Archive for August, 2017

The Pronk Pops Show 755, Part 1 of 2, Story 1: President Trump’s Tax Speech — Very Light On Specifics — Let Congress Fill in The Details — Formula For Failure — Tax Rate Cuts Are Not Fundamental Tax Reform — A Broad Based Consumption Tax Such as The FairTax or Fair Tax Less Not Even Mentioned — What Good Is Dreaming It If You don’t actually do it! — Videos — Story 2: Revised Second Estimate of Real GDP Growth in Second Quarter of 2017 Is 3 Percent — Videos

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 955, August 30, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 954, August 29, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 953, August 28, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 952, August 25, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 951, August 24, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 950, August 23, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 949, August 22, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 948, August 21, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 947, August 16, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 946, August 15, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 945, August 14, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 944, August 10, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 943, August 9, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 942, August 8, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 941, August 7, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 940, August 3, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 939,  August 2, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 938, August 1, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 937, July 31, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 936, July 27, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 935, July 26, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 934, July 25, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 934, July 25, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 933, July 24, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 932, July 20, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 931, July 19, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 930, July 18, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 929, July 17, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 928, July 13, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 927, July 12, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 926, July 11, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 925, July 10, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 924, July 6, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 923, July 5, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 922, July 3, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 921, June 29, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 920, June 28, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 919, June 27, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 918, June 26, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 917, June 22, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 916, June 21, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 915, June 20, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 914, June 19, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 913, June 16, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 912, June 15, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 911, June 14, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 910, June 13, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 909, June 12, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 908, June 9, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 907, June 8, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 906, June 7, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 905, June 6, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 904, June 5, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 903, June 1, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 902, May 31, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 901, May 30, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 900, May 25, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 899, May 24, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 898, May 23, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 897, May 22, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 896, May 18, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 895, May 17, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 894, May 16, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 893, May 15, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 892, May 12, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 891, May 11, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 890, May 10, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 889, May 9, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 888, May 8, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 887, May 5, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 886, May 4, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 885, May 3, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 884, May 1, 2017

Image result for branco cartoons on trump tax reformImage result for fairtax

Image result for branco cartoons on trump tax reform

Image result for branco cartoons on trump tax reform

Image result for branco cartoons on trump tax reform

Image result for branco cartoons on trump tax reform

 

Image result for average quarter to quarter real gdp growth

Image result for average quarter to quarter real gdp growth

Image result for annual real gdp growth 1950-2017

Image result for annual real gdp growth 1950-2017 u.S. economy

Image result for annual real gdp growth 1950-2017 u.S. economy

Image result for annual real gdp growth 1950-2017 u.S. economy

Story 1: President Trump’s Tax Speech — Very Light On Specifics — Let Congress Fill in The Details — Formula For Failure — Tax Rate Cuts Are Not Fundamental Tax Reform — A Broad Based Consumption Tax Such as The FairTax or Fair Tax Less Not Even Mentioned — What Good Is Dreaming It If You don’t actually do it! — Videos —

FULL. President Trump speech on tax reform in Springfield, Missouri. August 30, 2017.

Special Report with Bret Baier 8/30/17 – Special Report Fox News August 30, 2017 TRUMP TAX REFORM

Destroy Trump Media – President Trump Pitches Tax Reform Plan – Kellyanne Conway – Hannity

President Trump’s tax plan

Will US Markets Finally Get Tax Reform – 29 Aug 17 | Gazunda

Keiser Report: The bizarre decade (E1117)

Dan Mitchell on GOP Tax Reform Wrangling, Part I

Dan Mitchell on GOP Tax Reform Wrangling, Part II

Dan Mitchell Discussing the Fate of Tax Cuts and Tax Reform

How Trump’s tax plan impacts average Americans

Trump’s Tax Cut Plan Alienates His Base

Cohn Says White House Is Concerned About U.S. Wages

Gary Cohn on the Trump administration taking on tax loopholes

As White House Cracks Show, Are Rex Tillerson and Gary Cohn Headed Out? | Morning Joe | MSNBC

Gary Cohn’s take on tax reform

Limbaugh Airs Montage Of The ‘3 LIES’ Media Said After Trump’s Tax Speech

Trump’s tax cuts will be done before Thanksgiving: Grover Norquist

Donald Trump Is To Give Speech On Tax Reform But He Has No Tax Reform Plan | The 11th Hour | MSNBC

Freedom from the IRS! – FairTax Explained in Detail

Mark Levin: Donald Trump gave a good speech on tax reform (August 30 2017)

Why U.S. Tax Reform Isn’t Likely in 2017

Milton Friedman – Why Tax Reform Is Impossible

Honda – “Impossible Dream” Power of Dreams Advert Full

 

Trump’s Tax Reform Plan Targets Middle-Class Tax Complexity

Policy director at Competitive Enterprise Institute

President Trump visited Missouri to talk about tax reform, stressing simplicity and middle-class tax relief and “plans to bring back Main Street by reducing the crushing tax burden on our companies and on our workers.”

Noting the elimination of “dozens of loopholes,” special interest carve-outs, and the reduction of brackets and rates that Congress achieved three decades ago, Trump said, “the foundation of our job creation agenda is to fundamentally reform our tax code for the first time in more than 30 years. I want to work with Congress, Republicans and Democrats alike, on a plan that is pro-growth, pro-jobs, pro-worker — and pro-American.”

We’re about to re-enter Obamacare repeal-style complexity and venom, but it’s important, I think, for the public to see the tax reform debate as something other than a campaign to benefit business. The U.S. does have comparatively high corporate tax rates. And the Econ 101 lesson on tax incidence shows that consumers pay much of the corporate tax, not the company.

It’s probable some Democrats would like to reform the tax code, especially come 2016, but the zero-tolerance of Trump, such as that seen at the Commonwealth Club when Sen. Diane Feinstein was barely favorable toward him, prevails.

But things can turn on a dime, as the response, likely bipartisan, to Hurricane Harvey may further show. And separately the controversial debt limit needs to be addressed no matter what (hopefully with parallel cuts in regulatory costs), and that debate will influence the trajectory of tax reform.

My broader point here though is is that taxation is just the beginning of the story when it comes to the complexity of regulatory compliance. The economy marinates in compliance burdens to service noble ends, but sometimes serve regulators instead. Trump characterized the Internal Revenue Service’s unfairness to the typical taxpayer like this:

The tax code is now a massive source of complexity and frustration for tens of millions of Americans.

In 1935, the basic 1040 form that most people file had two simple pages of instructions. Today, that basic form has one hundred pages of instructions, and it’s pretty complex stuff. The tax code is so complicated that more than 90 percent of Americans need professional help to do their own taxes.

This enormous complexity is very unfair. It disadvantages ordinary Americans who don’t have an army of accountants while benefiting deep-pocketed special interests. And most importantly, this is wrong.

There’s solid backup for what Trump’s talking about in terms of pubic burdens, even if some are disinclined  to reckon with it, or if their allegiances require professing public disdain for corporations (one of the great democratizing forces in human history, but that’s another story).

The Government Accountability Office (GAO) agrees, I think, that Trump’s example of the IRS is a good one. In the course of a project I have of compiling examples of government proclamationsthat are not laws from Congress, nor even formal regulations from agencies, but instead “memoranda” and “guidance,” the IRS emerged as a leading “offender.”

