “near universal agreement” on “the broad economic benefit that immigrants to this country bring” and urging him not to seek immigration cuts.[11] Cato Institute immigration policy analyst Alex Nowrasteh said that the legislation “would do nothing to boost skilled immigration and it will only increase the proportion of employment-based green cards by cutting other green cards. Saying otherwise is grossly deceptive marketing.”[3]

The “only evidence that the administration has cited as justifying its proposals” is the work of economist George Borjas,[12] who has defended the bill, arguing that it “makes sense” and that “low-skill immigration, which would likely suffer the largest cuts in the proposed bill, imposes costs on taxpayers and it imposes costs on low-skill workers already here.”[13] Other economists have sharply contested Borjas’s conclusions; economist Giovanni Peri stated that “The average American worker is more likely to lose than to gain from immigration restrictions” and “most studies put the negative impact on low-skilled wages closer to zero,”[12] and Michael Clemens argues that Borjas’s position is based on a study with critical flaws.[14][15]

Support and opposition

The bill and Trump’s support for it was hailed by groups favoring restrictive immigration policies, such as NumbersUSA[3] and the Federation for American Immigration Reform.[16] The bill was also seen as likely to appeal to anti-immigration Republican base voters.[17]

The bill is opposed by Democrats as well as some Republicans.[7] Democratic National Committee chairman Tom Perez said that “Trump wants to tear apart communities and punish immigrant families that are making valuable contributions to our economy.”[7] Democratic Senator Richard Blumenthal of Connecticut called the bill “nothing but a series of nativist talking points and regurgitated campaign rhetoric that completely fails to move our nation forward toward real reform.”[3] Republican Senator Lindsey Graham said the proposal would be “devastating” to South Carolina’s economy.[18] The Congressional Hispanic Caucus and immigrant rights groups both condemned the legislation.[3]

The National Immigration Law Center called the bill “cruel and un-American” and issued a statement saying that it would “devastate families, eliminating the traditional and long-accepted means by which family members such as grandparents, mothers, fathers and siblings are able to reunite with their families who have emigrated to the United States.”[16] The technology industry immigration-policy advocacy group FWD.us said the bill, if enacted, “would severely harm the economy and actually depress wages for Americans.”[16] The Association of Public and Land-grant Universities and NAFSA: Association of International Educators also oppose the bill, describing it as flawed and a step backward.[16] The Anti-Defamation League also opposed the legislation, calling it “cruel, anti-family and un-American.”[19]

References

 

 

  1. ADL slams Trump-backed GOP plan on immigration as ‘cruel, un-American’, Times of Israel/Associated Press (August 3, 2017).

 

 

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The Pronk Pops Show 890, May 10, 2017, Story 1: Both Democrats and Republicans Wanted To Fire FBI Director James Comey — Now Democrats Claiming Trump Did It To Stop FBI Russian Investigation — Actually To Reopen Hillary Clinton Email Server and Email Investigation Under New FBI Director — Videos — Story 2: Lying Lunatic Left Conspiracies Theories Not Evidence of Trump/Russian Collusion — Videos

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Pronk Pops Show 890,  May 9102017

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Pronk Pops Show 883 April 28, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 882: April 27, 2017

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Image result for trump fires comey

Image result for trump fires comeyImage result for trump fires comey

 

 

Story 1: Both Democrats and Republicans Wanted To Fire FBI Director James Comey — Now Democrats Claiming Trump Did It To Stop FBI Investigation of Alleged Russian/Trump Collusion  — Actually To Reopen FBI Hillary Clinton Email Server and Email Investigation Under New FBI Director — Videos —

 

Image result for cartoons trump fires comey

FBI Director James Comey FULL STATEMENT on Hillary Clinton Email Investigation (C-SPAN)

No Criminal Charges for Hillary Clinton!

White House press briefing following Comey’s firing

Will Comey firing politicize the FBI even more

Why did President Trump fire FBI director Comey?

Tucker: Comey’s firing was long overdue

Gingrich on Comey’s firing: Trump had no choice

DiGenova: Comey usurped powers of office, needed to be fired

Published on May 9, 2017

Former US attorney says now-former FBI director acted like an attorney general, was self-serving and needed to be fired #Tucker

Hume: Calling Comey firing a ‘coup’ is hysterical

James Comey Fired by Donald Trump | Entire Country Applauds the Bold Move

BREAKING: Spineless Comey Lets Hillary Rodham Felon Off the Hook AGAIN![

Why Comey Had to Be Fired, His History of Failure and the Mythology of the “Russian Investigation”

James Comey Fired by Donald Trump | Entire Country Applauds the Bold Move

Comey Fired…Now Fire The FBI!

President Trump Fires FBI Director James Comey | Mike Cernovich and Stefan Molyneux

Comey Found Out He Was Fired While Watching TV

Reactions to the firing of FBI Director James Comey

Future of FBI Director James Comey

JUDGE NAPOLITANO “COMEY TO STEP DOWN AT FBI”! HILLARY OUTCOME MUCH WORSE THAN NIXON AND WATERGATE!

Published on Nov 7, 2016

Considering this last announcement by Comey, he is now damaged goods in a Trump or Clinton Administration. Napolitano says that Comey is well aware of this and knows his days are numbered! He has done tremendous damage to the reputation of the FBI and plans to resign. The investigation into the Clinton Foundation and Pay For Play will continue and the outcome will be much worse than Nixon and Watergate! I thought that if Trump won that he may keep Comey on, but not after this last stunt and not with Comey’s past dealings with the Clinton Foundation! One more day! I hope that there a ton of Closet Trumpers that still have not voted!

Ed Klein: Brennan only one asserting Russia ties

Published on Dec 16, 2016

‘Guilty as Sin’ author Ed Klein weighs in

Ed Klein: Why Comey jumped at chance to reopen Clinton case

Published on Nov 1, 2016

Insight from the author of ‘Guilty as Sin’

Busted: Former U S Attorney General Does Not Believe FBI Director James Comey Version

Rosenstein’s Case Against Comey, Annotated

Contextualizing the deputy attorney general’s memorandum on the former FBI director

Former FBI Director James ComeyKevin Lamarque / Reuters

In a surprising move on Tuesday, President Trump abruptly fired James Comey, the director of the FBI and the official leading the investigation into whether Trump aides colluded with Russia to sway the U.S. presidential election. In his letter dismissing Comey, Trump told him: “While I greatly appreciate you informing me, on three separate occasions, that I am not under investigation, I nevertheless concur with the judgment of the Department of Justice that you are not able to effectively lead the bureau.”

The White House said that Trump acted on the recommendations of Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein. The longest letter released was a memorandum to Sessions from Rosenstein laying out the case for Comey’s dismissal. In the memo, Rosenstein criticizes Comey for his handling of the investigation into former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton’s private email server, and offers examples of bipartisan condemnation of Comey’s actions.

For context, we’ve annotated Rosenstein’s letter below.


May 9, 2017

MEMORANDUM FOR THE ATTORNEY GENERAL

FROM: ROD J. ROSENSTEIN

DEPUTY ATTORNEY GENERAL

SUBJECT: RESTORING PUBLIC CONFIDENCE IN THE FBI

The Federal Bureau of Investigation has long been regarded as our nation’s premier federal investigative agency. Over the past year, however, the FBI’s reputation and credibility have suffered substantial damage, and it has affected the entire Department of Justice. That is deeply troubling to many Department employees and veterans, legislators and citizens.

The current FBI Director is an articulate and persuasive speaker about leadership and the immutable principles of the Department of Justice. He deserves our appreciation for his public service. As you and I have discussed, however, I cannot defend the Director’s handling of the conclusion of the investigation of Secretary Clinton’s emails, and I do not understand his refusal to accept the nearly universal judgment that he was mistaken. Almost everyone agrees that the Director made serious mistakes; it is one of the few issues that unites people of diverse perspectives.

The director was wrong to usurp the Attorney General’s authority on July 5, 2016, and announce his conclusion that the case should be closed without prosecution.

It is not the function of the Director to make such an announcement. At most, the Director should have said the FBI had completed its investigation and presented its findings to federal prosecutors. The Director now defends his decision by asserting that he believed attorney General Loretta Lynch had a conflict. But the FBI Director is never empowered to supplant federal prosecutors and assume command of the Justice Department. There is a well-established process for other officials to step in when a conflict requires the recusal of the Attorney General. On July 5, however, the Director announced his own conclusions about the nation’s most sensitive criminal investigation, without the authorization of duly appointed Justice Department leaders.

Compounding the error, the Director ignored another longstanding principle: we do not hold press conferences to release derogatory information about the subject of a declined criminal investigation. Derogatory information sometimes is disclosed in the course of criminal investigations and prosecutions, but we never release it gratuitously. The Director laid out his version of the facts for the news media as if it were a closing argument, but without a trial. It is a textbook example of what federal prosecutors and agents are taught not to do.

In response to skeptical question at a congressional hearing, the Director defended his remarks by saying that his “goal was to say what is true. What did we do, what did we find, what do we think about it.” But the goal of a federal criminal investigation is not to announce our thoughts at a press conference. The goal is to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to justify a federal criminal prosecution, then allow a federal prosecutor who exercises authority delegated by the Attorney General to make a prosecutorial decision, and then – if prosecution is warranted – let the judge and jury determine the facts. We sometimes release information about closed investigations in appropriate ways, but the FBI does not do it sua sponte.

Concerning his letter to the Congress on October 28, 2016, the Director cast his decision as a choice between whether he would “speak” about the decision to investigate the newly-discovered email messages or “conceal” it. “Conceal” is a loaded term that misstates the issue. When federal agents and prosecutors quietly open a criminal investigation, we are not concealing anything; we are simply following the longstanding policy that we refrain from publicizing non-public information. In that context, silence is not concealment.

My perspective on these issues is shared by former Attorneys General and Deputy Attorneys General from different eras and both political parties. Judge Laurence Silberman, who served as Deputy Attorney General under President Ford, wrote that “it is not the bureau’s responsibility to opine on whether a matter should be prosecuted.” Silberman believes that the Director’s “Performance was so inappropriate for an FBI director that [he] doubt[s] the bureau will ever completely recover.” Jamie Gorelick, Deputy Attorney General under President Clinton, joined with Larry Thompson, Deputy Attorney General under President George W. Bush, to opine that the Director had “chosen personally to restrike the balance between transparency and fairness, departing from the department’s traditions.” They concluded that the Director violated his obligation to “preserve, protect and defend” the traditions of the Department and the FBI.

Former Attorney General Michael Mukasey, who served under President George W. Bush, observed the Director “stepped way outside his job in disclosing the recommendation in that fashion” because the FBI director “doesn’t make that decision.”

Alberto Gonzales, who also served as Attorney General under President George W. Bush, called the decision “an error in judgement.” Eric Holder, who served as Deputy Attorney General under President Clinton and Attorney General under President Obama, said the Director’s decision“was incorrect. It violated long-standing Justice Department policies and traditions. And it ran counter to guidance that I put in place four years ago laying out the proper way to conduct investigations during an election season.” Holder concluded that the Director “broke with these fundamental principles” and “negatively affected public trust in both the Justice Department and the FBI.”

Former Deputy Attorneys General Gorelick and Thompson described the unusual events as“real-time, raw-take transparency taken to its illogical limit, a kind of reality TV of federal criminal investigation,” that is “antithetical to the interests of justice.”

