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The Pronk Pops Show 1169, November 5, 2018, Story 1: Red Wave Breaking — Senators — Republican 56, Democrat 44 — House Representatives — Republican 226 — Democrat 209 — Videos — Story 2: Top Three Issues — The Economy/Jobs, Illegal Alien Invasion, Healthcare — Videos — Story 3: Waiting For Successful and Viable New Political Party — Videos

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Story 1: Red Wave Breaking — Senators — Republican 56, Democrat 44 — House Representatives — Republican 226 — Democrat 209 — Videos —

Midterm elections: Republican voters show strong turnout in early voting

How Trump’s approval rating could affect midterms | CITIZEN by CNN

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People line up to vote.
Analysts cautioned against drawing broad conclusions about which party could gain an advantage from high early vote totals. | Jim Mone/AP Photo

ELECTIONS

A staggering 36 million people have voted early, setting the stage for big midterm turnout

The turnout could be a source of error in pre-election surveys if pollsters did not calibrate properly for such high rates of voting.

A staggering 36 million voters cast their ballots ahead of Election Day this year, setting the stage for much-higher-than-usual turnout for a midterm ‚ÄĒ and, potentially, big surprises on Tuesday night.

Republican enthusiasm for President Donald Trump and Democrats’ itch to repudiate him at the ballot box have driven people to the polls far faster than in 2014, when 27.2 million people voted early, according to Michael McDonald, a University of Florida professor who tracks voter turnout.

And that trend is expected to extend into Election Day. Early voters in three states ‚ÄĒ Texas, Nevada and Arizona ‚ÄĒ have already surpassed total turnout in the last midterm election, McDonald‚Äôs data shows, and more states will blow past their normal non-presidential turnout with just a handful more votes on Election Day. The high voting rates have transformed expectations about who will show up in the midterms ‚ÄĒ and they could inspire results that diverge from any pre-election polls that did not reckon with this year‚Äôs unusually high enthusiasm.

‚ÄúThis is not a normal election,‚ÄĚ McDonald told POLITICO. ‚ÄúThe best guess is that we‚Äôre looking at some sort of hybrid midterm/presidential election‚ÄĚ in terms of turnout.

Analysts cautioned against drawing broad conclusions about which party could gain an advantage from the high early vote totals. But they did note that pre-election polls make built-in assumptions about how many people will vote, and pollsters who leaned too heavily on past midterm turnout may have misfired.

McDonald and the team at Edison Media Research, which is conducting a¬†revamped exit poll¬†this election after stumbling in 2016, predict that 105.5 million people will¬†vote this year¬†‚ÄĒ about 45 percent of the voting eligible population. That‚Äôs up from¬†2014, an unusually low-turnout year in which fewer than 82 million people voted for the highest office on their ballot, but still lower than¬†2016, when about 137 million people voted for president.

‚ÄúI think we‚Äôve all made a very safe assumption that 2018 will look nothing like 2014,‚ÄĚ Bonier said, noting that underestimating certain demographics by even a few percentage points in a poll could have an outsized effects on the results.

Some pollsters, like Monmouth University and the New York Times/Siena College, have adjusted this year by publishing multiple results for each poll, detailing how the results would change under different turnout scenarios. And the baseline estimates have gone up in recent weeks: The first Times/Siena poll of Rep. Pete Sessions’ (R-Texas) contested reelection race, for example, projected that about 194,000 people would turn out, while the second poll projected 211,000 voters would cast ballots in that slice of the Dallas suburbs.

Over 188,000 voters have already cast early ballots in the Dallas County portion of the battleground district, according to county data. (Another 7 percent of the district’s population is in another county that has not published early vote totals by congressional seat.)

Higher-than-expected turnout helped Democrats in some but not all of the Times/Siena polling models.

Mara Suttmann, a professor of government at Connecticut College, noted that it‚Äôs hard to predict which party will benefit from early voting because many voters would have voted whether or not early voting was an option ‚ÄĒ ‚Äúcannibalizing‚ÄĚ the Election Day vote instead of adding many new voters to the electorate.

Bonier noted that there has been in a surge in non-usual voters, including young people and people voting for the first time, which could favor Democrats. But even this does not guarantee electoral success for Democrats on Tuesday.

‚ÄúThe open question that won‚Äôt be answered until [results are in]: Do those early vote trends carry on through Election Day?‚ÄĚ Bonier asked. ‚ÄúOr are they reversed? In 2016, in a lot of cases, they were reversed. I don‚Äôt think you can bet one way or another at this point.‚ÄĚ

These low-propensity voters still make up a proportionally small portion of both the early voter electorate and the expected overall electorate. Data from TargetSmart shows that early voters younger than 39 are still easily outnumbered by voters aged 50-64, and even more so by voters over the age of 65.

And even in states where Democrats lead Republicans in early ballots cast ‚ÄĒ like Florida, where there‚Äôs a tight gubernatorial and Senate election ‚ÄĒ the election is still far from over.

And there’s still a likely majority of votes to be cast on Election Day.

‚ÄúWe may see another 60 million votes cast [on Election Day]. Most people who will have ended up voting in this election have still not voted,‚ÄĚ Bonier said. ‚ÄúIn the end, what happens on Election Day turnout will, to some extent, swamp what happened in the early vote.‚ÄĚ

https://www.politico.com/story/2018/11/05/early-voting-turnout-2018-elections-midterms-963149

Story 2: Top Three Issues — The Economy/Jobs, Illegal Alien Invasion, Healthcare — Videos —

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With him or against him, Trump looms large over Election Day

today
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FILE- In this Nov. 2, 2018, file photo residents vote early at the Douglas County Election Commission office in Omaha, Neb. For voters across America, this year’s midterm elections represent something far greater than whatever Senate and House races appear on their ballots. It is a referendum on President Donald Trump and the venomous political culture that many blame for gridlock in Congress and a recent spate of hate crimes and politically motivated attacks. (AP Photo/Nati Harnik, File)

LOUISVILLE, Ky. (AP) ‚ÄĒ Michael Gregoire marched along a downtown sidewalk in the tense days before the midterm elections, waving a hand-painted sign at passing traffic: ‚ÄúDEFEAT REPUBLICANS 2018.‚ÄĚ

‚ÄúThe survival of the country is going to depend on this election,‚ÄĚ he said as another man stopped for a moment to argue. The strangers faced each other from opposite edges of the great American divide, Democrat versus Republican, both convinced the election is among the most consequential in their lifetimes and that they must save the nation from the other side.

President Donald Trump looms large over Tuesday‚Äôs election, which is expected to draw historic numbers to the polls and will determine which party controls Congress. For Gregoire and Kanter ‚ÄĒ and for voters across the country ‚ÄĒ the election represents something far greater than whatever Senate and House races appear on their ballots. It is a competition for the soul of America ‚ÄĒ a referendum on Trump and the venomous political culture that many blame for gridlock in Congress and a recent spate of hate crimes and politically motivated attacks.

Less than two weeks ago in this city, a white man gunned down two African-American shoppers at a grocery store in what police described as a racially motivated attack. Days later, an avid Trump supporter was arrested for mailing pipe bombs to prominent critics of the president, all of whom Trump routinely derides as ‚Äúevil‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúun-American.‚ÄĚ The next day, another gunman opened fire in a synagogue in Pittsburgh, massacring 11 worshippers and telling police ‚Äúall these Jews need to die.‚ÄĚ

Don Albrecht, a 75-year-old accountant and Republican who voted for Trump in 2016, lives blocks away from the Louisville grocery store where two people died. He’d pulled into the parking lot minutes after the gunfire erupted, saw the police cars and shaken employees, and felt like the country’s poisonous political climate had landed in his backyard. He wishes he could take back his vote for Trump.

‚ÄúHe has diarrhea of the mouth and diarrhea of the brain. He‚Äôs just so irresponsible,‚ÄĚ said Albrecht, who worries Trump‚Äôs embrace of the far-right is remaking his party. ‚ÄúI don‚Äôt think the American public is going to put up with it. I think there‚Äôs going to be a big backlash against Republicans because of this divisiveness.‚ÄĚ

Other Trump voters remain staunchly behind him, and plan to choose Republican candidates to help him make good on his pledges, including vows to implement more hardline immigration policies. ‚ÄúI want to see the wall go up,‚ÄĚ said Joe Spirko, 57, as he peddled Trump flags outside of one of the president‚Äôs rallies in Florida last week. ‚ÄúSince Trump come along, I feel a lot better.‚ÄĚ

Trump has stepped up his rhetoric on immigration ahead of the elections, focusing on a caravan of Central American migrants heading toward the United States. Trump and his backers have called it ‚Äúan invasion‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒ though the group of a few thousand people, including mothers and children, remains hundreds of miles away ‚ÄĒ and suggested without proof that there are criminals and terrorists in the crowd of those fleeing violence and poverty. In a White House speech, the president said he would sign an order preventing border-crossers from claiming asylum, a legally questionable proposition, and said he‚Äôd told military troops he‚Äôs mobilizing to the border to respond to thrown rocks like they were ‚Äúrifles.‚ÄĚ

Julie Hoeppner, a 67-year-old psychologist in Indiana, voted early for Republican candidates, also citing illegal immigration as a primary concern.

A friend recently sent Hoeppner a photo of immigrants arriving at Ellis Island with a note that said: ‚ÄúFor our ancestors, this is their caravan.‚ÄĚ Hoeppner didn‚Äôt respond but thought to herself that her ancestors arrived legally. ‚ÄúWhich is a big difference,‚ÄĚ she said. ‚ÄúThey didn‚Äôt come trying to storm the border.‚ÄĚ

Pedro Panelo, the 21-year-old president of the College Republicans at Wheaton College in Illinois, is frustrated immigration became a last-minute political football, because the issue is more complex than what either Democrats or Republicans make it out to be. Panelo, the son of a Mexican immigrant, said migrants shouldn’t be demonized, but he stopped short of criticizing the president, and plans to vote for Republican candidates who could help push Trump’s agenda.

‚ÄúWhen it comes to his actions, I‚Äôm not a huge fan of his tweets,‚ÄĚ Panelo said. ‚ÄúBut what I say is look what he‚Äôs done for the country and not always what he‚Äôs said on Twitter.‚ÄĚ

He said he’s felt an extraordinary level of enthusiasm for this election among his fellow students. Young people, who historically sit out of midterm elections, and women are both expected to be pivotal forces Tuesday. In Georgia, Democratic campaign volunteer Adrienne White said she struggled to recruit volunteers ahead of the 2016 presidential election but that it’s been easy this year, especially among women.

In Pittsburgh, where residents just finished burying those gunned down at the Tree of Life synagogue, some voters saw their Election Day decisions as a way to send a message that the country is headed down a dark and dangerous path.

‚ÄúThis is probably the most important election in the past 100 years. This will turn the tables,‚ÄĚ said Barbara Villa, 71, who with her husband planted a crop of ‚ÄúVote Blue‚ÄĚ signs outside their home.

Rose Cathleen Bagin, 77, lives in the same neighborhood as the synagogue. She lashed a sign to her front porch reading ‚ÄúVOTE FOR GUN CONTROL,‚ÄĚ and she is stunned every time she sees the crowd at Trump rallies on television cheering for his divisive language.

‚ÄúI can‚Äôt stand the terrible things he says and the terrible things he‚Äôs doing,‚ÄĚ said Bagin, who plans to vote Democratic Tuesday. ‚ÄúI‚Äôm terrified. We‚Äôre going to a place I just don‚Äôt understand.‚ÄĚ

___

Also contributing were AP reporters Allen G. Breed and Adam Geller from Pittsburgh and Tamara Lush from Estero, Florida.

https://apnews.com/464f27b585d34fc597884d88d8ab10af

Democrats’ Pickup Chances Rise In More House Races, Analyst Says

More U.S. House races are competitive and leaning toward Democrats with Election Day tomorrow, according to the latest ratings changes by Cook Political Report. The new rankingsshow nine districts shifting toward Democrats and only one becoming better for Republicans.

Democrats‚Äô chances to pick up seats have improved in key races in Georgia, Pennsylvania, California and Washington, according to ratings changes by Cook‚Äôs David Wasserman. The contest to succeed retiring California Republican Darell Issa is likely going to Democrat Mike Levin, and in Washington state‚Äôs 8th district, Democrat Kim Schrier‚Äôs chance of replacing retiring Republican Dave Reichert has moved from ‚ÄúToss Up‚ÄĚ to ‚ÄúLean Democratic.‚ÄĚ

‚ÄúBottom line: anything from a Democratic gain of 20 to 45 seats remains well within the realm of possibility, but a gain of 30 to 40 seats – and House control – is the most likely outcome,‚ÄĚ Wasserman wrote today in an online post.

In Georgia, GOP Rep. Karen Handel‚Äôs race moved to ‚ÄúToss Up‚ÄĚ from ‚ÄúLean Republican.‚ÄĚ

Handel, elected in a special election last year, is facing headwinds from a gubernatorial contest that is energizing Democrats in her north Atlanta district. Handel’s challenger, Democrat Lucy McBath, is a gun-control activist and African American who could be helped by a possible surge in black voter turnout led by enthusiasm for Georgia gubernatorial candidate Stacey Abrams, according to Wasserman.

Democrats’ Pickup Chances Rise In More House Races, Analyst Says

Meanwhile, a new congressional map in Pennsylvania is giving Freedom Caucus member Scott Perry his first competitive general election bid. The race is now considered a ‚ÄúToss Up‚ÄĚ as the three-term Republican continues to be out raised by Democrat George Scott.

The re-election bids of Republicans Mario Diaz-Balart of Florida and Fred Upton of Michigan both moved from ‚ÄúLikely Republican‚ÄĚ to ‚ÄúLean Republican.‚ÄĚ In Texas, House Homeland Security Chairman Michael McCaul‚Äôs race and retiring Republican Joe Barton‚Äôs open seat were previously considered ‚ÄúSolid Republican,‚ÄĚ but now are rated ‚ÄúLikely Republican.‚ÄĚ Wasserman also moved West Virginia Republican Representative Alex Mooney‚Äôs re-election from ‚ÄúSolid Republican‚ÄĚ to ‚ÄúLikely Republican.‚ÄĚ

The good news for Republicans out of the latest rating changes is in Arizona‚Äôs 1st Congressional District. Incumbent Democrat Tom O‚ÄôHalleran‚Äôs race moved from ‚ÄúLikely Democrat‚ÄĚ to ‚ÄúLean Democrat,‚ÄĚ as the freshmen member continues to defend a seat in a district President Donald Trump narrowly won in 2016.

Story 3: Waiting For Successful and Viable New Political Party — Videos

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Exclusive poll: Only half of Americans have faith in democracy

Just 51% of Americans said they have faith in democracy, and 37% say they have lost faith in democracy, according to a new Axios/SurveyMonkey poll conducted in late October.

Why it matters: It suggests that recent political turmoil has caused people to doubt the very foundation of American society, particularly leading up to election day.

Show less

Since October 2016,¬†just before the last presidential election, SurveyMonkey has tracked Americans’ views toward democracy.

What’s happening:¬†Despite the political turbulence over the past two years, Americans’ faith in democracy has been relatively stable ‚ÄĒ with two exceptions.

  • Just before heading¬†to the polls in 2016, 52% of voters had faith in democracy.
  • That number grew¬†from pre-election numbers (by 8 percentage points) immediately following the election in November 2016 and in February 2017, after President Trump’s inauguration.
  • One year ago,¬†in October 2017, faith in democracy dropped by 7 percentage points and has held fairly steady since then.
  • The other half of Americans¬†have either lost faith in democracy or never had faith in it to begin with, according to the poll.

The big picture:¬†SurveyMonkey also found that half the country believes America is more divided today than ever before ‚ÄĒ and that these divisions will probably continue far into the future (ranging between 46% and 51% over the past two years).

  • About one-third of Americans¬†agree America is more divided today, but are optimistic that Americans will come together in the near future.
  • 18% say America¬†is not more divided today than it has been in the past.

Methodology:¬†This survey was¬†conducted Oct. 19‚Äď24 among 3,913 adults. Respondents were selected from the more than 2 million people who take surveys on the SurveyMonkey platform each day. Data have been weighted for age, race, sex, education and geography using the Census Bureau‚Äôs American Community Survey to reflect the demographic composition of the United States age 18 and over.

The modeled error estimate for the full sample of that survey is plus or minus 2 percentage points and full crosstabs are available here.

Go deeper:

https://www.axios.com/poll-americans-faith-in-democracy-2e94a938-4365-4e80-9fb6-d9743d817710.html

 

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The Pronk Pops Show 1160, October 22, 2018, Story 1: President Trump Houston Rally For Senator Ted Cruz — Attacks The Radical Democrat Mob For Open Borders — Videos — Story 2: Mob of 5000 Hondurans Head North Through Middle of Mexico Headed To United States — Videos — Story 3: Medicare For All — Socialized Medicine — American People Like The Medical Plans Paid For My Employers — Videos

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Story 1: President Trump Houston Rally For Senator Ted Cruz — Attacks The Radical Democrat Mob For Open Borders –Videos

Trump, Cruz hold ‘MAGA’ rally in Houston, Texas

 

President Trump heads to Texas to stump for old foe Sen. Ted Cruz

Trump fans, along with supporters of Texas Republican Senator Ted Cruz, started waiting in line at Houston’s Toyota Center in Houston as early as Sunday for a Monday evening rally. (Oct. 22)¬†AP

LINKEDINCOMMENTMORE

WASHINGTON¬†‚Äď One of the political world’s most fractious couples gets together again Monday in Texas.

President Donald Trump heads to Houston to stump for embattled incumbent Sen. Ted Cruz, the latest phase in a political relationship that has gone from warm to bad to tolerable.

“Ted Cruz has become a friend of mine,” Trump said during a political rally over the weekend in Missoula, Montana ‚Äď never mind that Trump once nicknamed him¬†“Lyin’ Ted,” insulted his wife, and suggested his rival’s father was somehow involved in the John F. Kennedy assassination.

For his part, Cruz has expressed his support for the president, though he recently declined to describe Trump as either friend or foe.

“He’s the president,” Cruz said Sunday on ABC’s “This Week.” “I work with the president in delivering on our promises.”

Donald J. Trump

‚úĒ@realDonaldTrump

Big Night In Texas!!!!

Perhaps Cruz still remembers describing Trump as a “pathological liar.”

The two men are apt to be all smiles Monday night at¬†the Toyota Center in Houston. They have a common interest in holding the Texas Senate seat for Republicans, as Cruz faces a well-funded challenge from his Democratic opponent, Rep. Beto O’Rourke.

“He’s not Lyin’¬†Ted anymore,” Trump said as he departed for Texas. “He’s beautiful Ted.”

With Cruz moving up in polls¬†‚ÄstReal Clear Politics’ average¬†of recent surveys¬†gives him a 7 percentage point lead¬†‚Äď many¬†political analysts have suggested Trump is traveling to Texas in order to take credit for Cruz’s expected victory on Nov. 6.

Many Republicans criticized Trump during his rise to the presidency in 2016 ‚Äď Cruz included ‚Ästbut in 2018,¬†many have welcomed him back to the campaign¬†trail as the GOP struggles to keep control of Congress.

Trump, ever the campaigner, is happy to help as he loads up his schedule with rally after rally. He needs all the Republican lawmakers he can get to move his agenda.

And candidates like Cruz need votes from Trump supporters who might be inclined to stay home for the midterms because the president himself is not on the ballot.

“This is a marvelous example of how principles in politics last only until the next election,” said Jeffrey Engel, director of the Center for Presidential History at Southern Methodist University in Dallas.

The pair have periodically made a show of friendship. In March 2017, the Texas senator, his wife Heidi and their two daughters had dinner at the White House.

But there¬†are indications, however, that the two¬†aren’t particularly close, and that memories of the 2016 bloodletting linger.

Early in the race for the 2016 Republican presidential nomination, Cruz passed up repeated opportunities to criticize Trump as the New York businessman led all pre-primary polls. Aides at the time noted that Trump was busy attacking all of their other mutual opponents.

Trump, too, declined to attack Cruz ‚Äď at first. But that changed as Cruz began moving up in polls ahead of the Iowa caucuses, the first contest on the Republican nomination calendar.

At that point, Trump began questioning whether Cruz, born in Canada,¬†was eligible to be president and to note that other senators didn’t like him. “Lyin’ Ted” became part of the campaign lexicon.

Cruz responded by hitting Trump for “New York values” and describing him as a liberal on social issues like abortion.

The Republican race boiled down mainly to a contest between Trump and Cruz, upping their rhetoric and rivalry. While Trump won most of the GOP primaries, Cruz defeated him in Iowa and Wisconsin, and became the challenger with the best chance of denying Trump a majority of delegates headed into the Republican National Convention.

At that point,¬†Trump unleashed some of his most vicious attacks of the campaign on Cruz. At one point, he cited a highly questionable National Enquirer story suggesting that¬†Cruz’s father Rafael was part of a JFK assassination plot.

In March 2016, Trump tweeted out an unflattering photo of Cruz’s wife, Heidi, beside a glamour shot of Melania Trump, a former professional model.

“The images are worth 1,000 words,” the tweet said.

Cruz lashed back with equally harsh comments about Trump.

“This man is a pathological liar,” he said at one point. “A narcissist at a level I don‚Äôt think this country‚Äôs ever seen.”

Just for good measure, Cruz described Trump as¬†“utterly amoral” and “a serial philanderer.”

When Cruz withdrew from the race after a crushing loss to Trump in the Indiana primary in May 2016, he refused to endorse his rival. Even at the July convention in Cleveland, as boos from Trump delegates rained down, Cruz urged Republicans to vote their conscience.

By September, Cruz offered a tepid endorsement of Trump via Facebook page.

During his ABC interview¬†on Sunday, Cruz said¬†“2016 was an election unlike any other,” but there is no point in taking things personally when it comes to dealing with Trump.

“If I put my own personal hurt feelings ahead of representing Texas,” Cruz said, “that would be abdicating my responsibility.”

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2018/10/22/donald-trump-ted-cruz-texas-rally/1694688002/

 

Story 2: Mob of 5000 Hondurans Head North Through Middle of Mexico Headed To United States — Videos

Migrant caravan lurches toward U.S.

President Trump Using The Migrant Caravan To Rile Up Base Ahead Of Midterms? | Deadline | MSNBC

‘The Five’ reacts to growing migrant caravan crisis

What can US do to stop migrant caravans?

Migrant Caravan Shrinks After Trump’s Warning

The U.S. Helped Destabilize Honduras. Now Honduran Migrants Are Fleeing Political & Economic Crisis

Gingrich: Caravan is an attack on US sovereignty

Thousands Of Migrants Stopped At Guatemala-Mexico Border | NBC Nightly News

Trump issues threats over immigrant caravan heading to U.S.

Tucker: Should America help caravan migrants?

 

Migrant caravan could prompt a wider confrontation between Mexico, US

Published 

TAPACHULA, Mexico — As thousands of Central American migrants continue their long walk to the U.S. border, prompting daily condemnations from President Donald Trump, the Mexican government has had to decide: Are Trump’s threats enough to prompt an intervention?

For now, Mexican police have merely stepped aside as the caravan has passed, watching first as migrants took rafts across the river that separates the country from Guatemala, and then as they continued by foot along the main highway, chanting, “Si, se pudo,” or “Yes, we did it.”

That response appears to have been conveyed to the White House, and now, once again, Mexico’s most important bilateral relationship appears to be on shaky ground.

“Sadly, it looks like Mexico’s Police and Military are unable to stop the Caravan heading to the Southern Border of the United States,” Trump tweeted. He later said on Fox News, “I don’t know what’s going on with Mexico. It looks like the people are walking right through the middle of Mexico. So I’m not exactly thrilled there either!”

The caravan has marked another chapter in Mexico’s complicated effort to balance American threats with the country’s own domestic politics. Detaining or deporting the caravan’s members would certainly please Trump, but it would flout the country’s own immigration laws and further the impression that the Mexican government is taking orders from a hostile White House.

So far, the Mexican police appear to be conscious of that tension,and the optics of their presence. Riot police have stopped to pose for pictures in their gear, as if ready to combat the migrants, letting international television crews film them before retreating.

The caravan risks a wider confrontation with Washington if Trump threatens to cut off aid to Mexico, as he has threatened Central America, or attempts to seal the border with the U.S. military. Every day, billions of dollars of trade crosses the U.S.-Mexico border, and any attempt to block those flows could inflict serious economic harm on Mexico. The newly renegotiated North American trade agreement is also hanging in the balance as it has yet to be ratified by legislatures.

The dilemma for the Mexican government is worsened by the fact that the incoming government of Andrés Manuel López Obrador has campaigned on a gentler approach to migration, saying it would not hunt down migrants as if they were criminals.

“You have Trump’s government pressing Mr. Pe√Īa Nieto’s government to deter or stop the flows, but on the other hand, you have the pressure of public opinion and the new government saying you should treat the newcomers with dignity,” said Daniel Millan, a former spokesman in President Enrique Pe√Īa Nieto’s government who is now a political consultant. “They are walking a tightrope.”

Mexico’s incoming foreign minister, Marcelo Ebrard, said Monday on Mexican radio that it would be a “big mistake” for the Mexican government to use its own armed forces to try to stop the caravan.

“It would be inadmissible in Mexico to use the army against these people,” he said, adding that he didn’t think Pe√Īa Nieto’s government was considering that step. “We would not be in agreement with that at all.”

After a meeting with Canadian Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland in Ottawa on Monday, he added that his administration would offer more work visas for Central Americans. “We are going to invest in Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador,” he said.

Pe√Īa Nieto addressed the caravan on Friday when he said, “Mexico does not allow people to enter our territory illegally and much less so violently.”

That day, on the bridge connecting Mexico and Guatemala, Mexican police fired tear gas at the migrants, closing the official border as film crews and photographers captured their actions. But just next to the bridge, police watched as thousands of migrants crossed the border illegally by raft, settling for the night in the main plaza of the border city of Ciudad Hidalgo.

Still, the images on the bridge, at least for that moment, appeared to impress conservatives in the United States.

“I want to thank the Mexican officials and the Mexican police for putting their lives on the line,” said conservative commentator Laura Ingraham on Fox News on Friday night.

“I think this is the best Mexico has ever been,” said former congressman and Trump supporter Newt Gingrich on Ingraham’s show.

But in Mexico, the images were seen differently.

Mexican political analyst Carlos Bravo Regidor captured the reaction of many here, tweeting sarcastically: “The wall already exists. It’s called Mexico. Congratulations, Mr. Trump.”

On Sunday afternoon, there was yet another test. A convoy of police officers, wearing riot gear and carrying shields, headed for the migrant caravan, ready to form a barricade that would block the more than 5,000 Central Americans headed north.

“We’re here to enforce the laws of Mexico,” one police officer said. “You can’t just pass through our country without permission.”

When the migrants approached the police checkpoint, officers pleaded with them to apply for legal status in Mexico. There were empty buses ready to take them for processing. A police helicopter swooped overhead. The caravan paused briefly as the migrants talked among themselves. Maybe Mexican authorities would give them temporary visas, they thought, or maybe it was a trick, a sneaky way for Mexico to deport the migrants en masse.

“Vamos!” several migrants yelled, and they walked through the police checkpoint. The police did not stop them. Instead, officers threw their riot shields in a bus and drove away. The caravan continued, undeterred.

Mexico is by no means lax on undocumented Central American migrants. Last year, according to its Interior Ministry, it deported 82,000 migrants from the region. It’s possible that, at any moment, the Mexican government could decide to take a harsher stance with the migrant caravan.

“We know they can decide to stop us at any time, and it scares me,” said Alside Caseres, a member of the caravan from Honduras, who is traveling with his wife and son.

It was Monday morning, and Caseres and his family were packing their bags, preparing for another day of walking in the heat. They had slept on ground of the concrete plaza last night, eating noodles and tortillas donated by local residents.

“Viva Mexico!” yelled some of the other migrants who had already started walking.

On Sunday, Trump tweeted, “People have to apply for asylum in Mexico first, and if they fail to do that, the U.S. will turn them away.”

Indeed, Mexican authorities have repeatedly encouraged the Central American migrants to apply for legal status here, but it was unclear what that status would yield: asylum in Mexico, a temporary visa that would allow enough time for migrants to traverse the country, or something else. Several hundred members of the caravan have agreed to be processed legally, and over the weekend they were taken to a shelter in southern Mexico, which is currently closed to journalists.

On Monday morning, organizers of the caravan expressed skepticism toward Mexican immigration authorities and their offer of legal status.

“Humanitarian assistance has been predicated on detention,” said Irineo Mujica, the director of Pueblo Sin Fronteras

https://www.thehour.com/news/article/Migrant-caravan-could-prompt-a-wider-13327884.php

Story 3: Medicare For All — Socialized Medicine — American People Like The Medical Plans Paid For My Employers — Videos

Government Can’t Fix Healthcare

Bernie Sanders Shreds Trump’s Anti-Medicare for All Fear-Mongering

Trump criticizes Democrats’ Medicare for All plan in op-ed

 

 

Democrats back Medicare for all in about half of House races they’re contesting

LINKEDINCOMMENTMORE

WASHINGTON ‚Äď Democratic candidates for the House are backing a Medicare for all¬†approach to the nation‚Äôs health care system in just over half the races in which a Democrat is on the ballot, according to a new survey provided first to USA TODAY.