A September 2016 GAO report called  “Regulatory Guidance Processes: Treasury and OMB Need to Reevaluate Long-standing Exemptions of Tax Regulations and Guidance,” looked at the Internal Revenue Service’s hierarchy of law, regulations, guidance, and explanatory material with respect to communicating interpretation of tax laws to the public.

It’s an eye-opener.

A pyramid diagram presented by GAO was topped by the Internal Revenue Code, as passed by Congress. Beneath that, in widening stages, one finds “Treasury Regulations,” “Internal Revenue Bulletins,” (IRB), “Written Determinations,” and “Other IRS Publications and Information.” The IRS regards the bulletins as generally authoritative, while determinations tend to apply to individual taxpayers.

That’s a lot of public guidance, difficult to absorb.

As the GAO explains:

Treasury and IRS are among the largest generators of federal agency regulations and they issue thousands of other forms of taxpayer guidance. IRS publishes tax regulations and other guidance in the weekly IRB. Each annual volume of the IRB contains about 2,000 pages of regulations and other guidance documents.

From 2013 to 2015, each annual Internal Revenue Bulletin edition contained some 300 guidance documents; back in 2002-2008, about 500.

When one sees such document proliferation from the IRS, an impartial observer might surmise the time for tax reform and simplification has arrived.

Likewise, when regulatory guidance multiplies that applies to various sectors—like finance, Internet, health care—one might similarly conclude the time has come for Congress to enact regulatory liberalization. Trump mentioned cutting the overall federal regulatory burden in the Missouri speech, too.

We knew it all along, but paying taxes also requires paying a lot of attention to regulations. In more ways than one, tax reform and regulatory reform go hand in hand.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/waynecrews/2017/08/30/trumps-tax-reform-plan-targets-middle-class-tax-complexity/#31fda3736ef8

Ann Coulter goes off on Trump over taxes, saying he delivered his ‘worst, most tone-deaf speech’

Conservative author Ann Coulter rebuked President Donald Trump over his speech on Wednesday in which he rolled out the broad outline of his tax reform plan.

In a slew of tweets on Wednesday, the firebrand conservative pundit said the president’s focus on simplifying the tax code and lowering business taxes to 15% was missing an opportunity to prioritize some of his more incendiary, but unique, policy objectives, including building a southern border wall and deporting immigrants living in the US without permission.

This isn’t a “once in a lifetime” shot at tax cuts! EVERY GOP cuts taxes! This is “once in a lifetime” shot to save US: Wall & deportations!

Bush cut taxes! Did it create millions of jobs? Nope. The rich pocketed their tax cut & sent jobs abroad, hired guest workers. F– them.

It’s so obvious Trump’s only getting polite applause for tax cuts. Want to get the crowd hollering, @realDonaldTrump? Talk about THE WALL!

It’s like Night of the Living Dead watching our beloved @realDonaldTrump go to DC & start babbling the same old GOP nonsense on tax cuts.

Tax cuts are a 2d term issue. 1st term: BUILD THE WALL, End DACA, Deport Illegals, No Refugees, No Muslims, Immigrn Moratorium. SAVE USA!

Cutting taxes doesn’t do a damn thing for wages if you allow businesses to keep bringing in cheap foreign labor!

To create jobs for AMERICANS, no more cheap foreign workers, CUT REGULATIONS & cut corporate taxes. (NOT income taxes.)

Coulter particularly singled out the similarities between Trump’s plan and a hypothetical plan that other Republicans like former Florida Gov. Jeb Bush would’ve put forward.

This speech could have been given by Jeb! — except even he wouldn’t have talked about the govt helping yuppie women with child care costs.

Oh stop pretending this is about letting “families” keep more of their money. HALF OF AMERICANS DON’T PAY TAXES! This is for Wall Street.

Indeed, beyond the prominent former Wall Street figures playing key roles in overhauling the tax code, Trump’s administration has absorbed some financial figures from Bush’s policy world.

Notably, Bush’s former senior policy director Justin Muzinich joined the Treasury Department in March to work closely with Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin on “major policy initiatives” and on tax reform.

Over the past several months, Coulter has increasingly criticized Trump and mocked him on social media and in interviews, saying that he has not fulfilled his anti-immigration campaign promises.

“The millions of people who haven’t voted for 30 years and came out to vote for Trump, thinking, ‘Finally, here’s somebody who cares about us’ — Nope!” Coulter told The Daily Beast after former chief strategist Steve Bannon left the White House earlier this month. “Republicans, Democrats — doesn’t matter. Jeb exclamation point, Donald Trump, Hillary Clinton — doesn’t matter. Goldman Sachs is running the country.”

http://www.businessinsider.com/ann-coulter-trump-taxes-speech-2017-8

 

Who Pays Income Taxes?

The charts below illustrate the share of taxes paid by income percentiles for Tax Year 2014, the most recent set of data available from the IRS. NTUF has broken down the federal share of income taxes by gross income to show how much each bracket contributes yearly.

For more information:

 

https://e.infogr.am/38b876d9-6c59-4a84-8b02-1ed223f6a454?src=embed

https://www.ntu.org/foundation/page/who-pays-income-taxes

Trump Hits The Road To Promote Tax Cuts (Details To Come)

President Trump participates in a tax overhaul kickoff event at the Loren Cook Company in Springfield, Mo., on Wednesday.

Jim Watson/AFP/Getty Images

Updated at 5:25 p.m. ET

President Trump called for a major rewrite of the U.S. tax code during a visit to Springfield, Mo., on Wednesday afternoon. The speech came a day after Trump’s trip to Harvey-hit Texas and is the first in what is expected to be a series of traveling sales pitches on taxes from the president.

But the White House is not ready to spell out what the rewrite will look like or what kind of price tag it will carry. Trump spoke in broad terms about creating a tax system that favors middle-class Americans and keeps business in the U.S.

“First and foremost our tax system should benefit loyal, hardworking Americans and their families. That is why tax reform must dramatically simplify the tax code, eliminate special-interest loopholes,” he said.

Trump called on Congress to join him and “unite in the name of common sense and the name of common good” to create jobs and improve America’s “competitive advantage.”

“I am fully committed to working with Congress to get this job done, and I don’t want to be disappointed by Congress,” he said.

Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin and National Economic Council Director Gary Cohn have been meeting regularly with Republican congressional leaders to discuss tax policy. Thus far, though, they’ve committed only to a vague statement of principles that calls for lower tax rates on both individuals and businesses. Cohn said it will be up to lawmakers to fill in the details.

“We’ve got a great, I would say, skeleton,” Cohn told reporters earlier this month. “We need the Ways and Means Committee to put some muscle and skin on the skeleton and drive tax reform forward. And it’s our objective to do that between now and the end of the year.”

With Republicans in control of the House, Senate and the presidency, supporters have described this as a once-in-a-generation opportunity to overhaul the tax code in accordance with GOP principles. But after Trump’s insistence on swift, ultimately unsuccessful bids to repeal the Affordable Care Act, some observers are skeptical that Trump has the patience or discipline to see a tax overhaul through to completion.

Mnuchin insists tax cuts are now Trump’s No. 1 priority.

“He’s going to go on the road,” Mnuchin said. “The president is 100 percent supportive of us passing legislation this year.”

The White House has been promising such a sales campaign for weeks, only to see much of August consumed with controversy over the president’s Charlottesville, Va., remarks and his intraparty carping with fellow Republicans, including Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, R-Ky.

Mnuchin conceded that rewriting the tax code is a taller order than he initially imagined.