Donald Ayer, who served as Deputy Attorney General under President H.W. Bush, along with former Justice Department officials, was“astonished and perplexed” by the decision to “break[] with longstanding practices followed by officials of both parties during past elections.” Ayer’s letter noted, “Perhaps most troubling… is the precedent set by this departure from the Department’s widely-respected, non-partisan traditions.”

We should reject the departure and return to the traditions.

Although the President has the power to remove an FBI director, the decision should not be taken lightly. I agree with the nearly unanimous opinions of former Department officials. The way the Director handled the conclusion of the email investigation was wrong. As a result, the FBI is unlikely to regain public and congressional trust until it has a Director who understands the gravity of the mistakes and pledges never to repeat them. Having refused to admit his errors, the Director cannot be expected to implement the necessary corrective actions.Although the letter builds a case for Comey’s removal, Rosenstein never explicitly recommends a specific course of action, and never directly requests that Comey be dismissed from his job.

Comey’s Deserved Dismissal

The FBI chief forfeited his credibility with his 2016 interventions.

Former Federal Bureau of Investigation Director James Comey.

Former Federal Bureau of Investigation Director James Comey. PHOTO: GETTY IMAGES

President Trump fired James Comey late Tuesday, and better now than never. These columns opposed Mr. Comey’s nomination by Barack Obama, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation Director has committed more than enough mistakes in the last year to be dismissed for cause.

Mr. Trump sacked Mr. Comey on the advice of Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein, a former U.S. Attorney with a straight-up-the-middle reputation who was only recently confirmed by the Senate. In a memo to Attorney General Jeff Sessions, Mr. Rosenstein cited Mr. Comey’s multiple breaches of Justice Department protocol in his criminal investigation of Hillary Clinton’s mishandling of classified material.

The FBI isn’t supposed even to confirm or deny ongoing investigations, but in July 2016 Mr. Comey publicly exonerated Mrs. Clinton in the probe of her private email server on his own legal judgment and political afflatus. That should have been the AG’s responsibility, and Loretta Lynch had never recused herself.

“It is not the function of the Director to make such an announcement,” Mr. Rosenstein wrote. “The Director now defends his decision by asserting that he believed Attorney General Loretta Lynch had a conflict. But the FBI Director is never empowered to supplant federal prosecutors and assume command of the Justice Department

 

Mr. Rosenstein added that at his July 5 press appearance Mr. Comey “laid out his version of the facts for the news media as if it were a closing argument, but without a trial. It is a textbook example of what federal prosecutors and agents are taught not to do.”

Then, 11 days before the election, Mr. Comey told Congress he had reopened the inquiry. His public appearances since have become a self-exoneration tour to defend his job and political standing, not least to Democrats who blame a “Comey effect” for Mrs. Clinton’s defeat. Last week Mr. Comey dropped more innuendo about the Trump campaign’s alleged ties to Russia in testimony to Congress, while also exaggerating the new evidence that led his agents to reopen the Clinton file.

For all of these reasons and more, we advised Mr. Trump to sack Mr. Comey immediately upon taking office. The President will now pay a larger political price for waiting, as critics question the timing of his action amid the FBI’s probe of his campaign’s alleged Russia ties. Democrats are already portraying Mr. Comey as a liberal martyr, though last October they accused him of partisan betrayal.

The reality is that Mr. Comey has always been most concerned with the politics of his own reputation. He styles himself as the last honest man in Washington as he has dangled insinuations across his career about the George W. Bush White House and surveillance, then Mrs. Clinton and emails, and now Mr. Trump and Russia. He is political in precisely the way we don’t want a leader of America’s premier law-enforcement agency to behave.

As for the Russia probe, if Mr. Trump is trying to cover up anything, firing the FBI Director is a lousy way to do it. Such a public spectacle will make details more likely to leak if agents feel their evidence is being sat on. Mr. Comey’s credibility was also tainted enough that whatever he announced at the end of the probe would have been doubted.

As Mr. Rosenstein put it in his memo, “I agree with the nearly unanimous opinions of former Department officials. The way the Director handled the conclusion of the email investigation was wrong. As a result, the FBI is unlikely to regain public and congressional trust until it has a Director who understands the gravity of the mistakes and pledges never to repeat them. Having refused to admit his errors, the Director cannot be expected to implement the necessary corrective actions.”

A new FBI Director who looks at the Russia evidence with fresh eyes and without the political baggage of the last year will have a better chance of being credible to the American people. Mr. Trump should now devote himself to nominating someone of integrity who can meet that standard.

Comey timeline: Everything that led up to his firing

May 9 at 9:55 PM

Comey is fired for email investigation while the Russia probe is still ongoing

 

The Washington Post’s Philip Rucker explains how and why FBI director James Comey was fired, as well as how the FBI’s investigation of the Trump campaign’s possible connections with Russia may be impacted. (Whitney Shefte/The Washington Post)

President Trump fired FBI Director James B. Comey on Tuesday. From the Clinton email investigation to the Trump-Russia probe, this is all of the major dates concerning Comey:

July 5, 2016 Comey says the FBI will not recommend criminal charges against Hillary Clinton for her use of a private email server when she was secretary of state but called Clinton and her staff “extremely careless” in handling classified material.

“Although there is evidence of potential violations of the statutes regarding the handling of classified information, our judgment is that no reasonable prosecutor would bring such a case,” Comey said.

July 7, 2016Comey is grilled by Republican legislatorsfor five hours during a House Oversight Committee hearing on the Clinton email scandal. Comey stands by his decision to not charge Clinton.

“As a non-lawyer, as a non-investigator, it would appear to me you have got a hell of a case,” an exasperated Rep. Earl L. “Buddy” Carter (R-Ga.) told Comey.

“I’m telling you we don’t, and I hope people take the time to understand why,” Comey responded.

Aug. 16, 2016 — In a letter released by lawmakers, the FBI defends its decision not to charge Clinton once again.

“As the Director stated, the FBI did find evidence that Secretary Clinton and her colleagues were extremely careless in their handling of certain, very sensitive, highly classified information,” FBI acting assistant director Jason V. Herring wrote. “The Director did not equate ‘extreme carelessness’ with the legal standard of ‘gross negligence’ that is required by the statute. In this case, the FBI assessed that the facts did not support a recommendation to prosecute her or others within the scope of the investigation for gross negligence.”

Sept. 2 — The FBI releases Clinton email investigation documents.

Sept. 7 — In a memo to FBI employees, Comey says the decision not to charge Clinton was “not a cliff-hanger,” and that “despite all the chest beating by people no longer in government, there really wasn’t a prosecutable case.” The letter incites fury among Republican lawmakers.

Sept. 28 — Comey says he refuses to reopen the investigation into Clinton in his testimony before the House Judiciary Committee.

“Since you announced that there would be no prosecution of Secretary Clinton in July, there have been several very material issues that are troubling, and would those not require a reopening of the investigation to solve those issues?” Rep. James F. Sensenbrenner Jr. (R-Wis.) asked.

“I haven’t seen anything that would come near to that kind of situation,” Comey responded.

Oct. 3, 2016 — Law enforcement officials seize a laptop, phone and tablet belonging to Anthony Weiner, who was under investigation for alleged inappropriate communications with a minor. They discover the laptop contained emails from Clinton and her aide Huma Abedin.

Oct. 7, 2016 — The Obama administration officially accuses Russia of meddling in the 2016 presidential election.

Oct. 13, 2016 — At a campaign even in West Palm Beach, Florida, Trump says of Comey, “He stated many things, but it’s far more and he knows that. And yet, after reading all of these items, where she’s so guilty, he let her off the hook”

Oct. 27, 2016 — Comey receives a full briefing by agents in his office about the findings on Weiner’s laptop.

Oct. 28, 2016 — Comey sends a letter to congressional leaders informing them of the existence of emails pertinent to the Clinton investigation.

Oct. 31, 2016 — “It took a lot of guts. I really disagreed with him. I was not his fan. But I’ll tell you what he did, he brought back his reputation,” Trump says of Comey’s decision.

Nov. 6, 2016 — Comey wrote that investigators had worked “around the clock” to review all the emails found on a device used by Weiner. In the end, the FBI concluded that it found nothing to alter its original opinion that it would seek no charges against Clinton.

Nov. 9, 2016 — Trump is elected president of the United States.

Early January — President-elect Trump is informed by U.S. intelligence agency leaders that Russia may possess compromising information about him.

Jan. 10 — Comey appears with NSA Director Mike Rogers, Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper Jr. and CIA Director John Brennan in front of the Senate Intelligence Committee to talk about Russia’s alleged interference in the U.S. election. Comey refuses to confirm that the FBI is looking into Trump team’s ties to Russia.

Jan. 13 — Democrats, after a briefing with Comey, accuse him of stonewalling about whether the FBI is investigating ties between Trump associates and Russia. On the same day, the Senate Intelligence Committee announces it will look into Russian interference in the election.

Jan. 18 — President-elect Trump informs Comey that it is his intention to keep him on as FBI director.

Jan. 22 — Comey greets Trump at the White House two days after his inauguration. “He’s become more famous than me,” Trump said to people in the room.

Feb. 24 — FBI rejects requests from the Trump administration to knock down news reports concerning communications between the Trump campaign and Russia.

March 1 — The Washington Post reports that Attorney General Jeff Sessions did not disclose contacts with Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak.

March 2 — Sessions recuses himself from investigations related to the 2016 presidential campaign, including any Russian interference in the electoral process.

March 5 — Comey asks the Department of Justice to refute Trump’s tweet claiming Trump Tower was wiretapped during the election.

March 9 — Comey meets with members of Congress concerning Trump’s tweet claiming the Obama administration wiretapped Trump Tower during the election.

March 20 — Comey confirms that the FBI is investigating any links between the Trump election campaign and the Russian government.

March 20 — Comey refutes Trump’s tweets alleging that the Obama administration was wiretapping Trump Tower during the presidential campaign.

Late March/early April — The House Intelligence Committee Chairman Devin Nunes (R-Calif.) cancels all other scheduled testimony on Russia and insists that Comey come back to the Hill for a closed-door briefing. Nunes recuses himself from the Russia investigation before that meeting is ever scheduled.

April 12 — Trump is asked on Fox Business Networkabout his decision to keep Comey on:

Maria Bartiromo: Was it a mistake not to ask Jim Comey to step down from the FBI at the outside of your presidency, is it too late now to ask him to step down?

President Trump: No, it’s not too late. But I have confidence in him, we’ll see what happens. It’s going to be interesting, but we have to just — look, I have so many people that want to come in to this administration, they’re so excited about this administration and what’s happening.

Bankers, law enforcement, everybody wants to come into this administration. Don’t forget, when Jim Comey came out, he saved Hillary Clinton, people don’t realize that. He saved her life because I call it “Comey won,” and I joke about it a little bit. When he was reading those charges, she was guilty on every charge and then he said, “She was essentially okay.”

April 25 — Senate confirms Rod Rosenstein as deputy attorney general in a 94-to-6 vote.

May 2 — Trump tweets: “FBI Director Comey was the best thing that ever happened to Hillary Clinton in that he gave her a free pass for many bad deeds! The phony … Trump/Russia story was an excuse used by the Democrats as justification for losing the election. Perhaps Trump just ran a great campaign?

May 3 — Comey testifies before the Senate Judiciary Committee about his decision to announce the reopening of the investigation into Hillary Clinton and her emails.

“Lordy, has this been difficult,” Comey said of the fallout from his Clinton decision. Comey also says, “It makes me mildly nauseous to think that we might have had some impact on the election.” Comey alleges in the hearing that Huma Abedin “forwarded hundreds and thousands of emails [to Anthony Weiner], some of which contain classified information.”