The tally by National Nurses United, which supports a government-run, single-payer system, shows how the idea has risen in popularity even as Republicans attack the plan as socialized medicine.

“This is historic,” said Ken Zinn, the group’s political director. “The campaign has really picked up steam.”

But polls show the public is still fuzzy on the details of ‚ÄúMedicare for all,‚ÄĚ and support drops when they‚Äôre given more information. The nonpartisan Kaiser Family Foundation defines the program as one that would replace virtually all other sources of private health coverage and most public programs.

‚ÄúWhen you talk about policy details, that whole discussion is something different,‚ÄĚ said Mollyann Brodie, senior vice president of public opinion and survey research at Kaiser Family Foundation. ‚ÄúAnd we don‚Äôt know entirely how things will play out.‚ÄĚ

House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, who is not a co-sponsor, said in June that Medicare for all¬†will be one of the proposals considered if Democrats take the House. But, noting that she has¬†always been for a ‚Äúpublic option,‚Ä̬†Pelosi said¬†all proposals would ‚Äúhave to be evaluated in terms of the access that they give, the affordability of it and how we pay for it.‚ÄĚ

‚ÄúIt‚Äôs all on the table,‚ÄĚ she said.

Democrats¬†have made health care one of their top campaign issues this cycle¬†after many Republicans voted for failed legislation last year that would have removed millions of Americans from the rolls of the insured. Many are pledging to fix the flaws in Obamacare while targeting GOP attempts to ‚Äúsabotage‚ÄĚ it. But Republicans in battleground districts are trying to tie Democrats¬†to Medicare for all, even in¬†some cases where the candidates say they don’t support the approach.

‚ÄúVoters have and will continue to reject a complete government takeover of the health care system,” said Jesse Hunt, national press secretary at the National Republican Congressional Committee.

In an op-ed for USA TODAY, President Donald Trump ripped apart Medicare for all as ‚Äújust the beginning‚ÄĚ of a socialist agenda for Democrats. He said the program would cost an ‚Äúastonishing‚ÄĚ $32.6 trillion during its first 10 years, a reference to a study by the¬†Mercatus Center of George Mason University¬†of a¬†health care plan proposed by Sen. Bernie Sanders, I-Vt., a 2016 Democratic presidential candidate¬†who may run in 2020.

Politifact found that Americans in the aggregate would pay more to the government to fund health care but less overall than they pay now. The fact-checking site also noted the study forecast that total health care spending would drop by about $2 trillion over 10 years.

Sanders,¬†in an interview with USA TODAY, said the president is ‚Äúa pathological liar‚ÄĚ who¬†can‚Äôt be trusted.

‚ÄúThis is a president who, by sabotaging the Affordable Care Act, has driven premiums up in many parts of the country,‚ÄĚ he said. ‚ÄúSo when he talks about my bill ‚Äď Medicare for all ‚Äď people, I think, should be highly dubious about what he says.‚ÄĚ

Medicare for all is one of the top issues at the heart of a divide between its progressive advocates and centrist Democrats who say the proposal is a political loser and who would rather focus on shoring up the Affordable Care Act.

The division played out in the red state of Indiana last week with two Democratic candidates campaigning on opposite sides of the issue.¬†While 9th district congressional candidate Liz Watson campaigned with Sanders¬†in favor of it, Democratic Sen. Joe Donnelly cut an ad saying ‚Äúsocialists‚ÄĚ will turn health care over to the government ‚Äúover my dead body.‚ÄĚ

Tracking polls from the Kaiser Family Foundation show a modest increase in support for the idea of a national health plan since Sanders made it part of his rallying cry during the 2016 presidential campaign.

About 6 in 10 adults favor a national health plan or Medicare for all system. Less than half did a decade ago.

Progressives say they have polling on their side.

‚ÄúThis is a solution that resonates with the American people,‚ÄĚ said Zinn, with¬†National Nurses United. ‚ÄúBut it is also a reflection of the absolute crisis that so many are facing (with health care).‚ÄĚ

But the surveys also show that support erodes when people hear the arguments that the plan could increase taxes or government control. And nearly half of adults surveyed last October falsely assumed they could keep their current insurance under a single-payer plan.

‚ÄúThe notion that it‚Äôs popular is premised upon people knowing almost nothing about it,‚ÄĚ said Matt Bennett, co-founder of the centrist Democratic think tank Third Way. ‚ÄúThat‚Äôs a problem for a very complicated thing that would transform one-fifth of our entire economy.‚ÄĚ

In the National Nurses United survey, candidates were not counted in support of Medicare for all¬†if they merely said they were open to considering the idea or that they support “universal health care,” which may still include private insurers. They also were not included if they backed a scaled-back version, such as expanding Medicare to those over 49¬†or allowing it as a ‚Äúpublic option‚ÄĚ that would still have to compete against private plans.

By that definition, the group found Democratic candidates supporting Medicare for all in 223 of the 431 House contests in which a Democratic candidate is running. But Republicans are likely to win 79 of those races, according to the nonpartisan Cook Political Report. Democrats are expected to win 127. The remaining 17 are highly competitive.

There are 123 co-sponsors of the pending Medicare for all legislation in the House. In July, Democrats in July launched a Medicare for all congressional caucus with 70 founding members.

But even caucus members like New Jersey Rep. Bonnie Watson Coleman say the process for achieving such a program may be gradual, such as first allowing Medicare as an option.

“I don‚Äôt know who‚Äôs actually running on just Medicare for all as the be-all¬†end-all,”¬†Watson Coleman told the USA TODAY Network. “Even if we are pursuing it, it may be a bit of a journey to get there.”

Bennett said a single-payer health care system certainly won‚Äôt happen while Trump is president, and it‚Äôs unlikely that a Democratic president would attempt such ‚Äúa radical transformation‚ÄĚ of the system.

In the Senate, however, Sanders’ bill has 16 Democratic co-sponsors, including other potential 2020 presidential candidates: Sens. Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts, Kirsten Gillibrand of New York, Kamala Harris of California and Cory Booker of New Jersey.

‚ÄúThat‚Äôs not a coincidence,‚ÄĚ Zinn said. ‚ÄúThey understand that to be viable in a Democratic primary, they have to be on the right side of this issue.‚ÄĚ

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/elections/2018/10/23/democrats-back-medicare-all-half-contested-house-races/1732966002/

 

 

 

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The Pronk Pops Show 1156, October 16, 2019, Breaking News — Story 1: Deficit Spending Redux — Hits $779 billion for Fiscal Year 2018 —¬†Videos — Story 2: President Trump Talked With King of Saudi Arabia — Denies Any Knowledge of Jamal Khashoggi Disappearance and Death — Trump Suggests Rogue Killers — Who Knows? — The Shadow Knows — Videos — Story 3: Trump Triumph on 60 Minutes — “I’m President and You are Not.” — Videos — Story 4: Kids, What Time Is It? It is Howdy Dowdy Time — Princess Summer-Fall-Winter-Spring —¬†Elizabeth Warren aka Princess¬†Pocahontas — Killing Identity Politics — Who Cares? — Lying Lunatic Leftist Losers — Videos —

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Story 2: President Trump Talked With King of Saudi Arabia — Denies Any Knowledge of Jamal Khashoggi Disappearance and Death — Trump Suggests Rogue Killers — Who Knows? — The Shadow Knows — Videos —

The Shadow Knows

Jamal Khashoggi: Trump suggests ‘rogue killers’ to blame – BBC News

Former CIA acting director on possible punishment in Saudi missing journalist case

Trump administration takes closer look at case of Saudi Arabian journalist

Jamal Khashoggi, Mohammed bin Salman and the media | The Listening Post (Lead)

From Saudi royal court to exile: Why MBS wants to silence Jamal Khashoggi

#Khashoggi

The crown prince and his circle could not stomach that journalist Khashoggi was honest, spoke his mind and could not be bought

David Hearst's picture
Thursday 11 October 2018 14:27 UTC

Topics:

Jamal Khashoggi is a friend of mine, so what I am about to write lacks objectivity.

In the many conversations we have had together, and for a long time after he fell out with the new regime in Riyadh under Crown Prince¬†Mohammed bin Salman, Khashoggi actively eschewed the label “Saudi dissident”. He regarded himself as a loyalist, a son of the establishment, a journalist and foreign policy veteran who not so long ago was inside the benighted circle of the royal court. On occasions, he travelled with them.

Undying enmity

I can cite many examples of Khashoggi parting company with Western liberal critics of the kingdom. He supported Рinitially, at least Рthe Saudi-led war on Yemen. In common with many Sunni Arab analysts, he thought that Iran had overextended its reach into the Sunni Arab world and that it was time for Saudi Arabia to push back.

He defended capital punishment. He supported a crackdown on corruption Рif he could be convinced that it was genuine. He supported, too, attempts to diversify and privatise an oil-dependent economy.

But Khashoggi adhered to one principle that the small circle around Mohammed bin Salman could not stomach, a quality that earned him their undying enmity. Khashoggi was honest. He could not be bought. He spoke his mind and was clear about what he was saying.

Khashoggi’s criticism of his country was nuanced and for that reason alone I would consider him a real reformer and true democrat

He thought that there was only one path on which the kingdom should be headed in the 21st Century – that is of a slowly opening democracy headed by a gradually retreating constitutional monarchy.

He feared the crown prince would eventually bankrupt the country as a result of his vanity projects to raise new gleaming cities in the sand Рcities that would remain empty. He recognised that MBS was popular with the youth, but calculated that popularity would last up to the point where they had to open their wallets. The Saudi journalist paid heed to reports of capital flight.

The reckless crown prince

Khashoggi’s criticism of his own country was nuanced and for that reason alone I would consider him a real reformer and true democrat. That he should – by now – have been¬†detained for over 24 hours in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul¬†speaks volumes about the character and intentions of those running the show in Riyadh.

Missing journalist Jamal Khashoggi’s Turkish fiancee Hatice (L) and her friends wait in front of the Saudi Arabian consulate in Istanbul, on 3 October 2018 (AFP)

It dispels the well-funded PR myth that has ensnared journalists like¬†Thomas Friedman of the New York Times¬†and Jamal’s colleague on the Washington Post, David Ignatius, who have praised Mohammed bin Salman as a reformer. Ignatius¬†wrote¬†that the Saudi crown prince was giving his country “shock therapy”. I did not think his paper supported the practise of lobotomy.

Mohammed bin Salman is shocking all right, but he is no therapist. He is vindictive. He bears grudges. He is supremely wilful. He has absolutely no respect for another country’s sovereignty, territory, courts or media. He is reckless. That he should have staged this stunt in Istanbul, on Turkish soil, is a measure of how reckless the Saudi crown prince and the narrow circle around him are.

That Mohammed bin Salman should have staged this stunt in Istanbul, on Turkish soil, is a measure of how reckless the Saudi crown prince and the narrow circle around him are

Relations between Saudi Arabia and Turkey have steadily deteriorated since the coup attempt against the Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan two years ago. It was clear which side the Saudi state-run media was on during the night of the coup. They ran wall-to-wall coverage, with all commentators saying either that Erdogan was dead or that he had fled the country.

That Erdogan had survived that night was truly bad news for Riyadh.

It took 16 hours for the Saudi state news service to realise that the coup had not succeeded and issue a statement expressing “the kingdom’s welcome that things are returned to normal led by his Excellency President Tayyip Erdogan and his elected government and in line with the constitutional legitimacy and the will of the Turkish people”.

A delicate time

Those memories are still raw, especially in the Turkish presidency. That Mohammed bin Salman should risk sending Saudi relations with Turkey to a new low by seizing a high-profile journalist on Erdogan’s home turf, is another indication of how unstable the next ruler of the kingdom is.

Istanbul is home to virtually the entire gamut of the Egyptian opposition, secular and Islamist (AFP)

As Riyadh knows only too well, it got very little for the $300m it paid, much of it in cash, to Iraqi politicians of different confessions who were contesting the recent election. It also knows that Turkey and Iran are in high-level talks Рas is the Hashd el Shabi (also known as the Popular Mobilisation Units) and Sunni groups in Iraq Рabout a new security accommodation in areas that are traditionally Sunni.

This is the first time in many years that Iraq’s Shia factions are genuinely divided and that a political deal that does not run so fully along sectarian lines is achievable. This is a delicate time for Saudi-Turkish relations. It is not in Riyadh’s interest to upset the apple cart as publicly and clumsily as it appears to have done at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul.

Turkish intelligence are convinced that Khashoggi remains inside the building and have surrounded it. Saudi officials have strongly denied any involvement in his disappearance and say that he left the consulate soon after arriving.

It is essential that Turkey secures Khashoggi’s safe release for reasons that go beyond the man himself, and a threadbare bilateral relationship.

Turkey: A safe haven

Apart from being home to millions of Syrian refugees, Turkey houses thousands of political exiles from all over the Arab world.

Istanbul is home to virtually the entire gamut of the Egyptian opposition, secular and Islamist. It is where British-born militants are kept in prison. There is a lot going on in Istanbul, and more than one Western government would prefer to keep it that way.

If Turkey allowed abductions by foreign governments to take place on its soil, its own internal security would rapidly deteriorate. It would also lose the substantial leverage it has in the Middle East by providing safe haven for a number of Sunni opposition groups.

READ MORE‚Ėļ

Saudi’s losing gambler: The raw truth about Mohammed bin Salman

How much pressure the US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo is willing to apply with his counterpart, the Saudi Foreign Minister Adel Al-Jubeir, over Khashoggi (who has residency in the US and is a Washington Post columnist) is as yet unclear. The White House is no lover of the Washington Post or press freedom.

US President Donald Trump regularly insults and humiliates King Salman of Saudi Arabia to force him to pay even more for his own security than he already has done.

The regime in Saudi Arabia swallows these insults from Trump, while going to the opposite extreme with what it considers lesser nations like Canada, because it knows it has no other option.

Khashoggi was¬†the first to warn Saudis¬†of the dangers of getting into bed with Trump. In fact, this was the reason he fell out with the Saudi regime in the first place, and this was long before the Arab Islamic American summit held in Riyadh last May and the announcement of¬†lucrative arms deals. It is indeed too late for Riyadh to heed the journalist’s words, and so they have gone to desperate lengths to silence him.

For more than one reason, they should not be allowed to succeed.

–¬†David Hearst¬†is editor-in-chief of Middle East Eye. He was chief foreign leader writer of The Guardian, former Associate Foreign Editor, European Editor, Moscow Bureau Chief, European Correspondent, and Ireland Correspondent. He joined The Guardian from The Scotsman, where he was education correspondent.

The views expressed in this article belong to the author and do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of Middle East Eye.

Photo: Saudi dissident Jamal Khashoggi speaks at an event hosted by Middle East Monitor in London on 29 September 2018 (Reuters)

This article is available in French on Middle East Eye French edition.

https://www.middleeasteye.net/columns/son-establishment-enemy-why-mohammed-bin-salman-wants-silence-jamal-khashoggi-1430306018

What the media aren’t telling you about Jamal Khashoggi

The dissident’s fate says a lot about Saudi Arabia and the rise of the mobster state

As someone who spent three decades working closely with intelligence services in the Arab world and the West, the Saudi dissident and Washington Post columnist Jamal Khashoggi knew he was taking a huge risk in entering the Saudi consulate in Istanbul last week to try to obtain a document certifying he had divorced his ex-wife.

A one-time regime insider turned critic of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman ‚ÄĒ the de facto head of the Saudi kingdom which tolerates no criticism whatsoever ‚ÄĒ Khashoggi had been living in Washington for the previous year in self-imposed exile amid a crackdown on independent voices in his homeland.

He had become the darling of western commentators on the Middle East. With almost two million Twitter followers, he was the most famous political pundit in the Arab world and a regular guest on the major TV news networks in Britain and the United States. Would the Saudis dare to cause him harm? It turns out that the answer to that question was ‚ÄėYou betcha.‚Äô

Following uneventful visits to the consulate and, earlier, the Saudi embassy in Washington, Khashoggi was lured into a murderous plan so brazen, so barbaric, that it would seem far-fetched as a subplot in a John le Carré novel. He went inside the Istanbul consulate, but failed to emerge. Turkish police and intelligence officials claimed that a team of 15 hitmen carrying Saudi diplomatic passports arrived the same morning on two private jets. Their convoy of limousines arrived at the consulate building shortly before Khashoggi did.

Their not-so-secret mission? To torture, then execute, Khashoggi, and videotape the ghastly act for whoever had given the order for his merciless dispatch. Khashoggi’s body, Turkish officials say, was dismembered and packed into boxes before being whisked away in a black van with darkened windows. The assassins fled the country.

Saudi denials were swift. The ambassador to Washington said reports that Saudi authorities had killed Khashoggi were ‚Äėabsolutely false‚Äô. But under the circumstances ‚ÄĒ with his fianc√©e waiting for him, and no security cameras finding any trace of his leaving the embassy ‚ÄĒ the world is left wondering if bin Salman directed this murder. When another Saudi official chimed in that ‚Äėwith no body, there is no crime‚Äô, it was unclear whether he was being ironic. Is this great reforming prince, with aims the West applauds, using brutal methods to dispose of his enemies? What we have learned so far is far from encouraging. A Turkish newspaper close to the government this week published the photographs and names of the alleged Saudi hitmen, and claims to have identified three of them as members of bin Salman‚Äôs personal protection team.

There are also reports in the American media that all surveillance footage was removed from the consulate building, and that all local Turkish employees there were suddenly given the day off. According to the New York Times, among the assassination team was the kingdom’s top forensic expert, who brought a bone saw to dismember Khashoggi’s body. None of this has yet been independently verified, but a very dark narrative is emerging.

In many respects, bin Salman’s regime has been revolutionary: he has let women drive, sided with Israel against Iran and curtailed the religious police. When Boris Johnson was foreign secretary, he said that bin Salman was the best thing to happen to the region in at least a decade, that the style of government of this 33-year-old prince was utterly different. But the cruelty and the bloodletting have not stopped. Saudi Arabia still carries out many public beheadings and other draconian corporal punishments. It continues to wage a war in Yemen which has killed at least 10,000 civilians.

Princes and businessmen caught up in a corruption crackdown are reported to have been tortured; Shia demonstrators have been mowed down in the streets and had their villages reduced to rubble; social media activists have been sentenced to thousands of lashes; families of overseas-based activists have been arbitrarily arrested. In an attempt to justify this, bin Salman said this week he was ‚Äėtrying to get rid of extremism and terrorism without civil war, without stopping the country from growing, with continuous progress in all elements,‚Äô adding: ‚ÄėSo if there is a small price in that area, it‚Äôs better than paying a big debt to do that move.‚Äô

The fate of Khashoggi has at least provoked global outrage, but it’s for all the wrong reasons. We are told he was a liberal, Saudi progressive voice fighting for freedom and democracy, and a martyr who paid the ultimate price for telling the truth to power. This is not just wrong, but distracts us from understanding what the incident tells us about the internal power dynamics of a kingdom going through an unprecedented period of upheaval. It is also the story of how one man got entangled in a Saudi ruling family that operates like the Mafia. Once you join, it’s for life, and if you try to leave, you become disposable.

In truth, Khashoggi never had much time for western-style pluralistic democracy. In the 1970s he joined the Muslim Brotherhood, which exists to rid the Islamic world of western influence. He was a political Islamist until the end, recently praising the Muslim Brotherhood in the¬†Washington Post. He championed the ‚Äėmoderate‚Äô Islamist opposition in Syria, whose crimes against humanity are a matter of record. Khashoggi frequently sugarcoated his Islamist beliefs with constant references to freedom and democracy. But he never hid that he was in favour of a Muslim Brotherhood arc throughout the Middle East. His recurring plea to bin¬†Salman in his columns was to embrace not western-style democracy, but the rise of political Islam which the Arab Spring had inadvertently given rise to. For Khashoggi, secularism was the enemy.

He had been a journalist in the 1980s and 1990s, but then became more of a player than a spectator. Before working with a succession of Saudi princes, he edited Saudi newspapers. The exclusive remit a Saudi government‚Äďappointed newspaper editor has is to ensure nothing remotely resembling honest journalism makes it into the pages. Khashoggi put the money in the bank ‚ÄĒ making a handsome living was always his top priority. Actions, anyway, speak louder than words.

It was Yasin Aktay ‚ÄĒ a former MP for Turkey‚Äôs ruling Justice and Development party (AKP) ‚ÄĒ whom Khashoggi told his fianc√©e to call if he did not emerge from the consulate. The AKP is, in effect, the Turkish branch of the Muslim Brotherhood. His most trusted friend, then, was an adviser to President Erdogan, who is fast becoming known as the most vicious persecutor of journalists on earth. Khashoggi never meaningfully criticised Erdogan. So we ought not to see this as the assassination of a liberal reformer.

Khashoggi had this undeserved status in the West because of the publicity surrounding his sacking as editor of the Saudi daily Al Watan back in 2003. (I broke the news of his removal for Reuters. I’d worked alongside Khashoggi at the Saudi daily Arab News during the preceding years.) He was dismissed because he allowed a columnist to criticise an Islamist thinker considered to be the founding father of Wahhabism. Thus, overnight, Khashoggi became known as a liberal progressive.

The Muslim Brotherhood, though, has always been at odds with the Wahhabi movement. Khashoggi and his fellow travellers believe in imposing Islamic rule by engaging in the democratic process. The Wahhabis loathe democracy as a western invention. Instead, they choose to live life as it supposedly existed during the time of the Muslim prophet. In the final analysis, though, they are different means to achieving the same goal: Islamist theocracy. This matters because, although bin Salman has rejected Wahhabism ‚ÄĒ to the delight of the West ‚ÄĒ he continues to view the Muslim Brotherhood as the main threat most likely to derail his vision for a new Saudi Arabia. Most of the Islamic clerics in Saudi Arabia who have been imprisoned over the past two years ‚ÄĒ Khashoggi‚Äôs friends ‚ÄĒ have historic ties to the Muslim Brotherhood. Khashoggi had therefore emerged as a de facto leader of the Saudi branch. Due to his profile and influence, he was the biggest political threat to bin Salman‚Äôs rule outside of the royal family.

Worse, from the royals’ point of view, was that Khashoggi had dirt on Saudi links to al Qaeda before the 9/11 attacks. He had befriended Osama bin Laden in the 1980s and 1990s in Afghanistan and Sudan while championing his jihad against the Soviets in dispatches. At that same time, he was employed by the Saudi intelligence services to try to persuade bin Laden to make peace with the Saudi royal family. The result? Khashoggi was the only non-royal Saudi who had the beef on the royals’ intimate dealing with al Qaeda in the lead-up to the 9/11 attacks. That would have been crucial if he had escalated his campaign to undermine the crown prince.

Like the Saudi royals, Khashoggi dissociated himself from bin Laden after 9/11 (which Khashoggi and I watched unfold together in the Arab News office in Jeddah). But he then teamed up as an adviser to the Saudi ambassador to London and then Washington, Prince Turki Al Faisal. The latter had been Saudi intelligence chief from 1977 until just ten days before the 9/11 attacks, when he inexplicably resigned. Once again, by working alongside Prince Turki during the latter’s ambassadorial stints, as he had while reporting on bin Laden, Khashoggi mixed with British, US and Saudi intelligence officials. In short, he was uniquely able to acquire invaluable inside information.

The Saudis, too, may have worried that Khashoggi had become a US asset. In Washington in 2005, a senior Pentagon official told me of a ridiculous plan they had to take ‚Äėthe Saudi out of Arabia‚Äô (as was the rage post-9/11). It involved establishing a council of selected Saudi figures in Mecca to govern the country under US auspices after the US took control of the oil. He named three Saudis the Pentagon team were in regular contact with regarding the project. One of them was Khashoggi. A fantasy, certainly, but it shows how highly he was regarded by those imagining a different Saudi Arabia.

Perhaps it was for this and other reasons ‚ÄĒ and working according to the dictum of keeping your enemies closer ‚ÄĒ that a few weeks ago, according to a friend of Khashoggi, bin Salman had made a traditional tribal offer of reconciliation ‚ÄĒ offering him a place as an adviser if he returned to the kingdom. Khashoggi had declined because of ‚Äėmoral and religious‚Äô principles. And that may have been the fatal snub, not least because Khashoggi had earlier this year established a new political party in the US called Democracy for the Arab World Now, which would support Islamist gains in democratic elections throughout the region. Bin Salman‚Äôs nightmare of a Khashoggi-led Islamist political opposition was about to become a reality.

The West has been fawning over bin Salman. But how now to overlook what seems to be a brazen Mafia-style murder? ‚ÄėI don‚Äôt like hearing about it,‚Äô Donald Trump said. ‚ÄėNobody knows anything about it, but there‚Äôs some pretty bad stories going around. I do not like it.‚Äô Well, there are plenty more stories where that came from, stories about a ruthless prince whose opponents have a habit of disappearing. The fate of Khashoggi is the latest sign of what‚Äôs really happening inside Saudi Arabia. For how much longer will our leaders look the other way?

This article was originally published in The Spectator magazine.

https://spectator.us/2018/10/jamal-khashoggi/

FEATURED: Jamal Khashoggi- A Global Muslim Brotherhood Operative Writing For The Washington Post?

Global media has been widely reporting on the alleged disappearance of Saudi national and Washington Post columnist Jamal¬†Khashoggi, often¬†describing¬†him in terms such as ‚Äúa dissident-journalist critical of the oil-rich kingdom.‚ÄĚ As the BBC recently¬†reported:

Jamal Khashoggi, a well-known journalist and critic of the Saudi government, walked into the country’s consulate in Istanbul last week to obtain some documents and has not been seen since.

Generally but not always overlooked in the media coverage are Khashoggi’s ties to the Global Muslim Brotherhood

1. What is the Global Muslim Brotherhood?

Most observers are familiar with the pan-Islamic organization known as the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. Founded in 1928 by Egyptian schoolteacher Hassan El-Banna, the Egyptian Brotherhood has been a wellspring of Islamism and political Islam since it(…)

“>Global Muslim Brotherhood. For example, British author and journalist John R. Bradley¬†reports¬†that Khashoggi joined the¬†Muslim Brotherhood in the 1970‚Äôs:

October 11, 2018 ¬†In truth, Khashoggi never had much time for western-style pluralistic democracy. In the 1970s he joined the Muslim Brotherhood, which exists to rid the Islamic world of western influence. He was a political Islamist until the end, recently praising the Muslim Brotherhood in the Washington Post. He championed the ‚Äėmoderate‚Äô Islamist opposition in Syria, whose crimes against humanity are a matter of record. Khashoggi frequently sugarcoated his Islamist beliefs with constant references to freedom and democracy. But he never hid that he was in favour of a Muslim Brotherhood arc throughout the Middle East. His recurring plea to bin¬†Salman in his columns was to embrace not western-style democracy, but the rise of political Islam which the Arab Spring had inadvertently given rise to. For Khashoggi, secularism was the enemy.

Washington Post writer David Ignatius, who says he knew Khashoggi for 15 years, also reports that Khashoggi joined the Muslim Brotherhood at some unspecified time, likely while in the US for his education:

October 7, 2018  Khashoggi was passionate for reform of an Arab Muslim world that he considered corrupt and dishonest. He grew up in Medina, the son of a Saudi who owned a small textile shop. He went to the United States for college, attending Indiana State University. He also embraced Islam, joining the Muslim Brotherhood and, in the late 1970s, befriending the young Osama bin Laden, whom he tried to turn against violence.

Interesting is Khashoggi’s attendance at Indiana State University confirmed in a local media report which says he was an undergraduate student at Indiana State from 1977-1982, and was awarded a degree in business administration on May 7, 1983. According to a report by the GMBDW author, at the same time Khashoggi was attending university in Indiana, the state was the hub of the newly developing complex of organizations that would become the US Muslim Brotherhood. For example, the report notes a key meeting held in early 1977 described as follows:

As the Muslim Student Association

No entry yet. You can still search for Muslim Student Association

“>Muslim Student Association¬†(MSA) reached its mid-teens it began preparing for an expanded role in the service of Islam. It called an historic meeting of a cross-section of Islamic workers, in Plainfield, Indiana, in early 1397/1977. This meeting set up a task force to recommend a new organizational structure to respond to the increasing challenges and responsibilities emerging in the growing North American Muslim communities. The task force concluded that the new environment would be best served by establishing a broader umbrella organization called ‚ÄúISNA.‚ÄĚ

ISNA, the Islamic Society of North America, emerged out of the early US Muslim Brotherhood infrastructure and documents discovered in the course of the the terrorism trial of the Holy Land Foundation

No entry yet. You can still search for Holy Land Foundation

“>Holy Land Foundation

confirmed that the organization was part of the U.S. Muslim Brotherhood. ISNA was named as a Holy Land unindicted co-conspirator as a result of what the US Justice Department called the organization‚Äôs ‚Äúintimate relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood, the Palestine Committee, and the defendants in this case.‚Ä̬†Although not confirmed, it would seem more than possible that a Muslim student active in Indiana would have been interacting with the complex of US Brotherhood organizations rapidly developing at that time.¬†Khashoggi is also known to have close relations with¬†Saudi businessman Prince Al Waleed Bin Talal who¬†appointed¬†him to run the ill-fated Al Arab television station in Bahrain in 2015. As frequently¬†reported¬†by the GMBDW, Prince Talal is known to have made¬†donations¬†to both the¬†ISNA and to the¬†Council on American Islamic Relations¬†(CAIR), also part of the¬†US Muslim Brotherhood.