“Earlier in the year I said I thought we’d get it done by August, and I was wrong,” the Treasury secretary said. “I am now going to say that I’m very hopeful, and I think we can get this done by the end of the year, but we will continue to revisit it.”

“The president’s leadership on this is critical,” said a senior White House official who briefed reporters on the Springfield trip. “Everybody involved understands that and believes that. And he is ready to really take this conversation where it belongs and that’s the heartland of America.”

The official spoke on condition of anonymity.

“The president now feels that it’s the right time to begin engaging directly with the American people on tax reform,” he said.

The administration argues the current tax code is too complicated and rates are too high to encourage investment in the U.S.

“We are not competitive with the rest of the world on the business tax and on the personal income tax,” Cohn said.

Neither the White House nor congressional leaders have spelled out how much lower tax rates should go, nor have they specified how the government would make up the lost revenue. They’re counting on faster economic growth to help close the gap. They’ve also promised to eliminate unspecified tax “loopholes,” which Trump called out multiple times in his speech on Wednesday.

Back in April, the White House proposed lowering the corporate tax rate from 35 percent to 15 percent while reducing the top individual tax rate from 39.6 percent to 35 percent. That’s broadly similar to a proposal Trump put forward during the presidential campaign. The nonpartisan Tax Policy Center said at the time 78 percent of the tax savings in Trump’s campaign plan would go to people on the top 20 percent of the income ladder. (Nearly a quarter would go to the top one-tenth of 1 percent.)

The campaign plan was also forecast to reduce government revenue by more than $6 trillion over a decade — a gap that would be difficult to erase through growth and loophole closings.

The White House has said it wants to preserve deductions for charitable contributions, retirement savings and mortgage interest.

One popular tax break that could be on the chopping block is the deduction for state and local taxes. That’s one of the biggest loopholes in the tax code. Eliminating it would boost federal revenues by an estimated $1.3 trillion over a decade. The tax break is particularly popular with residents in the Northeast and West Coast, typically blue states with relatively high tax rates.

House Speaker Paul Ryan, R-Wis., favored a so-called border adjustment tax on imports as another way to raise revenue and offset the cost of income tax cuts. But lawmakers ultimately scrapped that idea after consultation with the administration.

Senate Republicans plan to use a procedural tactic to prevent Democrats from blocking the tax overhaul with a filibuster. Under Senate rules, though, any measure passed with that tactic must not add to the federal deficit for more than 10 years.

This presents a choice for Republicans: Go with a more modest tax cut that can be offset by growth and closing loopholes, or opt for a more ambitious cut but allow it to sunset after a decade.

For all the challenges, GOP lawmakers are under political pressure to pass something they can brand as “tax reform.” Otherwise, they’ll have to face voters in 2018 with little to show for two years of single-party rule.

http://www.npr.org/2017/08/30/547114024/trump-hits-the-road-to-promote-tax-cuts-details-to-come

 

Trump’s Fill-in-the-Blanks Tax Reform Plan

The president is leaving the details to Republicans in Congress. Only they haven’t figured them out yet, either.

Alex Brandon / AP

notable

On Wednesday, President Trump traveled to Missouri to expand on the need for tax reform, to lay the groundwork for a major legislative push in Congress this fall. But more than anything else, what Trump’s speech revealed was that despite months of behind-the-scenes negotiations, Republicans aren’t much closer to enacting the most significant overhaul of the tax code in 30 years than they were back in April.

Trump was pitching a plan that doesn’t exist and demanding votes for a bill that hasn’t been written. If anything, the address the president delivered was even less detailed than the skimpy blueprint the White House issued in the spring. The most specific item Trump mentioned—a 15 percent corporate tax rate, down from the current 35 percent—is something that Republican tax-writers on Capitol Hill believe is impossible to achieve under the parameters with which they must work. He talked in broad terms about simplifying the code so that it’s easier for people to file their taxes, removing unspecified special interest loopholes, and encouraging businesses to bring back profits they’ve parked overseas—all policies that have been central to GOP proposals for years and offer little indication of the particular direction the party plans to go.

This was a bully pulpit speech. Having laid down his principles, Trump is once again leaving the dirty work to Congress, a strategy that even he seemed to acknowledge was as risky as it is politically necessary. “I don’t want to be disappointed by Congress, do you understand me? Do you understand?” he warned at one point, a none-too-subtle reference to his recent hectoring over the GOP’s failure to deliver on health care.

To the delight of Republican leaders, the one lawmaker Trump singled out for pressure was not one of their own; for the first time in weeks, the president picked on a Democrat, Missouri Senator Claire McCaskill, who is up for reelection in a state he won easily in November. If McCaskill doesn’t vote for tax reform—whatever it turns out to be—“you have to vote her out of office,” Trump demanded of the crowd.

Top Republicans were evidently pleased with the speech, or at least with the fact that the president stuck to the message they were told beforehand he would deliver. Within minutes after it ended, statements (undoubtedly prewritten) flowed in with glowing reviews. “President Trump is taking the case for tax reform straight to Main Street,” House Speaker Paul Ryan said. “We are united in our determination to get this done.” Representative Kevin Brady, the chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, said his remarks were “excellent.” Even members of Trump’s Cabinet that have no role in tax reform, like Health and Human Services Secretary Tom Price, or in domestic politics whatsoever, like Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, chimed in with praise.Yet while Trump talked at length about the need for tax reform, he said little about how Republicans would get it done. And that’s because they still don’t know themselves. GOP leaders haven’t made several crucial decisions. Will the legislation be a revenue-neutral tax reform that fully offsets the reduction in rates by eliminating costly—and popular—exemptions and deductions? Or will it be a more straightforward tax cut, that would likely have to expire within a decade to comply with Senate rules? How low will they try to push down the corporate rate? About all they’ve determined is that 15 percent is too low, but will it be closer to 20 percent or 25 percent? And on, and on.
The Ways and Means Committee is currently writing the tax bill, but the only timeline they’ve set is to get it done by the end of 2018. The longer they take to write it, however, the less realistic that deadline becomes. And as I explainedearlier this month, Republicans must first pass a budget before they can even get to tax reform, which, to this point, has been no easy task.These unresolved details have also tripped up Trump’s messaging toward Democrats. Does he want their support, or are Republicans planning to do it alone as they tried to do on health care? In his speech, the president started out by saying he wanted to work with both parties to enact tax reform. Later on, however, he attacked Democrats as “obstructionists” and called out McCaskill. By the end, he was back where he began, saying tax reform was an issue on which lawmakers should put aside partisanship.Democrats say there’s been no outreach from the administration on taxes, and they’ve noted that Republicans are, for now, planning to use the same budget reconciliation process on tax reform that they used in trying to repeal the Affordable Care Act. That would allow them to skirt a Democratic filibuster and pass tax reform with a simple majority of 51 votes in the Senate. Unlike Obamacare repeal, some Democrats have expressed a willingness to work with the administration on taxes, so long as the GOP plan is not skewed to benefit the wealthy. With so few details, they were unimpressed with Trump’s speech in Missouri. “Stepping to the podium to declare that we need tax reform does not signal leadership on this issue; rather, doing so without offering any proposals on how to achieve it is an abdication,” said Representative Steny Hoyer of Maryland, the second-ranking House Democrat. “If the president is serious about tax reform, he should focus on the how, not the why.”Trump is not a detail-oriented president. That much is clear. But while he may be able to stick to broad strokes in rally-the-public speeches and leave the rest to Congress, his party will eventually have to make the tough decisions about who’s going to pay more, who gets to pay less, and by how much. Until that happens, tax reform isn’t going anywhere.

https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2017/08/trumps-fill-in-the-blanks-tax-reform-plan/538509/

Trump’s populist message on taxes comes with heavy dose of corporate rate cuts

Trump’s speech didn’t mask the fact that lawmakers still face a wide range of knotty questions when they return to Washington next week.