May 4 — Comey briefs members of the House Intelligence Committee behind closed doors about the Russia probe, now being led by Rep. K. Michael Conaway (R-Tex.).

May 8 — ProPublica published a report stating that Comey exaggerated the number of emails Abedin forwarded to Weiner.

May 9 — FBI sends a letter to the chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee clarifying that Comey misspoke about the number of emails forwarded.

President Trump informed FBI Director James Comey he had been dismissed on May 9, stemming from a conclusion by Justice Department officials that he had mishandled the probe of Hillary Clinton’s emails.(Video: Bastien Inzaurralde/Photo: Matt McClain/The Washington Post)

May 9 — Trump fires Comey, citing recommendationsfrom Sessions and Rosenstein.

Karoun Demirijan and Kevin Uhrmacher contributed to this report.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-politics/wp/2017/05/09/comey-timeline-everything-that-led-up-to-his-firing/?tid=a_inl&utm_term=.ce67b88b7bbc

President Trump fires FBI Director Comey

Comey is fired for email investigation while the Russia probe is still ongoing

The Washington Post’s Philip Rucker explains how and why FBI director James Comey was fired, as well as how the FBI’s investigation of the Trump campaign’s possible connections with Russia may be impacted. (Whitney Shefte/The Washington Post)

May 9 at 9:35 PM

President Trump fired FBI Director James B. Comey on Tuesday, at the recommendation of senior Justice Department officials who said he had treated Hillary Clinton unfairly and in doing so damaged the credibility of the FBI and the Justice Department.

The startling development comes as Comey was leading a counterintelligence investigation to determine whether associates of Trump may have coordinated with Russia to interfere with the U.S. presidential election last year. It wasn’t immediately clear how Comey’s ouster will affect the Russia probe, but Democrats said they were concerned that his ouster could derail the investigation.

Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced that Comey’s deputy, Andrew McCabe, would be the acting director of the FBI. As a presidential candidate, Trump explicitly criticized Comey and McCabe for their roles in the Clinton probe while at other points praising Comey for his “guts.”

“The president has accepted the recommendation of the attorney general and the deputy attorney general regarding the dismissal of the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation,” press secretary Sean Spicer told reporters in the White House briefing room. The firing is effective “immediately,” he said.

Lawmakers react after President Trump fired FBI director James Comey on May 9. (Victoria Walker/The Washington Post)

Comey was in Los Angeles on Tuesday on a recruiting trip.

Officials said Comey was fired because senior Justice Department officials concluded that he had violated Justice Department principles and procedures last year by publicly discussing the investigation of Hillary Clinton’s use of a private email server. Democrats have long argued that Comey’s decisions in the months and days before the election hurt Clinton’s standing with voters and affected the outcome, but the president and his closest advisers had argued that Comey went too easy on Clinton and her aides.

Just last week, Trump publicly accused Comey of giving Clinton “a free pass for many bad deeds’’ when he decided not to recommend criminal charges in the case.

Officials released a Tuesday memo from the deputy attorney general, Rod J. Rosenstein, laying out the rationale behind Comey’s dismissal and attributing it all to his handling of the Clinton case. Officials said Rosenstein began examining Comey’s conduct shortly after being sworn into office two weeks ago.

“The FBI’s reputation and credibility have suffered substantial damage, and it has affected the entire Department of Justice,” Rosenstein wrote. “I cannot defend the director’s handling of the conclusion of the investigation of Secretary Clinton’s emails, and I do not understand his refusal to accept the nearly universal judgment that he was mistaken. Almost everyone agrees that the director made serious mistakes; it is one of the few issues that unites people of diverse perspectives.”

Democrats skeptical

But Democrats immediately linked the dismissal to the Russia probe.

“The decision by a President whose campaign associates are under investigation by the FBI for collusion with Russia to fire the man overseeing that investigation, upon the recommendation of an Attorney General who has recused himself from that investigation, raises profound questions about whether the White House is brazenly interfering in a criminal matter,” Rep. Adam B. Schiff (Calif.), the ranking Democrat on the House Intelligence Committee, said in a statement. The House committee is looking into Russian interference in the election.

Some Republicans were also concerned. “I am troubled by the timing and reasoning of Director Comey’s termination,” said Sen. Richard Burr (R-N.C.), head of the Senate Intelligence Committee, which is also examining Russian meddling. “I have found Director Comey to be a public servant of the highest order, and his dismissal further confuses an already difficult investigation by the Committee.”

There were multiple calls by Democrats on Tuesday night for the appointment of a special prosecutor to lead the Russia investigation and take the matter out of the hands of Justice Department leadership.

In an attempt to pressure Republicans to join calls for an independent prosecutor, Senate Democrats have been asked by Minority Leader Charles E. Schumer (D-N.Y.) to be in the Senate chamber at 9:30 a.m. Wednesday when the legislative day begins.

In a late-night tweet Tuesday, Trump targeted Schumer. “Cryin’ Chuck Schumer stated recently, “I do not have confidence in him (James Comey) any longer.” Then acts so indignant. #draintheswamp,” the president wrote.

Trump plans to meet with Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov on Wednesday. It will be the first face-to-face contact between the president and a senior official of the Russian government.

Rosenstein wrote in the memo that when Comey announced on July 5 that he had decided not to recommend charges in the Clinton case, he did so “without the authorization of duly appointed Justice Department leaders. Compounding the error, the director ignored another longstanding principle: we do not hold press conferences to release derogatory information about the subject of a declined criminal investigation . . . we never release it gratuitously . . . It is a textbook example of what federal prosecutors and agents are taught not to do.”

Rosenstein was also critical of Comey’s decision to reveal in late October that the Clinton email probe had resumed, and he dismissed the FBI director’s recent defense to Congress that not doing so would have effectively been to “conceal” important information.

“ ‘Conceal’ is a loaded term that misstates the issue,” Rosenstein wrote. “When federal agents and prosecutors quietly open a criminal investigation, we are not concealing anything; we are simply following the longstanding policy that we refrain from publicizing non-public information. In that context, silence is not concealment.”

In a letter to Trump, Sessions said that he agreed Comey had to go.

“I have concluded that a fresh start is needed at the leadership of the FBI,’’ Sessions wrote. “I must recommend that you remove Director James B. Comey, Jr. and identify an experienced and qualified individual to lead the great men and women of the FBI.’’

But in October — when Sessions was a senator supporting Trump, and Comey revealed less than two weeks before the election that he had reopened the investigation into Clinton’s use of a private email server — Sessions applauded the decision in an appearance on Fox Business Network.

“He had an absolute duty, in my opinion, 11 days or not, to come forward with the new information that he has and let the American people know that, too,” Sessions said at the time.

Nothing in the Rosenstein memo suggests that the Clinton investigation will be reopened.

Tuesday afternoon, White House aide Keith Schiller, who has long served Trump as a bodyguard, visited FBI headquarters to hand-deliver Trump’s dismissal letter to Comey’s office, although the director wasn’t there to receive it, officials said.

Trump wrote to Comey: “You are hereby terminated and removed from office, effective immediately.’’

The president added: “While I greatly appreciate you informing me, on three separate occasions, that I am not under investigation, I nevertheless concur with the judgment of the Department of Justice that you are not able to effectively lead the Bureau.’’

The news stunned Washington.

Sen. Charles E. Grassley (R-Iowa), chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, said Comey’s decisions “have called into question the trust and political independence of the FBI.’’

The senior Democrat on the House Judiciary Committee, Rep. John Conyers Jr. (Mich.), however, compared Tuesday’s developments to the Watergate scandal and said the actions “reek of a coverup and appear to be part of an ongoing effort by the Trump White House to impede the investigation into Russian ties and interference in our elections.’’

Over the past two years, Comey had assumed an extraordinary role in Washington — overseeing not one, but two investigations involving presidential candidates. In some ways, that made him more powerful than the Justice Department officials to whom he reported.

After Clinton lost to Trump, many Democrats blamed Comey for what they viewed as his unprecedented interference in the election process, but most later came to see him as an independent figure in the Trump administration who would be critical to a fair and thorough investigation of any possible ties between Russia and Trump associates.

Strains over leak cases

Several current and former officials said the relationship between the White House and the FBI had been strained for months, in part because administration officials were pressuring Comey to more aggressively pursue leak investigations over disclosures that embarrassed the White House and raised questions about ties with Russia.

That pressure was described as conversational challenges to FBI leadership to pursue the source of leaks seen as damaging to the administration, the officials said, speaking on the condition of anonymity to discuss internal deliberations. Although the FBI is investigating disclosures of classified information, the bureau has resisted calls to prioritize leak investigations over the Russia matter, or probe matters that did not involve leaks of classified or otherwise sensitive information, the officials said.

“The administration has been putting pressure on the FBI to focus more on the leaks and weren’t satisfied with the results,’’ said a former senior U.S. official familiar with the matter. A current official said administration figures have been “very aggressive’’ in pressuring the FBI.

The Justice Department inspector general has been investigating how Comey and his top deputy handled the Clinton probe, though that investigation is expected to continue for months.

Shortly before the announcement, the FBI notified Congress by letter that Comey had misstated key findings involving the Clinton email investigation during testimony last week, but nothing about that issue suggested it might imperil Comey’s job.

David Weigel and Ellen Nakashima contributed to this report.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/comey-misstated-key-clinton-email-evidence-at-hearing-say-people-close-to-investigation/2017/05/09/074c1c7e-34bd-11e7-b373-418f6849a004_story.html?utm_term=.5198e0fc7684

President Trump unexpectedly fired FBI Director James Comey on Tuesday after a finding by the Justice Department that he mishandled the investigation into Hillary Clinton’s emails last year.

Trump said he acted based on the recommendations of Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein, who found that Comey improperly moved to “usurp” the attorney general’s authority and decided not to prosecute Clinton.

“I have received the attached letters from the attorney general and deputy attorney general of the United States recommending your dismissal as the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation,” Trump said in a letter to Comey. “I have accepted their recommendation and you are hereby terminated and removed from office, effective immediately.”

“While I greatly appreciate you informing me, on three separate occasions, that I am not under investigation, I nevertheless concur with the judgment of the Department of Justice that you are not able to effectively lead the bureau,” Trump said. “It is essential that we find new leadership for the FBI that restores public trust and confidence in its vital law enforcement mission. I wish you the best of luck in your future endeavors.”

The Trump administration will immediately begin a search for Comey’s successor. FBI Deputy Director Andrew McCabe has been floated as a possible replacement, according to Fox News.

“The FBI is one of our nation’s most cherished and respected institutions and today will mark a new beginning for our crown jewel of law enforcement,” Trump said in a White House statement.

In a memo explaining to Trump why he thought Comey should be fired, Rosenstein, who was sworn into office in late April, pointed to the FBI director’s July press conference explaining why Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton should not be prosecuted over her use of a private email server while secretary of state.

“The director was wrong to usurp the attorney general’s authority on July 5, 2016, and announce his conclusion that the case should be closed without prosecution. It is not the function of the director to make such an announcement. At most, the director should have said the FBI had completed its investigation and presented its findings to federal prosecutors,” Rosenstein wrote.

Comey’s involvement in the 2016 general election didn’t end there. On Oct. 28, just days before voters went to the polls, Comey sent a letter to Congress saying new emails had surfaced related to the investigation into whether Clinton had mishandled classified information.