Not all reporting characterizes Khashoggi as a¬†Muslim Brotherhood ‚Äúmember‚ÄĚ although it should be remembered that membership is a nebulous concept when discussing the¬†Global Muslim Brotherhood.¬†The independent Turkish news portal¬†Ahval¬†claims¬†that while Khashoggi was not a ¬†Brotherhood member he was ‚Äúsomeone close to their ideas‚ÄĚ:

October 10, 2018 ¬†Khashoggi is not a member of the Muslim Brotherhood, but someone close to their ideas, according to his friends, ‚Ķ ‚ÄúI cannot say he was an official member of the Muslim Brotherhood. Maybe he was at the beginning, but he had close ties. The leaders of the movement in Egypt and Tunisia were Jamal‚Äôs friends. After the Arab spring, he wanted political Islam to come to power. But he was not an Islamist,‚ÄĚ Ahmed Zaki, from BBC Arabic said.

As for¬†Khashoggi himself, Islamist media¬†reported¬†in 2017 that he¬†denied that being a member of the Muslim Brotherhood although he characterized Brotherhood thought as ‚Äúnoble‚ÄĚ:

September 11, 2017 Saudi Arabian journalist Jamal Khashoggi has denied that he is a member of the Muslim Brotherhood. The writer, who has been banned from publication by the Saudi authorities for the past 9 months, pointed out that the Brotherhood allegation is directed at anyone believing in change, reform or the Arab Spring.¬†Responding on Twitter to another user who asked who was behind the accusations directed at him, Khashoggi said: ‚ÄúFor a while now, I have found that anyone who believes in reform, change, the Arab Spring, and freedom, and those who are proud of their religion and their country is labelled as being part of the Muslim Brotherhood. It seems that the Brotherhood‚Äôs school of thought is noble.‚ÄĚ

However at the same time, and in another¬†interview,¬†Khashoggi gave a somewhat disingenuous denial of Brotherhood membership, stating that he was not ‚Äúofficially a member‚ÄĚ but did not mind being referred to as such:

September 13, 2017¬†Saudi writer Jamal Khashoggi confirmed the news stating that he was suspended from writing for Al-Hayat newspaper, based on a decision by Al-Hayat publisher Khalid bin Sultan bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, and the recommendation of Fahd bin Khalid Al Saud.Commenting on the news, Khashoggi said in a tweet that ‚Äúthe decision of suspension was indeed made by the publisher. I spoke with his Highness a little while ago, we agreed to reject the dissemination of the culture of hatred, and disagreed with regards to the Muslim Brotherhood. I have much appreciation for him.‚Ä̬†Khashoggi, who currently resides in Washington, has criticized the arrests of preachers, including Salman al-Awda and Awad al-Qarni, who are affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood, adding that belonging to the Muslim Brotherhood ‚Äúis not a charge,‚ÄĚ further noting that he ‚Äúdoes not feel offended if someone says I am [part of]the Brotherhood, although I am not officially a member.‚ÄĚ

Consistent with ties to the¬†Global Muslim Brotherhood is¬†Khashoggi‚Äôs friendship with¬†Azzam Tamimi, a UK activist for¬†Hamas¬†and a leader in the UK¬†Muslim Brotherhood. According to an Associated Press¬†report, the two hd been involved in setting up ‚Äúpro-democracy‚ÄĚ projects since 1992:

Khashoggi had incorporated his democracy advocacy group, DAWN, in January in Delaware, said Khaled Saffuri, another friend. The group was still in the planning stages, and Khashoggi was working on it quietly, likely concerned it could cause trouble for associates, including activists in the Gulf, Saffuri said. The project was expected to reach out to journalists and lobby for change, representing both Islamists and liberals, said another friend, Azzam Tamimi

According to a Washington Report on Middle East Affairs article, Azzam Tamimi was born in 1955 and he was seven when his family moved from Hebron to Kuwait. After high school graduation, he moved to England and the University of Westminster, London. First studying pure science, he changed to(…)

“>Azzam Tamimi

, a prominent Palestinian-British activist and TV presenter. … Tamimi said he and Khashoggi had set up a similar pro-democracy project together in 1992 when they first met. It was called Friends of Democracy in Algeria, he said, and followed the botched elections in Algeria, which the government annulled to avert an imminent Islamist victory.

Although described as a ‚Äúdemocracy advocacy group‚ÄĚ it should be noted that in reality, as described in an ABC News¬†report, DAWN was in fact a stalking horse for the inclusion of ‚ÄúSunni Political Islam‚ÄĚ in Middle Eastern governments, presumably including Saudi Arabia.¬†Another self-described Islamic Democracy group is the US-based¬†Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy

The Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy (CSID) was founded in 1998 in what appears to have been a cooperative effort among the US Muslim Brotherhood, the US State Department and Georgetown University academic Dr.¬†John Esposito¬†who¬†served¬†during the 1990’s as a State Department “foreign(…)

“>Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy

(CSID) where Khashoggi gave the keynote address in April 2018 and were he reportedly:

applauded the efforts made by organizations like CSID in advocating for democracy and freedom of speech and helping save the Middle East from drowning in dark ages of dictatorship.

Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy¬†(CSID) was founded in 1998 in what appears to have been a cooperative effort among the US Muslim Brotherhood, the US State Department and Georgetown University academic Dr.¬†John Esposito¬†who¬†served¬†during the 1990‚Äôs as a State Department ‚Äúforeign affairs analyst‚ÄĚ and who has at least a dozen past or present affiliations with global Muslim Brotherhood/Hamas

The¬†Hamas¬†charter¬†says that it is “one of the wings of the Muslim Brothers in Palestine” and soon after Hamas took over the Gaza strip, Muslim Brotherhood representatives¬†traveled¬†to Gaza from Egypt through the newly-opened border to review¬†Hamas military formations. ¬†A Hamas journalist(…)

“>Hamas

organizations. From its inception, CSID has argued that the U.S. government should support Islamist movements in foreign countries and has received financial support from the U.S. State Department, the National Endowment for Democracy and the United States Institute of Peace.

It should also be noted that the British journalist John R. Bradley, has reported that Khashoggi instructed his fiancée to contact former Turkish MP and AK Party leader Yasin Aktay in case he failed to come out of the consulate. Aktay is known to be a close advisor to Muslim Brotherhood supporter and Turkish President Erdogan and the AK Party is an Islamist party close to the Global Muslim Brotherhood.

The evidence offered above strongly suggests that¬†Jamal Khashoggi was not only a long-time member of the¬†Muslim Brotherhood and close to the¬†Global Muslim Brotherhood but was, in fact, actively supporting Brotherhood-related projects as recently as April of this year as evidenced by his key note address on behalf of the CSID. The GMBDW wished to state in the clearest terms that none of the above should be taken as support for any violence that may or may not have been committed against Mr.¬†Khashoggi by any party. The evidence does however raise serious questions about how such an individual came to be associated with the Washington Post and why he is generally f√™ted as a ‚Äúpro-democracy reformer‚ÄĚ by so much of the global media. Perhaps much of that media is not aware that the¬†Muslim Brotherhood is often¬†categorized¬†by academics as a ‚Äúreformist movement.‚ÄĚ

While it would seem unlikely and/or unusual that such a prominent journalist would be a member of the Muslim Brotherhood, the GMBDW has long reported on the example of Waddah Khanfar, the former General Manager of Al Jazeera who is tied to both the Global Muslim Brotherhood and to Hamas as well as currently serving as a trustee of the US-based International Crisis Group.

We should also add that this is by no means the only example of the Washington Post showing astonishingly bad judgment with respect to the Global Muslim Brotherhood. In February 2017, we reported on the Post’s shoddy work with respect to an article purporting to fact check recent series of claims about long-time Hilary Clinton aide Huma Abedin. As we wrote at that time:

The GMBDW only hopes, and our hopes are perpetually dashed, that the mainstream media in the US would once again assume its rightful role as the guardian of the public interest with respect to the topic.

It would seem our hopes are to be dashed once again.

https://www.globalmbwatch.com/2018/10/14/jamal-khashoggi-a-global-muslim-brotherhood-operative-writing-for-the-washington-post/

 

 

BREAKING: CNN Reports Saudis Preparing to Admit Jamal Khashoggi Was Killed in ‚ÄėInterrogation Gone Wrong‚Äô

CNN reported on Monday that Saudi Arabia is preparing a report in which they will admit that¬†Jamal Khashoggi, the¬†Washington Postcolumnist¬†who went missing earlier this month, was killed in an ‚Äúinterrogation gone wrong.‚ÄĚ

Khashoggi, a prominent Saudi dissident, went missing after walking into the Saudi consulate in Istanbul on October 2. Turkish officials said they have proof he was murdered and dismembered by a team of Saudi agents, a charge the Saudi government vehemently denied.

Per two sources who spoke to CNN, however, the Saudis are preparing a report admitting that they intended to abduct and bring Khashoggi back to Saudi Arabia, but that he was inadvertently killed in the process. The report is intended, per CNN, to absolve the Saudi government of responsibility for the murder by claiming the operation was not cleared.

Damon added that the Saudis’ report is still being prepared, and could change.

Earlier on Monday, President¬†Donald Trump¬†said he spoke with Saudi King¬†Salman, who ‚Äúfirmly denied any knowledge‚ÄĚ of the murder of Khashoggi. Trump also said Salman suggested¬†those responsible for his death could be¬†‚Äúrogue killers.‚ÄĚ

The Saudis had previously insisted that Khashoggi left the consulate soon after arriving.

This story is developing…

https://www.mediaite.com/tv/breaking-cnn-reports-saudis-preparing-to-admit-missing-journalist-was-killed-in-interrogation-gone-wrong/

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‚Äė60 Minutes‚Äô Was Outmatched by Trump (Column)

The President talked over Lesley Stahl in a relentless blast of rhetoric that seemed more rally than interview

On Oct. 14, CBS‚Äôs ‚Äú60 Minutes‚ÄĚ aired an interview with President¬†Donald Trump¬†‚ÄĒ rare for its status as having appeared outside of Fox News or conservative media. Appearing the same weekend as First Lady¬†Melania Trump‚Äôs appearance¬†on ‚Äú20/20,‚ÄĚ this would seem to represent a new level of media blitzing on the part of an administration that‚Äôs already seen its head get plenty of free promotion during rallies broadcast on cable news. And, like Melania Trump‚Äôs utterly-on-message, relentlessly forward-moving TV interview, the President‚Äôs interview had effectively the same impact as a rally; it allowed him to bulldoze his chief enemy, the media, while airing his own points at ceaseless length. The lesson the media has evidently not learned yet is not to be sitting right there when he does it.Lesley Stahl‚Äôs interview with Trump was an undeniable get; he‚Äôd been scarce on mainstream media since around the time he appeared on tape with NBC‚Äôs Lester Holt and indicated he‚Äôd fired former FBI Director James Comey in part due to the Russia investigation. But the interview seemed governed by two motives, both of which played into the hands of a media-savvy President whose refusal to play by typical rules of engagement has been at the center of his rise.

First, Stahl seemed to want to conduct a definitive interview with Trump summarizing his presidency so far. In so doing, she skittered across the map of global and domestic issues, seeming to touch on every topic under the sun, from the ultra-current ‚ÄĒ the fate of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi ‚ÄĒ to the more long-range. Questions about, say, North Korea, tariffs on China, climate change, and NATO were met with long bursts of Trumpian verbiage, spilling out so fast they seemed barely able to be edited. What fell away in editing, or what was barely allowed to happen in the time allotted, were many follow-ups.

And when follow-up questions did happen, they seemed to fall into the interview‚Äôs second trap: Trying to crack the code of¬†Donald Trump, human being. ‚ÄúI wish you could go to Greenland,‚ÄĚ Stahl mused in the brief portion of the interview dealing with climate change, ‚Äúwatch these huge chunks of ice just falling into the ocean, raising the sea levels.‚ÄĚ Trump shouted her down, predictably unmoved by Stahl‚Äôs evident passion about a story imbued with dread. He won every segment of the interview because he was utterly unable to brook doubt ‚ÄĒ and, at this point, a broadcast dealing with a president who cannot face facts must be armed with real facts of their own. Stahl asked Trump about ‚Äúthe scientists who say [the effects of climate change are] worse than ever,‚ÄĚ but was unprepared to cite one; knowing, now, that the human factor will not work on Trump, a broadcaster should be prepared to cite hard facts in a face-off with the President.

Not, of course, that those facts will change his mind or even elicit an unexpected answer from the Commander-in-Chief. But it felt like a missed opportunity that both so many ardent Trump fans and so many in the hazy middle tuned into an interview with the President and found so much of what was put to him phrased in loose, conversational terms. If he won‚Äôt deal with the realities of climate change (presented in this interview only in anecdotal terms of ice and hurricanes and in data, never explained, from ‚ÄúNOAA and NASA,‚ÄĚ and not the¬†recent, catastrophic United Nations report) or of abandoning NATO, the broadcaster should rush in to fill the gap. Instead, facts like these ones seemed to be assumed on the part of the viewership at home, and the silences were filled by Trump, who explained away why orthodoxies were wrong while Stahl struggled to break into his monologues. The one moment Stahl meaningfully challenged Trump was on his alliance with North Korea‚Äôs Kim Jong-un ‚ÄĒ presenting the President with a ‚Äúresume‚ÄĚ of his conversation partner‚Äôs misdeeds in his own country ‚ÄĒ but even then, the format demanded she move forward after Trump said the pair shared ‚Äúa good energy.‚ÄĚ Her next question was, verbatim, ‚ÄúChina.‚ÄĚ And Trump free-associated there, too.

By pushing through questions and by capitalizing on an interview approach seeking to synthesize his entire presidency into two segments of television, Trump effectively converted ‚Äú60 Minutes‚ÄĚ into a short rally.¬†There are those who will see his rants as worthy, and those who will loathe them; whatever unity can be made to exist by the President exists only within those camps. That ‚Äú60 Minutes‚ÄĚ went looking for something greater is more proof than viewers needed that their approach to the President left them outmatched.

Lesley Stahl

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Lesley Stahl
Lesley Stahl.jpg

Lesley Stahl at the LBJ Presidential Library in 2010
Born Lesley Rene Stahl
December 16, 1941(age 76)
Lynn, Massachusetts,
U.S.
Residence New York City, New York, U.S.
Alma mater Wheaton College
Occupation News reporter
Years¬†active 1972‚Äďpresent
Notable credit(s) 60 Minutes¬†(1991‚Äďpresent)
Spouse(s) Jeffrey Gordon (1964‚Äď1967; divorced)

Aaron Latham (m. 1977)
Children 1

Lesley Rene Stahl[1] (born December 16, 1941) is an American television journalist.

She has spent most of her career with¬†CBS News, having been affiliated with that network since 1972; since 1991, she has reported for CBS’¬†60 Minutes.

Personal life

Stahl was born to a wealthy Jewish family[2] in Lynn, Massachusetts, and was raised in Swampscott, Massachusetts. She is the daughter of Dorothy J. (née Tishler), and Louis E. Stahl, a food company executive.[1][2][3] In 1977, Stahl married author Aaron Latham. They have one child, Taylor Stahl Latham. The couple currently lives in New York City.

Career

Stahl and her family with PresidentRonald Reagan in 1986

An honors graduate of¬†Wheaton College¬†who majored in history,[4]¬†Stahl began her television broadcasting career at Boston’s original Channel 5,¬†WHDH-TV, as a producer and on-air reporter.[5]¬†She joined CBS News in 1972, and became a correspondent in 1974. “I was born on my 30th birthday,” Stahl would later write about the experience. “Everything up till then was prenatal.”[6]¬†Stahl credits her CBS News hire to the¬†Federal Communication Commission‘s 1972 inclusion of women in its affirmative action mandate: “the television networks were scouring the country for women and blacks with any news experience at all. A friend in New York had called to tell me about a memo floating around CBS News mandating that ‘the next reporter we hire will be a woman.'”[7]¬†According to Stahl,¬†Connie Chung¬†and¬†Bernard Shaw¬†were “the two other ‘affirmative action babies’ in what became known as the Class of ’72.”[8]¬†Stahl reflected in an interview on her early days at CBS how, on the night of the ’72 Nixon-McGovern election returns, she found her on-air studio chair marked with masking tape, not with her name as with her colleagues, but with “Female.” Stahl was the mentor of CBS news producer¬†Susan Zirinsky.[9]

Stahl’s prominence grew after she covered¬†Watergate. “I found an apartment in the¬†Watergate complex, moved all my stuff from Boston, and didn’t miss a day of work.¬†… June 1972. Most of the reporters in our bureau were on the road, covering the presidential campaign. Thus, I was sent out to cover the arrest of some men who had broken into one of the buildings in the Watergate complex. That CBS let me, the newest hire, hold on to Watergate as an assignment was a measure of how unimportant the story seemed:¬†… I was the only television reporter covering the early court appearances. When the five Watergate burglars asked for a bail reduction, I got my first scoop. Unlike my competitors, I was able to identify them. The next time the cameraman listened when I said, ‘Roll! That’s them!’ And so CBS was the only network to get pictures of the burglars. I was a hero at the bureau.”¬†[10]

She went on to become¬†White House¬†correspondent during the presidencies of¬†Jimmy Carter,¬†Ronald Reagan¬†and¬†George H. W. Bush. At the Republican Convention of 1980, she broke the news on CBS that Reagan’s negotiations with ex-President¬†Gerald Ford¬†had broken down and the answer to the question of who would be vice-presidential nominee was: “It’s Bush! Yes, it’s Bush!” George H. W. Bush had been standing perhaps not far away, largely off by himself, looking discouraged because he was sure he wasn’t going to be chosen.

Stahl was the moderator of¬†Face the Nation¬†between September 1983 and May 1991. In addition, she hosted¬†48 Hours Investigates¬†from 2002 to 2004. In 2002, Stahl made headlines when¬†Al Gore¬†appeared on¬†60 Minutes¬†and revealed for the first time that he would not run for president again in 2004. When¬†Katie Couric¬†was hired, CBS News asked Stahl to reduce her salary by $500,000 to accommodate Couric’s salary, bringing her salary down to $1.8 million.[11][12]¬†In October 2007¬†Nicolas Sarkozy,¬†President of France, stood up and walked away from an interview with Stahl because she asked him about his relationship with his soon-to-be estranged wife, C√©cilia.

In 1998, she appeared on the¬†NBC¬†sitcom¬†Frasier, playing herself in the episode “Desperately Seeking Closure”. In 2014, she served as a correspondent for¬†Years of Living Dangerously, a documentary show about¬†climate change.[13]

Stahl has written two books, the first of which, Reporting Live, was published in 1999:

I had decided by August 1989, in my 48th year, that I had already had the best day of my life.¬†… Then we went to¬†Rwanda¬†to see the¬†mountain gorillas,¬†Dian Fossey‘s gorillas in the mist.¬†… After two and a half hours¬†… there they were: two baby gorillas frolicking like any four-year-olds. We snapped and stared. We were right there,¬†in¬†their lives, in the middle of their open-air house. And then the silverback, the patriarch, seemed to welcome us, as three females kept grooming him.¬†… We spent one hour in their world, watching them tumble and wrestle, nurse their babies, swing in the trees, forage for food‚ÄĒvines, leaves, berries‚ÄĒ¬†… so close that a female reached out to touch me. When I went to reciprocate, the guide hit my arm with a stick.¬†“Non, madame. C’est inderdit.”¬†… What I decided that day with the gorillas in Rwanda was that the best day of your life may not have happened yet. No matter what you think.[14]

Her second book, Becoming Grandma: The Joys and Science of the New Grandparenting, which chronicles her own experiences with her grandchildren, was published in 2016.

Lesley Stahl hosting the 67th Annual Peabody Awards

She received a Doctorate of Humane Letters honoris causa from Colgate University in 2008[15] and a Doctorate of Humane Letters honoris causa from Loyola College in Maryland in 2008.

Lesley Stahl was a founding member in 2008, along with¬†Liz Smith,¬†Mary Wells Lawrence, and¬†Joni Evans, of¬†wowOwow.com, a website for “women over 40” to talk about culture, politics, and gossip.[16]¬†By the end of 2010 it had merged into¬†PureWow, a Web site aimed at younger women.

She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.[17]

Stahl is on the Board of Selectors of Jefferson Awards for Public Service.[18]

Career timeline

Bibliography

  • Stahl, Lesley (1999).¬†Reporting Live. Simon & Schuster.¬†ISBN¬†978-0-684-82930-2.
  • Stahl, Lesley (2016).¬†Becoming grandma¬†: the joys and science of the new grandparenting. Blue Rider Press.¬†ISBN¬†978-0-399-16815-4.

See also

References …

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lesley_Stahl

 

 

Story 4: Kids, What Time Is It? It is Howdy Dowdy Time — Princess Summer-Fall-Winter-Spring — Tone Deaf Elizabeth Warren aka Princess¬†Pocahontas is 99.999% White — Killing Identity Politics — Who Cares? — Lying Lunatic Leftist Losers — Videos —

Trump reacts to Elizabeth Warren releasing DNA test results

Elizabeth Warren releases DNA test results

[youtube3=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K2Ao3M3wlZE]

Elizabeth Warren’s family story

Howdy Doody -Yell Howdy Doody -Judy Tyler

Howdy Doody Time with Princesss Summer-Fall-Winter-Spring

Scott Adams РElizabeth Warren’s DNA Test, Khashoggi, and Climate Change

Liawatha Fauxcahontas Elizabeth Warren: 0.0976% Native American and 100% Pure Bovine Egesta

Couldn’t Be More Tone Deaf’: Tomi Takes on Hillary’s Latest Attack on ‘Deplorables’

Is it time for Hillary to withdraw from the public eye?

[ARCHIVES] ANDY KAUFMAN INTERVIEWING HOWDY DOODY

Warren releases results of DNA test

Senator Elizabeth Warren has released a DNA test that provides “strong evidence’’ she had a Native American in her family tree dating back 6 to 10 generations, an unprecedented move by one of the top possible contenders for the 2020 Democratic nomination for president.

Warren, whose claims to Native American blood have been mocked by President Trump and other Republicans, provided the test results to the Globe on Sunday in an effort to defuse questions about her ancestry that have persisted for years. She planned an elaborate rollout Monday of the results as she aimed for widespread attention.

The analysis of Warren’s DNA was done by Carlos D. Bustamante, a Stanford University professor and expert in the field who won a 2010 MacArthur fellowship, also known as a genius grant, for his work on tracking population migration via DNA analysis.

He concluded that ‚Äúthe vast majority‚ÄĚ of Warren‚Äôs ancestry is European, but he added that ‚Äúthe results strongly support the existence of an unadmixed Native American ancestor.‚ÄĚ

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A digest of the top political stories from the Globe, sent to your inbox Monday-Friday.

Bustamante calculated that Warren‚Äôs pure Native American ancestor appears in her family tree ‚Äúin the range of 6-10 generations ago.‚ÄĚ That timing fits Warren‚Äôs family lore, passed down during her Oklahoma upbringing, that her great-great-great-grandmother, O.C. Sarah Smith, was at least partially Native American.

RELATED: Ethnicity not a factor in Elizabeth Warren’s rise in law

Smith was born in the late 1700s. She identified as white in historical documents, though at the time Indians faced discrimination, and Smith would have had strong incentives to call herself white if possible.

The inherent imprecision of the six-page DNA analysis could provide fodder for Warren’s critics. If O.C. Sarah Smith were fully Native American, that would make Warren up to 1/32nd native. But the generational range based on the ancestor that the report identified suggests she’s between 1/64th and 1/1,024th Native American. The report notes there could be missed ancestors.

Undergoing the test and releasing the results reveal how seriously Warren is taking the attacks from Trump, who has been able to effectively caricature and diminish his national foes via nicknames and conspiracy theories. Trump pushed then President Barack Obama into releasing the long form of his birth certificate to prove what most knew was already true: He was born in America.

The move is also another indication of how seriously Warren is considering running for president. And while it’s unclear whether the test will convince Trump and his die-hard supporters, Warren will be able to point to it with other, more open-minded voters. Once Obama produced his birth certificate in 2011, the racist “birther’’ movement, which thrived on the Internet and was stoked by Trump, largely evaporated.

Warren is seeking reelection in Massachusetts and is expected to easily win a second term. She has said that she will take a ‚Äúhard look‚ÄĚ at running for the Democratic nomination for president once the midterm elections are over. She‚Äôs already released 10 years worth of her tax returns and¬†made her personnel files available to The Boston Globe, showing that ethnicity was not a factor in her rise in law.

By taking a DNA test, Warren is showing that if she runs for president, she plans to be a very different candidate than Hillary Clinton was. The 2016 Democratic nominee for president chafed at releasing personal information and was dogged throughout her campaign by her use of a private server while she was secretary of state.

RELATED: Elizabeth Warren’s Native American problem goes beyond politics

Warren provided a sample of her DNA to a private lab in Georgia in August, according to one of the senator’s aides. The data from that test was sent to Bustamante and his team for analysis. Warren received the report last week.

Warren didn’t use a commercial service, but Bustamante is on the scientific advisory board for Ancestry, which provides commercial DNA tests. He’s also consulted on a project for 23andMe, another major DNA testing company.

Warren said she was committed to releasing the report regardless of the results. However, Warren’s aides would not say whether she or any of her three siblings had previously done a commercial DNA test that would have provided them with some assurance about Bustamante’s analysis.

There were five parts of Warren’s DNA that signaled she had a Native American ancestor, according to the report. The largest piece of Native American DNA was found on her 10th chromosome, according to the report. Each human has 23 pairs of chromosomes.

‚ÄúIt really stood out,‚ÄĚ said Bustamante in an interview. ‚ÄúWe found five segments, and that long segment was pretty significant. It tells us about one ancestor, and we can‚Äôt rule out more ancestors.‚ÄĚ

He added: ‚ÄúWe are confident it is not an error.‚ÄĚ

Detecting DNA for Native Americans is particularly tricky because there is an absence of Native American DNA available for comparison. This is in part because Native American leaders have asked tribal members not to participate in genetic databases.

‚ÄúThe tribes have felt they have been exploited,‚ÄĚ explained Lawrence Brody, a senior investigator with the Medical Genomics and Metabolic Genetics Branch at the National Institutes of Health. ‚ÄúThe amount of genetic data that is available from Native Americans is sparse.‚ÄĚ

To make up for the dearth of Native American DNA, Bustamante used samples from Mexico, Peru, and Colombia to stand in for Native American. That‚Äôs because scientists believe that the groups Americans refer to as Native American came to this land via the Bering Strait about 12,000 years ago and settled in what‚Äôs now America but also migrated further south. His report explained that the use of reference populations whose genetic material has been fully sequenced was designed ‚Äúfor maximal accuracy.‚ÄĚ

RELATED: Warren defends heritage claims

Bustamante said he can tease out the markers that these South Americans would have in common with Native Americans on the North American continent.

Bustamante also compared Warren’s DNA to white populations in Utah and Great Britain to determine if the amounts of Native American markers in Warren’s sample were significant or just background noise.

Warren has 12 times more Native American blood than a white person from Great Britain and 10 times more than a white person from Utah, the report found.

Warren has come under blistering attacks from Trump for making claims of Native American heritage. His taunts of her as ‚ÄúPocahontas‚ÄĚ have become part of his standard rally monologue.

Earlier this month at rally in Iowa, Trump said he hoped Warren would run for president because it would allow him to find out ‚Äúwhether or not she has Indian blood.‚ÄĚ

In July, during a rally in Montana, Trump imagined debating Warren during the 2020 presidential election and said that he‚Äôd try to make her take a DNA test by throwing it at her onstage. ‚ÄúWe have to do it gently, because we‚Äôre in the #MeToo generation, so we have to be very gentle,‚ÄĚ Trump said.

He also offered to provide $1 million to her charity of choice if she takes the test.

Warren’s Senate campaign has used clips from Trump and his spokeswoman Sarah Sanders attacking her for making the Native American claims in a slickly produced video it planned to distribute Monday morning. It includes a scene of Warren and her three older brothers discussing the issue.

There’s even footage of Warren calling Bustamante to get the results of her DNA test.

‚ÄúThe president likes to call my mom a liar. What do the facts say?‚ÄĚ asks Warren, sitting at a desk by behind a Macintosh laptop.

‚ÄúThe facts suggest that you absolutely have Native American ancestry in your pedigree,‚ÄĚ replies Bustamante, who was also captured on film by Warren‚Äôs team.

Bustamante is considered one of the leading DNA analysts in the world. When several DNA experts were asked by the Globe, earlier this year, how they’d recommend Warren go about taking a DNA test, his name came up repeatedly.

He has never donated to Warren’s campaigns. (A different California professor with the same name donated $200 to Obama in 2008, federal records show.)

Questions over Warren’s ethnicity have dogged her since her 2012 Senate campaign. That’s when GOP operatives found archival stories in the Harvard Crimson of a Harvard Law School spokesman referring to her as a Native American as a way to show the school had a diverse faculty.

During her academic career as a law professor, she had her ethnicity changed from white to Native American at the University of Pennsylvania Law School, where she taught from 1987 to 1995, and at Harvard University Law School, where she was a tenured faculty member starting in 1995. (She was a visiting professor at Harvard during the 1992-1993 academic year.)

In an interview with the Globe published last month, Warren explained that she identified herself as Native American in the late 1980s and early 1990s as many of the matriarchs of her family were dying and she began to feel that her family stories and history were becoming lost.