08/30/2017 01:59 PM EDT

Updated 08/30/2017 04:08 PM EDT

Trump maintained that a new tax system was crucial to ushering in a new prosperity in the U.S., in a speech that White House officials acknowledged beforehand would be light on policy details.

“Instead of exporting our jobs, we will export our goods. Our jobs will both stay here in America and come back to America. We’ll have it both ways,” Trump said at a Springfield, Mo., manufacturer, adding that millions of people would move from welfare to work and “will love earning a big fat beautiful paycheck.”

“We believe that ordinary Americans know better than Washington how to spend their own money and we want to help them take home as much of their money as possible and then spend it,” he said. “So they’ll keep their money, they’ll spend their money, they’ll buy our product.”

But Trump’s speech also underscored just how big a challenge he and a Republican Congress will face in pulling off a true overhaul of the tax code. The president only briefly touched on policy details, saying that businesses would “ideally” be taxed at a top rate of 15 percent and that the tax code would contain incentives for child care — a top priority of his daughter, Ivanka Trump.

“I am fully committed to working with Congress to get this job done,” Trump said. “And I don’t want to be disappointed by Congress. Do you understand me?”

Trump’s speech was aimed at showing that Republicans have the message down on tax reform, but lawmakers have yet to confront the monumental task of turning the rhetoric into reality.

Senior White House officials this week repeatedly billed the president’s speech as an address focused on why tax reform needs to happen, not how it will materialize. That’s the sort of big-picture cover on taxes that Trump didn’t offer congressional leaders in their doomed efforts to repeal and replace Obamacare.

But while congressional leaders undoubtedly welcome the president making the broad case for a tax revamp, Trump’s speech doesn’t mask the fact that lawmakers still face a wide range of knotty questions when they return to Washington next week.

Republicans still have to figure out how to pass a budget this fall, a process that will play a big role in deciding how generous a tax plan they can write. They also have to decide whether tax changes should be permanent or temporary, or a mix of the two, and whether their plan should be a net tax cut that would add to the deficit.

And that’s before they will feel the full brunt of a massive lobbying push on what would be the first major tax overhaul in more than 30 years. Already, GOP lawmakers are starting to hear from industries that might be the losers in a tax overhaul, such as big corporations that don’t want a minimum tax on foreign earnings and a retirement sector wary of potential changes to savings plans.

The hurdles won’t be limited to policy, either, after a summer that saw both sides of Pennsylvania Avenue grow increasingly wary of the other as the GOP’s health care efforts imploded. Republicans on Capitol Hill steamed privately in July that Trump’s obsession with White House infighting and the Russia controversy was a major factor in the death of the repeal effort. They’re crossing their fingers that he won’t be so easily distracted on tax reform.

 

Fact-checking President Trump’s speech on his tax plan

 August 31 at 3:00 AM
The Fact Checker’s round-up of five fishy claims made by President Trump in his speech on Aug. 30. (Meg Kelly/The Washington Post)

President Trump on Wednesday delivered an address on his “principles” for a tax plan in Springfield, Mo., though he provided few details. He also shifted from extolling how well the economy is doing to language that suggested the United States was suffering terribly. As usual, some of the president’s  facts and figures were a bit fishy, so here’s a roundup of 10 of his claims.

“In the last 10 years, our economy has grown at only around 2 percent a year.”

This is misleading. By going back 10 years, Trump includes the worst recession since the Great Depression, which brings down the 10-year average. This chart shows that that quarterly average since the recession was well above 2 percent, even hitting 5 percent in the third quarter of 2014. The GDP growth rate for the United States averaged 3.22 percent from 1947 to 2017.


Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis via Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

“We just announced that we hit 3 percent in GDP. Just came out. And on a yearly basis, as you know, the last administration, during an eight-year period, never hit 3 percent.

Trump plays some sleight-of-hand with the numbers. He first cites an annualized quarterly figure — 3 percent GDP growth in the second quarter of 2017 — and then compares it to what appears to be calendar-year figures for former president Barack Obama.

As the chart above shows, the economy grew better than 3 percent in eight quarters during Obama’s presidency, most recently in the third quarter of 2016. (Technically, this is known as “annualized quarterly change” or SAAR — seasonally adjusted at annual rate.) Trump gets his terminology wrong, using the phrase “yearly basis,” which could mean from the third quarter of 2015 to the the third quarter of 2016, in which case Obama easily exceeded 3 percent numerous times. On an annual basis, Obama’s best year was 2015, when annual growth was 2.6 percent.

“If we achieve sustained 3 percent growth, that means 12 million new jobs and $10 trillion of new economic activity over the next decade. That’s some numbers.”

With this statement, Trump downgrades promises he made during the 2016 campaign — he said he would achieve 4 percent GDP growth and 25 million jobs over 10 years.

“In 1935, the basic 1040 form that most people file had two simple pages of instruction. Today, that basic form has 100 pages of instructions, and it’s pretty complex stuff.”

Trump is correct that in 1935, the basic 1040 individual income tax form had two pages of instructions, but this claim needs historical context.

There are many reasons the instructions were so simple back then — including that just about 4 percent of the population paid the federal individual income tax. In 1935, the individual income tax largely was a tax on the wealthy. In fact, the top rate in 1935 was 63 percent — and President Franklin D. Roosevelt raised it to 75 percent later that year.

This changed with World War II. “Driven by staggering revenue needs, lawmakers in both parties agreed to raise taxes on everyone: rich, poor, and — especially — the middle class,” wrote Joseph Thorndike, director of the Tax History Project.

“The tax code is so complicated that more than 90 percent of Americans need professional help to do their own taxes.”

This is misleading. The 90 percent figure he is referring to includes people using tax software, such as Turbo Tax, which helps people file their taxes on their own. According to the National Taxpayer Advocate’s 2016 report, 54 percent of individual taxpayers pay preparers and about 40 percent of individual taxpayers use software that costs about $50 or more.

Yet later during the speech, he made it sound as if the “professional help” is only referring to hired accountants: “That is why tax reform must dramatically simplify the tax code … and allow the vast majority of our citizens to file their taxes on a single, simple page without having to hire an accountant.”

“Our last major tax rewrite was 31 years ago. It eliminated dozens of loopholes and special interest tax breaks, reduced the number of tax brackets from 15 to two, and lowered tax rates for both individuals and businesses. At the time it was really something special … In 1986, Ronald Reagan led the world by cutting our corporate tax rate to 34 percent. That was below the average rate for developed countries at the time. Everybody thought that was a monumental thing that happened. But then, under this pro-America system, our economy boomed. It just went beautifully right through the roof. The middle class thrived, and median family income increased.”

Trump heaped praise on Reagan’s Tax Reform Act of 1986, which simplified tax brackets and eliminated tax shelters; it also lowered the top individual tax rate to 28 percent but raised the capital gains rate to the same level, giving them parity. But this is a rather strange flip-flop because Trump always has been a fierce critic of the bill, blaming it repeatedly for the savings and loan crisis, a decline in real estate investing and the 1990-1991 recession.