Just over a week later, Comey said they had found no new wrongdoing by Clinton, but the candidate’s staff has argued the Oct. 28 letter significantly hurt her campaign.

Days after Trump’s inauguration in January, Trump memorably shook Comey’s hand while meeting at the White House.

Comey’s firing comes the same day the FBI had to correct testimony before a Senate panel that former Clinton aide Huma Abedin “forwarded hundreds and thousands” of possibly sensitive emails to her husband, former Democratic Rep. Anthony Weiner.

The FBI on Tuesday said the majority of the data that was transferred “occurred as a result of backup of personal data electronic devices, with a small number of result of manual forwarding by Ms. Abedin to Mr. Weiner.”

Those emails, the subject of the Oct. 28 letter, were found during an unrelated investigation into Weiner.

Sessions recused himself from a Justice Department investigation into allegations that Russia colluded with the Trump administration during the election. Rosenstein is overseeing that probe. Comey was overseeing the FBI’s probe into any Trump connections with Russia.

Democrats reacted with alarm to the announcement.

“Congress needs to have immediate emergency hearings to obtain testimony directly from Attorney General Sessions, the deputy attorney general, and FBI Director Comey,” Democratic Rep. Elijah Cummings, the ranking member of the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, said in a statement.

“The White House was already covering up for Michael Flynn by refusing to provide a single document to Congress, and now the president fired the one independent person who was doing the most to investigate President Trump and his campaign over allegations of coordination with Russia,” Cummings wrote. “It is mindboggling that the attorney general — who claimed to have recused himself — was directly involved in the decision to fire Director Comey according to the White House itself.”

http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/trump-fires-fbis-comey-over-clinton-email-investigation/article/2622593

Several Democratic lawmakers reacted to President Trump’s firing of former FBI Director James Comey with horror Tuesday and said the country was on the verge of, or inside, a constitutional crisis.

Sen. Ed Markey was the first to imply the country is in peril following Trump’s decision to fire Comey. The Massachusetts Democrat said Trump set a terrible precedent given the number of investigations into the 2016 presidential campaign and his team’s possible connections to the Russian government.

“This episode is disturbingly reminiscent of the Saturday Night Massacre during the Watergate scandal and the national turmoil that it caused,” Markey said. “We are careening ever closer to a constitutional crisis, and this development only underscores why we must appoint a special prosecutor to fully investigate any dealings the Trump campaign or administration had with Russia.”

Trump made the surprise move Tuesday evening, shocking many in Washington.

Even lawmakers who have been around for decades were taken aback by Trump’s actions. Rep. John Conyers, the Michigan Democrat who is the dean of the House, echoed Markey in saying that he saw echoes of President Nixon’s dismissal of top officials in 1973 in Trump’s maneuver.

“There is little doubt that the president’s actions harken our nation back to Watergate and the ‘Saturday Night Massacre,'” Conyers said. “This decision makes it clear that we must have an independent, non-partisan commission to investigate both Russian interference in the U.S. election and allegations of collusion between the government of Vladimir Putin and the Trump campaign.

“Today’s action by President Trump completely obliterates any semblance of an independent investigation into Russian efforts to influence our election and places our nation on the verge of a constitutional crisis.”

Hawaii Sen. Brian Schatz was much more forward and to the point his declaration that the country is now in crisis.

“We are in a full-fledged constitutional crisis,” he said.

Rep. Keith Ellison, D-Minn., said the timeline was clear that Trump is trying to avoid heat from the investigation into Trump’s possible Russian connections.

“We are witnessing a constitutional crisis unfold before our very eyes,” he said. “On March 20, FBI Director James Comey confirmed under oath that the FBI was investigating the Trump campaign for its involvement with Russian officials to influence our election. Today, President Trump fired him.”

He said the next director of the bureau “will not have the independence or confidence of the American people to continue this investigation” and called for a special prosecutor.

http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/democrats-warn-of-constitutional-crisis-after-trump-fires-comey/article/2622617

EXCLUSIVE: Senior adviser Valerie Jarrett has convinced President Obama to FIRE FBI director James Comey after the election

  • After persistent prodding by Valerie Jarrett, President Obama has agreed to fire America’s top cop
  • A White House source familiar with the decision says Jarrett and the president held lengthy discussions over the past several days about the political and legal ramifications of firing FBI director
  • The president was furious with Comey for reopening the FBI’s investigation of Hillary’s emails 
  • But he was reluctant to move against Comey for fear that it would open him to charges of obstruction of justice.
  • It has yet to be decided who will wield the hatchet—the president, Attorney General Loretta Lynch, or someone else 

New York Times bestselling author Ed Klein has just published his fourth book about the Clintons since 2005, Guilty as Sin. Klein has told how Bill Clinton enjoyed foot rubs, massages and romps in his presidential library with female interns and has described new details about Hillary’s medical crises. Guilty as Sin is available in bookstores and for order from Amazon.

After persistent prodding by senior adviser Valerie Jarrett to remove James Comey from his job as director of the FBI, President Obama has agreed the time has come to fire America’s top cop.

Comey has been under fire by both Democrats and Republicans for his recent actions

Comey has been under fire by both Democrats and Republicans for his recent actions

According to a White House source familiar with Obama’s decision, Jarrett and the president held lengthy discussions over the past several days about the political and legal ramifications of firing the FBI director.

The president was furious with Comey for reopening the FBI’s investigation of Hillary’s emails 11 days before the election, then admitting two days before the election that he couldn’t find any cause for taking action against the Democratic nominee.

But the president was reluctant to move against Comey for fear that it would open him to charges of obstruction of justice.

Senior adviser Valerie Jarrett has convinced President Obama to remove James Comey from his job as director of the FBI

However, according to the White House source, Jarrett convinced the president that it was within his power to remove the FBI director for his ill-conceived and erratic interference in the presidential election.

She also argued that there would be bipartisan support in Congress for such a move against Comey, who has alienated both Democrats and Republicans

After the White House legal counsel agreed with Jarrett, Obama ordered his top advisers to draw up a plan for getting rid of the troublesome FBi director.

It has yet to be decided who will wield the hatchet—the president, Attorney General Loretta Lynch, or someone else—and exactly when Comey will be forced to go. So far, the only firm decision is that Comey will not be fired until after the election.

New York Times bestselling author Ed Klein lays bare Clinton  secrets in Guilty as Sin

New York Times bestselling author Ed Klein lays bare Clinton  secrets in Guilty as Sin

Other sources within the FBI report that Comey may be gone before the president has a chance to act. According to these sources, there is a mounting consensus in the FBI that Comey has inflicted permanent damage on the institution and that he no longer has the confidence of his staff.

According to these sources, Comey has lost the good will of his agents and some of his deputies, and more and more of them are clamoring for his resignation.

‘I met with friends from the FBI and Justice,’ said a retired Justice Department official, ‘and they were all in agreement that Comey’s jerky decisions—opening the case against Hillary without definite cause, then closing it without consulting with his top deputies—was flabbergasting and deeply disturbing for career law enforcement and prosecutors.

‘Whatever support and goodwill Jim had until recently has been destroyed,’ this source continued. ‘He has injured the bureau and it will take a miracle for him to survive this.’

DailyMail.com reached out to the White House for comment. A spokesperson said,  ‘I will look into this.’

Rod Rosenstein

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Rod J. Rosenstein)
Rod Rosenstein
Rod Rosenstein US Attorney.jpg
United States Deputy Attorney General
Assumed office
April 26, 2017
President Donald Trump
Preceded by Sally Yates
United States Attorney for the District of Maryland
In office
July 12, 2005[1] – April 26, 2017
President George W. Bush
Barack Obama
Donald Trump
Preceded by Thomas M. DiBiagio
Succeeded by Stephen M. Schenning(Acting)
Personal details
Born January 13, 1965 (age 52)[2]
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Education University of Pennsylvania(BS)
Harvard University(JD)

Rod J. Rosenstein (born January 13, 1965) is the Deputy Attorney General for the United States Department of Justice. Prior to his current appointment, he served as a United States Attorney for the District of Maryland. Rosenstein was a former nominee to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. At the time of his confirmation as Deputy Attorney general in April 2017, he was the nation’s longest-serving U.S. attorney.[3]

President Donald Trump nominated Rosenstein to serve as Deputy Attorney General for the United States Department of Justice on January 13, 2017. Rosenstein was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on April 25, 2017.

Background

Rosenstein was born on January 13, 1965, in Philadelphia. He graduated from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, with a B.S. in Economics, summa cum laude in 1986.[4] He earned his J.D. degree cum laude in 1989 from Harvard Law School,[4] where he was an editor of the Harvard Law Review. He then served as a law clerk to Judge Douglas H. Ginsburg of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.[5]

After his clerkship, Rosenstein joined the U.S. Department of Justice through the Attorney General’s Honors Program. From 1990 to 1993, he prosecuted public corruption cases as a trial attorney with the Public Integrity Section of the Criminal Division, then led by Assistant Attorney General Robert S. Mueller, III.[4][6]

During the Clinton Administration, Rosenstein served as Counsel to Deputy Attorney General Philip B. Heymann (1993–1994) and Special Assistant to Criminal Division Assistant Attorney General Jo Ann Harris (1994–1995). As an Associate Independent Counsel from 1995 to 1997, he was co-counsel in the trial of three defendants who were convicted of fraud, and he supervised the investigation that found no basis for criminal prosecution of White House officials who had obtained FBI background reports.[4]

United States Attorney Lynne A. Battaglia hired Rosenstein as an Assistant U.S. Attorney in 1997.[4] He litigated a wide range of cases, coordinated the credit card fraud and international assistance programs and supervised the law student intern program. He also briefed and argued cases in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit.

From 2001 to 2005, Rosenstein served as Principal Deputy Assistant Attorney General for the Tax Division of the U.S. Department of Justice. He coordinated the tax enforcement activities of the Tax Division, the U.S. Attorneys’ Offices and the IRS, and he supervised 90 attorneys and 30 support employees. He also oversaw civil litigation and served as the acting head of the Tax Division when Assistant Attorney General Eileen J. O’Connor was unavailable, and he personally briefed and argued civil appeals in several federal appellate courts.

President George W. Bush nominated Rosenstein to serve as United States Attorney for the United States District Court for the District of Maryland on May 23, 2005. He took office on July 12, 2005, after the United States Senate unanimously confirmed his nomination.[6] As United States Attorney, he oversees federal civil and criminal litigation and develops and implements federal law enforcement strategies in Maryland. He also continues personally to litigate cases in the U.S. District Court and in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit.

The Attorney General appointed Rosenstein to serve on the Advisory Committee of U.S. Attorneys, which evaluates and recommends policies for the Department of Justice. He is vice-chair of the Violent and Organized Crime Subcommittee and a member of the Subcommittees on White Collar Crime, Sentencing Issues and Cyber/Intellectual Property Crime. He also serves on the Attorney General’s Anti-Gang Coordination Committee.

Rosenstein is on the Board of Directors of the Maryland State’s Attorneys’ Association and of the Maryland chapter of the Federal Bar Association. He is the Core City U.S. Attorney for the Mid-Atlantic Region of the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force and serves on the Washington/Baltimore High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area Executive Board. He also is a member of the Baltimore City Criminal Justice Coordinating Council.

As an adjunct professor, Rosenstein has taught classes on federal criminal prosecution at the University of Maryland School of Law and trial advocacy at the University of Baltimore School of Law.[2] He also serves on the faculty of a trial advocacy seminar at Georgetown University Law Center. He often speaks about law enforcement issues and government service at public events and legal seminars.