Ivy League universities, like the ones where Warren taught, were under great pressure to show they had diverse staffs.

The University of Pennsylvania filled out a document explaining why it hired a white woman over minority candidates ‚ÄĒ clear evidence it didn‚Äôt view her as a Native American addition. And the Globe interviewed 31 Harvard Law School faculty members who voted on her appointment there, and all said her heritage was not a factor.

Correction: Due to a math error, a story about Elizabeth Warren misstated the ancestry percentage of a potential 6th to 10th generation relative. The generational range based on the ancestor that the report identified suggests she’s between 1/64th and 1/1,024th Native American.

Annie Linskey can be reached at annie.linskey@globe.com. Follow her on Twitter @annielinskey.

Characters

Puppet characters[

Besides Howdy Doody, the other characters in this show are:

  • Heidi Doody¬†– Introduced as a stranger who saved Buffalo Bob’s life in Africa, she was adopted as Howdy’s sister.
  • Phineas T. Bluster¬†– The resident skinflint, mayor of Doodyville and nemesis of Howdy; one of the Bluster triplets.
  • Petey Bluster¬†– Phineas’s nephew.
  • Don Jose Bluster¬†– The South American Bluster brother.
  • Hector Hamhock Bluster¬†– A rarely seen Bluster brother
  • Princess Summer Fall Winter Spring¬†– Introduced as a puppet, then played by actress¬†Judy Tyler, who had appeared opposite¬†Elvis Presley¬†in the 1957 film¬†Jailhouse Rock. After she was killed in a car accident on July 3, 1957, at the age of 24, the character was portrayed by a marionette.
  • Dilly Dally¬†– Howdy’s naive boyhood friend.
  • Inspector John J. Fadoozle¬†– “America’s No. 1 private eye” whose character was revealed as the mysterious “Mr. X” who used the pseudonym to run against Howdy for the office of President of All the Boys and Girls of America; children could vote by using ballots that were attached to the wrappers of loaves of¬†Wonder Bread, a major sponsor of the show.
  • Chief Thunderthud and Chief Featherman¬†– Two of several¬†Native American¬†characters used to emphasize the show’s western theme.
  • J. Cornelius Cobb¬†– The shopkeeper played by Nick Nicholson, who had a strong dislike for clowns.
  • Sandra the Witch
  • Capt. Windy Scuttlebut
  • Flub-a-Dub¬†– A combination of eight animals. He had a¬†duck‘s bill, a¬†cat‘s whiskers, a¬†spaniel‘s ears, a¬†giraffe‘s neck, a¬†dachshund‘s body, a¬†seal‘s flippers, a¬†pig‘s tail, and an¬†elephant‘s memory.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howdy_Doody#Characters_and_story

Did Elizabeth Warren Just Kill Identity Politics?

If the Massachusetts senator is now a person of color then the term has no meaning.

Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D., Mass.) arrives for a procedural vote on the confirmation of U.S. Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh on October 5.
Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D., Mass.) arrives for a procedural vote on the confirmation of U.S. Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh on October 5. PHOTO: MARY F. CALVERT/REUTERS

‚ÄúElizabeth Warren‚Äôs Native American Heritage‚ÄĚ is the title of a¬†new campaign video¬†promoting the senior senator from Massachusetts. Ms. Warren, a former Harvard law professor, is claiming vindication after presenting the results of a genetic test which appears to show she likely has more of a claim to Native American heritage‚ÄĒbut perhaps less of a claim‚ÄĒthan the average white person in the United States.

The likely 2020 Democratic presidential candidate has been trying to find some way to respond to questions about her longtime claim of Native American heritage given that her family doesn’t belong to a tribe.

‚ÄúWarren provided a sample of her DNA to a private lab in Georgia in August, according to one of the senator‚Äôs aides,‚Ä̬†says a report today¬†by Annie Linskey in the Boston Globe. But the senator sought a judgment on the results from Carlos Bustamante, a professor of biomedical data science at Stanford. Writes Ms. Linskey:

Warren didn’t use a commercial service, but Bustamante is on the scientific advisory board for Ancestry, which provides commercial DNA tests. He’s also consulted on a project for 23andMe, another major DNA testing company.

Warren said she was committed to releasing the report regardless of the results. However, Warren’s aides would not say whether she or any of her three siblings had previously done a commercial DNA test that would have provided them with some assurance about Bustamante’s analysis.

This column doesn’t find it odd that the senator didn’t want to rely on analysis performed by a commercial firm given her hostility to commerce generally. In any case here’s Professor Bustamante’s conclusion after studying the Warren test results:

While the vast majority of the individual’s ancestry is European, the results strongly support the existence of an unadmixed Native American ancestor in the individual’s pedigree, likely in the range of 6-10 generations ago.

This suggests that the senator is somewhere between 1/64th and 1/1024th Native American. A 2014 news account seems to provide useful context. ‚ÄúIn recent years geneticists have been uncovering new evidence about our shared heritage, and last week a team of scientists published the biggest genetic profile of the United States to date, based on a study of 160,000 people,‚Ä̬†reported¬†Carl Zimmer in the New York Times. Mr. Zimmer added:

The researchers found that European-Americans had genomes that were on average 98.6 percent European, .19 percent African, and .18 Native American.

These broad estimates masked wide variation among individuals. Based on their sample, the resarchers estimated that over six million European-Americans have some African ancestry. As many as five million have genomes that are at least 1 percent Native American in origin.

At least according to the report from Professor Bustamante, it’s possible that Sen. Warren has far less than one percent Native American ancestry, and that her genetic makeup is perhaps similar to that of the average white person in the U.S. Could this create a problem for the senator both among those who have never claimed minority status and those who believe they clearly deserve it? Ms. Warren’s Senate re-election campaign is now rolling out testimonials from academic colleagues who say she never benefited from her identification as a Native American. The Boston Globe’s Ms. Linskey has previously reported on Ms. Warren’s various racial claims:

In 1984, she contributed five recipes to a Native American cookbook entitled ‚ÄúPow Wow Chow: A Collection of Recipes From Families of the Five Civilized Tribes: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole.‚ÄĚ In the book, which was edited by her cousin and unearthed during her 2012 campaign by the Boston Herald, her name is listed as ‚ÄúElizabeth Warren, Cherokee.‚ÄĚ

Warren also listed herself as a minority in a legal directory published by the Association of American Law Schools from 1986 to 1995. She’s never provided a clear answer on why she stopped self-identifying.

She was also listed as a Native American in federal forms filed by the law schools at Harvard University and University of Pennsylvania where she worked.

And in 1996, as Harvard Law School was being criticized for lacking diversity, a spokesman for the law school told the Harvard Crimson that Warren was Native American.

Given the Bustamante analysis, Ms. Warren might have chosen to acknowledge that her claims of minority status were a stretch. But she’s instead decided to present it as vindication, even demanding on Twitter that the President donate $1 million to something called the National Indigenous Women’s Resource Center.

At a speech in July, Mr. Trump¬†discussed¬†the possibility of debating Sen. Warren in the 2020 campaign. Mr. Trump said that ‚Äúin the middle of the debate, when she proclaims she‚Äôs of Indian heritage‚Äú he would toss a DNA testing kit her way and say, ‚ÄúI will give you a million dollars, paid for by Trump, to your favorite charity if you take the test and it shows you‚Äôre an Indian.‚ÄĚ

One could argue that the President didn‚Äôt actually make the offer but instead described a hypothetical scenario. Yet by demanding a Trump payment Sen. Warren clearly seems to be asserting that she is ‚Äúan Indian.‚ÄĚ

Before facing President Trump in a 2020 debate, Sen. Warren will first need to win over the Democrats who vote in presidential primaries. If these voters accept her as a Native American then logically it suggests that most if not all Americans can also claim to be members of groups that have historically suffered discrimination. We’re all minorities now?

This column thinks it would be wonderful if politicians decided to stop separating Americans by race but doubts Ms. Warren can sell this to Democratic party activists.

https://www.wsj.com/articles/did-elizabeth-warren-just-kill-identity-politics-1539633575

 

Pocahontas

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Pocahontas
Pocahontas by Simon van de Passe 1616.jpg

Portrait engraving by Simon de Passe, 1616
Born Matoaka, later known as Amonute
c. 1596[1]
Werowocomoco, present-day Gloucester County, Virginia
Died March 1617 (aged¬†20‚Äď21)
Gravesend, Kent, Kingdom of England
Resting place St George’s Church, Gravesend
Known for Association with Jamestown colony, saving the life of John Smith, and as a Powhatan convert to Christianity
Spouse(s)
John Rolfe (m. 1614)
Children Thomas Rolfe
Parent(s) Wahunsenacawh/Chief Powhatan(father)

Pocahontas¬†(born¬†Matoaka, known as¬†Amonute,¬†c.¬†1596 ‚Äď March 1617) was a¬†Native American[2][3][4]¬†woman notable for her association with the colonial settlement at¬†Jamestown, Virginia. Pocahontas was the daughter of¬†Powhatan, the¬†paramount chief[2]¬†of a network of tributary tribal nations in the¬†Tsenacommacah, encompassing the¬†Tidewater region¬†of¬†Virginia. In a well-known historical anecdote, she saved the life of a captive of the Native Americans, the Englishman¬†John Smith, in 1607 by placing her head upon his own when her father raised his war club to execute him. Many historians doubt the veracity of this story.[5][6]

Pocahontas was captured and held for ransom by the English during Anglo-Indian hostilities in 1613. During her captivity, she converted to Christianity and took the name Rebecca. When the opportunity arose for her to return to her people, she chose to remain with the English. In April 1614, at the age of 17, she married tobacco planter John Rolfe, and in January 1615, she bore their son, Thomas Rolfe.[1]

In 1616, the Rolfes travelled to London. Pocahontas was presented to English society as an example of the¬†“civilized savage”¬†in hopes of stimulating investment in the Jamestown settlement. She became something of a celebrity, was elegantly f√™ted, and attended a¬†masque¬†at¬†Whitehall Palace. In 1617, the Rolfes set sail for Virginia, but Pocahontas died at¬†Gravesend¬†of unknown causes, aged 20 or 21. She was buried in¬†St George’s Church, Gravesend¬†in England, but her grave’s exact location is unknown, as the church has been rebuilt.[1]

Numerous places, landmarks, and products in the United States have been named after Pocahontas. Her story has been romanticized over the years, and she is a subject of art, literature, and film. Many famous people have claimed to be among her descendants through her son, including members of the First Families of Virginia, First Lady Edith Wilson, American Western actor Glenn Strange, Las Vegas performer Wayne Newton, and astronomer Percival Lowell.[7]

Early life

Pocahontas’s birth year is unknown, but some historians estimate it to have been around 1596.[1]¬†In¬†A True Relation of Virginia¬†(1608), Smith described the Pocahontas he met in the spring of 1608 as “a child of ten years old”.[8]¬†In a 1616 letter, he again described her as she was in 1608, but this time as “a child of twelve or thirteen years of age”.[9]

Pocahontas was the daughter of¬†Chief Powhatan, paramount chief of¬†Tsenacommacah, an alliance of about 30¬†Algonquian-speaking¬†groups and petty chiefdoms in¬†Tidewater, Virginia.[10]¬†Her mother’s name and origins are unknown but she was probably of lowly status. The colonist¬†Henry Spelman, who had lived among the Powhatan as an interpreter, noted that when one of the paramount chief’s many wives gave birth to a child, the mother was returned to her place of origin, to be supported there by the paramount chief until she found another husband.[11]¬†In the traditional histories of the Powhatan, Pocahontas’s mother died in childbirth.[12][13]¬†An oral history of the Mattaponi Reservation Peoples, who are descendants of the Powhatan, claims that Pocahontas’s mother was first wife of Powhatan, and that Pocahontas was named after her.[14]

Pocahontas’s childhood was probably little different from that of most girls who lived in Tsenacommacah. She would have learned how to perform what was considered women’s work: foraging for food and firewood, farming, and searching for the plant materials used in building thatched houses.[15]¬†As she grew older, she would have helped other members of Powhatan’s household with preparations for large feasts.[13]¬†Serving feasts, such as the one presented to John Smith after his capture, was a regular obligation of the¬†Mamanatowick, or paramount chief.[16]

Names

At the time Pocahontas was born, it was common for Powhatan Native Americans to be given several personal names, have more than one name at the same time, have secret names that only a select few knew, and to change their names on important occasions. Bestowed at different times, the names carried different meanings and might be used in different contexts.[17]¬†Pocahontas was no different. Early in her life, she was given a secret name, Matoaka, but later she was also known as Amonute. Matoaka means “Bright Stream Between the Hills”; Amonute has not been translated.[18][19]

According to the colonist¬†William Strachey, “Pocahontas” was a childhood nickname that probably referred to her frolicsome nature; it meant “little wanton”;[20]¬†some interpret the meaning as “playful one”.[16]¬†The 18th-century historian¬†William Stith¬†claimed that “her real name, it seems, was originally Matoax, which the Indians carefully concealed from the English and changed it to Pocahontas, out of a superstitious fear, lest they, by the knowledge of her true name, should be enabled to do her some hurt.”[21]¬†According to the anthropologist¬†Helen C. Rountree, Pocahontas “revealed [her secret name] to the English only after she had taken another religious‚ÄĒbaptismal‚ÄĒname, Rebecca”.[22]

Pocahontas’s Christian name, Rebecca, may have been a symbolic gesture to¬†Rebecca¬†of the¬†Book of Genesis¬†who, as the mother of¬†Jacob¬†and¬†Esau, was the mother of two “nations”, or distinct peoples. Pocahontas, as a Powhatan marrying an Englishman, may have been seen by herself and her contemporaries as also potentially a matriarchal figure of two distinct peoples.[23]

Title and status

Pocahontas has been considered in popular culture a¬†princess. In 1841, William Watson Waldron of¬†Trinity College, Dublin, in Ireland, published¬†Pocahontas, American Princess: and Other Poems, calling her “the beloved and only surviving daughter of the king”.[24]Pocahontas was her father’s “delight and darling”, according to the colonist¬†Captain Ralph Hamor[25]¬†but she was not in line to inherit a position as a¬†weroance, subchief, or¬†mamanatowick¬†(paramount chief). Instead, Powhatan’s brothers, sisters, and his sisters’ children all stood in line to succeed him.[26]¬†In his¬†A Map of Virginia¬†John Smith explained how matrilineal inheritance worked among the Powhatan:

His [Powhatan’s] kingdom descendeth not to his sonnes nor children: but first to his brethren, whereof he hath three namely Opitchapan,¬†Opechanncanough, and Catataugh; and after their decease to his sisters. First to the eldest sister, then to the rest: and after them to the heires male and female of the eldest sister; but never to the heires of the males.

Interactions with the English

John Smith

In this chromolithograph credited to the New England Chromo. Lith. Company, around 1870, Pocahontas saves the life of John Smith. The scene is idealized and relies on stereotypes of Native Americans rather than reliable information about the particulars of this historical moment. There are no mountains in Tidewater Virginia, for example, and the Powhatans lived not in tipis but in thatched houses. And the scene that Smith famously described in his Generall Historie (1624) did not take place outdoors but in a longhouse.

Pocahontas is most famously linked to the English colonist¬†Captain John Smith, who arrived in Virginia with a hundred other settlers in April 1607, at the behest of the¬†London Company. After building a fort on a marshy peninsula poking out into the¬†James River, the Englishmen had numerous encounters over the next several months with the people of Tsenacommacah, some of them friendly, some hostile. Then, in December 1607, while exploring on the¬†Chickahominy River, Smith was captured by a hunting party led by Powhatan’s younger brother (or close relative)¬†Opechancanough¬†and brought to Powhatan’s capital at¬†Werowocomoco. In his 1608 account, Smith describes a great feast followed by a long talk with Powhatan. He does not mention Pocahontas in relation to his capture, and claims that they first met some months later.[27]¬†[28]¬†Huber understands the meeting of Smith and Powhatan as the latter’s attempt to bring Smith, and so the English, into his chiefdom: Powhatan offered Smith rule of the town of Capahosic, which was close to Powhatan’s capital at Werowocomoco. The paramount chief thus hoped to keep Smith and his men “nearby and better under control”.[29]

In 1616, Smith wrote a letter to¬†Queen Anne¬†in anticipation of Pocahontas’s visit to England. In this new account, his capture included the threat of his own death: “at the minute of my execution”, he wrote, “she [Pocahontas] hazarded the beating out of her own brains to save mine; and not only that but so prevailed with her father, that I was safely conducted to Jamestown.”[9]¬†In his 1624¬†Generall Historie, published long after the death of Pocahontas, Smith expanded the story. Writing about himself in the third person, he explained that after he was captured and taken to the paramount chief, “two great stones were brought before Powhatan: then as many as could layd hands on him [Smith], dragged him to them, and thereon laid his head, and being ready with their clubs, to beate out his braines, Pocahontas the Kings dearest daughter, when no intreaty could prevaile, got his head in her armes, and laid her owne upon his to save him from death¬†…”[30]

In a later publication,¬†True Travels¬†(1630), Smith claimed a similar rescue by another young girl in 1602, following his capture by¬†Turks¬†in Hungary; the story resembles a popular contemporary type of moral tale, in which a Christian hero maintains his faith despite threats and intimidation.¬†Karen Ordahl Kupperman¬†suggests that Smith used such details to embroider his first account, thus producing a more dramatic, second account of his encounter with Pocahontas as a heroine worthy of reception by Queen Anne. Its later revision and publication was probably an attempt to raise his own stock and reputation; he had long since fallen from favor with the¬†London Company, which had funded the Jamestown enterprise.[31]¬†Anthropologist¬†Frederic W. Gleach, drawing on substantial ethnohistory, suggests that Smith’s second account, while substantially accurate, represents his misunderstanding of a three-stage ritual intended to adopt Smith, as representative of the English colony, into the confederacy;[32][33]¬†but not all writers are convinced, some suggesting the absence of certain corroborating evidence.[34]

Early histories did establish that Pocahontas befriended Smith and the Jamestown colony. Pocahontas often went to the settlement and played games with the boys there.[35]¬†When the colonists were starving, “every once in four or five days, Pocahontas with her attendants brought him [Smith] so much provision that saved many of their lives that else for all this had starved with hunger”.[36]¬†As the colonists expanded their settlement further, the Powhatan felt their lands were threatened, and conflicts arose again.

In late 1609, an injury from a gunpowder explosion forced Smith to return to England for medical care. The English told the Powhatans that Smith was dead. Pocahontas believed that account and hence stopped visiting Jamestown. Much later, she learned that he was living in England when she traveled there with her husband, John Rolfe.[37]

Capture

In his engraving The abduction of Pocahontas (1619), Johann Theodor de Bry depicts a full narrative. Starting in the lower left, Pocahontas (centre) is deceived by the weroance Iopassus, who holds as bait a copper kettle, and his wife, who pretends to cry. At centre right, Pocahontas is put on the boat and feasted. In the background, the action moves from the Potomac to the York River, where negotiations for a hostage trade fail and the English attack and burn a Native American village.[38]

Pocahontas’s capture occurred in the context of the¬†First Anglo-Powhatan War, a conflict between the Jamestown settlers and the Native Americans that began late in the summer of 1609.[39]¬†In the first years of war, the English took control of the¬†James River, both at its mouth and at the falls. Captain¬†Samuel Argall, in the meantime, pursued contacts with Native American groups in the northern portion of Powhatan’s paramount chiefdom. The¬†Patawomecks, who lived on the¬†Potomac River, were not always loyal to Powhatan, and living with them was a young English interpreter named¬†Henry Spelman. In March 1613, Argall learned that Pocahontas was visiting the Patawomeck village of Passapatanzy and living under the protection of the¬†Weroance¬†Iopassus (also known as Japazaws).[40]

With Spelman’s help translating, Argall pressured Iopassus to assist in Pocahontas’s capture by promising an alliance with the English against the Powhatans.[40]¬†They tricked Pocahontas into boarding Argall’s ship and held her for ransom, demanding the release of English prisoners held by her father, along with various stolen weapons and tools.[41]¬†Powhatan returned the prisoners but failed to satisfy the colonists with the number of weapons and tools he returned. A long standoff ensued, during which the English kept Pocahontas captive.

During the yearlong wait, she was held at¬†Henricus, in modern-day¬†Chesterfield County, Virginia. Little is known about her life there, although colonist Ralph Hamor wrote that she received “extraordinary courteous usage”.[42]Linwood “Little Bear” Custalow, in a 2007 book, refers to an oral tradition that during this time, Pocahontas was raped; according to Helen Rountree, “Other historians have disputed that such oral tradition survived and instead argue that any mistreatment of Pocahontas would have gone against the interests of the English in their negotiations with Powhatan. A truce had been called, the Indians still far outnumbered the English, and the colonists feared retaliation.”[43]

At this time, the minister at Henricus,¬†Alexander Whitaker, taught Pocahontas about¬†Christianity¬†and helped her improve her English. Upon her¬†baptism, Pocahontas took the¬†Christian name¬†“Rebecca”.[44]

In March 1614, the standoff built up to a violent confrontation between hundreds of English and Powhatan men on the¬†Pamunkey River. At Powhatan’s capital of Matchcot, the English encountered a group of senior Native American leaders. The English allowed Pocahontas to talk to her countrymen. When Powhatan arrived, Pocahontas reportedly rebuked him for valuing her “less than old swords, pieces, or axes”, and said that she preferred to live with the English, “who loved her”.[45]

Possible first marriage

Current Mattaponi tradition holds that Pocahontas’s first husband was Kocoum, brother of the Patawomeck¬†weroance¬†Japazaws, and that Kocoum was killed by the English after his wife’s capture in 1613.[46]¬†Today’s Patawomecks believe that Pocahontas and Kocoum had a daughter, Ka-Okee, who was raised by the Patawomecks after her father’s death and her mother’s abduction.[47]

Kocoum’s actual identity, location, and even existence have been widely debated among scholars for centuries, with several historians[who?]¬†arguing that the only mention of a “Kocoum” in any English document is taken from a brief statement written about 1616 by¬†William Strachey¬†in England that Pocahontas had been living married to a “private captaine called Kocoum” for two years.[48]¬†Since 1614 is certainly when she married John Rolfe, and no other records even hint at any previous husband, it has accordingly been suggested that when Strachey wrote of the “private captaine called Kocoum” he was mistakenly referring to Rolfe himself, with the reference being later misunderstood as one of Powhatan’s officers.[49]¬†There was a Powhatan military rank called¬†kokoraws, sometimes translated “captain”, and scholars have suggested[attribution needed]¬†that Strachey could have meant this as one of his famously divergent spellings, as a¬†gloss¬†to “Captayne”. In addition, the date of Strachey’s original statement has been widely disputed by numerous authors attempting either to argue or refute that Pocahontas had been previously married. If there was such a marriage and Kocoum was not murdered, it likely ended, according to Powhatan custom, when Pocahontas was captured.[50]

Marriage to John Rolfe

John Gadsby Chapman, The Baptism of Pocahontas (1840). A copy is on display in the Rotunda of the US Capitol.

During her stay in¬†Henricus, Pocahontas met¬†John Rolfe. Rolfe’s English-born wife, Sarah Hacker, and child, Bermuda Rolfe, had died on the way to Virginia after the wreck of the ship “Sea Venture” on the Summer Isles, also known as¬†Bermuda. Rolfe established a Virginia plantation,¬†Varina Farms, where he successfully cultivated a new strain of¬†tobacco. He was a pious man and agonized over the potential moral repercussions of marrying a heathen, though in fact Pocahontas had by this time accepted the¬†Anglican¬†faith and taken the baptismal name Rebecca. In a long letter to the governor requesting permission to wed her, he expressed his love for Pocahontas and his belief that he would be saving her soul. He wrote that he was

motivated not by the unbridled desire of carnal affection, but for the good of this plantation, for the honor of our country, for the Glory of God, for my own salvation … namely Pocahontas, to whom my hearty and best thoughts are, and have been a long time so entangled, and enthralled in so intricate a labyrinth that I was even a-wearied to unwind myself thereout.[51]

Pocahontas’s feelings for Rolfe are unknown. They were married on April 5, 1614, by chaplain¬†Richard Buck, probably at Jamestown. For two years they lived at Varina Farms, across the¬†James River¬†from Henricus. Their son,¬†Thomas, was born on January 30, 1615.[52]

Their marriage created a climate of peace between the Jamestown colonists and Powhatan’s tribes; it endured for eight years as the “Peace of Pocahontas.”[53]¬†In 1615, Ralph Hamor wrote, “Since the wedding we have had friendly commerce and trade not only with Powhatan but also with his subjects round about us.”[54]

England

The Sedgeford Hall Portrait, once thought to represent Pocahontas and Thomas Rolfe, is now believed to actually depict the wife (Pe-o-ka) and son of Osceola, Seminole Indian Chief.[55]

The Virginia Company of London had long seen one of its primary goals as the conversion of Native Americans to Christianity. With the conversion of Pocahontas and her marriage to an Englishman¬†‚Äď all of which helped bring an end to the¬†First Anglo-Powhatan War¬†‚Äď the company saw an opportunity to promote investment. The company decided to bring Pocahontas to England as a symbol of the tamed New World “savage” and the success of the Virginia colony.[56]¬†In 1616, the Rolfes travelled to England, arriving at the port of¬†Plymouth¬†on June 12.[57]¬†They journeyed to London by coach, accompanied by a group of about eleven other Powhatans, including a holy man named¬†Tomocomo.[58]¬†John Smith was living in London at the time and while Pocahontas was in Plymouth, she learned he was still alive.[59]¬†Smith did not meet Pocahontas, but wrote to Queen¬†Anne, the wife of¬†King James, urging that Pocahontas be treated with respect as a royal visitor. He suggested that if she were treated badly, her “present love to us and Christianity might turn to … scorn and fury”, and England might lose the chance to “rightly have a Kingdom by her means”.[9]

Pocahontas was entertained at various social gatherings. On January 5, 1617, she and Tomocomo were brought before the king at the old¬†Banqueting House¬†in the¬†Palace of Whitehall¬†at a performance of¬†Ben Jonson‘s¬†masque¬†The Vision of Delight. According to Smith, King James was so unprepossessing that neither Pocahontas nor Tomocomo realized whom they had met until it was explained to them afterward.[59]

Although Pocahontas was not a princess in Powhatan culture, the Virginia Company nevertheless presented her as one to the English public. The inscription on a 1616 engraving of Pocahontas, made for the company, reads:¬†“MATOAKA ALS REBECCA FILIA POTENTISS¬†: PRINC¬†: POWHATANI IMP:VIRGINI√Ü”, which means: “Matoaka, alias Rebecca, daughter of the most powerful prince of the Powhatan Empire of Virginia”. Many English at this time recognized Powhatan as the ruler of an empire, and presumably accorded to his daughter what they considered appropriate status. Smith’s letter to Queen Anne refers to “Powhatan their chief King”.[9]¬†Cleric and travel writer¬†Samuel Purchas¬†recalled meeting Pocahontas in London, noting that she impressed those she met because she “carried her selfe as the daughter of a king”.[60]¬†When he met her again in London, Smith referred to Pocahontas deferentially as a “Kings daughter”.[61]

Pocahontas was apparently treated well in London. At the masque, her seats were described as “well placed”,[62]¬†and, according to Purchas,¬†John King,¬†Bishop of London, “entertained her with festival state and pomp beyond what I have seen in his greate hospitalitie afforded to other ladies”.[63]

Not all the English were so impressed. According to Helen C. Rountree, “there is no contemporary evidence to suggest¬†… that Pocahontas was regarded [in England] as anything like royalty”. Rather, she was considered to be something of a curiosity and, according to one observer, she was merely “the Virginian woman”.[26]

Pocahontas and Rolfe lived in the suburb of¬†Brentford,¬†Middlesex, for some time, as well as at Rolfe’s family home at Heacham Hall,¬†Heacham,¬†Norfolk. In early 1617, Smith met the couple at a social gathering and later wrote that when Pocahontas saw him, “without any words, she turned about, obscured her face, as not seeming well contented”, and was left alone for two or three hours. Later, they spoke more; Smith’s record of what she said to him is fragmentary and enigmatic. She reminded him of the “courtesies she had done”, saying, “you did promise Powhatan what was yours would be his, and he the like to you”. She then discomfited him by calling him “father”, explaining Smith had called Powhatan “father” when a stranger in Virginia, “and by the same reason so must I do you”. Smith did not accept this form of address because, he wrote, Pocahontas outranked him as “a King’s daughter”. Pocahontas then, “with a well-set countenance”, said:

Were you not afraid to come into my father’s country and caused fear in him and all his people (but me) and fear you here I should call you “father”? I tell you then I will, and you shall call me child, and so I will be for ever and ever your countryman.[59]

Finally, Pocahontas told Smith that she and her fellow Native Americans had thought him dead, but her father had told Tomocomo to seek him “because your countrymen will lie much”.[59]

Death

Statue of Pocahontas in¬†Saint George’s church,¬†Gravesend,¬†Kent

In March 1617, Rolfe and Pocahontas boarded a ship to return to Virginia; the ship had sailed only as far as¬†Gravesend¬†on the¬†river Thames¬†when Pocahontas became gravely ill.[64]¬†She was taken ashore and died at the approximate age of 21. It is not known what caused her death, but theories range from¬†pneumonia,¬†smallpox, and¬†tuberculosis¬†to her having been poisoned.[65]¬†According to Rolfe, she died saying, “all must die, but tis enough that her child liveth”.[66]

Pocahontas’s funeral took place on March 21, 1617, in the parish of¬†Saint George’s, Gravesend.[67]¬†Her grave is thought to be underneath the church’s¬†chancel, though since that church was destroyed in a fire in 1727, its exact site is unknown.[68]¬†Her memory is honored with a life-size bronze statue at St. George’s Church by¬†William Ordway Partridge.[69]

Descendants and legacy

Pocahontas and her husband,¬†John Rolfe, had one child,¬†Thomas Rolfe, who was born in January 1615. The following year, Thomas’ parents travelled to London.