“This tax act was just an absolute catastrophe for the country, for the real estate industry, and I really hope that something can be done,” Trump told Congress in 1991. In a television interview with Joan Rivers, he said: “What caused the savings and loan crisis was the 1986 tax law change. It was a disaster. It took all of the incentives away from investors.”

Trump also frequently attacked one of the Democratic sponsors of the bill, Sen. Bill Bradley (D-N.J.), such as in a Wall Street Journal commentary in 1999. “Mr. Bradley’s last big idea to be enacted into legislation was also one of the worst ideas in recent history,” Trump wrote, saying Bradley was responsible for the elimination of a tax shelter for real estate investments. (He said the good parts of the bill could be attributed to Reagan.)

“We lost the jobs. We lost the taxes. They closed the buildings. They closed the plants and factories. We got nothing but unemployment. We got nothing.”

As Trump frequently notes, the unemployment rate in July was 4.3 percent — the lowest level in 16 years. So this overwrought language seems misplaced.

“We have gone from a tax rate that is lower than our economic competitors, to one that is more than 60 percent higher. … In other words, foreign companies have more than a 60 percent tax advantage over American companies.”

The United States certainly has one of the highest statutory corporate tax rates in the world, currently pegged as high as 39.1 percent when including state taxes. (The federal rate is 35 percent.) Trump says it is 60 percent higher than “our economic competitors,” comparing 39.1 percent to the average rate for the other members of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, which is 25.5 percent when not weighted for GDP. (It is 29.6 percent when weighted for GDP.)

But the official rate does not necessarily tell the whole story. What also matters is the actual tax a company pays, after deductions and tax benefits. That is known as the effective tax rate, which can be calculated differently depending on the survey. According to the Congressional Research Service, the effective rate for the United States is 27.1 percent, compared to an effective GDP-weighted average of 27.7 percent for the OECD. “Although the U.S. statutory tax rate is higher, the average effective rate is about the same, and the marginal rate on new investment is only slightly higher,” the CRS says.

The Congressional Budget Office, when it examined the issue, said the U.S. effective tax rate was 18.6 percent, which it said was among the highest of the biggest economic powers, the Group of 20.

Trump, naturally, used the numbers that suggest the difference is really huge.

“Today, we are still taxing our businesses at 35 percent, and it’s way more than that. And think of it, in some cases, way above 40 percent when you include state and local taxes in various states. The United States is now behind France, behind Germany, behind Canada, Ireland, Japan, Mexico, South Korea and many other nations.”

As we noted, the statutory federal corporate tax rate in the United States is 35 percent, making the United States the highest among G-20 countries, including the countries Trump listed. But the effective corporate tax rate in the United States in 2012 was 18.6 percent, making it the fourth highest among G-20 countries, behind Argentina, Japan and Britain, according to the CBO.

“Because of our high tax rate and horrible, outdated, bureaucratic rules, large companies that do business overseas will often park their profits offshore to avoid paying a high United States tax if the money is brought back home. So they leave the money over there. The amount of money we’re talking about is anywhere from $3 trillion to $5 trillion.”

There are no official, current numbers on the profits held overseas by U.S. companies, just estimates. The White House would not respond to a query on where Trump is getting these numbers, but his high-end figure appears to be an exaggeration. The Internal Revenue Service in 2012 said the figure was $2.3 trillion, and the Joint Committee on Taxation estimated that it had risen to $2.6 trillion in 2015. There are other estimates as well, but none top $2.8 trillion, according to PolitiFact.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/wp/2017/08/31/fact-checking-president-trumps-speech-on-his-tax-plan/?utm_term=.8ea0dc0c4d24

973 oil crisis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo. The embargo was targeted at nations perceived as supporting Israel during the Yom Kippur War.[1] The initial nations targeted were CanadaJapan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States with the embargo also later extended to PortugalRhodesia and South Africa. By the end of the embargo in March 1974,[2] the price of oil had risen from US$3 per barrel to nearly $12 globally; US prices were significantly higher. The embargo caused an oil crisis, or “shock”, with many short- and long-term effects on global politics and the global economy.[3] It was later called the “first oil shock”, followed by the 1979 oil crisis, termed the “second oil shock.”

Summary

The embargo was a response to American involvement in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Six days after Egypt and Syria launched a surprise military campaign against Israel, the US supplied Israel with arms. In response to this, the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced an oil embargo against CanadaJapan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States.[4]

The crisis had a major impact on international relations and created a rift within NATO. Some European nations and Japan sought to disassociate themselves from United States foreign policy in the Middle East to avoid being targeted by the boycott. Arab oil producers linked any future policy changes to peace between the belligerents. To address this, the Nixon Administration began multilateral negotiations with the combatants. They arranged for Israel to pull back from the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights. By January 18, 1974, US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger had negotiated an Israeli troop withdrawal from parts of the Sinai Peninsula. The promise of a negotiated settlement between Israel and Syria was enough to convince Arab oil producers to lift the embargo in March 1974.[2]

Graph of oil prices from 1861–2015, showing a sharp increase in 1973 and again during the 1979 energy crisis. The orange line is adjusted for inflation.

Independently, OAPEC members agreed to use their leverage over the world price-setting mechanism for oil to stabilize their incomes by raising world oil prices after the recent failure of negotiations with Western oil companies.

The embargo occurred at a time of rising petroleum consumption by industrialized countries and coincided with a sharp increase in oil imports by the world’s largest oil consumer, the United States. In the aftermath, targeted countries initiated a wide variety of policies to contain their future dependency.

The 1973 “oil price shock”, with the accompanying 1973–74 stock market crash, was regarded as the first discrete event since the Great Depression to have a persistent effect on the US economy.[5]

The embargo’s success demonstrated Saudi Arabia‘s diplomatic and economic power. It was the largest oil exporter and a politically and religiously conservative kingdom.

Background

US oil production decline

In 1970, US oil production started to decline, exacerbating the embargo’s impact.[6] Following this, Nixon named James E. Akins as US Ambassador to Saudi Arabia to audit US production capacity. The confidential results were alarming—no spare capacity was available and production could only decrease.

USA oil production and imports. As shown, the import spike starts from the US production peak, and the embargo has little effect.

The oil embargo had little effect on overall supply, according to Akins.[7]

OPEC

The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which then comprised 12 countries, including Iran, seven Arab countries (IraqKuwaitLibyaQatarSaudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates), plus VenezuelaIndonesiaNigeria and Ecuador, was formed at a Baghdad conference on September 14, 1960. OPEC was organized to resist pressure by the “Seven Sisters” (seven large, Western oil companies) to reduce oil prices.

At first, OPEC operated as an informal bargaining unit for resource-rich third-world countries. OPEC confined its activities to gaining a larger share of the profits generated by oil companies and greater control over member production levels. In the early 1970s it began to exert economic and political strength; the oil companies and importing nations suddenly faced a unified exporter bloc.