Rosenstein is an active member of the Maryland and District of Columbia bars and of numerous federal court bars. He belongs to the Maryland, Federal and American Bar Associations. He is a barrister of the Edward Bennett Williams Inn of Court and a member of the Lawyers’ Round Table of Baltimore.

Fourth Circuit nomination under Bush

On November 15, 2007, President George W. Bush nominated Rosenstein to a seat on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit to a seat vacated by Francis Dominic Murnaghan, Jr., who had died on August 31, 2000.

On October 12, 2000, President Bill Clinton had nominated African-Americanfederal district court judgeAndre M. Davis to replace Murnaghan.[7] The nomination was a part of Clinton’s effort to integrate the Fourth Circuit, which up to that point had never had an African-American Circuit Court of Appeals judge. However, since Davis was nominated after July 1, 2000, the unofficial start date of the Thurmond Rule during a presidential election year, no hearings were scheduled on his nomination, and the nomination was returned to Clinton at the end of his term.

Bush unsuccessfully attempted to fill the seat three times. During the spring of 2001, Bush intended to nominate Washington, D.C. lawyer Peter Keisler, a resident of Bethesda, Maryland, to the Maryland seat on the Fourth Circuit, but was blocked from doing so by Democratic senators Paul Sarbanes and Barbara Mikulski on the grounds that he wasn’t sufficiently a member of the Maryland legal community.[8] Keisler later became a nominee to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit in 2006, which was also blocked by the Senate, and Acting United States Attorney General of the United States after the resignation of Alberto Gonzales in 2007.

In 2004, in an attempt to bypass the necessary approval of Democrats Sarbanes and Mikulski, Bush sought to transfer the open circuit seat to Virginia, which had two Republican senators at the time, John Warner and George Allen. He nominated Virginia resident Claude Allen, an African American member of the Bush administration, to succeed Murnaghan on the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals. Allen’s nomination was opposed by the People for the American Way, the NAACP, and the National Organization for Women.[9]Because of the opposition of Sarbanes and Mikulski, Allen’s nomination was stalled in the Senate Judiciary Committee and lapsed on December 8, 2005. Bush chose not to renominate Allen.

Rosenstein, a state resident, was afterward nominated to fill the Maryland seat. Mikulski and new Democratic Maryland senator, Benjamin Cardin, blocked Rosenstein’s confirmation, stating that he did not have strong enough Maryland legal ties,[10] and due to this Senate Judiciary Committee chairman Patrick Leahy did not schedule a hearing on Rosenstein during the 110th Congress and the nomination lapsed. Davis later was renominated to the same seat and confirmed by the Senate in 2009.

Nomination for Deputy Attorney General

President Donald Trump nominated Rosenstein to serve as Deputy Attorney General for the United States Department of Justice on January 13, 2017.[11] He was confirmed by the Senate on April 25, 2017 by a vote of 94-6.[12][13]

Personal life

Rod Rosenstein is married to Lisa Barsoomian, an Armenian American lawyer who works for the National Institutes of Health. They have two daughters.[14]

See also

References

Notes

  1. Jump up^ “Meet the U.S. Attorney”. United States Department of Justice. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b Clarke, Sara (March 8, 2017). “10 Things You Didn’t Know About Rod Rosenstein”. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  3. Jump up^ Fritze, John (April 24, 2017). “Rosenstein poised for confirmation as deputy attorney general”. Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e “Profile of Rod Rosenstein, U.S. attorney for Maryland”. The Washington Post. October 9, 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  5. Jump up^ Dolan, Matthew (August 12, 2005). “Rosenstein takes office as top U.S. prosecutor”. Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b Rector, Kevin (November 20, 2016). “Maryland leaders hope state’s long-serving U.S. attorney will survive Trump transition”. Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  7. Jump up^ Office of the Press Secretary – President Clinton nominates Judge Andre M. Davis to the Federal Bench. | M2 Presswire | Find Articles at BNET.com
  8. Jump up^ Lewis, Neil A. (June 26, 2001). “Washington Talk; Road to Federal Bench Gets Bumpier in Senate“. New York Times. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
  9. Jump up^ Independent Judiciary, webpage on Allen nomination
  10. Jump up^ Judges, and Justice, Delayed” [editorial]. Washington Post. April 15, 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
  11. Jump up^ “U.S. attorney in Baltimore is Trump’s pick to be deputy attorney general”. Washington Post. 14 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
  12. Jump up^ http://www.wbaltv.com/article/rod-rosenstein-confirmed-as-deputy-attorney-general/9246350
  13. Jump up^ “Roll Call Vote PN56”. United States Senate. April 25, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
  14. Jump up^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/profile-of-rod-rosenstein-us-attorney-for-maryland/2011/09/29/gIQAfOTWYL_story.html?utm_term=.7957e3514b81

Sources

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document “Rod J. Rosenstein, District of Maryland“. from the U.S. Department of Justice

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rod_Rosenstein

Federal Bureau of Investigation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Seal of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.svg

Flag of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation.svg

Flag of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Badge of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.png
Badge of an FBI agent
Agency overview
Formed July 26, 1908; 108 years ago as the Bureau of Investigation
Jurisdiction U.S. Government
Headquarters J. Edgar Hoover Building
Northwest, Washington, D.C., U.S.
Motto Fidelity, Bravery, Integrity
Employees 35,104[1] (October 31, 2014)
Annual budget 8.3 billion USD (FY 2014)[1]
Agency executives
Parent agency Department of Justice
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Website fbi.gov

FBI field divisions map

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, which simultaneously serves as the nation’s prime federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Justice, the FBI is concurrently a member of the U.S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence.[2] A leading U.S. counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes.[3]

Although many of the FBI’s functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. Unlike the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), which has no law enforcement authority and is focused on intelligence collection overseas, the FBI is primarily a domestic agency, maintaining 56 field offices in major cities throughout the United States, and more than 400 resident agencies in lesser cities and areas across the nation. At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence.[4][5]

Despite its domestic focus, the FBI also maintains a significant international footprint, operating 60 Legal Attache (LEGAT) offices and 15 sub-offices in U.S. embassies and consulates across the globe. These overseas offices exist primarily for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not usually conduct unilateral operations in the host countries.[6] The FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas,[7] just as the CIA has a limited domestic function; these activities generally require coordination across government agencies.

The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation, the BOI or BI for short. Its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D.C.

Contents

 [show

Budget, mission, and priorities

FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide

In the fiscal year 2012, the Bureau’s total budget was approximately $8.12 billion.[8]

The FBI’s main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, and to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal, and international agencies and partners.[3]

Currently, the FBI’s top priorities are:[9]

  1. Protect the United States from terrorist attacks,
  2. Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage,
  3. Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes,
  4. Combat public corruption at all levels,
  5. Protect civil rights,
  6. Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprises,
  7. Combat major white-collar crime,
  8. Combat significant violent crime,
  9. Support federal, state, local and international partners, and
  10. Upgrade technology to enable, and further, the successful performances of its missions as stated above.

History

Background

In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals. The 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created a perception that America was under threat from anarchists. The Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, but President Theodore Roosevelt wanted more power to monitor them.[10]

The Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the Oregon land fraud scandal at the turn of the 20th Century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General.[11]

Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. On May 27, 1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department.[12] Again at Roosevelt’s urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, which would then have its own staff of special agents.[10]

Creation

The Bureau of Investigation (BOI) was created on July 26, 1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer.[10] Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds,[10] hired thirty-four people, including some veterans of the Secret Service,[13][14] to work for a new investigative agency. Its first “Chief” (the title is now known as “Director”) was Stanley Finch. Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908.[10]

The bureau’s first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the “White Slave Traffic Act,” or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. In 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation. The following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation (DOI) before finally becoming an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935.[13] In the same year, its name was officially changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI.

J. Edgar Hoover as director

J. Edgar Hoover, Director from 1924 to 1972

J. Edgar Hoover served as Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, and FBI. He was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which officially opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Hoover was substantially involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure. But as detailed below, his proved to be a highly controversial tenure as Bureau Director, especially in its later years. After Hoover’s death, the Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years.

Early homicide investigations of the new agency included the Osage Indian murders. During the “War on Crime” of the 1930s, FBI agents apprehended or killed a number of notorious criminals who carried out kidnappings, robberies, and murders throughout the nation, including John Dillinger, “Baby Face” Nelson, Kate “Ma” Barker, Alvin “Creepy” Karpis, and George “Machine Gun” Kelly.

Other activities of its early decades included a decisive role in reducing the scope and influence of the Ku Klux Klan. Additionally, through the work of Edwin Atherton, the FBI claimed success in apprehending an entire army of Mexican neo-revolutionaries along the California border in the 1920s.

Hoover began using wiretapping in the 1920s during Prohibition to arrest bootleggers.[15] In the 1927 case Olmstead v. United States, in which a bootlegger was caught through telephone tapping, the United States Supreme Court ruled that FBI wiretaps did not violate the Fourth Amendment as unlawful search and seizure, as long as the FBI did not break into a person’s home to complete the tapping.[15] After Prohibition’s repeal, Congress passed the Communications Act of 1934, which outlawed non-consensual phone tapping, but did allow bugging.[15] In the 1939 case Nardone v. United States, the court ruled that due to the 1934 law, evidence the FBI obtained by phone tapping was inadmissible in court.[15] After the 1967 case Katz v. United States overturned the 1927 case that had allowed bugging, Congress passed the Omnibus Crime Control Act, allowing public authorities to tap telephones during investigations, as long as they obtained warrants beforehand.[15]

National security

Beginning in the 1940s and continuing into the 1970s, the bureau investigated cases of espionage against the United States and its allies. Eight Nazi agents who had planned sabotage operations against American targets were arrested, and six were executed (Ex parte Quirin) under their sentences. Also during this time, a joint US/UK code-breaking effort called “The Venona Project“—with which the FBI was heavily involved—broke Soviet diplomatic and intelligence communications codes, allowing the US and British governments to read Soviet communications. This effort confirmed the existence of Americans working in the United States for Soviet intelligence.[16] Hoover was administering this project, but he failed to notify the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of it until 1952. Another notable case was the arrest of Soviet spy Rudolf Abel in 1957.[17] The discovery of Soviet spies operating in the US allowed Hoover to pursue his longstanding obsession with the threat he perceived from the American Left, ranging from Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) union organizers to American liberals.