Pocahontas and her father,¬†Chief Powhatan, have many notable descendants, including¬†Edith Bolling Galt Wilson,¬†Woodrow Wilson‘s wife; American Western actor¬†Glenn Strange, Las Vegas entertainer¬†Wayne Newton[70]¬†as well as members of the¬†First Families of Virginia, including¬†George Wythe Randolph, Admiral¬†Richard E. Byrd, and Virginia Governor¬†Harry F. Byrd.

In 1907, Pocahontas became the first Native American to be honored on a US stamp.[71] She was a member of the inaugural class of Virginia Women in History in 2000.[72]

In July 2015, the Pamunkey Indian Tribe, descendants of the Powhatan chiefdom, of which Pocahontas was a member, became the first federally recognized tribe in the state of Virginia.[73]

Cultural representations

A 19th-century depiction

After her death, increasingly fanciful and romanticized representations of Pocahontas were produced, in which Pocahontas and Smith were romantically involved. Contemporary sources substantiate claims of their friendship, not romance.[53]¬†The first claim of their romantic involvement was in John Davis’¬†Travels in the United States of America¬†(1803)[75]

On stage

  • Miss Pocahontas¬†(Broadway musical) – Lyric Theatre, New York City – Oct 28, 1907.
  • Pocahontas¬†(ballet) by¬†Elliot Carter, Jr. – Martin Beck Theatre, New York City – May 24, 1939
  • Pocahontas¬†(musical) by Kermit Goell – Lyric Theatre (West End, London) – November 14, 1963

In dramatizations

Commemorations

  • The¬†Jamestown Exposition, held in Norfolk from April 26 to December 1, 1907, celebrated the 300th anniversary of the Jamestown settlement in 1607 as the first permanent British colony in America. In conjunction with the Exposition, three commemorative postage stamps were issued. The 5-cent portrays Pocahontas, modelled from¬†Simon van de Passe‘s 1616 engraving. About 8 million were issued.[76]

In films

Films about Pocahontas include:

In games

In literature

  • Davis, John (1803).¬†Travels in the United States of America.[75]

In music

  • Fever” by¬†Peggy Lee¬†describes an affair between Pocahontas and John Smith
  • Neil Young‘s song “Pocahontas“, on his album¬†Rust Never Sleeps¬†(1979), is based on Strachey’s account and expresses the speaker’s desire to sleep with her “as part of his romantic yearning to return to a preconquest, natural world”.[79]

A woman (Pocahontas) standing half draped in fur skin tunic holding a cross in right hand, leash in left hand and a reclining fawn.

In visual art

Namesakes

Animals

  • Pocahontas, a thoroughbred racing and breeding mare

Companies

Places

Schools

Summer Camps

Transport

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pocahontas

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Image result for cartoons pastor brunson and turkeySee the source image

See the source imageSee the source image

See the source imageSee the source image

 

 

Story 1:¬†Pastor Andrew Brunson¬†After Two Years Held By Turkey For Alledgedly Abetting Terrorist Groups and Espionage,¬† Convicted, Sentence Commuted and Freed To Go Home — Videos —

Special Report w/ Bret Baier 10/12/18 | Breaking Fox News Today | October 12, 2018

Turkish court releases Pastor Brunson from house arrest

Turkish court frees American pastor Andrew Brunson

Turkey: US pastor Andrew Brunson returns to house after release by court

US pastor Andrew Brunson leaves Turkey

Trump says freed Christian pastor Andrew Brunson could meet with him in the Oval Office as soon as TOMORROW after Turkish court freed him following ‘terrorism’ arrest

  • Andrew Brunson faced life in jail if convicted¬†of terror charges and espionage
  • The pastor, originally from North Carolina, had lived in Turkey for 20 years
  • President Donald Trump has said on Twitter that Turkey must free Brunson, 50
  • Trump’s tariff on Turkish steel and aluminum imports triggered a currency crisis
  • President now says Brunson will meet him in the Oval Office, perhaps Saturday
  • He insisted no deal was struck for Brunson’s release¬†

Traveling in Ohio, President Donald Trump told reporters that it was ‘good news’ and he understands that Brunson is ‘in good shape.’¬†¬†Trump has long pressed Turkey for the pastor’s release.

‘He‚Äôs going to be coming to the Oval Office, most likely on Saturday,’ the president said in Ohio. ‘But we‚Äôre very honored to have him back here with us. He suffered greatly but we‚Äôre very appreciative of a lot of people, a lot of people.’

US pastor Brunson arrives at Adnan Menderes airport in Izmir, after being freed

US pastor Brunson arrives at Adnan Menderes airport in Izmir, after being freed

US pastor Andrew Craig Brunson (down L), is escorted to his home in Izmir, Turkey, before heading to the airport to board a US military plane to begin his journey back to the United States after a court freed him

US pastor Andrew Craig Brunson (down L), is escorted to his home in Izmir, Turkey, before heading to the airport to board a US military plane to begin his journey back to the United States after a court freed him

‘We went through a system and we got him out. We tried to get him out for a long time. This has nothing to do with anything and there‚Äôs no deal there at all, there‚Äôs no deal,’ he insisted.

The White House said it was still ‘deeply concerned about the continued detention of other United States citizens in Turkey and around the world, and urge the resolution of all these cases in a transparent and fair manner.’

The Turkish court’s decision to lift judicial controls meant that evangelical pastor Brunson, at the heart of a diplomatic spat between the two countries, can leave Turkey and return to the United States.

The trial of pastor Andrew Craig Brunson (pictured), which has huge implications for U.S.-Turkey relations, ended Friday with an order to release him ‚Äď a move that allows him to leave the country

President Donald Trump told reporters in Ohio that Brunson will soon meet with him in the Oval Office

The White House said that despite the release of Brunson (shown in the back seat) it was still 'deeply concerned about the continued detention of other United States citizens in Turkey and around the world, and urge the resolution of all these cases in a transparent and fair manner.'

Brunson’s arrest in 2016 sparked a diplomatic dispute between Turkey and the Trump administration, which had threatened new sanctions against the Erdogan government.

President Donald Trump tweeted¬†‚Äď after international press reported the verdict ‚Äď that he was ‘[w]orking very hard on Pastor Brunson!’

He later added in a second tweet: ‘My thoughts and prayers are with Pastor Brunson, and we hope to have him safely back home soon!’

And then a third hit Twitter: ‘PASTOR BRUNSON JUST RELEASED. WILL BE HOME SOON!’

Fahrettin Altun, communications director for Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, insisted that Turkish courts are independent from governments, including Trump’s.

‘We would like to remind him once again that Turkey is a democratic country with the rule of law, and that Turkish courts are independent, he told reporters. ‘No body, authority, office or person may issue orders or instructions to the courts or to judges in the exercise of their powers.’

Pamela Brunson, 75, the mother of the pastor, was at her home in Black Mountain, a town in North Carolina near Asheville, when she learned of the news from a Reuters reporter calling about the court’s decision.

A U.S. embassy official escorted Norine Brunson, the wife of Andrew Brunson, before his trial in Izmir, Turkey, early Friday, October 12

US pastor Andrew Brunson (C) travels in a police vehicle escorted by Turkish police as he enters Aliaga Prison Court at Aliaga District in Izmir

‘They have?’ she said, her voice quavering. ‘Well, we were at an all-night prayer meeting during the trial and we got home and we fell asleep. We were up all night. Praise God! I’m so excited! Oh that’s wonderful! Thank you so much for letting us know. We’re so happy.’

She brought her husband, Ron, near the phone as the reporter read aloud some of a published Reuters report about the proceedings in Turkey.

‘We are overjoyed that God has answered the prayers of so many people around the world,’ she said.

In Turkey, witnesses said Brunson wept as the decision was announced. Before the judge’s ruling, the pastor told the court: ‘I am an innocent man. I love Jesus, I love Turkey.’

The fourth hearing of the case against Brunson took place in a prison complex near the western Turkish city of Izmir.

Brunson, an evangelical pastor accused of terror-related charges and espionage, arrived in a secured convoy before daybreak. He had faced up to 35 years in jail.

Brunson, 50, has lived in Turkey for more than two decades. He rejected the charges and strongly maintained his innocence.

 
President Donald Trump tweeted after international press reported Brunson's release that he was '[w]orking very hard on Partor Brunson, later adding his 'thoughts and prayers' and a prediction that he will have a safe return to the United States
President Donald Trump tweeted after international press reported Brunson’s release that he was ‘[w]orking very hard on Partor Brunson, later adding his ‘thoughts and prayers’ and a prediction that he will have a safe return to the United States

He is one of thousands caught up in the widespread government crackdown that followed a failed coup against the Turkish government in July 2016.

Prosecutors accuse Brunson of committing crimes on behalf of terror groups, linking him to outlawed Kurdish militants and a network led by a US-based Turkish cleric who is accused of orchestrating the coup attempt.

The U.S. maintained that he was being held unjustly, and repeatedly called for his release.

The new hearing came at a time of a new but growing alignment between the U.S. and Turkey over the suspected murder of Jamal Khashoggi, a Saudi journalist who lived in America and who is feared to have been killed inside the Gulf kingdom’s Istanbul consulate.

Turkish police sources have leaked information to a number of news outlets that the Turkish government believes that the Saudi Arabian government ordered Khashoggi’s murder.

Some commentators have suggested that in order to procure America intervention – particularly against the Saudis, who Trump considers a firm ally ‚Äď Turkey should release all of its American hostages ‚Äď starting with Pastor Brunson.

State Department spokeswoman Heather Nauert told reporters Thursday that the US was hopeful he will soon go free, but said she was unaware of any agreement for his release.

A car carrying Norine Brunson, wife of pastor Andrew Brunson, arrives at the Aliaga Prison and Courthouse complex in Izmir

Turkish security officials stand outside a courthouse before a convoy with US pastor Andrew Brunson sitting inside a car arrives for his trial in Izmir

Norine Brunson wife of American pastor Andrew Brunson, departs for her husband's court hearing. Brunson has been under house arrest in Izmir, Turkey while awaiting trial

President Trump has posted a number of tweets about Brunson's case, demanding his release and threatening sanctions on Turkey 

President Trump has posted a number of tweets about Brunson’s case, demanding his release and threatening sanctions on Turkey

The pastor, who is originally from Black Mountain, North Carolina, was imprisoned for nearly two years ‚Äď detained in October 2016 and formally arrested in December that year ‚Äď before being placed under house arrest on July 25 for health reasons.

The court’s decision failed to improve tensions between the two NATO allies and Washington slapped sanctions on two Turkish officials and doubled tariff on Turkish steel and aluminum imports.

Those moves in August, coupled with concerns over the government’s economic management, helped trigger a Turkish currency crisis.

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has resisted demands for Brunson’s release, insisting that the courts are independent.

But he had previously suggested a possible swap of Brunson and the Pennsylvania-resident Fethullah Gulen – the cleric accused of being behind the coup.

Turkish police officers stand near the residence of US pastor Andrew Brunson, who is being held under house arrest in Izmir

Official car of Charge d'Affaires of the U.S. Mission to Turkey Jeffrey M. Hovenier (not pictured) arrives to visit US pastor Andrew Brunson, who has been accused of abetting terrorist groups and supporting Fethullah Gulen, the cleric blamed for the failed coup attempt in 2016

Official car of Charge d’Affaires of the U.S. Mission to Turkey Jeffrey M. Hovenier (not pictured) arrives to visit US pastor Andrew Brunson, who has been accused of abetting terrorist groups and supporting Fethullah Gulen, the cleric blamed for the failed coup attempt in 2016

A person involved in efforts to free Andrew Brunson say the 50-year-old pastor from North Carolina could be freed at his next court appearance on Friday. The person spoke on condition of anonymity because officials had not yet reached a final agreement on the release and it could still fall through

A person involved in efforts to free Andrew Brunson say the 50-year-old pastor from North Carolina could be freed at his next court appearance on Friday. The person spoke on condition of anonymity because officials had not yet reached a final agreement on the release and it could still fall through

Brunson led a small congregation in the Izmir Resurrection Church. The US Commission on International Religious Freedom, with representatives monitoring the trial, has listed him as a ‘prisoner of conscience.’

William Devlin, an evangelical pastor from New York spoke to reporters outside the prison, saying hundreds of thousands of Christians are praying for Brunson’s release.

Brunson’s lawyer took the case to Turkey’s highest court last week seeking his release.

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6268415/American-pastor-arrest-treason-enraged-Trump-court-released-TODAY.html

 

Story 2: Missing Journalist Presumed Killed By Saudi Government — Videos —

How the U.S. should respond to Jamal Khashoggi’s disappearance

Turkey has video evidence of journalist’s killing in Saudi consulate, source says

What’s behind the Arab silence over Khashoggi fate? l Inside Story

Where is Jamal Khashoggi? Saudi Arabia denies abduction of missing journalist

Alleged Saudi Murder of Washington Post Columnist Prompts Calls to Halt U.S. Relations with Regime

Saudi Arabia’s missing princes – BBC Newsnight

How this young prince seized power in Saudi Arabia

‘He was interrogated, tortured and then murdered’: Arabic audio handed to the U.S. ‘proves Saudi critic WAS killed at consulate before 15-man assassination squad sneaked his body to consul general’s home’

  • The Washington Post reports journalist Jamal Khashoggi was beaten, killed and dismembered October 2 at the Saudi Arabia Consulate in Istanbul, Turkey
  • Audio recording reportedly lays out the story as voices are heard speaking Arabic but Turkish authorities are reluctant to release it
  • Sources believe the man who split his time between the US and Istanbul was victim of a plan to lure him to KSA for punishment after his critiques
  • John R. Bradley says Khashoggi ‘had dirt’ on Saudi ties to Osama bin Laden
  • He also says Crown Prince considered him a threat to his vision for the kingdom¬†

The government in Turkey claims to have evidence that US-based journalist Jamal Khashoggi was murdered at the Saudi Arabia embassy after the critic of the country went to get a visa for his upcoming wedding.

He was captured on CCTV footage entering the building in Istanbul October 2 and a source has told The Washington Post he was killed and then dismembered by members of security.

‘The voice recording from inside the embassy lays out what happened to Jamal after he entered,’ the insider told the newspaper that Khashoggi, 59, worked for.

‘You can hear his voice and the voices of men speaking Arabic ‚Ķ You can hear how he was interrogated, tortured and then murdered.’

The Washington Post reports journalist Jamal Khashoggi was beaten and killed October 2 at the Saudi Arabia Consulate in Istanbul, Turkey

1.14pm: Jamal Khashoggi, right, at Saudi consulate in Istanbul

One of them, a Mercedes Vito, stops for several hours at Saudi consul general's residence

On the move - 3.08pm: Vehicles with diplomatic plates leave the Istanbul consulate

On the move – 3.08pm: Vehicles with diplomatic plates leave the Istanbul consulate

The audio reportedly hold the key to the ‘gruesome’ goings on that day but the Post reports the Turkish officials have been reluctant to release the recording as it may give away how they spy on foreign entities that are based there.

Recordings allegedly are very ‘persuasive’ in revealing the journalist was ‘beaten’ before various other details that have been shared with American officials took place. It’s not clear if the US side has listened directly to the alleged evidence however.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia denied the claims something happened to the man – who has been known to critique KSA – inside the consulate and state he left unharmed.

Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman has recently been promoted as the member of the royal family that has pushed forward for one of the strictest Middle Eastern countries to take a more liberal approach to culture.

Khashoggi wasn’t necessarily supportive of his vision however.

However, the Post reports that even before the journalist’s plan to go to Saudi, some people connected to the US government believed Salman was involved in a plan to lure him back.

Mr Khashoggi was critical of some of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman's (above) policies

One official said there was no evidence to support that claim which included speculation the team of 15 men in the consulate planned to take him to Saudi Arabia initially and didn’t arrive with the intention to kill him.

The Washington Post was told the audio reveals the team went to the home of the Saudi consul general after the incident and staff were instructed to go home earlier than usual.

It is believed a car discreetly took the body of Khashoggi out of the consulate and to the property two hours after he went in.

The report also refers to at least one phone call from inside the consulate worth noting.

President Donald Trump had commented on the disappearance but stands by his decision to sell arms to the kingdom. The US leader had shared if he didn’t make the sale the wealthy country would simply buy from Russia instead.

Democrat Senator Bob Corker believes that as more of the story unfolds Trump may regret his decision.

‘I shared with him before this happened, please do not push to have any arms sales brought up right now because they will not pass. It will not happen. With this, I can assure it won’t happen for a while,’ he added to reporter Wednesday.

The Saudi ambassador in the United States is expected to answer to officials in the country when he returns from a trip, State Department spokeswoman Heather Nauert said at a media briefing.

She said: ‘We have said to him that we expect information upon his return to the United States.’

Saudi Arabia targeted Jamal Khashoggi (pictured) because the journalist knew about the kingdom's ties to al-Qaeda in the run-up to 9/11, a former colleague has said

In an article called for The Spectator , Bradley, who worked alongside Mr Khashoggi at Saudi daily Arab News, reveals Mr Khashoggi 'had dirt' on the kingdom's links to al-Qaeda before the terror attacks on September 11, 2001

Further evidence that Mr Khashoggi never left the consulate include screen grabs from a WhatsApp chat showing he used his phone minutes before entering the building - and then never again

Mr Khashoggi had been living in self-imposed exile in the US since late 2017, fearing arrest back home.

John R. Bradley ‚Äď who is also a former colleague of Mr Khashoggi’s ‚Äď has revealed exactly why the kingdom wants him dead.

In an article called for¬†The Spectator, Bradley, who worked alongside Mr Khashoggi at Saudi daily Arab News, reveals Khashoggi ‘had dirt’ on the kingdom’s links to al-Qaeda before the terror attacks on September 11, 2001.¬†

Bradley believes the Saudis may have also worried that he had become a US asset.

Earlier this year, Mr Khashoggi had established a new political party in the US called Democracy for the Arab World.

But Mr Khashoggi’s recent rejection of the offer to return to Saudi Arabia as an advisor ‚Äď a snub to the Crown Prince – may have been the final straw.

Friends of Mr Khashoggi told the Washington Post that for several months, senior Saudi officials were offering him protection, ‘even a high-level job working for the government’ if the critic returned to the kingdom – but he was sceptical of such offers.

He was the most well-known political pundit in the Arab world with more than two million followers on Twitter.

In his columns, Bradley says, he urged Crown Prince Mohammed to embrace the rise of political Islam, rather than western-style democracy.

Last month, he criticized the Saudi war in Yemen, which is closely identified with Crown Prince Mohammed.

‘Saudi Arabia must face the damage from the past three-plus years of war in Yemen,’ he wrote in the Washington Post on September 11.

Hatice Cengiz, 36, who waited outside for hours for her fiance Khashoggi to return, has spoken of being left in a 'state of deep confusion and sadness'

Despite there being a number of visible CCTV cameras - ringed in red - Saudi Arabia claims none of them worked on the day in question

TIMELINE: WHAT HAS HAPPENED IN MR KHASHOGGI’S DISAPPEARANCE

OCTOBER 2

03:28: Gulf Stream IV private jet carrying suspected Saudi agents arrives at Istanbul airport.

05:05: The group checking into two hotels nearby to the Saudi consulate building.

12:13: Several diplomatic vehicles are filmed arriving at the consulate, allegedly carrying some of the Saudi agents.

13:06: Jamal Khashoggi is last seen on WhatsApp. He then hands his mobile to his fiancée Hatice Cengiz.

13:14: Khashoggi enters the consulate building.

13.24: A message is delivered to Khashoggi’s WhatsApp ‚Äď but it is never read.

15:08: Vehicles leave the consulate and are filmed arriving at the nearby Saudi consul’s residence.

17:15: A second private jet carrying a number of suspected Saudi officials lands in Istanbul.

17:33: Khashoggi’s Turkish fianc√©e, Hatice Cengiz, is seen on CCTV waiting outside the consulate.

18:20: One of the private jets departs from Istanbul airport.

21:00: The final plane leaves Istanbul.

OCTOBER 3

The Washington Post, for whom Khashoggi writes opinion pieces, raises the alarm, saying Khashoggi has not been seen since he entered the consulate.

OCTOBER 4

After an initial period of silence, Saudi Arabia says Khashoggi had disappeared ‘after he left the consulate building’.

*All times in Istanbul time.

On Thursday, the chairman of the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee said sanctions would have to be imposed at the ‘highest levels’ of the Saudi government if it were found that the government was behind the disappearance and reported death of Mr Khashoggi.

It comes as Turkish investigators prepared to enter the Saudi consulate in Istanbul where he was last seen.

‘If it turns out to be what we all think it is today but don’t know, there will have to be significant sanctions placed at the highest levels,’ Republican Senator Bob Corker told reporters at the US Capitol.

Corker added: ‘You can¬īt go around killing journalists.’

Global pressure has mounted on Saudi Arabia, a close US ally, over the whereabouts of Mr Khashoggi, who entered the consulate to get documents for his planned marriage last week.

His Turkish fiancee, Hatice Cengiz, who was waiting outside, said he never re-appeared.

‘I have to find out what happened … and we’re probably getting closer than you might think,’ President Trump said in an interview on Fox & Friends.

She also shared her heart-break in an opinion piece for the Post.

‘We were in the middle of making wedding plans, life plans. After the consulate, we were going to buy appliances for our new home and set a date. All we needed was a piece of paper,’ she wrote.¬†‘Jamal is a valuable person, an exemplary thinker and a courageous man who has been fighting for his principles. I don‚Äôt know how I can keep living if he was abducted or killed in Turkey.’

It comes as a witness claimed to have heard screams for help moments before Mr Khashoggi disappeared from the Saudi consulate.

The source, who was inside the consulate last Tuesday afternoon when Mr Khashoggi arrived to pick up official documents, has spoken to investigators.

They said they heard ‘sounds of loud screams and shouting, as well as calls for help and the sound of a struggle and then sudden silence,’ according to¬†Al Jazeera.

Further evidence that Mr Khashoggi never left the consulate emerged, as screenshots of his WhatsApp account shows he last used his mobile phone minutes before entering the building – when he was sent a link to a MailOnline article regarding a prominent Saudi.

The screenshots, obtained by NBC News, show the WhatsApp conversation between Mr Khashoggi and a US friend, which indicated that the last time he was active on his phone was at 1.06pm Istanbul time.

Just eight minutes later, at 1.14pm, he was caught on CCTV as he entered the Saudi Arabian consulate.

The friend sent a message to Mr Khashoggi at 1.24pm – a message which was received, but never read.

Investigators are confident they may be able to discover Mr Khashoggi’s fate, using data collected from his Apple Watch – which was connected to the phone he left with Ms Cengiz.

Britain warned Saudi Arabia of ‘serious consequences’ if¬† it turns out Mr Khashoggi was murdered by his own people.

‘People who have long thought of themselves as Saudi’s friends are saying this is a very, very serious matter,’ Foreign Secretary Jeremy Hunt said.

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan challenged Saudi Arabia to provide CCTV images to back up its version that Mr Khashoggi had left the consulate safely, indicating he did not find the current Saudi explanations sufficient.

‘It’s not possible for us [Turkey] to stay silent regarding an incident like this,’ Erdogan said.

‘Is it possible there were no camera systems in a consulate, in an embassy? Is it possible that there was no Saudi camera system where this incident took place?’

‘If a bird flew, or a fly or a mosquito appeared, the systems would capture this; they (Saudi Arabia) have the most cutting-edge systems,’ he was quoted as saying.

The identities of an alleged 15-member assassination squad surfaced.

The team is said to include a Saudi special forces officer, members of the royal guard and a senior forensics expert.

Police were seen entering the consulate this week but it is understood the Saudis rescinded an offer to allow forensic experts onto the premises after details of the Saudi identities emerged.

Riyadh has insisted Mr Khashoggi left the building alive and murder claims are ‘baseless’.

It says CCTV at the consulate were not working on the day in question.

Story 3: Major Security Breach at Facebook With — Facebook Changes The Lock — Videos —

Facebook says hackers accessed data of 29M users

Facebook Purges Accounts of Hundreds for Absolutely No Explicable or Cogent Reason

Former hacker weighs in on Facebook’s big security breach

Facebook security breach: How to know if you got hacked

Facebook security breach affects tens of millions of accounts

Facebook confirms 50m accounts were hacked

Real Future: What Happens When You Dare Expert Hackers To Hack You (Episode 8)

Hackers Reveal How They Make Money Breaking Into Companies | Inc.

21st Century Hackers – Documentary 2018

Inside Russia’s Hacker Underworld

10 Greatest Hackers Of All Time

How to Know If Your Facebook Account Has Been Hacked

How to Know If Your Facebook Account Has Been HackedFor the second time this year, hackers have attacked millions of Facebook accounts. The social network announced last week that about 50 million users were recently hacked.

The hacking occurred because of a flaw in Facebook‚Äôs ‚ÄúView As‚ÄĚ feature, which allows you to see your profile as others do.¬†Users can type in a person‚Äôs name to get an understanding of what can be seen when a particular person is viewing their page.

This feature has been susceptible to attack since an update that occurred in July 2017.

Affected access tokens, which are like digital keys that allow a person to access their account without having to log in each time, were reset, forcing 50 million users plus an additional 40 million users to manually log back into their accounts. So if you were automatically logged out on all of your devices on the morning of Friday, Sept. 28, then there’s reason to believe your account was susceptible to the vulnerability.

Facebook said it did this as a precautionary step, logging out anyone who used the ‚ÄúView As‚ÄĚ feature whether their account was actually affected or not. Users who were logged out do not need to change their password to be protected. The rightful owners of affected accounts will be able to log in with their current username and password.

Currently, the ‚ÄúView As‚ÄĚ feature is not available while Facebook works to rectify the problem, those who try to use this feature should see an error message.

When Facebook announced the attack on its blog last Friday, it said affected users would receive a notification at the top of their News Feed when logging back into their account explaining what happened and what steps to take moving forward.

If you received this notification, you can select ‚ÄúLearn More‚ÄĚ to get an understanding of how this breach will affect you. If you did not receive a notification at the top of your News Feed, your account was probably not affected by this security issue.

If you want to be extra safe, go to Settings‚ÄstSecurity and Login‚ÄstWhere You‚Äôre Logged In to see if there are any unfamiliar devices attached to your account.

Facebook co-founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg said the company isn’t sure about the source of the attack; nor is it clear if this breach led to users’ information being stolen or misused. The investigation is ongoing and those affected will be updated accordingly as the tech company learns more about the hack and the motives behind it.

The full extent of the breach is not known, but the company has alerted law enforcement and is working with the FBI to get to the bottom of the issue.

https://blogdice.com/how-to-know-if-your-facebook-account-has-been-hacked/

Hackers accessed personal information of 30 million Facebook users

Almost 30 million Facebook users’ phone numbers and email addresses were accessed by hackers in the biggest security breach in the company’s history, Facebook said Friday. The attackers accessed even more details on 14 million of those users, including the area where they live, their relationship status, their religion, and part of their search history.

The FBI is “actively investigating” the breach, Guy Rosen, a Facebook vice-president, told reporters on a call Friday. He said the FBI has asked the company”not to discuss who may be behind this attack” or to share other details that could compromise its investigation.
The company said that it may still not know the full extent of the attack and wasn’t ruling out the possibility of other “smaller-scale attacks” linked to the breach. The company said it will continue to investigate “other ways the people behind this attack used Facebook.”
The new details come two weeks after¬†Facebook first announced¬†that attackers had access to 50 million users’ accounts — meaning they could have logged in as those users. Facebook said on Friday that, “We now know that fewer people were impacted than we originally thought,” and said that 30 million people had been impacted.
For the 14 million worst hit by the breach, the attackers were able to access the following information, Facebook said: “username, gender, locale/language, relationship status, religion, hometown, self-reported current city, birthdate, device types used to access Facebook, education, work, the last 10 places they checked into or were tagged in, website, people or Pages they follow, and the 15 most recent searches.”
Facebook said it will send a message to the 30 million users affected in the coming days and will be posting information to its help center.
Facebook is regulated by Irish authorities in Europe as its European headquarters is located there. A spokesperson for the Irish data regulator said of Friday’s announcement, “The update from Facebook today is significant now that Facebook has confirmed that the personal data of millions of users was taken by the perpetrators of the attack.”
The attack prompted Facebook to take the unprecedented step of logging out the 50 million users whose accounts were exposed and logged out another 40 million users as a precautionary measure.
The attackers exploited a series of bugs on Facebook’s platform. The vulnerability, Facebook said, had existed since July 2017. It wasn’t patched until last month, after the company’s engineers noticed some unusual activity that turned out to be the attack.
Despite Friday’s announcement, there are¬†still many details¬†about the hack that have not been made public, including who was behind it and if the attackers were targeting particular users or countries.