End of the Bretton Woods currency accord

On August 15, 1971, the United States unilaterally pulled out of the Bretton Woods Accord. The US abandoned the Gold Exchange Standard whereby the value of the dollar had been pegged to the price of gold and all other currencies were pegged to the dollar, whose value was left to “float” (rise and fall according to market demand).[8] Shortly thereafter, Britain followed, floating the pound sterling. The other industrialized nations followed suit with their respective currencies. Anticipating that currency values would fluctuate unpredictably for a time, the industrialized nations increased their reserves (by expanding their money supplies) in amounts far greater than before. The result was a depreciation of the dollar and other industrialized nations’ currencies. Because oil was priced in dollars, oil producers’ real income decreased. In September 1971, OPEC issued a joint communiqué stating that, from then on, they would price oil in terms of a fixed amount of gold.[9]

This contributed to the “Oil Shock”. After 1971, OPEC was slow to readjust prices to reflect this depreciation. From 1947 to 1967, the dollar price of oil had risen by less than two percent per year. Until the oil shock, the price had also remained fairly stable versus other currencies and commodities. OPEC ministers had not developed institutional mechanisms to update prices in sync with changing market conditions, so their real incomes lagged. The substantial price increases of 1973–1974 largely returned their prices and corresponding incomes to Bretton Woods levels in terms of commodities such as gold.[10]

Yom Kippur War

On October 6, 1973, Syria and Egypt, with support from other Arab nations, launched a surprise attack on Israel, on Yom Kippur.[11] This renewal of hostilities in the Arab–Israeli conflict released the underlying economic pressure on oil prices. At the time, Iran was the world’s second-largest oil exporter and a close US ally. Weeks later, the Shah of Iran said in an interview: “Of course [the price of oil] is going to rise… Certainly! And how!… You’ve [Western nations] increased the price of the wheat you sell us by 300 percent, and the same for sugar and cement… You buy our crude oil and sell it back to us, refined as petrochemicals, at a hundred times the price you’ve paid us… It’s only fair that, from now on, you should pay more for oil. Let’s say ten times more.”[12]

On October 12, 1973, US president Richard Nixon authorized Operation Nickel Grass, a strategic airlift to deliver weapons and supplies to Israel, after the Soviet Union began sending arms to Syria and Egypt.

Embargo

In response to American aid to Israel, on October 16, 1973, OPEC raised the posted price of oil by 70%, to $5.11 a barrel.[13] The following day, oil ministers agreed to the embargo, a cut in production by five percent from September’s output and to continue to cut production in five percent monthly increments until their economic and political objectives were met.[14] On October 19, Nixon requested Congress to appropriate $2.2 billion in emergency aid to Israel, including $1.5 billion in outright grants. George Lenczowski notes, “Military supplies did not exhaust Nixon’s eagerness to prevent Israel’s collapse…This [$2.2 billion] decision triggered a collective OPEC response.”[15] Libya immediately announced it would embargo oil shipments to the United States.[16] Saudi Arabia and the other Arab oil-producing states joined the embargo on October 20, 1973.[17] At their Kuwait meeting, OAPEC proclaimed the embargo that curbed exports to various countries and blocked all oil deliveries to the US as a “principal hostile country”.[15]

Price increases were also imposed greatly. Since short-term oil demand is inelastic, immediate demand falls little when the price rises. Thus, market prices rose from $3 per barrel to $12 per barrel to reduce demand to the new, lower level of supply.[18] The world financial system, which was already under pressure from the Bretton Woods breakdown, was set on a path of recessions and inflation that persisted until the early 1980s, with oil prices remaining elevated until 1986.

The price of oil during the embargo. The graph is based on the nominal, not real, price of oil, and so overstates prices at the end. However, the effects of the Arab Oil Embargo are clear—it effectively doubled the real price of crude oil at the refinery level, and caused massive shortages in the U.S.

Over the long term, the oil embargo changed the nature of policy in the West towards increased exploration, alternative energy research, energy conservation and more restrictive monetary policy to better fight inflation.[19]

Chronology

  • January 1973—The 1973–74 stock market crash commences as a result of inflation pressure and the collapsing monetary system.
  • August 23, 1973—In preparation for the Yom Kippur War, Saudi king Faisal and Egyptian president Anwar Sadat meet in Riyadh and secretly negotiate an accord whereby the Arabs will use the “oil weapon” as part of the military conflict.[20]
  • October 6—Egypt and Syria attack Israeli-occupied lands in the Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights on Yom Kippur, starting the 1973 Arab–Israeli War.
  • Night of October 8—Israel goes on full nuclear alert. Kissinger is notified on the morning of October 9. United States begins to resupply Israel.
  • October 8–10—OPEC negotiations with major oil companies to revise the 1971 Tehran price agreement fail.
  • October 12—The United States initiates Operation Nickel Grass, a strategic airlift to provide replacement weapons and supplies to Israel. This followed similar Soviet moves to supply the Arab side.
  • October 16—Saudi Arabia, Iran, IraqAbu DhabiKuwait and Qatar raise posted prices by 17% to $3.65 per barrel and announce production cuts.[21]
  • October 17—OAPEC oil ministers agree to use oil to influence the West’s support of Israel. They recommended an embargo against non-complying states and mandated export cuts.
  • October 19—Nixon requests Congress to appropriate $2.2 billion in emergency aid to Israel, which triggers a collective Arab response.[15] Libya immediately proclaims an embargo on oil exports to the US.[16] Saudi Arabia and other Arab oil-producing states follow the next day.[16]
  • October 26—The Yom Kippur War ends.
  • November 5—Arab producers announce a 25% output cut. A further 5% cut is threatened.
  • November 23—The Arab embargo is extended to PortugalRhodesia and South Africa.
  • November 27—Nixon signs the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act authorizing price, production, allocation and marketing controls.
  • December 9—Arab oil ministers agree to another five percent production cut for non-friendly countries in January 1974.
  • December 25—Arab oil ministers cancel the January output cut. Saudi oil minister Ahmed Zaki Yamani promises a ten percent OPEC production rise.
  • January 7–9, 1974—OPEC decides to freeze prices until April 1.
  • January 18—Israel signs a withdrawal agreement to pull back to the east side of the Suez Canal.
  • February 11—Kissinger unveils the Project Independence plan for US energy independence.
  • February 12–14—Progress in Arab-Israeli disengagement triggers discussion of oil strategy among the heads of state of Algeria, Egypt, Syria and Saudi Arabia.
  • March 5—Israel withdraws the last of its troops from the west side of the Suez Canal.
  • March 17—Arab oil ministers, with the exception of Libya, announce the end of the US embargo.
  • May 31—Diplomacy by Kissinger produces a disengagement agreement on the Syrian front.
  • December 1974—The 1973–74 stock market crash ends.

Effects

Immediate economic effects

A man at a service station reads about the gasoline rationing system in an afternoon newspaper; a sign in the background states that no gasoline is available. 1974

The effects of the embargo were immediate. OPEC forced oil companies to increase payments drastically. The price of oil quadrupled by 1974 to nearly US$12 per barrel (75 US$/m3).[3]

This price increase had a dramatic effect on oil exporting nations, for the countries of the Middle East who had long been dominated by the industrial powers seen to have taken control of a vital commodity. The oil-exporting nations began to accumulate vast wealth.