Japanese American internment

In 1939, the Bureau began compiling a custodial detention list with the names of those who would be taken into custody in the event of war with Axis nations. The majority of the names on the list belonged to Issei community leaders, as the FBI investigation built on an existing Naval Intelligence index that had focused on Japanese Americans in Hawaii and the West Coast, but many German and Italian nationals also found their way onto the secret list.[18] Robert Shivers, head of the Honolulu office, obtained permission from Hoover to start detaining those on the list on December 7, 1941, while bombs were still falling over Pearl Harbor.[19] Mass arrests and searches of homes (in most cases conducted without warrants) began a few hours after the attack, and over the next several weeks more than 5,500 Issei men were taken into FBI custody.[20] On February 19, 1942, President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, authorizing the removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast. FBI Director Hoover opposed the subsequent mass removal and confinement of Japanese Americans authorized under Executive Order 9066, but Roosevelt prevailed.[21] The vast majority went along with the subsequent exclusion orders, but in a handful of cases where Japanese Americans refused to obey the new military regulations, FBI agents handled their arrests.[19] The Bureau continued surveillance on Japanese Americans throughout the war, conducting background checks on applicants for resettlement outside camp, and entering the camps (usually without the permission of War Relocation Authority officials) and grooming informants to monitor dissidents and “troublemakers.” After the war, the FBI was assigned to protect returning Japanese Americans from attacks by hostile white communities.[19]

Civil Rights Movement

During the 1950s and 1960s, FBI officials became increasingly concerned about the influence of civil rights leaders, whom they believed either had communist ties or were unduly influenced by communists or “fellow travelers.” In 1956, for example, Hoover sent an open letter denouncing Dr. T.R.M. Howard, a civil rights leader, surgeon, and wealthy entrepreneur in Mississippi who had criticized FBI inaction in solving recent murders of George W. Lee, Emmett Till, and other blacks in the South.[22] The FBI carried out controversial domestic surveillance in an operation it called the COINTELPRO, a portmanteau derived from “COunter-INTELligence PROgram.”[23] It was to investigate and disrupt the activities of dissident political organizations within the United States, including both militant and non-violent organizations. Among its targets was the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a leading civil rights organization whose clergy leadership included the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., who is addressed in more detail below.[24]

The FBI frequently investigated Martin Luther King, Jr. In the mid-1960s, King began publicly criticizing the Bureau for giving insufficient attention to the use of terrorism by white supremacists. Hoover responded by publicly calling King the most “notorious liar” in the United States.[25] In his 1991 memoir, Washington Post journalist Carl Rowan asserted that the FBI had sent at least one anonymous letter to King encouraging him to commit suicide.[26]Historian Taylor Branch documents an anonymous November 1964 “suicide package” sent by the Bureau that combined a letter to the civil rights leader telling him, “You are done. There is only one way out for you…” with audio recordings of King’s sexual indiscretions.[27]

In March 1971, the residential office of an FBI agent in Media, Pennsylvania was burgled by a group calling itself the Citizens’ Commission to Investigate the FBI. Numerous files were taken and distributed to a range of newspapers, including The Harvard Crimson.[28] The files detailed the FBI’s extensive COINTELPRO program, which included investigations into lives of ordinary citizens—including a black student group at a Pennsylvania military college and the daughter of Congressman Henry Reuss of Wisconsin.[28] The country was “jolted” by the revelations, which included assassinations of political activists, and the actions were denounced by members of the Congress, including House Majority Leader Hale Boggs.[28] The phones of some members of the Congress, including Boggs, had allegedly been tapped.[28]

Kennedy’s assassination

When President John F. Kennedy was shot and killed, the jurisdiction fell to the local police departments until President Lyndon B. Johnson directed the FBI to take over the investigation.[29] To ensure clarity about the responsibility for investigation of homicides of federal officials, the Congress passed a law that included investigations of such deaths of federal officials, especially by homicide, within FBI jurisdiction. This new law was passed in 1965.[30][31][32]

Organized crime

An FBI surveillance photograph of Joseph D. Pistone (aka Donnie Brasco), Benjamin “Lefty” Ruggiero and Edgar Robb (aka Tony Rossi), 1980s

In response to organized crime, on August 25, 1953, the FBI created the Top Hoodlum Program. The national office directed field offices to gather information on mobsters in their territories and to report it regularly to Washington for a centralized collection of intelligence on racketeers.[33] After the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, or RICO Act, took effect, the FBI began investigating the former Prohibition-organized groups, which had become fronts for crime in major cities and small towns. All of the FBI work was done undercover and from within these organizations, using the provisions provided in the RICO Act. Gradually the agency dismantled many of the groups. Although Hoover initially denied the existence of a National Crime Syndicate in the United States, the Bureau later conducted operations against known organized crime syndicates and families, including those headed by Sam Giancana and John Gotti. The RICO Act is still used today for all organized crime and any individuals who may fall under the Act’s provisions.

In 2003 a congressional committee called the FBI’s organized crime informant program “one of the greatest failures in the history of federal law enforcement.”[34] The FBI allowed four innocent men to be convicted of the March 1965 gangland murder of Edward “Teddy” Deegan in order to protect Vincent Flemmi, an FBI informant. Three of the men were sentenced to death (which was later reduced to life in prison), and the fourth defendant was sentenced to life in prison.[34] Two of the four men died in prison after serving almost 30 years, and two others were released after serving 32 and 36 years. In July 2007, U.S. District Judge Nancy Gertner in Boston found that the Bureau had helped convict the four men using false witness accounts given by mobster Joseph Barboza. The U.S. Government was ordered to pay $100 million in damages to the four defendants.[35]

Special FBI teams

FBI SWAT agents in a training exercise

In 1982, the FBI formed an elite unit[36] to help with problems that might arise at the 1984 Summer Olympics to be held in Los Angeles, particularly terrorism and major-crime. This was a result of the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany, when terrorists murdered the Israeli athletes. Named the Hostage Rescue Team, or HRT, it acts as the FBI lead for a national SWAT team in related procedures and all counter-terrorism cases. Also formed in 1984 was the Computer Analysis and Response Team, or CART.[37]

From the end of the 1980s to the early 1990s, the FBI reassigned more than 300 agents from foreign counter-intelligence duties to violent crime, and made violent crime the sixth national priority. With reduced cuts to other well-established departments, and because terrorism was no longer considered a threat after the end of the Cold War,[37] the FBI assisted local and state police forces in tracking fugitives who had crossed state lines, which is a federal offense. The FBI Laboratory helped develop DNA testing, continuing its pioneering role in identification that began with its fingerprinting system in 1924.

Notable efforts in the 1990s

An FBI Agent tags the cockpit voice recorder from EgyptAir Flight 990 on the deck of the USS Grapple (ARS 53) at the crash site on November 13, 1999.

Between 1993 and 1996, the FBI increased its counter-terrorism role in the wake of the first 1993 World Trade Center bombing in New York City, New York; the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and the arrest of the Unabomber in 1996. Technological innovation and the skills of FBI Laboratory analysts helped ensure that the three cases were successfully prosecuted.[38] But Justice Department investigations into the FBI’s roles in the Ruby Ridge and Waco incidents were found to have been obstructed by agents within the Bureau. During the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, the FBI was criticized for its investigation of the Centennial Olympic Park bombing. It has settled a dispute with Richard Jewell, who was a private security guard at the venue, along with some media organizations,[39] in regard to the leaking of his name during the investigation; this had briefly led to his being wrongly suspected of the bombing.

After Congress passed the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA, 1994), the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA, 1996), and the Economic Espionage Act (EEA, 1996), the FBI followed suit and underwent a technological upgrade in 1998, just as it did with its CART team in 1991. Computer Investigations and Infrastructure Threat Assessment Center (CITAC) and the National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) were created to deal with the increase in Internet-related problems, such as computer viruses, worms, and other malicious programs that threatened US operations. With these developments, the FBI increased its electronic surveillance in public safety and national security investigations, adapting to the telecommunications advancements that changed the nature of such problems.

September 11 attacks

September 11 attacks at the Pentagon

During the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center, FBI agent Leonard W. Hatton Jr. was killed during the rescue effort while helping the rescue personnel evacuate the occupants of the South Tower, and he stayed when it collapsed. Within months after the attacks, FBI Director Robert Mueller, who had been sworn in a week before the attacks, called for a re-engineering of FBI structure and operations. He made countering every federal crime a top priority, including the prevention of terrorism, countering foreign intelligence operations, addressing cyber security threats, other high-tech crimes, protecting civil rights, combating public corruption, organized crime, white-collar crime, and major acts of violent crime.[40]

In February 2001, Robert Hanssen was caught selling information to the Russian government. It was later learned that Hanssen, who had reached a high position within the FBI, had been selling intelligence since as early as 1979. He pleaded guilty to treason and received a life sentence in 2002, but the incident led many to question the security practices employed by the FBI. There was also a claim that Hanssen might have contributed information that led to the September 11, 2001, attacks.[41]

The 9/11 Commission‘s final report on July 22, 2004, stated that the FBI and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) were both partially to blame for not pursuing intelligence reports that could have prevented the September 11, 2001, attacks. In its most damning assessment, the report concluded that the country had “not been well served” by either agency and listed numerous recommendations for changes within the FBI.[42] While the FBI did accede to most of the recommendations, including oversight by the new Director of National Intelligence, some former members of the 9/11 Commission publicly criticized the FBI in October 2005, claiming it was resisting any meaningful changes.[43]

On July 8, 2007, The Washington Post published excerpts from UCLA Professor Amy Zegart’s book Spying Blind: The CIA, the FBI, and the Origins of 9/11.[44] The Post reported, from Zegart’s book, that government documents showed that both the CIA and the FBI had missed 23 potential chances to disrupt the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The primary reasons for the failures included: agency cultures resistant to change and new ideas; inappropriate incentives for promotion; and a lack of cooperation between the FBI, CIA and the rest of the United States Intelligence Community. The book blamed the FBI’s decentralized structure, which prevented effective communication and cooperation among different FBI offices. The book suggested that the FBI had not evolved into an effective counter-terrorism or counter-intelligence agency, due in large part to deeply ingrained agency cultural resistance to change. For example, FBI personnel practices continued to treat all staff other than special agents as support staff, classifying intelligence analysts alongside the FBI’s auto mechanics and janitors.[45]

Faulty bullet analysis

For over 40 years, the FBI crime lab in Quantico had believed that lead alloys used in bullets had unique chemical signatures. It was analyzing the bullets with the goal of matching them chemically, not only to a single batch of ammunition coming out of a factory, but also to a single box of bullets. The National Academy of Sciences conducted an 18-month independent review of comparative bullet-lead analysis. In 2003, its National Research Council published a report whose conclusions called into question 30 years of FBI testimony. It found the analytic model used by the FBI for interpreting results was deeply flawed, and the conclusion, that bullet fragments could be matched to a box of ammunition, was so overstated that it was misleading under the rules of evidence. One year later, the FBI decided to stop conducting bullet lead analyses.[46]

After a 60 Minutes/Washington Post investigation in November 2007, two years later, the Bureau agreed to identify, review, and release all pertinent cases, and notify prosecutors about cases in which faulty testimony was given.[47]

Organization

Organizational structure

Organization chart for the FBI as of July 15, 2014

Redacted policy guide for the Counterterrorism Division (part of the FBI National Security Branch)

The FBI is organized into functional branches and the Office of the Director, which contains most administrative offices. An executive assistant director manages each branch. Each branch is then divided into offices and divisions, each headed by an assistant director. The various divisions are further divided into sub-branches, led by deputy assistant directors. Within these sub-branches there are various sections headed by section chiefs. Section chiefs are ranked analogous to special agents in charge.

Four of the branches report to the deputy director while two report to the associate director. The functions branches of the FBI are:

The Office of the Director serves as the central administrative organ of the FBI. The office provides staff support functions (such as finance and facilities management) to the five function branches and the various field divisions. The office is managed by the FBI associate director, who also oversees the operations of both the Information and Technology and Human Resources Branches.