Was I hacked?

To find out if you are among the 30 million people whose information was accessed, you can click here to¬†go to the Facebook help center.¬†You need to be logged into Facebook. Scroll to the bottom of the page and you’ll find details about your account in a blue box titled, “Is my Facebook account impacted by this security issue?”

 

Facebook Hack Included Search History and Location Data of Millions

Facebook said Friday that a security breach had affected 30 million users, 20 million fewer than originally thought.CreditCreditWilfredo Lee/Associated Press

By Mike Isaac

SAN FRANCISCO ‚ÄĒ Facebook said Friday that an¬†attack on its computer systems¬†that was announced two weeks ago had affected 30 million users, about 20 million fewer than it estimated earlier.

But the personal information that was exposed was far more intimate than originally thought, adding to Facebook’s challenges as it investigates what was probably the most substantial breach of its network in the company’s 14-year history.

Detailed information was stolen from the Facebook profiles of about 14 million of the 30 million users. The data was as specific as the last 15 people or things they had searched for on Facebook and the last 10 physical locations they had ‚Äúchecked into.‚ÄĚ

Other personal details were also exposed, like gender, religious affiliation, telephone number, email addresses and the types of computing devices used to reach Facebook.

The hackers did not gain access to account passwords or credit card information, Facebook said.

‚ÄúWe have been working around the clock to investigate the security issue we discovered and fixed two weeks ago so we can help people understand what information the attackers may have accessed,‚ÄĚ Guy Rosen, vice president of product management, wrote in a¬†blog post¬†on Friday.

While Facebook has cautioned that the attack was not as large as it had originally anticipated ‚ÄĒ it forced 90 million users to log out so the security of their profiles would reset ‚ÄĒ the details of what was stolen worried security experts. The data can be used for all sorts of schemes by sophisticated hackers.

‚ÄúHackers have some sort of a goal,‚ÄĚ said Oren J. Falkowitz, chief executive of the cybersecurity company Area 1 Security and a former National Security Agency official. ‚ÄúIt‚Äôs not that their motivation is to attack Facebook, but to use Facebook as a lily pad to conduct other attacks.‚ÄĚ

An attacker may use that information to conduct sophisticated ‚Äúphishing attacks,‚ÄĚ a method used to get into financial accounts, health records or other important personal databases, Mr. Falkowitz said.

‚ÄúOnce you‚Äôve become a target, it never ends,‚ÄĚ he said.

The breach was disclosed at the worst possible time for Facebook, which is grappling with a series of crises that have shaken user trust in the world’s largest social network.

Over the last year, Facebook has faced repeated criticism that it hasn’t been doing enough to protect the personal information of its more than two billion regular users.

In March, Facebook was hit by revelations that Cambridge Analytica, a British consulting firm that had worked for the Trump campaign, had gained access to the private information of up to 87 million users.

The company is also dealing with concerns that disinformation on its platforms has affected elections and has even led to deaths in several countries. On Thursday, Facebook disclosed that it had removed hundreds of accounts and pages used to spread disinformation in the United States. While Russian agents had used Facebook and other social media to incite conflict before the 2016 election, domestic sources of false or misleading posts have jumped into the fray, the company said.

Disinformation has had dire results outside the United States. In Sri Lanka, Myanmar and other countries, hundreds of people have been killed, partly because of the rampant spread of misinformation across social networks and other internet sites.

Former employees have also taken to criticizing Facebook. Brian Acton, a co-founder of the Facebook-owned smartphone application WhatsApp, has called for people to delete their Facebook accounts.

The breach could affect users’ willingness to use Facebook products. On Monday, Facebook debuted Portal, the company’s first hardware device built from the ground up, for high-definition video calls. The product asks users to install a camera in their living rooms.

Facebook first found hints of suspicious activity across its network in early September when security engineers noticed a flurry of activity around the ‚ÄúView As‚ÄĚ feature, a way for users to check on what information other people can see about them. It was built to give users move control over their privacy.

More than a week later, Facebook determined that the activity was an attack on its systems, focused on three interconnected vulnerabilities in the company’s software.

Those flaws were compounded by a bug in Facebook‚Äôs video-uploading program for birthday celebrations, a software feature that was introduced in July 2017. The flaw allowed the attackers to steal so-called access tokens ‚ÄĒ digital keys that allow access to an account.

Facebook fixed the bugs and alerted users on Sept. 28 that the accounts of about 50 million users had been compromised.

In the days since, Facebook has scrambled to figure out how things went wrong, who could be responsible for the attack and what the attackers planned to do with the information.

In a conference call with reporters on Friday, Mr. Rosen declined to answer who might be responsible for the attack or how the information could be used.

Facebook engineers are working closely with the Federal Bureau of Investigation on the hack. F.B.I. officials have asked Facebook not to share details on the suspected identities of the attackers for fear of compromising the investigation.

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Columbus Day

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Columbus Day
Desembarco de Colón de Dióscoro Puebla.jpg

First Landing of Columbus on the Shores of the New World; painting by Dióscoro Puebla(1862)
Observed by Various countries in the Americas, Spain, Italy, various Little Italys around the world.
Type Historical
Significance
Date October 12 (actual/traditional); second Monday in October (observed in the United States)
2017 date October 9
2018 date October 8
2019 date October 14
2020 date October 12
Frequency Annual

Columbus Day¬†is a national holiday in many countries of the¬†Americas¬†and elsewhere which officially celebrates the anniversary of¬†Christopher Columbus‘s¬†arrival in the Americas¬†on October 12, 1492. The landing is celebrated as “Columbus Day” in the¬†United States, as “D√≠a de¬†la Raza” (“Day of the Race”) in some countries in¬†Latin America, as “D√≠a de la Hispanidad” and “Fiesta Nacional” in¬†Spain, where it is also the¬†religious festivity of¬†la Virgen del Pilar, as¬†D√≠a de las Am√©ricas¬†(Day of the Americas) in¬†Belize¬†and¬†Uruguay, as¬†D√≠a del Respeto a la Diversidad Cultural(Day of Respect for Cultural Diversity) in¬†Argentina, and as¬†Giornata Nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo¬†or¬†Festa Nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo¬†in¬†Italy¬†as well as in¬†Little Italys¬†around the world.[1][2]¬†As the day of remembrance of Our Lady of the Pillar, 12 October had been declared a religious feast day throughout the¬†Spanish Empire¬†in 1730; the secular¬†Fiesta de la Raza Espa√Īola¬†was first proposed by¬†Faustino Rodr√≠guez-San Pedro y D√≠az-Arg√ľelles¬†in 1913. In recent years, celebration of the holiday has faced some opposition from various organizations.

United States observance

History

Stylized graphic from the United States Department of Defense

Celebration of Christopher Columbus’s voyage in the¬†early United States¬†is recorded from as early as 1792, when the¬†Tammany Society¬†in New York City[3]¬†(for whom it became an annual tradition)[4][5]¬†and also the¬†Massachusetts Historical Society¬†in Boston celebrated the 300th anniversary of Columbus’¬†landing¬†in the¬†New World.[6][7]¬†President¬†Benjamin Harrison¬†called upon the people of the¬†United States¬†to celebrate Columbus’s landing in the New World on the 400th anniversary of the event. During the anniversary in 1892, teachers, preachers, poets and politicians used rituals to teach ideals of patriotism. These rituals took themes such as citizenship boundaries, the importance of loyalty to the nation, and the celebration of¬†social progress.[8][9][10]

Many Italian-Americans observe Columbus Day as a celebration of their heritage, and the first such celebration was held in New York City on October 12, 1866.[11] The day was first enshrined as a legal holiday in the United States through the lobbying of Angelo Noce, a first generation Italian, in Denver. The first statewide holiday was proclaimed by Colorado governor Jesse F. McDonald in 1905, and it was made a statutory holiday in 1907.[12] In April 1934, as a result of lobbying by the Knights of Columbus and New York City Italian leader Generoso Pope, Congress and President Franklin Delano Roosevelt proclaimed October 12 a federal holiday under the name Columbus Day.[12][13][14]

Since 1971 (Oct. 11), the holiday has been fixed to the second Monday in October,[15] coincidentally exactly the same day as Thanksgiving in neighboring Canada fixed since 1957. It is generally observed nowadays by banks, the bond market, the U.S. Postal Service, other federal agencies, most state government offices, many businesses, and most school districts. Some businesses and some stock exchanges remain open, and some states and municipalities abstain from observing the holiday.[16] The traditional date of the holiday also adjoins the anniversary of the United States Navy (founded October 13, 1775), and thus both occasions are customarily observed by the Navy (and usually the Marine Corps as well) with either a 72- or 96-hour liberty period.[citation needed]

Local observance of Columbus Day

Columbus Day in Salem, Massachusetts in 1892

Actual observance varies in different parts of the United States, ranging from large-scale parades and events to complete non-observance. Most states celebrate Columbus Day as an official state holiday, though many mark it as a “Day of Observance” or “Recognition” and at least four do not recognize it at all. Most states that celebrate Columbus Day will close state services, while others operate as normal.[17]

San Francisco claims the nation’s oldest continuously existing celebration with the Italian-American community’s annual Columbus Day Parade, which was established by Nicola Larco in 1868,[18]¬†while New York City boasts the largest, with over 35,000 marchers and one million viewers.[19][20][21]

As in the mainland United States, Columbus Day is a legal holiday in the¬†U.S. territory¬†of¬†Puerto Rico. In the¬†United States Virgin Islands, the day is celebrated as both Columbus Day and “Puerto Rico Friendship Day.”[22]

Virginia also celebrates two legal holidays on the day, Columbus Day and Yorktown Victory Day, which honors the final victory at the Siege of Yorktown in the Revolutionary War.[23]

Non-observance

The celebration of Columbus Day in the United States began to decline at the end of the 20th century, although many Italian-Americans, and others, continue to champion it.[24]¬†The states of¬†Alaska,¬†Florida,¬†Hawaii,¬†Oregon,¬†South Dakota, and¬†Vermont¬†do not recognize it and have each replaced it with celebrations of¬†Indigenous People’s Day.[25][26][27][28][29][30][31]

Iowa¬†and¬†Nevada¬†do not celebrate Columbus Day as an official holiday, but the states’ respective governors are “authorized and requested” by statute to proclaim the day each year.[32]¬†Several states have removed the day as a paid holiday for state government workers, while still maintaining it‚ÄĒeither as a day of recognition, or as a legal holiday for other purposes, including¬†Californiaand¬†Texas.[33][34][35][36][37]

U.S. cities that officially eschew Columbus Day to celebrate Indigenous Peoples’ Day, began with¬†Berkeley, California¬†in 1992 and, as of 2018, include¬†Austin,¬†Boise,¬†Cincinnati,¬†Denver,¬†Los Angeles,¬†Mankato, Minnesota,¬†Portland, Oregon,¬†San Francisco,¬†Santa Fe, New Mexico,¬†Seattle,¬†St. Paul, Minnesota,¬†Tacoma, and “dozens of others.”[24][38][39][40][34][41][42][43][44][45][46]Columbus, Ohio¬†has chosen to honor¬†veterans¬†instead of¬†Christopher Columbus, and removed Columbus Day as a city holiday.¬†Various tribal governments in Oklahoma¬†designate the day as¬†Native American Day, or name it after their own tribe.[47]

Latin American observance

Día de la Raza

Argentine government poster from 1947 including the concept of la Raza.

The date Columbus arrived in the Americas is celebrated in some countries of Latin America. The most common name for the celebration in Spanish (including some Latin American communities[48]¬†in the United States) is the¬†D√≠a de la Raza¬†(“day of the race” or the “day of the [Hispanic] people”), commemorating the first encounters of¬†Europeans¬†and the¬†Native Americans. The day was first celebrated in Argentina in 1917, in Venezuela and Colombia in 1921, in¬†Chile¬†in 1922 and in¬†Mexico¬†it was first celebrated in 1928. The day was also celebrated under this title in Spain until 1957, when it was changed to the¬†D√≠a de la Hispanidad¬†(“Hispanicity Day”), and in Venezuela it was celebrated under this title until 2002, when it was changed to the¬†D√≠a de la Resistencia Ind√≠gena¬†(Day of Indigenous Resistance). Originally conceived of as a celebration of Hispanic influence in the Americas, as evidenced by the complementary celebrations in Spain and Latin America, D√≠a de la Raza has come to be seen by nationalist activists throughout Latin America as a counter to Columbus Day; a celebration of the native races and cultures and their resistance to the arrival of Europeans in the Americas.[citation needed]

In the United States, Día de la Raza has served as a time of mobilization for pan-ethnic Latino activists, particularly since the 1960s. Since then, La Raza has served as a periodic rallying cry for Hispanic activists. The first Hispanic March on Washington occurred on Columbus Day in 1996. The name is still used by the largest Hispanic social justice organization in the nation, the National Council of La Raza.[8]

Argentina

The Day of the Race was established in¬†Argentina¬†in 1916 by a decree of President¬†Hip√≥lito Yrigoyen. The name was changed to “Day of Respect of Cultural Diversity” by a Decree of Necessity and Urgency 1584/2010 issued by President¬†Cristina Kirchner. Under the likely influence of the Venezuelan government, the statue of Columbus was removed from its original position near the¬†Casa Rosada¬†and replaced by one of¬†Juana Azurduy.

Colombia

Colombia, the only country in the world with a name originated from Columbus himself, celebrates¬†El d√≠a de la Raza y de la Hispanidad¬†and is taken as an opportunity to celebrate the encounter of “the two worlds” and to reflect on the richness that the racial diversity has brought to the culture.

Venezuela

Current state (June 6, 2006) of the Columbus Walk in Caracas. The statue was knocked down by activists after a “public trial” during the celebrations of the newly instituted “Day of the Indigenous Resistance” (October 12) in 2004.[49]

Between 1921 and 2002,¬†Venezuela¬†celebrated¬†D√≠a de la Raza¬†along with many other Latin American nations. The original holiday was officially established in 1921 under President¬†Juan Vicente G√≥mez. In 2002, under President¬†Hugo Ch√°vez, the holiday was changed to¬†D√≠a de la Resistencia Ind√≠gena¬†(Day of Indigenous Resistance) to commemorate the¬†Indigenous¬†peoples’ resistance to European settlement. On October 12, 2004, a crowd of pro-government activists toppled the statue of Christopher Columbus in¬†Caracas¬†and sprayed allusive¬†graffiti¬†over its pedestal. The pro-Ch√°vez website Aporrea wrote: “Just like the statue of¬†Saddam¬†in¬†Baghdad, that of Columbus the tyrant also fell this October 12, 2004 in Caracas”.[50]¬†The famous¬†toppling of Saddam Hussein’s statue¬†had occurred the previous year.

Costa Rica

On September 21, 1994, Costa Rica changed the official holiday from Día de la Raza to Día del Encuentro de las Culturas (Day of the Encounter of Cultures) to recognize the mix of European, Native American (autochthonous populations), African and Asian cultures that constitute modern Costa Rican (and Latin American) culture and ethnicity. In accordance to the Costa Rican labor law, the holiday is observed on October 12. However, should this date coincide with a Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday or Friday, the employer shall agree that said holiday be postponed to the following Monday. [51]

Brazil

In¬†Brazil, Columbus Day is not celebrated. Instead, the country celebrates the arrival on the coast of present-day Brazil of the fleet led by Portuguese explorer¬†Pedro √Ālvares Cabral¬†on April 22, 1500. This date is known in Brazil as “O Descobrimento do Brasil” (The Discovery of Brazil). The date began to be celebrated after the country’s independence from Portugal, when Brazilian Emperor¬†Pedro II¬†instituted the date¬†as part of a plan to foster a sense of nationalism among Brazil’s diverse citizenry‚ÄĒgiving them a common identity and history as residents of a unique¬†Portuguese-speaking¬†empire surrounded by¬†Hispanic Republics of the Americas.¬†[52]¬†The Discovery of Brazil was originally celebrated on May 3, but scholars in the nineteen century found¬†definitive evidence¬†proving April 22 to be the actual date of the arrival of Cabral’s fleet on South American shores.¬†[53]¬†In 2000, the government of Brazil used the date to celebrate 500 years of the existence of the country. The festivities, however, were met with protests by indigenous peoples who claimed it marked 500 years of genocide of¬†indigenous Brazilians.[54]¬†[55]

Caribbean observance

Only a handful of Caribbean countries still observe holidays related to Columbus Day. In Belize, October 12 is celebrated as Day of the Americas or Pan American Day.[56][57][58] In the Bahamas, it was formerly known as Discovery Day, until 2001 when it was replaced by National Heroes Day.

European observance

Italy

Monument to Christopher Columbus in Genoa, Italy

Since the 18th century, many Italian communities in the Americas have observed the¬†Discovery of the New World¬†as a celebration of their heritage;¬†Christopher Columbus¬†(whose original, Italian name is “Cristoforo Colombo”) was an Italian explorer, citizen of the¬†Republic of Genoa.[11]

In Italy, Columbus Day has been officially celebrated since 2004.[2] It is officially named Giornata nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo.

The “Lega Navale Italiana” has created a¬†Regata di Colombo¬†as a celebration of the Columbus achievement.[59]¬†Italians have celebrated their “Cristoforo Colombo” naming after him many civilian and military ships, like the ocean liner¬†SS¬†Cristoforo Colombo.

Spain

Since 1987, Spain has celebrated the anniversary of Columbus’s arrival in the Americas as its¬†Fiesta Nacional¬†or “National Day”.[60]¬†Previously Spain had celebrated the day as¬†D√≠a de la Hispanidad, emphasizing Spain’s ties with the¬†Hispanidad, the international Hispanic community.[60]¬†In 1981 a royal decree established the¬†D√≠a de la Hispanidad¬†as a national holiday.[60]¬†However, in 1987 the name was changed to¬†Fiesta Nacional, and October 12 became one of two national celebrations, along with¬†Constitution Day¬†on December 6.[61]¬†Spain’s “national day” had moved around several times during the various regime changes of the 20th century; establishing it on the day of the international Columbus celebration was part of a compromise between conservatives, who wanted to emphasize the status of the monarchy and Spain’s history, and Republicans, who wanted to commemorate Spain’s burgeoning democracy with an official holiday.[61]¬†Since 2000, October 12 has also been Spain’s¬†Day of the Armed Forces, celebrated each year with a military parade in¬†Madrid.[61]¬†Other than this, however, the holiday is not widely or enthusiastically celebrated in Spain; there are no other large-scale patriotic parades, marches, or other events, and the observation is generally overshadowed by the¬†feast day¬†of¬†Our Lady of the Pillar¬†(Fiestas del Pilar).[61]

Opposition to Columbus celebrations

Engraving by¬†Theodor de Brydepicting the controversial account by¬†Bartolom√© de las Casas¬†regarding the¬†Brev√≠sima relaci√≥n de la destrucci√≥n de las Indias, 1552. De Bry’s works are characteristic of the anti-Spanish propaganda that originated as a result of the¬†Eighty Years’ War, known as the¬†Black Legend.

Opposition to Columbus Day dates back to at least the 19th century, when anti-immigrant nativists (see Know Nothings) sought to eliminate its celebration because of its association with immigrants from the Catholic countries of Ireland and Italy, and the American Catholic fraternal organization, the Knights of Columbus.[62] Some anti-Catholics, notably including the Ku Klux Klan and the Women of the Ku Klux Klan, opposed celebrations of Columbus or monuments about him because they thought that it increased Catholic influence in the United States, which was largely a Protestant country.[62]

By far the more common opposition today, decrying both Columbus’ and other Europeans’ actions against the indigenous populations of the Americas, did not gain much traction until the latter half of the 20th century. This opposition was led by Native Americans and expanded upon by¬†left-wing¬†political parties,[63][64][65][66][67]¬†though it has become more mainstream.[68]¬†Surveys conducted in 2013 and 2015 found 26% to 38% of American adults not in favor of celebrating Columbus Day.[69][70]

There are many interrelated strands of criticism. One refers primarily to the treatment of the¬†indigenous populations¬†during the¬†European colonization of the Americas¬†which followed Columbus’s¬†discovery. Some groups, such as the¬†American Indian Movement, have argued that the ongoing actions and injustices against Native Americans are masked by Columbus myths and celebrations.[71]¬†American¬†anthropologist¬†Jack Weatherford¬†says that on Columbus Day, Americans celebrate the greatest waves of genocide of the American Indians known in¬†history.[72]

A second strain of criticism of Columbus Day focuses on the character of Columbus himself. In time for the 2004 observation of the day, the final volume of a compendium of Columbus-era documents was published by the¬†University of California, Los Angeles‘s Medieval and Renaissance Center. It stated that Columbus, while a brilliant mariner, exploited and enslaved the indigenous population.[73]

Spelman College historian Howard Zinn described some of the details of how Columbus personally ordered the enslavement and mutilation of the native Arawak people in a bid to repay his investors.[74]

Journalist and media critic¬†Norman Solomon¬†reflects, in¬†Columbus Day: A Clash of Myth and History, that many people choose to hold on to the myths surrounding Columbus. He quotes from the¬†logbook¬†Columbus’s initial description of the American Indians: “They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance…. They would make fine servants…. With 50 men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.” Solomon states that the most important contemporary documentary evidence is the multi-volume¬†History of the Indies¬†by the Catholic priest¬†Bartolom√© de las Casas, who observed the region where Columbus was governor. In contrast to “the myth,” Solomon quotes Las Casas, who describes Spaniards driven by “insatiable greed”‚ÄĒ”killing, terrorizing, afflicting, and torturing the native peoples” with “the strangest and most varied new methods of cruelty” and how systematic violence was aimed at preventing “[American] Indians from daring to think of themselves as human beings.” The Spaniards “thought nothing of knifing [American] Indians by tens and twenties and of cutting slices off them to test the sharpness of their blades,” wrote Las Casas. “My eyes have seen these acts so foreign to human nature, and now I tremble as I write.”[75]

In the summer of 1990, 350 representatives from American Indian groups from all over the hemisphere, met in¬†Quito, Ecuador, at the first¬†Intercontinental Gathering of Indigenous People in the Americas, to mobilize against the 500th anniversary (quin-centennial) celebration of Columbus Day planned for 1992. The following summer, in¬†Davis, California, more than a hundred Native Americans gathered for a follow-up meeting to the Quito conference. They declared October 12, 1992 to be “International Day of Solidarity with Indigenous People.”[76]

See also

References …

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbus_Day

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The Pronk Pops Show 1150, October 3, 2018 — Story 1: Secretary of State Mike Pompeo Announces The United States Termination of Treaty of Amity With Islamic Republic of Iran — Long Overdue — Videos — Story 2: President Trump Mocks Kavanaugh Accuser At Rally and FBI Sends Supplemental Background on Judge Kavanaugh To White House and Senate — Expect Senate Confirmation Vote Saturday — Videos — Story 3: Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell Views on U.S. Economy and Monetary Policy — Videos — Story 4: Job Market Booming With Private Payroll Surge of 230,000 in September 2018 — Videos

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Story 1: Secretary of State Mike Pompeo Announces The United States Termination of Treaty of Amity With Islamic Republic of Iran — Long Overdue — Videos —

The United Nation’s Top Court Ordered The Trump Administration To Lift Sanctions On

Iran | TIME

USA: US to cancel 1955 treaty with Iran on economic ties, consular rights – Pompeo

Bolton: Iran made a mockery of the Treaty of Amity

John Bolton Says U.S. Will Review All Agreements That Expose It To The World Court

UN court orders US to lift some Iran sanctions

USA: US to cancel 1955 treaty with Iran on economic ties, consular rights – Pompeo

Watch Now: Secretary of State Mike Pompeo holds press conference, live stream

The International Court of Justice (ICJ) delivers its Order in the case of Iran v. USA

The International Court of Justice (ICJ) delivers its Order in the case of Iran v. USA

Iran Seeks Ruling of UN’s Highest Court to Lift US Sanctions

Iran today takes the USA to the Court of Justice in the Hague for imposing sanctions

US and Iran wait for the world court ruling on the legitimacy of US sanctions against Iran

Nigel Farage reacts to Trump trading barbs with Iran

Iran nuclear deal will remain valid regardless of U.S. decision, says EU policy chief

What comes next for the Iran nuclear deal?

The Iran Nuclear Deal: The Future of the JCPOA

Trump clashes with EU over Iran sanctions

Trump no nonsense approach on Iran is the right strategy: Gen. Jack Keane

Trump sanctions may spell the end for Iranian Revolution: John Hannah

President Donald Trump Delivers Remarks On Iran Deal – May 8, 2018 | CNBC

What is the International Court of Justice? The Role and Activities of the ICJ

US urges World Court to dismiss Iran’s lawsuit

Iran ‚ÄėViolated Its Obligations,‚Äô U.S. Says As It Defends Sanctions | NBC News

US calls ruling a defeat for Iran, ends treaty

Secretary of State Mike Pompeo says the United States is terminating a 1955 friendship treaty with Iran after it was cited in a ruling against US sanctions by the International Court of Justice

The United States on Wednesday called an international court ruling against its Iran sanctions a defeat for Tehran as it terminated a 1955 treaty on which the case was based.

The International Criminal Court ordered the United States to lift sanctions on medicine, food and civilian airplane spare parts, just as President Donald Trump tries to squeeze Iran’s economy.

But Secretary of State Mike Pompeo noted that the UN court did not rule more broadly against US sanctions and he insisted that the United States already exempted humanitarian goods from the sanctions.

“The court’s ruling today was a defeat for Iran. It rightly rejected all of Iran’s baseless requests,” Pompeo told reporters.

Accusing Iran of “abusing the ICJ for political and propaganda purposes,” Pompeo announced that the United States was ending a friendship treaty signed when Iran was ruled by the pro-US shah.

“This is a decision, frankly, that is 39 years overdue,” Pompeo said, referring to the time since the 1979 Islamic revolution transformed Iran from one of the closest allies to a determined foe.

“Given Iran’s history of terrorism, ballistic missile activity and other malign behaviors, Iran’s claims under the treaty are absurd,” he said.

The Treaty of Amity with Iran, signed in 1955 and ratified by the US Senate a year later, lays out practicalities for unfettered economic relations and consular rights between the two countries.

The US withdrawal will have limited direct effect, with the two countries not even having diplomatic relations.

But Iran has repeatedly cited the treaty to press claims from the United States, including when the US Navy shot down an Iran Air civilian plane in 1988, killing 290 people.

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-6236363/US-calls-ruling-defeat-Iran-ends-treaty.html

 

KEVIN LAMARQUE / REUTERS

nistration has been tightening the screws on Iran ever since the U.S. withdrew in May from the nuclear deal. It has imposed sanctions, increased its hostile rhetoric, and threatened its own allies for working with Tehran. Now comes one more item on that list: On Wednesday, the Trump administration tore up the little-known, Eisenhower-era Treaty of Amity with the Islamic Republic on the same day the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled that U.S. sanctions on Iran must exempt humanitarian items.

In announcing the decision concerning the 1955¬†treaty, Mike Pompeo, the U.S. secretary of state, said at the State Department, ‚ÄúThis is a decision, frankly, that is 39 years overdue.‚ÄĚ

The more than six-decade-old accord survived the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran that was followed by the takeover of the U.S. Embassy, and the hostage-taking of 52 Americans, including diplomats, for 444 days. It also survived what has mostly been low after low in the intervening decades, including near weekly chants of ‚ÄúDeath to America‚ÄĚ in the Islamic Republic, round after round of crippling U.S. sanctions, and even the shooting down, by the U.S. military, of an Iranian airliner with 290 people on board.¬†As Farshad Kashani wrote in¬†The¬†National Interest, the two countries have used the treaty‚Äôs dispute-resolution mechanism, which relies on the ICJ, at various times since 1988, when the Iran Air flight was shot down‚ÄĒmost recently in July.

That‚Äôs when Iran brought a case at The Hague‚Äďbased court alleging violations of the Treaty of Amity, challenging, among other things, the U.S. withdrawal from the multilateral nuclear agreement with the Islamic Republic. But the¬†court‚Äôs ruling¬†Wednesday was much narrower in scope, dealing only with the sale of ‚Äúhumanitarian‚ÄĚ goods to Iran, which the court said the U.S. should not sanction. Pompeo said that ‚Äúexisting exceptions, authorizations, and licensing policies for humanitarian-related transactions and safety of flight will remain in effect.‚ÄĚ But, he added, ‚Äúwe‚Äôre disappointed that the court failed to recognize that it has no jurisdiction to issue any orders related to these sanctions measures with the United States.‚ÄĚ The ICJ‚Äôs orders are legally binding but not enforceable.

The Trump administration is meanwhile preparing to impose more punitive measures on the Islamic Republic next month. At the United Nations last week, Donald Trump asked ‚Äúall nations to isolate Iran‚Äôs regime as long as its aggression continues.‚ÄĚ

The Trump administration says it wants countries that buy Iranian oil to reduce their imports to zero, and has even threatened to sanction its partners who do business with Iran if they don’t stop. Those partners, which include European countries, Russia, and China, are working to devise their own system to work with Iran in order to keep the Islamic Republic in the nuclear agreement under which it agreed to freeze its nuclear program in exchange for political and economic incentives. Additionally, the administration has set up an Iran Action Group whose work is centered on nuclear activities, terrorism, and the detention of American citizens in Iran.