Some of the income was dispensed in the form of aid to other underdeveloped nations whose economies had been caught between higher oil prices and lower prices for their own export commodities, amid shrinking Western demand. Much went for arms purchases that exacerbated political tensions, particularly in the Middle East. Saudi Arabia spent over 100 billion dollars in the ensuing decades for helping spread its fundamentalist interpretation of Islam, known as Wahhabism, throughout the world, via religious charities such al-Haramain Foundation, which often also distributed funds to violent Sunni extremist groups such as Al-Qaeda and the Taliban.[22]

Control of oil became known as the “oil weapon.” It came in the form of an embargo and production cutbacks from the Arab states. The weapon was aimed at the United States, Great Britain, Canada, Japan and the Netherlands. These target governments perceived that the intent was to push them towards a more pro-Arab position.[23] Production was eventually cut by 25%.[24] However, the affected countries did not undertake dramatic policy changes.[25]

In the United States, scholars argue that there already existed a negotiated settlement based on equality between both parties prior to 1973. The possibility that the Middle East could become another superpower confrontation with the USSR was of more concern to the US than oil. Further, interest groups and government agencies more worried about energy were no match for Kissinger’s dominance.[26] In the US production, distribution and price disruptions “have been held responsible for recessions, periods of excessive inflation, reduced productivity, and lower economic growth.”[27]

The embargo had a negative influence on the US economy by causing immediate demands to address the threats to U.S. energy security.[28] On an international level, the price increases changed competitive positions in many industries, such as automobiles. Macroeconomic problems consisted of both inflationary and deflationary impacts.[29] The embargo left oil companies searching for new ways to increase oil supplies, even in rugged terrain such as the Arctic. Finding oil and developing new fields usually required five to ten years before significant production.[30]

Gas stealers beware, 1974

OPEC-member states raised the prospect of nationalization of oil company holdings. Most notably, Saudi Arabia nationalized Aramco in 1980 under the leadership of Saudi oil minister Ahmed Zaki Yamani. As other OPEC nations followed suit, the cartel’s income soared. Saudi Arabia undertook a series of ambitious five-year development plans. The biggest began in 1980, funded at $250 billion. Other cartel members also undertook major economic development programs.

US retail price gas prices rose from a national average of 38.5 cents in May 1973 to 55.1 cents in June 1974. State governments requested citizens not to put up Christmas lightsOregon banned Christmas and commercial lighting altogether.[18] Politicians called for a national gas rationing program.[31] Nixon requested gasoline stations to voluntarily not sell gasoline on Saturday nights or Sundays; 90% of owners complied, which produced long queues.[18]

The embargo was not uniform across Europe. Of the nine members of the European Economic Community (EEC), the Netherlands faced a complete embargo, the UK and France received almost uninterrupted supplies (having refused to allow America to use their airfields and embargoed arms and supplies to both the Arabs and the Israelis), while the other six faced partial cutbacks. The UK had traditionally been an ally of Israel, and Harold Wilson‘s government supported the Israelis during the Six-Day War. His successor, Ted Heath, reversed this policy in 1970, calling for Israel to withdraw to its pre-1967 borders.

The EEC was unable to achieve a common policy during the first month of the War. It issued a statement on November 6, after the embargo and price rises had begun. It was widely viewed as pro-Arab supporting the Franco-British line on the war. OPEC duly lifted its embargo from all EEC members. The price rises had a much greater impact in Europe than the embargo.

Despite being relatively unaffected by the embargo, the UK nonetheless faced an oil crisis of its own—a series of strikes by coal miners and railroad workers over the winter of 1973–74 became a major factor in the change of government.[32] Heath asked the British to heat only one room in their houses over the winter.[33] The UK, Germany, Italy, Switzerland and Norway banned flying, driving and boating on Sundays. Sweden rationed gasoline and heating oil. The Netherlands imposed prison sentences for those who used more than their ration of electricity.[18]

A few months later, the crisis eased. The embargo was lifted in March 1974 after negotiations at the Washington Oil Summit, but the effects lingered throughout the 1970s. The dollar price of energy increased again the following year, amid the weakening competitive position of the dollar in world markets.

Price controls and rationing

United States

Price controls exacerbated the crisis in the US. The system limited the price of “old oil” (that which had already been discovered) while allowing newly discovered oil to be sold at a higher price to encourage investment. Predictably, old oil was withdrawn from the market, creating greater scarcity. The rule also discouraged development of alternative energies.[31] The rule had been intended to promote oil exploration.[34] Scarcity was addressed by rationing (as in many countries). Motorists faced long lines at gas stations beginning in summer 1972 and increasing by summer 1973.[31]

In 1973, Nixon named William E. Simon as the first Administrator of the Federal Energy Office, a short-term organization created to coordinate the response to the embargo.[35] Simon allocated states the same amount of domestic oil for 1974 that each had consumed in 1972, which worked for states whose populations were not increasing.[36] In other states, lines at gasoline stations were common. The American Automobile Association reported that in the last week of February 1974, 20% of American gasoline stations had no fuel.[36]

Oregon gasoline dealers displayed signs explaining the flag policy in the winter of 1973–74

Odd–even rationing allowed vehicles with license plates having an odd number as the last digit (or a vanity license plate) to buy gas only on odd-numbered days of the month, while others could buy only on even-numbered days.[37]

In some states, a three-color flag system was used to denote gasoline availability at service stations—green for unrationed availability, yellow for restricted/rationed sales and red for out of stock.[38]

Gasoline ration stamps printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing in 1974, but not used.

Rationing led to violent incidents, when truck drivers chose to strike for two days in December 1973 over the limited supplies Simon had allocated for their industry. In Pennsylvania and Ohio, non-striking truckers were shot at by striking truckers, and in Arkansas, trucks of non-strikers were attacked with bombs.[36]

America had controlled the price of natural gas since the 1950s. With the inflation of the 1970s, the price was too low to encourage the search for new reserves.[39] America’s natural gas reserves dwindled from 237 trillion in 1974 to 203 trillion[clarification needed] in 1978. The price controls were not changed despite president Gerald Ford‘s repeated requests to Congress.[39]

Conservation and reduction in demand

United States

To help reduce consumption, in 1974 a national maximum speed limit of 55 mph (about 88 km/h) was imposed through the Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act. Development of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve began in 1975, and in 1977 the cabinet-level Department of Energy was created, followed by the National Energy Act of 1978.[citation needed] On November 28, 1995, Bill Clinton signed the National Highway Designation Act, ending the federal 55 mph (89 km/h) speed limit, allowing states to restore their prior maximum speed limit.

Year-round daylight saving time was implemented from January 6, 1974, to February 23, 1975. The move spawned significant criticism because it forced many children to travel to school before sunrise. The prior rules were restored in 1976.[citation needed]

Gas stations abandoned during the crisis were sometimes used for other purposes. This station at Potlatch, Washington, was turned into a revivalhall.

The crisis prompted a call to conserve energy, most notably a campaign by the Advertising Council using the tagline “Don’t Be Fuelish”.[40] Many newspapers carried advertisements featuring cut-outs that could be attached to light switches, reading “Last Out, Lights Out: Don’t Be Fuelish.”[citation needed]

By 1980, domestic luxury cars with a 130-inch (3.3 m) wheelbase and gross weights averaging 4,500 pounds (2,041 kg) were no longer made. The automakers had begun phasing out the traditional front engine/rear wheel drivelayout in compact cars in favor of lighter front engine/front wheel drive designs. A higher percentage of cars offered more efficient 4-cylinder engines. Domestic auto makers also began offering more fuel efficient diesel powered passenger cars as well.

Though not regulated by the new legislation, auto racing groups voluntarily began conserving. In 1974, the 24 Hours of Daytona was cancelled and NASCAR reduced all race distances by 10%; the 12 Hours of Sebring race was cancelled.[citation needed]

In 1976, Congress created the Weatherization Assistance Program to help low-income homeowners and renters reduce their demand for heating and cooling through better insulation.[citation needed]

Alternative energy sources

A woman uses wood in a fireplacefor heat. A newspaper headline before her tells of the community’s lack of heating oil.