  • Office of the Director
    • Immediate Office of the Director
    • Office of the Deputy Director
    • Office of the Associate Director
    • Office of Congressional Affairs
    • Office of Equal Employment Opportunity Affairs
    • Office of the General Counsel
    • Office of Integrity and Compliance
    • Office of the Ombudsman
    • Office of Professional Responsibility
    • Office of Public Affairs
    • Inspection Division
    • Facilities and Logistics Services Division
    • Finance Division
    • Records Management Division
    • Resource Planning Office
    • Security Division

An FBI agent at the crime scene

Rank structure

The following is a complete listing of the rank structure found within the FBI (in ascending order):[48]

  • Field Agents
    • Probationary Agent
    • Special Agent
    • Senior Special Agent
    • Supervisory Special Agent
    • Assistant Special Agent-in-Charge (ASAC)
    • Special Agent-in-Charge (SAC)

      James Comey speaks at the White House following his nomination by President Barack Obama to be the next director of the FBI, 21 June 2013

  • FBI Management
    • Deputy Assistant Director
    • Assistant Director
    • Associate Executive Assistant Director
    • Executive Assistant Director
    • Associate Deputy Director
    • Deputy Chief of Staff
    • Chief of Staff and Special Counsel to the Director
    • Deputy Director
    • Director

Legal authority

FBI badge and service pistol, a Glock Model 22, .40 S&W caliber

The FBI’s mandate is established in Title 28 of the United States Code (U.S. Code), Section 533, which authorizes the Attorney General to “appoint officials to detect and prosecute crimes against the United States.”[49] Other federal statutes give the FBI the authority and responsibility to investigate specific crimes.

The FBI’s chief tool against organized crime is the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act. The FBI is also charged with the responsibility of enforcing compliance of the United States Civil Rights Act of 1964 and investigating violations of the act in addition to prosecuting such violations with the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). The FBI also shares concurrent jurisdiction with the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in the enforcement of the Controlled Substances Act of 1970.

The USA PATRIOT Act increased the powers allotted to the FBI, especially in wiretapping and monitoring of Internet activity. One of the most controversial provisions of the act is the so-called sneak and peek provision, granting the FBI powers to search a house while the residents are away, and not requiring them to notify the residents for several weeks afterwards. Under the PATRIOT Act’s provisions, the FBI also resumed inquiring into the library records[50] of those who are suspected of terrorism (something it had supposedly not done since the 1970s).

In the early 1980s, Senate hearings were held to examine FBI undercover operations in the wake of the Abscam controversy, which had allegations of entrapment of elected officials. As a result, in following years a number of guidelines were issued to constrain FBI activities.

A March 2007 report by the inspector general of the Justice Department described the FBI’s “widespread and serious misuse” of national security letters, a form of administrative subpoena used to demand records and data pertaining to individuals. The report said that between 2003 and 2005, the FBI had issued more than 140,000 national security letters, many involving people with no obvious connections to terrorism.[51]

Information obtained through an FBI investigation is presented to the appropriate U.S. Attorney or Department of Justice official, who decides if prosecution or other action is warranted.

The FBI often works in conjunction with other federal agencies, including the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) in seaport and airport security,[52] and the National Transportation Safety Board in investigating airplane crashes and other critical incidents. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Homeland Security Investigations (ICE-HSI) has nearly the same amount of investigative manpower as the FBI, and investigates the largest range of crimes. In the wake of the September 11 attacks, then-Attorney General Ashcroft assigned the FBI as the designated lead organization in terrorism investigations after the creation of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ICE-HSI and the FBI are both integral members of the Joint Terrorism Task Force.

Indian reservations

FBI Director visits the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation in North Dakota

The federal government has the primary responsibility for investigating[53] and prosecuting serious crime on Indian reservations.[54]

There are 565 federally recognized American Indian Tribes in the United States, and the FBI has federal law enforcement responsibility on nearly 200 Indian reservations. This federal jurisdiction is shared concurrently with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Office of Justice Services (BIA-OJS).

Located within the FBI’s Criminal Investigative Division, the Indian Country Crimes Unit (ICCU) is responsible for developing and implementing strategies, programs, and policies to address identified crime problems in Indian Country (IC) for which the FBI has responsibility.

— Overview, Indian Country Crime[55]

The FBI does not specifically list crimes in Native American land as one of its priorities.[56] Often serious crimes have been either poorly investigated or prosecution has been declined. Tribal courts can impose sentences of up to three years, under certain restrictions.[57][58]

Infrastructure

J. Edgar Hoover Building, FBI Headquarters

FBI Mobile Command Center, Washington Field Office

The FBI is headquartered at the J. Edgar Hoover Building in Washington, D.C., with 56 field offices[59] in major cities across the United States. The FBI also maintains over 400 resident agencies across the United States, as well as over 50 legal attachés at United States embassies and consulates. Many specialized FBI functions are located at facilities in Quantico, Virginia, as well as a “data campus” in Clarksburg, West Virginia, where 96 million sets of fingerprints “from across the United States are stored, along with others collected by American authorities from prisoners in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, Iraq and Afghanistan.”[60] The FBI is in process of moving its Records Management Division, which processes Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests, to Winchester, Virginia.[61]

According to The Washington Post, the FBI “is building a vast repository controlled by people who work in a top-secret vault on the fourth floor of the J. Edgar Hoover Building in Washington. This one stores the profiles of tens of thousands of Americans and legal residents who are not accused of any crime. What they have done is appear to be acting suspiciously to a town sheriff, a traffic cop or even a neighbor.”[60]

The FBI Laboratory, established with the formation of the BOI,[62] did not appear in the J. Edgar Hoover Building until its completion in 1974. The lab serves as the primary lab for most DNA, biological, and physical work. Public tours of FBI headquarters ran through the FBI laboratory workspace before the move to the J. Edgar Hoover Building. The services the lab conducts include Chemistry, Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), Computer Analysis and Response, DNA Analysis, Evidence Response, Explosives, Firearms and Tool marks, Forensic Audio, Forensic Video, Image Analysis, Forensic Science Research, Forensic Science Training, Hazardous Materials Response, Investigative and Prospective Graphics, Latent Prints, Materials Analysis, Questioned Documents, Racketeering Records, Special Photographic Analysis, Structural Design, and Trace Evidence.[63] The services of the FBI Laboratory are used by many state, local, and international agencies free of charge. The lab also maintains a second lab at the FBI Academy.

The FBI Academy, located in Quantico, Virginia, is home to the communications and computer laboratory the FBI utilizes. It is also where new agents are sent for training to become FBI Special Agents. Going through the 21-week course is required for every Special Agent.[64] First opened for use in 1972, the facility located on 385 acres (1.6 km2) of woodland. The Academy trains state and local law enforcement agencies, which are invited to the law enforcement training center. The FBI units that reside at Quantico are the Field and Police Training Unit, Firearms Training Unit, Forensic Science Research and Training Center, Technology Services Unit (TSU), Investigative Training Unit, Law Enforcement Communication Unit, Leadership and Management Science Units (LSMU), Physical Training Unit, New Agents’ Training Unit (NATU), Practical Applications Unit (PAU), the Investigative Computer Training Unit and the “College of Analytical Studies.”

In 2000, the FBI began the Trilogy project to upgrade its outdated information technology (IT) infrastructure. This project, originally scheduled to take three years and cost around $380 million, ended up over budget and behind schedule.[65] Efforts to deploy modern computers and networking equipment were generally successful, but attempts to develop new investigation software, outsourced to Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), were not. Virtual Case File, or VCF, as the software was known, was plagued by poorly defined goals, and repeated changes in management.[66] In January 2005, more than two years after the software was originally planned for completion, the FBI officially abandoned the project. At least $100 million (and much more by some estimates) was spent on the project, which never became operational. The FBI has been forced to continue using its decade-old Automated Case Support system, which IT experts consider woefully inadequate. In March 2005, the FBI announced it was beginning a new, more ambitious software project, code-named Sentinel, which they expected to complete by 2009.[67]

The FBI Field Office in Chelsea, Massachusetts.

Carnivore was an electronic eavesdropping software system implemented by the FBI during the Clinton administration; it was designed to monitor email and electronic communications. After prolonged negative coverage in the press, the FBI changed the name of its system from “Carnivore” to “DCS1000.” DCS is reported to stand for “Digital Collection System”; the system has the same functions as before. The Associated Press reported in mid-January 2005 that the FBI essentially abandoned the use of Carnivore in 2001, in favor of commercially available software, such as NarusInsight.

The Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division[68] is located in Clarksburg, West Virginia. Organized beginning in 1991, the office opened in 1995 as the youngest agency division. The complex is the length of three football fields. It provides a main repository for information in various data systems. Under the roof of the CJIS are the programs for the National Crime Information Center (NCIC), Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR), Fingerprint Identification, Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), NCIC 2000, and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). Many state and local agencies use these data systems as a source for their own investigations and contribute to the database using secure communications. FBI provides these tools of sophisticated identification and information services to local, state, federal, and international law enforcement agencies.

FBI is in charge of National Virtual Translation Center, which provides “timely and accurate translations of foreign intelligence for all elements of the Intelligence Community.”[69]

Personnel

An FBI Evidence Response Team

Agents in training on the FBI Academy firing range

As of December 31, 2009, the FBI had a total of 33,852 employees. That includes 13,412 special agents and 20,420 support professionals, such as intelligence analysts, language specialists, scientists, information technology specialists, and other professionals.[70]

The Officer Down Memorial Page provides the biographies of 58 FBI agents killed in the line of duty from 1925 to 2011.[71]

Hiring process

To apply to become an FBI agent, one must be between the ages of 23 and 37. Due to the decision in Robert P. Isabella v. Department of State and Office of Personnel Management, 2008 M.S.P.B. 146, preference-eligible veterans may apply after age 37. In 2009, the Office of Personnel Management issued implementation guidance on the Isabella decision.[72] The applicant must also hold American citizenship, be of high moral character, have a clean record, and hold at least a four-year bachelor’s degree. At least three years of professional work experience prior to application is also required. All FBI employees require a Top Secret (TS) security clearance, and in many instances, employees need a TS/SCI (Top Secret/Sensitive Compartmented Information) clearance.[73] To obtain a security clearance, all potential FBI personnel must pass a series of Single Scope Background Investigations (SSBI), which are conducted by the Office of Personnel Management.[74] Special Agents candidates also have to pass a Physical Fitness Test (PFT), which includes a 300-meter run, one-minute sit-ups, maximum push-ups, and a 1.5-mile (2.4 km) run. Personnel must pass a polygraph test with questions including possible drug use.[75] Applicants who fail polygraphs may not gain employment with the FBI.[76]

BOI and FBI directors

FBI Directors are appointed by the President of the United States. They must be confirmed by the United States Senate and serve a term of office of five years, with a maximum of ten years, if reappointed, unless they resign or are fired by the President before their term ends. J. Edgar Hoover, appointed by Calvin Coolidge in 1924, was by far the longest-serving director, serving until his death in 1972. In 1968, Congress passed legislation as part of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act Pub.L. 90–351, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197 that specified a 10-year limit, a maximum of two 5-year terms, for future FBI Directors, as well as requiring Senate confirmation of appointees. As the incumbent, this legislation did not apply to Hoover, only to his successors. The last FBI Director was James B. Comey, who was appointed in 2013 by Barack Obama. In 2017 he was fired by President Donald J. Trump.[77]

The FBI director is responsible for the day-to-day operations at the FBI. Along with his deputies, the director makes sure cases and operations are handled correctly. The director also is in charge of making sure the leadership in any one of the FBI field offices is manned with qualified agents. Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act was passed in the wake of the September 11 attacks, the FBI director would directly brief the President of the United States on any issues that arise from within the FBI. Since then, the director now reports to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), who in turn reports to the President.