The U.S. says the nuclear agreement rewarded Iran despite its malign activities. It accuses the Islamic Republic of supporting terrorism, of pursuing a ballistic-missile program, of supporting Syria’s Bashar al-Assad regime, and of fomenting unrest in Yemen, Lebanon, and Iraq. Indeed, Iran’s influence in Iraq has become a key point of friction between the two countries as the fragile Iraqi state tries to form a government. Both countries have a strong influence in Iraq that they are keen to preserve. In past years, they have maintained a tacit understanding on their respective allies in the country.

But last week, the U.S. pulled American diplomats from the consulate in Basra, just days after accusing Iran of not preventing rockets being fired at the facility. On Wednesday, Pompeo repeated those remarks, holding Tehran responsible.

‚ÄúIran is the origin of the current threat to Americans in Iraq,‚ÄĚ he said. ‚ÄúOur intelligence in this regard is solid. We can see the hand of the ayatollah and his henchmen supporting these attacks on the United States.‚ÄĚ

https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2018/10/pompeo-iran-treaty-of-amity/572050/

 

Pompeo announces termination of 1955 treaty with Iran after sanctions ruling

Last Updated Oct 3, 2018 2:14 PM EDT

Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced on Wednesday that the United States would be terminating a 1955-era treaty of amity with Iran that regulates economic and consular ties between the two countries. Pompeo called it a move that was ¬†“39 years overdue.”

Ties between the two nations have been strained for decades but have come to a head since the Trump administration moved to pull out of the 2015 Iran nuclear deal. The administration has admonished Iran and the regime’s leadership for its “malign behavior” and for pursuing nuclear ambitions.

The move to end the treaty comes after¬†the United Nations’ top court on Wednesday ordered the United States to lift sanctions on “humanitarian” goods to Iran¬†that Mr. Trump re-imposed after pulling out of the nuclear pact. The International Court of Justice (ICJ) unanimously ruled that Washington “shall remove by means of its choosing any impediments arising from the measures announced on May 8 to the free exportation to Iran of medicines and medical devices, food and agricultural commodities” as well as airplane parts, Judge Abdulqawi Ahmed Yusuf wrote.

The court said sanctions on goods “required for humanitarian needs… may have a serious detrimental impact on the health and lives of individuals on the territory of Iran.”

Pompeo said Iran had brought a “meritless case” to the ICJ, alleging violations of the 1955 pact, and he suggested Iran wants to challenge the U.S. decision to pull out of the nuclear deal.

“Iran has attempted to interfere with the sovereign rights of the United States to take lawful actions as necessary to protect our national security and Iran is abusing the ICJ for political and propaganda purposes,” said Pompeo.

Pompeo said in the meantime, the U.S. will continue to provide humanitarian assistance to the Iranian people, but called on Iranian leadership to spend money on its own people, instead of “fomenting terror around the world.”

“Those are dollars the Iranian leadership is squandering, they could be providing humanitarian assistance to their own people but have chosen a different path,” he said.

In addition to leaving the amity treaty, national security adviser John Bolton announced during Wednesday’s press briefing that the U.S. will also withdraw from the Optional Protocol and Dispute Resolution to the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, in connection with a case brought by the Palestinians to the ICJ challenging the United States’ embassy move from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem earlier this year.

“We will commence a review of all international agreements that may still expose the US to purported binding jurisdiction dispute resolution in the International Court of Justice — admin will conduct a review of all its involvement with the International Court of Justice,” he said.

Bolton told reporters that the U.S. remains a party to the underlying Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, “and we expect all other parties to abide by their international obligations under the convention.”

The administration’s latest comments came after¬†President Trump chaired a meeting of the UN Security Council¬†last week and emphasized the importance of keeping the world free of the scourge of chemical weapons. The meeting focused on the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, particularly in Iran.

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/mike-pompeo-speaks-to-reporters-at-state-department-live-stream/

Bolton calls U.N. world court ‘politicized,’ U.S. to limit exposure

WASHINGTON (Reuters) – The United States is taking steps to avoid exposure to binding decisions by the International Court of Justice, the U.S. national security adviser John Bolton said on Wednesday as he accused the U.N. court of being ‚Äúpoliticized and ineffective.‚ÄĚ

U.S. National Security Advisor John Bolton answers a question from a reporter about how he refers to Palestine during a news conference in the White House briefing room in Washington, U.S.,
October 3, 2018. REUTERS/Leah Millis

Secretary of State Mike Pompeo earlier on Wednesday said that Washington was terminating a treaty of amity with Tehran, after the International Court ordered the United States to ensure that sanctions against Iran, due to be tightened next month, did not affect humanitarian aid or civil aviation.

The ICJ, based in The Hague, in the Netherlands, is the United Nations’ venue for resolving disputes between nations.

There have been mounting concerns among U.S. allies about the Trump administration’s commitment to multilateralism.

In the nearly two years since being elected, President Donald Trump has withdrawn the United States from a nuclear agreement between six powers and Iran, pulled out of a global climate accord, left the U.N. cultural agency, and threatened NATO military allies that the United States would ‚Äúgo its own way‚ÄĚ if members did not spend more on defense.

U.S. National Security Advisor John Bolton answers questions from reporters after announcing that the U.S. will withdraw from the Vienna protocol and the 1955 “Treaty of Amity” with Iran as White House Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders looks on during a news conference in the White House briefing room in Washington, U.S., October 3, 2018. REUTERS/Leah Millis

Wednesday’s ruling by the International Court handed a small victory to Tehran, which had argued that sanctions imposed since May by the Trump administration violated the terms of a 1955 Treaty of Amity between the two countries.

Bolton, citing what he called ‚ÄúIran‚Äôs abuse of the ICJ,‚ÄĚ said that the United States would withdraw from the ‚Äúoptional protocol‚ÄĚ under the 1961 Vienna Convention of Diplomatic Relations.

‚ÄúWe will commence a review of all international agreements that may still expose the United States to purported binding jurisdiction, dispute resolution in the International Court of Justice,‚ÄĚ Bolton said on Wednesday. ‚ÄúThe United States will not sit idly by as baseless politicized claims are brought against us.‚ÄĚThe decision to withdraw from the optional protocol follows a complaint brought by the Palestinians in September, which challenged Washington‚Äôs decision to move its embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.

The Vienna Convention is an international treaty setting out diplomatic relations between states. It is often cited as a means to provide diplomatic immunity.

In 2005, the Bush administration took issue with the ICJ after it ruled that the execution of a Mexican national in Texas breached U.S. obligations under international law.

The Palestinians argued that the U.S. government’s placement of its embassy in Jerusalem violated an international treaty and that it should be moved.

‚ÄúThis really has less to do with Iran and the Palestinians than with the continued consistent policy of the United States to reject the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice, which we think is politicized and ineffective,‚ÄĚ Bolton said.

He added: ‚ÄúI‚Äôd like to stress the United States remains a party to the underlying Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and we expect all other parties to abide by their international obligations under the convention.‚ÄĚ

Palestine was recognized by the U.N. General Assembly in 2012 as a non-member observer state, though its statehood is not recognized by either Israel or the United States.

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-diplomacy-treaty/bolton-calls-u-n-world-court-politicized-u-s-to-limit-exposure-idUSKCN1MD2CP

Treaty of Amity, Economic Relations and Consular Rights (United States‚ÄďIran)

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The Treaty of Amity, Economic Relations and Consular Rights between the United States and Iran was signed in Tehran on August 15, 1955 and entered into force on 16 June 1957.[1]

On 3 October 2018, following on the same day of a ruling by the¬†International Court of Justice,¬†United States Secretary of State¬†Mike Pompeo¬†said that the United States “is terminating” the treaty.[2]¬†On the same day, the termination of the treaty with the Pahlavi Iran was reiterated by¬†John Bolton.[3]

References

International Court of Justice

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International Court of Justice
Cour internationale de justice
International Court of Justice Seal.svg

International Court of Justice Seal
Established 1945 (PCIJ dissolved in 1946)
Country Worldwide, 193 state parties
Location The Hague, Netherlands
Coordinates 52¬į05‚Ä≤11.8‚Ä≥N¬†4¬į17‚Ä≤43.8‚Ä≥ECoordinates:¬†52¬į05‚Ä≤11.8‚Ä≥N¬†4¬į17‚Ä≤43.8‚Ä≥E
Authorized by
Judge term length 9 years
No. of positions 15
Website www.icj-cij.org
President
Currently Abdulqawi Yusuf
Since 6 February 2018
Lead position ends 5 February 2020
Vice President
Currently Xue Hanqin
Since 6 February 2018
Lead position ends 5 February 2020

The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court)[1] is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN). It settles legal disputes between member states and gives advisory opinions to authorized UN organs and specialized agencies. It comprises a panel of 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and Security Council for nine-year terms. It is seated in the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands.[2]

Activities

The Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, seat of the ICJ

Established in 1945 by the UN Charter, the court began work in 1946 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice. The Statute of the International Court of Justice, similar to that of its predecessor, is the main constitutional document constituting and regulating the court.[3]

The court’s workload covers a wide range of judicial activity. After the court ruled that the¬†United States‘s covert war against¬†Nicaragua¬†was in violation of international law (Nicaragua v. United States), the United States withdrew from compulsory jurisdiction in 1986 to accept the court’s jurisdiction only on a case-by-case basis.[4]¬†Chapter XIV of the United Nations Charter¬†authorizes the¬†UN Security Council¬†to enforce Court rulings. However, such enforcement is subject to the veto power of the five permanent members of the Council, which the United States used in the¬†Nicaragua¬†case.[5]

Composition

Public hearing at the ICJ.

The ICJ is composed of fifteen judges elected to nine-year terms by the¬†UN General Assembly¬†and the¬†UN Security Council¬†from a list of people nominated by the national groups in the¬†Permanent Court of Arbitration. The election process is set out in Articles 4‚Äď19 of the ICJ statute. Elections are staggered, with five judges elected every three years to ensure continuity within the court. Should a judge die in office, the practice has generally been to elect a judge in a special election to complete the term.

No two judges may be nationals of the same country. According to Article 9, the membership of the court is supposed to represent the “main forms of civilization and of the principal legal systems of the world”. Essentially, that has meant¬†common law,¬†civil law¬†and¬†socialist law¬†(now post-communist law).

There is an informal understanding that the seats will be distributed¬†by geographic regions¬†so that there are five seats for Western countries, three for¬†African states¬†(including one judge of¬†francophone¬†civil law, one of Anglophone¬†common law¬†and one¬†Arab), two for¬†Eastern European¬†states, three for Asian states and two for¬†Latin American¬†and¬†Caribbean¬†states.[6]¬†For most of the court’s history, the five permanent members of the¬†United Nations Security Council¬†(France,¬†Russia,¬†China, the¬†United Kingdom, and the¬†United States) have always had a judge serving, thereby occupying three of the Western seats, one of the Asian seats and one of the Eastern European seats. Exceptions have been China not having a judge on the court from 1967 to 1985, during which time it did not put forward a candidate, and British judge Sir Christopher Greenwood being withdrawn as a candidate for election for a second nine-year term on the bench in 2017, leaving no judges from the United Kingdom on the court.[7]¬†Greenwood had been supported by the UN Security Council but failed to get a majority in the UN General Assembly.[7]¬†Indian judge Dalveer Bhandari instead took the seat.[7]

Article 6 of the Statute provides that all judges should be “elected regardless of their nationality among persons of high moral character” who are either qualified for the highest judicial office in their home states or known as lawyers with sufficient competence in international law. Judicial independence is dealt with specifically in Articles 16‚Äď18. Judges of the ICJ are not able to hold any other post or act as¬†counsel. In practice, members of the court have their own interpretation of these rules and allow them to be involved in outside arbitration and hold professional posts as long as there is no conflict of interest. A judge can be dismissed only by a¬†unanimous¬†vote of the other members of the court.[8]¬†Despite these provisions, the independence of ICJ judges has been questioned. For example, during the¬†Nicaragua¬†case, the United States issued a communiqu√© suggesting that it could not present sensitive material to the court because of the presence of judges from¬†Eastern bloc¬†states.[9]

Judges may deliver joint judgments or give their own separate opinions. Decisions and¬†Advisory Opinions¬†are by majority, and, in the event of an equal division, the President’s vote becomes decisive, which occurred in the¬†Legality of the Use by a State of Nuclear Weapons in Armed Conflict¬†(Opinion requested by WHO), [1996] ICJ Reports 66. Judges may also deliver separate dissenting opinions.

Ad hoc judges[

Article 31 of the statute sets out a procedure whereby¬†ad hoc¬†judges sit on contentious cases before the court. The system allows any party to a contentious case (if it otherwise does not have one of that party’s nationals sitting on the court) to select one additional person to sit as a judge on that case only. It is thus possible that as many as seventeen judges may sit on one case.

The system may seem strange when compared with domestic court processes, but its purpose is to encourage states to submit cases. For example, if a state knows that it will have a judicial officer who can participate in deliberation and offer other judges local knowledge and an understanding of the state’s perspective, it may be more willing to submit to the jurisdiction of the court. Although this system does not sit well with the judicial nature of the body, it is usually of little practical consequence.¬†Ad hoc¬†judges usually (but not always) vote in favour of the state that appointed them and thus cancel each other out.[10]

Chambers

Generally, the court sits as full¬†bench, but in the last fifteen years, it has on occasion sat as a chamber. Articles 26‚Äď29 of the statute allow the court to form smaller chambers, usually 3 or 5 judges, to hear cases. Two types of chambers are contemplated by Article 26: firstly, chambers for special categories of cases, and second, the formation of¬†ad hoc¬†chambers to hear particular disputes. In 1993, a special chamber was established, under Article 26(1) of the ICJ statute, to deal specifically with¬†environmental¬†matters (although it has never been used).

Ad hoc chambers are more frequently convened. For example, chambers were used to hear the Gulf of Maine Case (Canada/US).[11] In that case, the parties made clear they would withdraw the case unless the court appointed judges to the chamber acceptable to the parties. Judgments of chambers may either less authority than full Court judgments or diminish the proper interpretation of universal international law informed by a variety of cultural and legal perspectives. On the other hand, the use of chambers might encourage greater recourse to the court and thus enhance international dispute resolution.[12]

Current composition

As of 22 June 2018, the composition of the court is as follows:[13][14]

Name Nationality Position Term began Term ends
Abdulqawi Ahmed Yusuf  Somalia Presidenta 2009 2027
Xue Hanqin  China Vice-Presidenta 2010 2021
Yuji Iwasawa  Japan Member 2018 2021
Peter Tomka  Slovakia Member 2003 2021
Mohamed Bennouna  Morocco Member 2006 2024
Ant√īnio Augusto Can√ßado Trindade¬†¬†¬† ¬†Brazil Member 2009 2027
Nawaf Salam  Lebanon Member 2018 2027
Ronny Abraham  France Member 2005 2027
Joan E. Donoghue  United States Member 2010 2024
Giorgio Gaja  Italy Member 2012 2021
Julia Sebutinde  Uganda Member 2012 2021
Dalveer Bhandari  India Member 2012 2021
James Crawford  Australia Member 2015 2024
Kirill Gevorgian  Russia Member 2015 2024
Patrick Lipton Robinson  Jamaica Member 2015 2024
Philippe Couvreur  Belgium Registrar 2014 2021
a¬†2018‚Äď2021.

Presidents

# President Start End Country
1 José Gustavo Guerrero 1946 1949  El Salvador
2 Jules Basdevant 1949 1952  France
3 Arnold McNair 1952 1955  United Kingdom
4 Green Hackworth 1955 1958  United States
5 Helge Klæstad 1958 1961  Norway
6 Bohdan Winiarski 1961 1964  Poland
7 Percy Spender 1964 1967  Australia
8 José Bustamante y Rivero 1967 1970  Peru
9 Muhammad Zafarullah Khan 1970 1973  Pakistan
10 Manfred Lachs 1973 1976  Poland
11 Eduardo Jiménez de Aréchaga 1976 1979  Uruguay
12 Humphrey Waldock 1979 1981  United Kingdom
13 Taslim Elias 1982 1985  Nigeria
14 Nagendra Singh 1985 1988  India
15 José Ruda 1988 1991  Argentina
16 Robert Jennings 1991 1994  United Kingdom
17 Mohammed Bedjaoui 1994 1997  Algeria
18 Stephen Schwebel 1997 2000  United States
19 Gilbert Guillaume 2000 2003  France
20 Shi Jiuyong 2003 2006  China
21 Rosalyn Higgins 2006 2009  United Kingdom
22 Hisashi Owada 2009 2012  Japan
23 Peter Tomka 2012 2015  Slovakia
24 Ronny Abraham 2015 2018  France
25 Abdulqawi Yusuf 2018  Somalia

Jurisdiction

  Parties upon becoming a UN member
  Parties prior to joining the UN under Article 93
  UN observer states that are not parties

As stated in Article 93 of the UN Charter, all 193 UN members are automatically¬†parties¬†to the court’s statute.[15]¬†Non-UN members may also become parties to the court’s statute under the Article 93(2) procedure. For example, before becoming a UN member state, Switzerland used this procedure in 1948 to become a party, and Nauru became a party in 1988.[16]¬†Once a state is a party to the court’s statute, it is entitled to participate in cases before the court. However, being a party to the statute does not automatically give the court jurisdiction over disputes involving those parties. The issue of¬†jurisdiction¬†is considered in the three types of ICJ cases: contentious issues, incidental jurisdiction, and advisory opinions.[17]

Contentious issues

File:Eerste na-oorlogse zitting van het Internationaal Hof van Justititie Weeknummer 48-09 - Open Beelden - 30541.ogv

First gathering after Second World War, Dutch newsreel from 1946

In contentious cases (adversarial proceedings seeking to settle a dispute), the ICJ produces a binding ruling between states that agree to submit to the ruling of the court. Only¬†states¬†may be parties in contentious cases.¬†Individuals, corporations, parts of a¬†federal state, NGOs, UN organs and¬†self-determination¬†groups are excluded from direct participation in cases although the court may receive information from public¬†international organizations. That does not preclude non-state interests from being the subject of proceedings if a state brings the case against another. For example, a state may, in cases of “diplomatic protection”, bring a case on behalf of one of its nationals or corporations.[18]

Jurisdiction is often a crucial question for the court in contentious cases. (See¬†Procedure¬†below.) The key principle is that the ICJ has jurisdiction only on the basis of consent. Article 36 outlines four bases on which the court’s jurisdiction may be founded:

  • First, 36(1) provides that parties may refer cases to the court (jurisdiction founded on “special agreement” or “compromis“). This method is based on explicit consent rather than true compulsory jurisdiction. It is, perhaps, the most effective basis for the court’s jurisdiction because the parties concerned have a desire for the dispute to be resolved by the court and are thus more likely to comply with the court’s judgment.
  • Second, 36(1) also gives the court jurisdiction over “matters specifically provided for… in treaties and conventions in force”. Most modern¬†treaties¬†contain a compromissory clause, providing for dispute resolution by the ICJ.[19]Cases founded on compromissory clauses have not been as effective as cases founded on special agreement since a state may have no interest in having the matter examined by the court and may refuse to comply with a judgment. For example, during the¬†Iran hostage crisis, Iran refused to participate in a case brought by the US based on a compromissory clause contained in the¬†Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations¬†and did not comply with the judgment.[20]¬†Since the 1970s, the use of such clauses has declined. Many modern treaties set out their own dispute resolution regime, often based on forms of¬†arbitration.[21]
  • Third, Article 36(2) allows states to make optional clause declarations accepting the court’s jurisdiction. The label “compulsory” sometimes placed on Article 36(2) jurisdiction is misleading since declarations by states are voluntary. Furthermore, many declarations contain reservations, such as exclusion from jurisdiction certain types of disputes (“ratione materia“).[22]¬†The principle of¬†reciprocity¬†may further limit jurisdiction. As of February 2011, sixty-six states had a declaration in force.[23]¬†Of the permanent¬†Security Council¬†members, only the United Kingdom has a declaration. In the court’s early years, most declarations were made by industrialized countries. Since the¬†Nicaragua Case, declarations made by developing countries have increased, reflecting a growing confidence in the court since the 1980s.[citation needed]¬†Industrialized countries, however, have sometimes increased exclusions or removed their declarations in recent years. Examples include the United States, as mentioned previously, and Australia, which modified its declaration in 2002 to exclude disputes on¬†maritime boundaries¬†(most likely to prevent an impending challenge from East Timor, which gained their independence two months later).[24]
  • Finally, 36(5) provides for jurisdiction on the basis of declarations made under the¬†Permanent Court of International Justice‘s statute. Article 37 of the Statute similarly transfers jurisdiction under any compromissory clause in a treaty that gave jurisdiction to the PCIJ.
  • In addition, the court may have jurisdiction on the basis of tacit consent (forum prorogatum). In the absence of clear jurisdiction under Article 36, jurisdiction is established if the respondent accepts ICJ jurisdiction explicitly or simply pleads¬†on the merits. The notion arose in the¬†Corfu Channel Case¬†(UK v Albania) (1949), in which the court held that a letter from Albania stating that it submitted to the jurisdiction of the ICJ was sufficient to grant the court jurisdiction.

Incidental jurisdiction

Until rendering a final judgment, the court has competence to order interim measures for the protection of the rights of a party to a dispute. One or both parties to a dispute may apply the ICJ for issuing interim measures. In the Frontier Dispute Case, both parties to the dispute, Burkina Faso and Mali submitted an application to the court to indicate interim measures.[25] Incidental jurisdiction of the court derives from the Article 41 of the Statute of it.[26] Such as the final judgment, the order for interim measures of the court are binding on state parties to the dispute. The ICJ has competence to indicate interim measures only if the prima facie jurisdiction is satisfied.

Advisory opinions

Audience of the “Accordance with International Law of the¬†Unilateral Declaration of Independence¬†by the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government of Kosovo”

An¬†advisory opinion¬†is a function of the court open only to specified United Nations bodies and agencies. The UN Charter grants the General Assembly or the Security Council a power to request the court to issue an advisory opinion on any legal question. Other organs of the UN rather than GA and SC may not request an advisory opinion of the ICJ unless the General Assembly authorizes them. Other organs of the UN only request an advisory opinion of the court regarding the matters falling into the scope of their activities.[27]¬†On receiving a request, the court decides which states and organizations might provide useful information and gives them an opportunity to present written or oral statements. Advisory opinions were intended as a means by which UN agencies could seek the court’s help in deciding complex legal issues that might fall under their respective mandates.

In principle, the court’s advisory opinions are only consultative in character but they are influential and widely respected. Certain instruments or regulations can provide in advance that the advisory opinion shall be specifically binding on particular agencies or states, but inherently, they are non-binding under the Statute of the Court. This non-binding character does not mean that advisory opinions are without legal effect, because the legal reasoning embodied in them reflects the court’s authoritative views on important issues of international law. In arriving at them, the court follows essentially the same rules and procedures that govern its binding judgments delivered in contentious cases submitted to it by sovereign states.

An advisory opinion derives its status and authority from the fact that it is the official pronouncement of the principal judicial organ of the United Nations.[28]

Advisory opinions have often been controversial because the questions asked are controversial or the case was pursued as an indirect way of bringing what is really a contentious case before the court. Examples of advisory opinions can be found in the section advisory opinions in the List of International Court of Justice cases article. One such well-known advisory opinion is the Nuclear Weapons Case.

ICJ and the Security Council

Article 94 establishes the duty of all UN members to comply with decisions of the court involving them. If parties do not comply, the issue may be taken before the Security Council for enforcement action. There are obvious problems with such a method of enforcement. If the judgment is against one of the permanent five members of the Security Council or its allies, any resolution on enforcement would then be vetoed. That occurred, for example, after the¬†Nicaragua¬†case, when Nicaragua brought the issue of the United States’ noncompliance with the court’s decision before the Security Council.[9]¬†Furthermore, if the Security Council refuses to enforce a judgment against any other state, there is no method of forcing the state to comply. Furthermore, the most effective form to take action for the Security Council, coercive action under¬†Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, can be justified only if¬†international peace and security¬†are at stake. The Security Council has never done that so far.

The relationship between the ICJ and the Security Council, and the separation of their powers, was considered by the court in 1992 in the Pan Am case. The court had to consider an application from Libya for the order of provisional measures to protect its rights, which, it alleged, were being infringed by the threat of economic sanctions by the United Kingdom and United States. The problem was that these sanctions had been authorized by the Security Council, which resulted in a potential conflict between the Chapter VII functions of the Security Council and the judicial function of the court. The court decided, by eleven votes to five, that it could not order the requested provisional measures because the rights claimed by Libya, even if legitimate under the Montreal Convention, could not be prima facieregarded as appropriate since the action was ordered by the Security Council. In accordance with Article 103 of the UN Charter, obligations under the Charter took precedence over other treaty obligations. Nevertheless, the court declared the application admissible in 1998.[29] A decision on the merits has not been given since the parties (United Kingdom, United States, and Libya) settled the case out of court in 2003.

There was a marked reluctance on the part of a majority of the court to become involved in a dispute in such a way as to bring it potentially into conflict with the Council. The court stated in the Nicaragua case that there is no necessary inconsistency between action by the Security Council and adjudication by the ICJ. However, when there is room for conflict, the balance appears to be in favour of the Security Council.

Should either party fail “to perform the obligations incumbent upon it under a judgment rendered by the Court”, the Security Council may be called upon to “make recommendations or decide upon measures” if the Security Council deems such actions necessary. In practice, the court’s powers have been limited by the unwillingness of the losing party to abide by the court’s ruling and by the Security Council’s unwillingness to impose consequences. However, in theory, “so far as the parties to the case are concerned, a judgment of the Court is binding, final and without appeal”, and “by signing the Charter, a State Member of the United Nations undertakes to comply with any decision of the International Court of Justice in a case to which it is a party.”

For example, the United States had previously accepted the court’s compulsory jurisdiction upon its creation in 1946 but in 1984, after¬†Nicaragua v. United States, withdrew its acceptance following the court’s judgment that called on the US to “cease and to refrain” from the “unlawful use of force” against the government of Nicaragua. The court ruled (with only the American judge dissenting) that the United States was “in breach of its obligation under the Treaty of Friendship with Nicaragua not to use force against Nicaragua” and ordered the United States to pay¬†war reparations.[9]

Examples of contentious cases

  • A complaint by the United States in 1980 that Iran was detaining American diplomats in¬†Tehran¬†in violation of international law.[30]
  • A dispute between Tunisia and Libya over the¬†delimitation¬†of the continental shelf between them.[31]
  • A complaint by Iran after the shooting down of¬†Iran Air Flight 655¬†by the¬†United States Navy¬†guided missile cruiser.[32]
  • A dispute over the course of the maritime boundary dividing the U.S. and Canada in the¬†Gulf of Maine¬†area.[33]
  • A complaint by the¬†Federal Republic of Yugoslavia¬†against the member states of the¬†North Atlantic Treaty Organization¬†regarding their actions in the¬†Kosovo War. This was denied on 15 December 2004 because of lack of jurisdiction, the FRY not being a party to the ICJ statute at the time it made the application.[34]
  • A complaint by the Republic of Macedonia (former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) that Greece is, by vetoing its accession to¬†NATO, in violation of the Interim Accord of 13 September 1995[35]¬†between the two countries. The complaint was decided in favour of Macedonia on 5 December 2011.[36]
  • A complaint by the¬†Democratic Republic of the Congo¬†that the DRC’s sovereignty had been violated by¬†Uganda¬†and that DRC had lost billions of dollars worth of resources,[37]¬†was decided in favour of the DRC.[38]
  • A complaint by the¬†Republic of India¬†regarding death penalty awarded to Indian citizen by a Pakistani military court.¬†[39]¬†Pakistan arrested Kulbhushan Jadhav, an Indian citizen for alleged espionage and subversive activities.

Law applied

When deciding cases, the court applies international law as summarized in¬†Article 38¬†of the¬†ICJ Statute, which provides that in arriving at its decisions the court shall apply international conventions, international custom and the “general principles of law recognized by civilized nations.” It may also refer to academic writing (“the teachings of the most highly qualified publicists of the various nations”) and previous judicial decisions to help interpret the law although the court is not formally bound by its previous decisions under the doctrine of¬†stare decisis.¬†Article 59¬†makes clear that the¬†common law¬†notion of¬†precedent¬†or¬†stare decisis¬†does not apply to the decisions of the ICJ. The court’s decision binds only the parties to that particular controversy. Under 38(1)(d), however, the court may consider its own previous decisions.

If the parties agree, they may also grant the court the liberty to decide¬†ex aequo et bono¬†(“in justice and fairness”),[40]¬†granting the ICJ the freedom to make an equitable decision based on what is fair under the circumstances. That provision has not been used in the court’s history. So far, the International Court of Justice has dealt with about 130 cases.

Procedure

The ICJ is vested with the power to make its own rules. Court procedure is set out in the Rules of Court of the International Court of Justice 1978 (as amended on 29 September 2005).[12]

Cases before the ICJ will follow a standard pattern. The case is lodged by the applicant, which files a written memorial setting out the basis of the court’s jurisdiction and the merits of its claim. The respondent may accept the court’s jurisdiction and file its own memorial on the merits of the case.

Preliminary objections

A respondent that does not wish to submit to the jurisdiction of the court may raise preliminary objections. Any such objections must be ruled upon before the court can address the merits of the applicant’s claim. Often, a separate public hearing is held on the preliminary objections and the court will render a judgment. Respondents normally file preliminary objections to the jurisdiction of the court and/or the admissibility of the case. Inadmissibility refers to a range of arguments about factors the court should take into account in deciding jurisdiction, such as the fact that the issue is not justiciable or that it is not a “legal dispute”.

In addition, objections may be made because all necessary parties are not before the court. If the case necessarily requires the court to rule on the rights and obligations of a state that has not consented to the court’s jurisdiction, the court does not proceed to issue a judgment on the merits.

If the court decides it has jurisdiction and the case is admissible, the respondent then is required to file a Memorial addressing the merits of the applicant’s claim. Once all written arguments are filed, the court holds a public hearing on the merits.

Once a case has been filed, any party (usually the applicant) may seek an order from the court to protect the status quo pending the hearing of the case. Such orders are known as Provisional (or Interim) Measures and are analogous to interlocutory injunctions in United States law. Article 41 of the statute allows the court to make such orders. The court must be satisfied to have prima facie jurisdiction to hear the merits of the case before it grants provisional measures.

Applications to intervene

In cases in which a third state’s interests are affected, that state may be permitted to intervene in the case and participate as a full party. Under Article 62, a state “with an interest of a legal nature” may apply; however, it is within the court’s discretion whether or not to allow the intervention. Intervention applications are rare, and the first successful application occurred only in 1991.

Judgment and remedies

Once deliberation has taken place, the court issues a majority opinion. Individual judges may issue concurring opinions (if they agree with the outcome reached in the judgment of the court but differ in their reasoning) or dissenting opinions (if they disagree with the majority). No appeal is possible, but any party may ask for the court to clarify if there is a dispute as to the meaning or scope of the court’s judgment.[41]

Criticisms

The International Court has been criticized with respect to its rulings, its procedures, and its authority. As with criticisms of the United Nations, many of these criticisms refer more to the general authority assigned to the body by member states through its charter than to specific problems with the composition of judges or their rulings. Major criticisms include the following:[42][43][44]

  • “Compulsory” jurisdiction is limited to cases where both parties have agreed to submit to its decision, and so instances of aggression tend to be automatically escalated to and adjudicated by the¬†Security Council. According to the sovereignty principle of international law, no nation is superior or inferior against another. Therefore, there is no entity that could force the states into practice of the law or punish the states in case any violation of international law occurs. Therefore, the absence of binding force means that the 193 member states of the ICJ do not necessarily have to accept the jurisdiction. Moreover, membership in the UN and ICJ does not give the court automatic jurisdiction over the member states, but it is the consent of each state to follow the jurisdiction that matters.
  • Organizations, private enterprises, and individuals cannot have their cases taken to the International Court or appeal a national supreme court’s ruling. UN agencies likewise cannot bring up a case except in advisory opinions (a process initiated by the court and non-binding). Only states can bring the cases and become the defendants of the cases. This also means that the potential victims of crimes against humanity, such as minor ethnic groups or indigenous peoples, may not have appropriate backing by a state.
  • Other existing international thematic courts, such as the¬†ICC, are not under the umbrella of the International Court. Unlike ICJ, international thematic courts like ICC work independently from United Nations. Such dualistic structure between various international courts sometimes makes it hard for the courts to engage in effective and collective jurisdiction.
  • The International Court does not enjoy a full¬†separation of powers, with permanent members of the Security Council being able to veto enforcement of cases, even those to which they consented to be bound.[45]¬†Because the jurisdiction does not have binding force itself, in many cases, the instances of aggression are adjudicated by Security Council by adopting a resolution, etc. There is, therefore, a likelihood for the permanent member states of Security Council to avoid the legal responsibility brought up by International Court of Justice, as shown in the example of¬†Nicaragua v. United States.

See also

Notes …

Further reading

  • Dunne, Michael. “Isolationism of a Kind: Two Generations of World Court Historiography in the United States,”¬†Journal of American Studies¬†(1987) 21#3 pp 327‚Äď351.
  • Rosenne S., “Rosenne’s the world court: what it is and how it works¬†6th ed (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2003).
  • Kwiatkowska, Barbara,¬†“Decisions of the World Court Relevant to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea”. Relevant to the¬†UNCLOS, dedicated to Former ICJ President¬†Stephen M. Schwebel¬†(Brill, 2010)
  • Van Der Wolf W. & De Ruiter D., “The International Court of Justice: Facts and Documents About the History and Work of the Court” (International Courts Association, 2011)
  • Wilde, Ralph and Charlesworth, Hilary and Schrijver, Nico and Krisch, Nico and Chimni, B. S. and Gowlland-Debbas, Vera and Klabbers, Jan and Yee, Sienho and Shearer, Ivan,¬†United Nations Reform Through Practice: Report of the International Law Association Study Group on United Nations Reform¬†(December 11, 2011).
  • Kolb, Robert,¬†The International Court of Justice¬†(Hart Publishing: Oxford, 2013).
  • Bowett, D W. The International court of justice¬†: process, practice and procedure (British Institute of International and Comparative Law: London, 1997).
  • Sienho Yee, Article 38 of the ICJ Statute and Applicable Law: Selected Issues in Recent Cases, 7 Journal of International Dispute Settlement (2016), 472‚Äď498.
  • Andreas Zimmermann, Christian Tomuschat, Karin Oellers-Frahm & Christian J. Tams (eds.), The Statute of the International Court of Justice: A Commentary (2d. ed. October 2012, Oxford University Press).

External links

Lectures

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Court_of_Justice

Story 2: President Trump Mocks Kavanaugh Accuser At Rally and FBI Sends Supplemental Background on Judge Kavanaugh To White House and Senate — Expect Senate Confirmation Vote Saturday — Videos —

See the source image

Trump mocks Dr. Christine Blasey Ford’s Senate testimony

At a “Make America Great Again” rally Tuesday night in Mississippi, President Trump mocked testimony from Dr. Christine Blasey Ford, who is Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh’s most prominent accusers of sexual assault. Ford appeared Thursday before the Senate Judiciary Committee

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The Vicious Treatment of Judge Kavanaugh Guarantees Red Wave Devastation in Midterms and Trump 2020

 

The FBI confidential Kavanaugh report: Who’s allowed to read it and where

All 100 senators will have secure access to the new information, but not their staffs. They can’t speak publicly about what’s in the file.
by Frank Thorp V and Garrett Haake / 
Sen. Bob Corker, R-Tenn., leaves a closed meeting in the Capitol on Russia sanctions on July 31, 2018.

Sen. Bob Corker, R-Tenn., leaves a closed meeting in the Capitol’s secure room on Russia sanctions on July 31, 2018.Bill Clark / CQ-Roll Call, Inc.

WASHINGTON ‚ÄĒ The FBI’s supplemental background investigation will be delivered soon to Capitol Hill and added to Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh‚Äôs current background investigation file.

What will be delivered, according to aides and senators, are the “302” forms of the FBI interviews, which summarize the contents of the interviews. The FBI will not be delivering findings or a conclusion as to who‚Äôs telling the truth in the case.

All 100 Senators will have access to the new information, but not their staffs. There also are 10 Judiciary Committee staffers who have access to the Kavanaugh file, which is a paper report ‚ÄĒ there are no pdf’s or emails of it. And it will not be made public.

OCT.03.201806:58

When the supplemental background investigation is delivered, it’s unclear how the information will be disseminated to all 100 Senators in a timely fashion considering that Majority Leader Mitch McConnell wants to vote this week.

There are not multiple copies of the background investigation file, and senators cannot go pick it up and bring it home with them. They need to either go to a secure area designated in the Judiciary Committee offices, or a designated staffer can bring it to a senator and then return it.

Republican senators said Wednesday that the file will be held in the Senate SCIF (Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility), which is the classified area of the Capitol Visitor’s Center. The SCIF could be used so more senators can be accommodated than in the Judiciary Committee offices, which are fairly small.

According to committee aides and a document dictating how the file is to be handled, “The Security Manager shall maintain in a locked safe a log that reflects the date, time, and particular FBI background investigation report received by the Committee.”

The information in the background investigation file is not marked top secret or classified, but it is not to be leaked to even characterized. Senators are “not allowed to share any details whatsoever,” a committee aide said.

That rule will likely be tested.

https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/supreme-court/who-s-allowed-read-fbi-s-confidential-kavanaugh-report-how-n916441

 

Trump’s Mocking of Kavanaugh Accusers Stuns Senators Before Vote

  • Shannon Pettypiece

(Bloomberg) — President Donald Trump mocked two of the women who have come forward with claims that Brett Kavanaugh engaged in sexual assault and other misconduct in the 1980s, earning bipartisan criticism from U.S. senators currently weighing the Supreme Court nominee‚Äôs confirmation.

Speaking Tuesday night at a rally in Southaven, Mississippi, Trump attacked the credibility of Christine Blasey Ford, who last week testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee that Kavanaugh drunkenly assaulted her during a high school party more than 30 years ago.

Trump's Mocking of Kavanaugh Accusers Stuns Senators Before Vote

The president, who days ago said Ford‚Äôs testimony was ‚Äúvery credible,‚ÄĚ ridiculed her memory to cheers in the audience, suggesting certain details she didn‚Äôt recall were evidence that she wasn‚Äôt telling the truth.

‚ÄúHow did you get there? I don‚Äôt remember. Where was the place? I don‚Äôt remember,‚ÄĚ Trump said, mocking Ford‚Äôs answers during last week‚Äôs hearing.

The remarks drew a rebuke Wednesday not just from Democrats but also Senator Jeff Flake, the Arizona Republican who forced an additional FBI investigation into the accusations against Kavanaugh by threatening to withhold his vote for confirmation.

Flake said Trump‚Äôs comments were ‚Äúkind of appalling‚ÄĚ in an interview with NBC News.

‚ÄúThere is no time and no place for remarks like that,‚ÄĚ Flake said. ‚ÄúBut to discuss something this sensitive at a political rally is just not right.‚ÄĚ

Senator Susan Collins, a Maine Republican and key undecided vote in the Kavanaugh confirmation battle, was also critical of Trump.

‚ÄúThe president‚Äôs comments were just plain wrong,‚ÄĚ Collins said in a statement.

A third undecided Republican, Lisa Murkowski of Alaska, was asked whether Trump’s comments would affect her decision on whether to back Kavanaugh’s confirmation.

‚ÄúI am taking everything into account and I think the comments by the president yesterday mocking Dr. Ford were wholly inappropriate,” Murkowski said.

Their remarks echoed those of Democrats, who condemned Trump as insensitive to Ford and women who had faced sexual harassment and assault. Ford, a California psychology professor, told the Senate that she is ‚Äú100 percent‚ÄĚ certain Kavanaugh was her attacker.

Senate Democratic Leader Chuck Schumer assailed Trump’s comments.

‚ÄúPresident Trump‚Äôs outright mockery of a sexual assault survivor, riddled as it was with falsehoods, was reprehensible, beneath the office of the presidency and beneath common decency from one person to another,‚ÄĚ Schumer said on the Senate floor. ‚ÄúHe‚Äôs ruining the norms of America. He‚Äôs so degrading the way people treat each other.‚ÄĚ

Beto O‚ÄôRourke, the party‚Äôs candidate for U.S. Senate in Texas, tweeted that Ford ‚Äúshould be treated with dignity and respect — not demeaned and belittled by the President of the United States.‚ÄĚ

Representative Pramila Jayapal, a Washington Democrat, tweeted that the remarks were ‚Äúsadly what we expect from the president.‚ÄĚ

‚ÄúFor a brief moment this week, I respected his relatively good comments about having a full investigation,‚ÄĚ Jayapal said. ‚ÄúThat lasted for a nanosecond.‚ÄĚ

And Angus King, an independent U.S. senator from Maine who caucuses with Democrats, said in an interview with CNN that Trump‚Äôs comments ‚Äúmade me feel sort of sick.‚ÄĚ The senior senator from King‚Äôs state, Republican Susan Collins, is seen as a crucial swing vote on Kavanaugh‚Äôs nomination.

Ford‚Äôs attorney, Michael Bromwich, called the president‚Äôs comments “a vicious, vile and soulless attack.”

‚ÄúIs it any wonder that she was terrified to come forward, and that other sexual assault survivors are as well?‚ÄĚ he tweeted. ‚ÄúShe is a remarkable profile in courage. He is a profile in cowardice.‚ÄĚ

GOP Senator Lindsey Graham, a strong backer of Kavanaugh, offered a milder criticism of the president while speaking to the Atlantic Festival on Wednesday. “President Trump went through a factual rendition that I didn‚Äôt particularly like, and I would tell him, knock it off. You‚Äôre not helping,” the senator said.

‚ÄėScary Time‚Äô

On Monday, Trump said Kavanaugh‚Äôs testimony last week — which immediately followed Ford‚Äôs — showed that the nominee had ‚Äúa little bit of difficulty‚ÄĚ with alcohol when he was younger, undercutting Kavanaugh‚Äôs own portrayal of his drinking habits in high school and college.

Earlier Tuesday, the president previewed his change in tone as he departed the White House, saying ‚Äúit‚Äôs a very scary time for young men in America when you can be guilty of something you may not be guilty of.‚ÄĚ When asked whether he had a message for American women, Trump said: ‚ÄúWomen are doing great.‚ÄĚ

Trump's Mocking of Kavanaugh Accusers Stuns Senators Before Vote

At the Mississippi rally, where Trump was promoting the candidacy of Senator Cindy Hyde-Smith, Trump also turned his ire toward Julie Swetnick, who claims Kavanaugh took part in efforts at parties during high school to get girls intoxicated so that groups of boys could have sex with them.

‚ÄúThis woman had no clue what was going on, and yet she made the most horrible charges,‚ÄĚ Trump said, pointing out that Kavanaugh went to Yale as apparent evidence that the claims were spurious.

Kavanaugh has denied Swetnick and Ford’s claims.

Midterm Effect

The controversy around Kavanaugh’s nomination has erupted just a month before the midterm elections that will determine control of Congress. Trump is logging multiple trips each week to rally support for Republican candidates he needs to win, and on Tuesday showed he’s ready to stoke voters by vociferously fighting for his nominee amid an FBI investigation into the allegations.

It isn’t clear how Trump’s mockery of the women will play politically. The Kavanaugh hearing crystallized what has become a central divide in American politics. On one side: women who for decades have suffered as their stories of sexual assault and harassment went ignored or ridiculed. On the other: conservative men aggrieved by a system they see as rigged against them and rife with unfair and reputation-destroying accusations.

Opinions of Ford‚Äôs testimony — on social media and television networks — were that she was powerful and believable. Her vivid, specific and heartbreaking account invited contrast with the angry bickering over Senate rules and procedures by lawmakers, as well as Kavanaugh‚Äôs subsequent combative testimony.

Kavanaugh‚Äôs repeated references to liking beer — and initial attempts to avoid answering a question on whether he had ever blacked out from alcohol use — have been the subject of parody, including a skit on NBC‚Äôs ‚ÄúSaturday Night Live.‚ÄĚ Yale University classmate Charles Ludington released a statement saying Kavanaugh‚Äôs testimony — in which he eventually said he‚Äôd never blacked out — was a ‚Äúblatant mischaracterization.‚ÄĚ

The White House agreed on Monday to let the Federal Bureau of Investigation question more people in connection with the allegations that Kavanaugh was sexually abusive toward women following growing criticism that the probe was too constrained. But the bureau isn’t doing its own deep dive into the nominee’s alcohol use or whether he gave false testimony to a Senate panel last week, according to a person familiar with the matter.

Senate Majority Mitch McConnell has said the Senate will hold a confirmation vote for Kavanaugh this week.

https://www.bloombergquint.com/global-economics/treasuries-slide-asia-stocks-set-to-nudge-higher-markets-wrap

McConnell vows Republicans won’t be intimidated by Kavanaugh protesters

Published: Oct 3, 2018 1:07 p.m. ET

Senate majority leader cites harassment at airports, homes

By ROBERTSCHROEDER

WHITE HOUSE REPORTER
Reuters
Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell

Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell pushed back at protesters who are confronting Republicans over Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh, saying members of the GOP won’t be prevented from taking a vote on President Donald Trump’s pick.

‚ÄėI want to make it clear to these people who are chasing my members around the hall here, or harassing them at the airports, or going to their homes: we will not be intimidated.‚Äô

Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell

Kentucky Republican McConnell made his vow from the floor Wednesday as senators prepare to vote on the nomination of Kavanaugh this week. The judge has been accused of sexual assault, and the vote was delayed to allow for an FBI investigation. He has denied the charges.

The Hill reports McConnell and Sen. Bob Corker, a Tennessee Republican, were both confronted at Reagan National Airport outside Washington on Monday by women who said they were survivors of sexual assault. Protesters have also followed senators coming in and out of hearings this week.

Republicans hold a slim 51-seat majority in the Senate, so Kavanaugh’s nomination can afford no more than one GOP defection. In the event of a tie, Vice President Mike Pence would vote.

On Tuesday night, Trump mocked college professor Christine Blasey Ford, one of Kavanaugh’s accusers. Key GOP senators condemned the president’s comments.

Kaitlan Collins

‚úĒ@kaitlancollins

What the key senators think of President Trump ridiculing Christine Blasey Ford:
Flake: “Kind of appalling.”
Collins: “Just plain wrong.”
Murkowski: “Wholly inappropriate and unacceptable.”
But will it affect their votes on Kavanaugh? Flake says it won’t his.

https://www.marketwatch.com/story/mcconnell-vows-republicans-wont-be-intimidated-by-kavanaugh-protesters-2018-10-03

Story 3: Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell Views on U.S. Economy and Monetary Policy — Videos —

LIVE: Fed Chair Jerome Powell Speaks at the Atlantic Festival – Oct. 3, 2018

What keeps US Fed’s Powell up at night? Everything

Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell doesn't get much sleep worrying about potential risks to the economy

Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell doesn’t get much sleep worrying about potential risks to the economy

Is inflation about to rise? Are interest rates too high? Or too low? Are economic risks lurking? These are the fears that keep US Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell from getting a good night’s sleep.

While he was generally upbeat about the US economy, predicting that the good news could continue “effectively indefinitely,” when asked Wednesday what keeps him up at night, Powell said, “Basically everything.”

“Nobody wants a central banker who sleeps well. What good is that?” Powell told a forum hosted by The Atlantic.

Concerns about getting monetary policy right top the list but Powell said, “It’s a world full of risk. I probably lose sleep over different things every night.”

But even so, he noted that the US economy was seeing very low, and falling, unemployment along with moderate inflation.

“There is really no reason to think this cycle can’t continue for quite some time,” he said.

Whenever the next crisis comes, he predicted it will not look like the last one — and there are no signs of financial instability or banking issues — but would be something like a cyber-attack or global event.

Rising protectionism and slowing of an important economy like China would be “bad for American workers and the American economy,” he said.

But if President Donald Trump’s trade confrontations — which so far include cranking up tariffs on half of the goods imported from China — result in lower tariffs and better trade rules, “that will be good for us.”

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-6237419/What-keeps-US-Feds-Powell-night-Everything.html

Jerome Powell

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Jerome Powell
Jerome H. Powell.jpg
16th Chairman of the Federal Reserve
Assumed office
February 5, 2018
President Donald Trump
Deputy Richard Clarida
Preceded by Janet Yellen
Member of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors
Assumed office
May 25, 2012
President Barack Obama
Donald Trump
Preceded by Frederic Mishkin
Under Secretary of the Treasury for Domestic Finance
In office
1992‚Äď1993
President George H. W. Bush
Preceded by Robert R. Glauber
Succeeded by Frank N. Newman
Personal details
Born Jerome Hayden Powell
February 4, 1953 (age 65)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political party Republican[1]
Spouse(s)
Elissa Leonard (m. 1985)
Children 3
Residence Chevy Chase, Maryland, U.S.
Education Princeton University (AB)
Georgetown University (JD)
Net worth $112 million[2][3]

Jerome Hayden “Jay” Powell¬†(born February 4, 1953) is the 16th and current¬†Chairman of the Federal Reserve, serving in that office since February 2018. He was nominated to the Fed Chair position by¬†President¬†Donald Trump, and confirmed by the¬†United States Senate.[4][5]

Powell earned a degree in politics from Princeton University in 1975 and a Juris Doctor from Georgetown University Law Center in 1979. He moved to investment banking in 1984, and has since worked for several financial institutions. He briefly served as Under Secretary of the Treasury for Domestic Finance under President George H. W. Bush in 1992. More recently, he was a visiting scholar at the Bipartisan Policy Center from 2010 to 2012. He has served as a member of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors since 2012.

Early life and education

Powell was born on February 4, 1953 in¬†Washington, D.C., as one of six children to Patricia (n√©e Hayden; 1926‚Äď2010)[6]¬†and Jerome Powell (1921‚Äď2007),[7]¬†a lawyer in private practice and a¬†World War II¬†veteran.[8][9]¬†His maternal grandfather, James J. Hayden, was Dean of the¬†Columbus School of Law¬†at¬†Catholic University of America¬†and later a lecturer at¬†Georgetown Law School.[10]¬†He had five siblings, Susan, Matthew, Tia, Libby and Monica.[8]

In 1972, Powell graduated from¬†Georgetown Preparatory School, a¬†Jesuit¬†university-preparatory school. He received a¬†Bachelor of Arts¬†in¬†politics¬†from¬†Princeton University¬†in 1975, where his senior thesis was titled “South Africa: Forces for Change.”[11]¬†In 1975‚Äď76, he spent a year as a¬†legislative assistant¬†to Pennsylvania Senator¬†Richard Schweiker¬†(R),[12][13]¬†who had been named by¬†Ronald Reagan¬†as his probable¬†vice presidential¬†running mate on the¬†1976¬†ticket, had Reagan succeeded in securing the GOP nomination.

Powell earned a Juris Doctor degree from Georgetown University Law Center in 1979, where he was editor-in-chief of the Georgetown Law Journal.[14]

Career

In 1979, Powell moved to New York City and became a clerk to Judge Ellsworth Van Graafeiland of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. From 1981 to 1983, Powell was a lawyer with Davis Polk & Wardwell, and from 1983 to 1984, he worked at the firm of Werbel & McMillen.[13]

From 1984 to 1990, Powell worked at Dillon, Read & Co., an investment bank, where he concentrated on financing, merchant banking, and mergers and acquisitions, rising to the position of vice president.[13][15]

Between 1990 and 1993, Powell worked in the United States Department of the Treasury, at which time Nicholas F. Brady, the former chairman of Dillon, Read & Co., was the United States Secretary of the Treasury. In 1992, Powell became the Under Secretary of the Treasury for Domestic Finance after being nominated by George H. W. Bush.[13][15][12] During his stint at the Treasury, Powell oversaw the investigation and sanctioning of Salomon Brothers after one of its traders submitted false bids for a United States Treasury security.[16] Powell was also involved in the negotiations that made Warren Buffett the chairman of Salomon.[17]

In 1993, Powell began working as a managing director for Bankers Trust, but he quit in 1995 after the bank got into trouble when several customers suffered large losses due to derivatives. He then went back to work for Dillon, Read & Co.[15]

From 1997 to 2005, Powell was a partner at The Carlyle Group, where he founded and led the Industrial Group within the Carlyle U.S. Buyout Fund.[14][18]

After leaving Carlyle, Powell founded Severn Capital Partners, a private investment firm focused on specialty finance and opportunistic investments in the industrial sector.[19]

In 2008, Powell became a managing partner of the Global Environment Fund, a private equity and venture capital firm that invests in sustainable energy.[19]

Between 2010 and 2012, Powell was a visiting scholar at the Bipartisan Policy Center, a think tank in Washington, D.C., where he worked on getting Congress to raise the United States debt ceiling during the United States debt-ceiling crisis of 2011. Powell presented the implications to the economy and interest rates of a default or a delay in raising the debt ceiling.[18] He worked for a salary of $1 per year.[2]

Federal Reserve Board of Governors]

Powell speaks in 2015

In December 2011, along with¬†Jeremy C. Stein, Powell was nominated to the Federal Reserve Board of Governors by President Barack Obama. The nomination included two people to help garner bipartisan support for both nominees since Stein’s nomination had previously been¬†filibustered. Powell’s nomination was the first time that a president nominated a member of the opposition party for such a position since 1988.[1]¬†He took office on May 25, 2012, to fill the unexpired term of¬†Frederic Mishkin, who resigned. In January 2014, he was nominated for another term, and, in June 2014, he was confirmed by the¬†United States Senate¬†in a 67-24 vote for a 14-year term ending January 31, 2028.[20]

In 2013, Powell made a speech regarding¬†financial regulation¬†and ending “too big to fail“.[21]¬†In April 2017, he took over oversight of the “too big to fail” banks.[22]

Chair of the Federal Reserve[edit]

Powell sworn in as chair in 2018

On November 2, 2017, President Donald Trump nominated Powell to serve as the Chair of the Federal Reserve.[23]

On December 5, 2017, the¬†Senate Banking Committee¬†approved Powell’s nomination to be Chair in a 22‚Äď1 vote, with Senator¬†Elizabeth Warren¬†casting the lone dissenting vote.[24]¬†His nomination was confirmed by the Senate on January 23, 2018 by a 84‚Äď13 vote.[25]¬†Powell assumed office as Chair on February 5, 2018.

Economic philosophy

Monetary policy

A survey of 30 economists in March 2017 noted that Powell was slightly more of a monetary dove than the average member of the Board of Governors.[citation needed] However, The Bloomberg Intelligence Fed Spectrometer rated Powell as neutral (i.e. neither a hawk nor a dove). Powell has been a skeptic of round 3 of quantitative easing, initiated in 2012, although he did vote in favor of implementation.[26]

Financial regulation

Powell testifies before the US Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs in 2018

Powell “appears to largely support” the¬†Dodd‚ÄďFrank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, although he has stated that “we can do it more efficiently”.[26]¬†In an October 2017 speech, Powell stated that higher capital and liquidity requirements and stress tests have made the financial system safer and must be preserved. However, he also stated that the¬†Volcker Rule¬†should be re-written to exclude smaller banks.[26]

Housing finance reform

In a July 2017 speech, Powell said that, in regards to¬†Fannie Mae¬†and¬†Freddie Mac, the status quo is “unacceptable” and that the current situation “may feel comfortable, but it is also unsustainable”. He warned that “the next few years may present our last best chance” to “address the ultimate status of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac” and avoid “repeating the mistakes of the past”. Powell expressed concerns that, in the current situation, the government is responsible for mortgage defaults and that lending standards were too rigid, noting that these can be solved by encouraging “ample amounts of private capital to support housing finance activities”.[27]

Personal life

In 1985, Powell married Elissa Leonard.[9] They have three children[14] and live in Chevy Chase Village, Maryland, where Elissa is vice chair of the board of managers of the village.[28] In 2010, Powell was on the board of governors of Chevy Chase Club, a country club.[29]

Based on public filings, Powell’s net worth is estimated to be as much as $112 million.[2][3]¬†He is the richest member of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors.[30]

Powell has served on the boards of charitable and educational institutions including DC Prep, a public charter school, the Bendheim Center for Finance at Princeton University, and The Nature Conservancy. He was also a founder of the Center City Consortium, a group of 16 parochial schools in the poorest areas of Washington, D.C.[18]

Powell is a registered Republican.[1]

References …

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerome_Powell

Story 4: Job Market Booming With Private Payroll Surge of 230,000 in September 2018 — Videos

ADP payrolls data doesn’t take Hurricane Florence into account, says Moody’s Mark Zandi

What Are Non Farm Payrolls?

U.S. Private Employers Boost Hiring; Activity Accelerates

 

ADP Research Institute¬ģ

September 2018: ADP Employment Reports

NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT REPORT

230,000

Change in U.S. nonfarm private sector employment

View full report ‚Äļ

SMALL BUSINESS REPORT

56,000

Change in employment among small businesses with 1-49 employees

View full report ‚Äļ

NATIONAL FRANCHISE REPORT

-5,700

Change in U.S. franchise employment

View full report ‚Äļ

 

Previous ADP Employment Reports

AUGUST 2018

NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT REPORT

163,000

Change in U.S. nonfarm private sector employment

View full report ‚Äļ

SMALL BUSINESS REPORT

21,000

Change in employment among small businesses with 1-49 employees

View full report ‚Äļ

NATIONAL FRANCHISE REPORT

20,700

Change in U.S. franchise employment

View full report ‚Äļ

JULY 2018

NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT REPORT

219,000

Change in U.S. nonfarm private sector employment

View full report ‚Äļ

SMALL BUSINESS REPORT

21,000

Change in employment among small businesses with 1-49 employees

View full report ‚Äļ

NATIONAL FRANCHISE REPORT

15,100

Change in U.S. franchise employment

View full report ‚Äļ

JUNE 2018

NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT REPORT

177,000

Change in U.S. nonfarm private sector employment

View full report ‚Äļ

SMALL BUSINESS REPORT

21,000

Change in employment among small businesses with 1-49 employees

View full report ‚Äļ

NATIONAL FRANCHISE REPORT

13,800

Change in U.S. franchise employment

View full report ‚Äļ

MAY 2018

NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT REPORT

178,000

Change in U.S. nonfarm private sector employment

View full report ‚Äļ

SMALL BUSINESS REPORT

21,000

Change in employment among small businesses with 1-49 employees

View full report ‚Äļ

NATIONAL FRANCHISE REPORT

29,500

Change in U.S. franchise employment

View full report ‚Äļ