Firearms

A Glock 22 pistol in .40 S&W caliber

Upon qualification, an FBI special agent is issued a full-size Glock 22 or compact Glock 23 semi-automatic pistol, both of which are chambered in the .40 S&W cartridge. If they fail their first qualification, they are issued either a full-size Glock 17 or compact Glock 19, both in the lower recoiling 9×19mm Parabellum, to aid in their next qualification. In May 1997, the FBI officially adopted the Glock, in .40 S&W, for general agent use, and first issued it to New Agent Class 98-1 in October 1997. At present, the Glock 23 “FG&R” (finger groove and rail; either 3rd generation or “Gen4”) is the issue sidearm.[78] New agents are issued firearms, on which they must qualify, on successful completion of their training at the FBI Academy. The Glock 26 (subcompact 9mm Parabellum), Glock 23 and Glock 27 (.40 S&W compact and subcompact, respectively) are authorized as secondary weapons. Special agents are authorized to purchase and qualify with the Glock 21 in .45 ACP.

Special agents of the FBI Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) and regional SWAT teams are issued the Springfield Custom Professional 1911-A1 pistol in .45 ACP.

In 2016, the FBI awarded Glock a contract for new handguns. Unlike the currently issued .40 S&W chambered Glock pistols, the new Glocks will be chambered for 9mm Parabellum. The contract is for the Glock 17M and the Glock 19M. The “M” means the Glocks have been modified to meet government standards specified by a 2015 government request for proposal.[79][80][81][82]

Publications

The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin is published monthly by the FBI Law Enforcement Communication Unit,[83] with articles of interest to state and local law enforcement personnel. First published in 1932 as Fugitives Wanted by Police,[84] the FBI Law Bulletin covers topics including law enforcement technology and issues, such as crime mapping and use of force, as well as recent criminal justice research, and Vi-CAP alerts, on wanted suspects and key cases.

The FBI also publishes some reports for both law enforcement personnel as well as regular citizens covering topics including law enforcement, terrorism, cybercrime, white-collar crime, violent crime, and statistics.[85] However, the vast majority of federal government publications covering these topics are published by the Office of Justice Programs agencies of the United States Department of Justice, and disseminated through the National Criminal Justice Reference Service.

Crime statistics

In the 1920s, the FBI began issuing crime reports by gathering numbers from local police departments.[86] Due to limitations of this system found during the 1960s and 1970s—victims often simply did not report crimes to the police in the first place—the Department of Justice developed an alternate method of tallying crime, the victimization survey.[86]

Uniform Crime Reports

The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) compile data from over 17,000 law enforcement agencies across the country. They provide detailed data regarding the volume of crimes to include arrest, clearance (or closing a case), and law enforcement officer information. The UCR focuses its data collection on violent crimes, hate crimes, and property crimes.[85] Created in the 1920s, the UCR system has not proven to be as uniform as its name implies. The UCR data only reflect the most serious offense in the case of connected crimes and has a very restrictive definition of rape. Since about 93% of the data submitted to the FBI is in this format, the UCR stands out as the publication of choice as most states require law enforcement agencies to submit this data.

Preliminary Annual Uniform Crime Report for 2006 was released on June 4, 2006. The report shows violent crime offenses rose 1.3%, but the number of property crime offenses decreased 2.9% compared to 2005.[87]

National Incident Based Reporting System

The National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) crime statistics system aims to address limitations inherent in UCR data. The system is used by law enforcement agencies in the United States for collecting and reporting data on crimes. Local, state, and federal agencies generate NIBRS data from their records management systems. Data is collected on every incident and arrest in the Group A offense category. The Group A offenses are 46 specific crimes grouped in 22 offense categories. Specific facts about these offenses are gathered and reported in the NIBRS system. In addition to the Group A offenses, eleven Group B offenses are reported with only the arrest information. The NIBRS system is in greater detail than the summary-based UCR system. As of 2004, 5,271 law enforcement agencies submitted NIBRS data. That amount represents 20% of the United States population and 16% of the crime statistics data collected by the FBI.

eGuardian

eGuardian is the name of an FBI system, launched in January 2009, to share tips about possible terror threats with local police agencies. The program aims to get law enforcement at all levels sharing data quickly about suspicious activity and people.[88]

eGuardian enables near real-time sharing and tracking of terror information and suspicious activities with local, state, tribal, and federal agencies. The eGuardian system is a spin-off of a similar but classified tool called Guardian that has been used inside the FBI, and shared with vetted partners since 2005.[89]

Controversies

Throughout its history, the bureau has been the subject of a number of controversial cases, both at home and abroad.

Files on US citizens

The FBI has maintained files on numerous people, including celebrities such as Elvis Presley, Frank Sinatra, John Denver, John Lennon, Jane Fonda, Groucho Marx, Charlie Chaplin, the band MC5, Lou Costello, Sonny Bono, Bob Dylan, Michael Jackson, and Mickey Mantle. The files were collected for various reasons. Some of the subjects were investigated for alleged ties to the Communist party (Charlie Chaplin and Groucho Marx), or in connection with antiwar activities during the Vietnam War (John Denver, John Lennon, and Jane Fonda). Numerous celebrity files concern threats or extortion attempts against them (Sonny Bono, John Denver, John Lennon, Elvis Presley, Michael Jackson, Mickey Mantle, Groucho Marx, and Frank Sinatra).[90]

Covert operations on political groups

Image from the FBI monograph of the Nation of Islam (1965): Elijah Muhammad

COINTELPRO tactics have been alleged to include discrediting targets through psychological warfare; smearing individuals and groups using forged documents and by planting false reports in the media; harassment; wrongful imprisonment; and illegal violence.[91][92] The FBI’s stated motivation was “protecting national security, preventing violence, and maintaining the existing social and political order.”[93]

FBI records show that 85% of COINTELPRO resources targeted groups and individuals that the FBI deemed “subversive”,[94] including communist and socialist organizations; organizations and individuals associated with the Civil Rights Movement, including Martin Luther King, Jr. and others associated with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Congress of Racial Equality and other civil rights organizations; black nationalist groups (e.g., Nation of Islam and the Black Panther Party); the American Indian Movement; a broad range of organizations labeled “New Left“, including Students for a Democratic Society and the Weathermen; almost all groups protesting the Vietnam War, as well as individual student demonstrators with no group affiliation; the National Lawyers Guild; organizations and individuals associated with the women’s rights movement; nationalist groups such as those seeking independence for Puerto Rico, United Ireland, and Cuban exile movements including Orlando Bosch‘s Cuban Power and the Cuban Nationalist Movement. The remaining 15% of COINTELPRO resources were expended to marginalize and subvert white hate groups, including the Ku Klux Klan and the National States’ Rights Party.[95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105]

Files on Puerto Rican independence advocates

The FBI also spied upon and collected information on Puerto Rican independence leader Pedro Albizu Campos and his Nationalist political party in the 1930s. Abizu Campos was convicted three times in connection with deadly attacks on US government officials: in 1937 (Conspiracy to overthrow the government of the United States), in 1950 (attempted murder), and in 1954 (after an armed assault on the US House of Representatives while in session; although not present, Abizu Campos was considered the mastermind).[106] The FBI operation was covert and did not become known until U.S. Congressman Luis Gutierrez had it made public via the Freedom of Information Act in the 1980s.[107]

In the 2000s, researchers obtained files released by the FBI under the Freedom of Information Act revealing that the San Juan FBI office had coordinated with FBI offices in New York, Chicago and other cities, in a decades-long surveillance of Albizu Campos and Puerto Ricans who had contact or communication with him. The documents available are as recent as 1965.[108][109]

Activities in Latin America

From the 1950s to the 1980s, the governments of many Latin American and Caribbean countries were infiltrated by the FBI.[110]

Internal investigations of shootings

During the period from 1993 to 2011, FBI agents fired their weapons on 289 occasions; FBI internal reviews found the shots justified in all but 5 cases, in none of the 5 cases were people wounded. Samuel Walker, a professor of criminal justice at the University of Nebraska Omaha said the number of shots found to be unjustified was “suspiciously low.” In the same time period, the FBI wounded 150 people, 70 of whom died; the FBI found all 150 shootings to be justified. Likewise, during the period from 2011 to the present, all shootings by FBI agents have been found to be justified by internal investigation. In a 2002 case in Maryland, an innocent man was shot, and later paid $1.3 million by the FBI after agents mistook him for a bank robber; the internal investigation found that the shooting was justified, based on the man’s actions.[111]

The Whitey Bulger case

The FBI has been criticized for its handling of Boston organized crime figure Whitey Bulger.[112][113][114] Beginning in 1975, Bulger served as an informant for the FBI.[115] As a result, the Bureau largely ignored his organization in exchange for information about the inner workings of the Italian American Patriarca crime family.[116][117][118]

In December 1994, after being tipped off by his former FBI handler about a pending indictment under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, Bulger fled Boston and went into hiding. For 16 years, he remained at large. For 12 of those years, Bulger was prominently listed on the FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list.[119] Beginning in 1997, the New England media exposed criminal actions by federal, state, and local law enforcement officials tied to Bulger. The revelation caused great embarrassment to the FBI.[120][121][122] In 2002, Special Agent John J Connolly was convicted of federal racketeering charges for helping Bulger avoid arrest. In 2008, Special Agent Connolly completed his term on the federal charges and was transferred to Florida where he was convicted of helping plan the murder of John B Callahan, a Bulger rival. In 2014, that conviction was overturned on a technicality. Connolly was the agent leading the investigation of Bulger.[123]

In June 2011, the 81-year-old Bulger was arrested in Santa Monica, California.[124][125][126][127][128] Bulger was tried on 32 counts of racketeering, money laundering, extortion, and weapons charges; including complicity in 19 murders.[129] In August 2013, the jury found him guilty on 31 counts, and having been involved in 11 murders.[130] Bulger was sentenced to two consecutive life terms plus five years.[131]

Robert Hanssen

On 20 February 2001, the bureau announced that a special agent, Robert Hanssen (born 1944) had been arrested for spying for the Soviet Union and then Russia from 1979 to 2001. He is serving 15 consecutive life sentences without the possibility of parole at ADX Florence, a federal supermax prison near Florence, Colorado. Hanssen was arrested on February 18, 2001, at Foxstone Park[132] near his home in Vienna, Virginia, and was charged with selling US secrets to the USSR and subsequently Russia for more than US$1.4 million in cash and diamonds over a 22-year period.[133] On July 6, 2001, he pleaded guilty to 15 counts of espionage in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia.[134][135] His spying activities have been described by the US Department of Justice‘s Commission for the Review of FBI Security Programs as “possibly the worst intelligence disaster in U.S. history”.[136]

Death of Filiberto Ojeda Rios

Puerto Rican Nationalist leader Filiberto Ojeda Ríos died in a gun battle with FBI agents in 2005.

In 2005, fugitive Puerto Rican Nationalist leader Filiberto Ojeda Ríos died in a gun battle with FBI agents that some charged was an assassination.[citation needed] Puerto Rico Governor Aníbal Acevedo Vilá criticized the FBI assault as “improper” and “highly irregular” and demanded to know why his government was not informed of it.[137] The FBI refused to release information beyond the official press release, citing security and agent privacy issues. The Puerto Rico Justice Department filed suit in federal court against the FBI and the US Attorney General, demanding information crucial to the Commonwealth’s own investigation of the incident. The case was dismissed by the U.S Supreme Court.[138] Ojeda Rios’ funeral was attended by a long list of dignitaries, including the highest authority of the Roman Catholic Church in Puerto Rico, Archbishop Roberto Octavio González Nieves, ex-Governor Rafael Hernández Colón, and numerous other personalities.[139]

In the aftermath of his death, the United Nations