The energy crisis led to greater interest in renewable energynuclear power and domestic fossil fuels.[41] According to Peter Grossman, American energy policies since the crisis have been dominated by crisis-mentality thinking, promoting expensive quick fixes and single-shot solutions that ignore market and technology realities. He wrote that instead of providing stable rules that support basic research while leaving plenty of scope for entrepreneurshipand innovation, congresses and presidents have repeatedly backed policies which promise solutions that are politically expedient, but whose prospects are doubtful.[42]

The Brazilian government implemented its “Proálcool” (pro-alcohol) project in 1975 that mixed ethanol with gasoline for automotive fuel.[43]

Israel was one of the few countries unaffected by the embargo, since it could extract sufficient oil from the Sinai. But to supplement Israel‘s over-taxed power grid, Harry Zvi Tabor, the father of Israel’s solar industry, developed the prototype for a solar water heater now used in over 90% of Israeli homes.[44]

Macroeconomy

The crisis was a major factor in shifting Japan’s economy away from oil-intensive industries. Investment shifted to industries such as electronics. Japanese auto makers also benefited from the crisis. Increased fuel costs allowed their small, fuel-efficient models to gain market share from the “gas-guzzling” American competition. This triggered a drop in American auto sales that lasted into the 1980s.

Western central banks decided to sharply cut interest rates to encourage growth, deciding that inflation was a secondary concern. Although this was the orthodox macroeconomic prescription at the time, the resulting stagflationsurprised economists and central bankers. The policy is now considered by some to have deepened and lengthened the adverse effects of the embargo. Recent research claims that in the period after 1985 the economy became more resilient to energy price increases.[45]

The price shock created large current account deficits in oil-importing economies. A petrodollar recycling mechanism was created, through which OPEC surplus funds were channeled through the capital markets to the West to finance the current account deficits. The functioning of this mechanism required the relaxation of capital controls in oil-importing economies. It marked the beginning of an exponential growth of Western capital markets.[46]

Many in the public remain suspicious of oil companies, believing they profiteered, or even colluded with OPEC.[citation needed] In 1974, seven of the fifteen top Fortune 500 companies were oil companies, falling to four in 2014.[47]

International relations

United States

America’s Cold War policies suffered a major blow from the embargo. They had focused on China and the Soviet Union, but the latent challenge to US hegemony coming from the third world became evident.

In 2004, declassified documents revealed that the U.S. was so distraught by the rise in oil prices and being challenged by under-developed countries that they briefly considered military action to forcibly seize Middle Eastern oilfields in late 1973. Although no explicit plan was mentioned, a conversation between U.S. Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger and British Ambassador to the United States Lord Cromer revealed Schlesinger had told him that “it was no longer obvious to him that the U.S. could not use force.” British Prime Minister Edward Heath was so worried by this prospect that he ordered a British intelligence estimate of U.S. intentions, which concluded America “might consider it could not tolerate a situation in which the U.S. and its allies were at the mercy of a small group of unreasonable countries,” and that they would prefer a rapid operation to seize oilfields in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, and possibly Abu Dhabi in military action was decided upon. Although the Soviet response to such an act would likely not involve force, intelligence warned “the American occupation would need to last 10 years as the West developed alternative energy sources, and would result in the ‘total alienation’ of the Arabs and much of the rest of the Third World.”[48]

NATO

Western Europe began switching from pro-Israel to more pro-Arab policies.[49][50][51] This change strained the Western alliance. The US, which imported only 12% of its oil from the Middle East (compared with 80% for the Europeans and over 90% for Japan), remained staunchly committed to Israel. The percentage of U.S. oil which comes from the nations bordering the Persian Gulf remained steady over the decades, with a figure of a little more than 10% in 2008.[52]

With the embargo in place, many developed countries altered their policies regarding the Arab-Israeli conflict. These included the UK, which refused to allow the United States to use British bases and Cyprus to airlift resupplies to Israel along with the rest of the members of the European Community.[53]

Canada shifted towards a more pro-Arab position after displeasure was expressed towards Canada’s mostly neutral position. “On the other hand, after the embargo the Canadian government moved quickly indeed toward the Arab position, despite its low dependence on Middle Eastern oil”.[54]

Japan

Although lacking historical connections to the Middle East, Japan was the country most dependent on Arab oil. 71% of its imported oil came from the Middle East in 1970. On November 7, 1973, the Saudi and Kuwaiti governments declared Japan a “nonfriendly” country to encourage it to change its noninvolvement policy. It received a 5% production cut in December, causing a panic. On November 22, Japan issued a statement “asserting that Israel should withdraw from all of the 1967 territories, advocating Palestinian self-determination, and threatening to reconsider its policy toward Israel if Israel refused to accept these preconditions”.[54] By December 25, Japan was considered an Arab-friendly state.

Nonaligned nations

The oil embargo was announced roughly one month after a right-wing military coup in Chile led by General Augusto Pinochet toppled socialist president Salvador Allende on September 11, 1973. The response of the Nixon administration was to propose doubling arms sales. As a consequence, an opposing Latin American bloc was organized and financed in part by Venezuelan oil revenues, which quadrupled between 1970 and 1975.

A year after the start of the embargo, the UN’s nonaligned bloc passed a resolution demanding the creation of a “New International Economic Order” under which nations within the global South would receive a greater share of benefits derived from the exploitation of southern resources and greater control over their self-development.[55]

Arab states

Prior to the embargo, the geo-political competition between the Soviet Union and the United States, in combination with low oil prices that hindered the necessity and feasibility of alternative energy sources, presented the Arab States with financial security, moderate economic growth, and disproportionate international bargaining power.[56]

The oil shock disrupted the status quo relationships between Arab countries and the US and USSR. At the time, Egypt, Syria and Iraq were allied with the USSR, while Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Iran (plus Israel) aligned with the US. Vacillations in alignment often resulted in greater support from the respective superpowers.

When Anwar Sadat became president of Egypt in 1970, he dismissed Soviet specialists in Egypt and reoriented towards the US. Concerns over economic domination from increased Soviet oil production turned into fears of military aggression after the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, turning the Persian Gulf states towards the US for security guarantees against Soviet military action.

The USSR’s invasion of Afghanistan was only one sign of insecurity in the region, also marked by increased American weapons sales, technology, and outright military presence. Saudi Arabia and Iran became increasingly dependent on American security assurances to manage both external and internal threats, including increased military competition between them over increased oil revenues. Both states were competing for preeminence in the Persian Gulf and using increased revenues to fund expanded militaries. By 1979, Saudi arms purchases from the US exceeded five times Israel’s.[57]

In the wake of the 1979 Iranian Revolution the Saudis were forced to deal with the prospect of internal destabilization via the radicalism of Islamism, a reality which would quickly be revealed in the Grand Mosque seizure in Mecca by Wahhabi extremists during November 1979, and a Shiite Muslim revolt in the oil rich Al-Hasa region of Saudi Arabia in December of the same year, which was known as the 1979 Qatif Uprising.[58] Saudi Arabia is a near absolute monarchy, an Arabic speaking country, and has a Sunni Muslim majority, while Persian speaking Iran since 1979 is an Islamist theocracy with a Shiite Muslim majority, which explains the current hostility between Saudi Arabia and Iran.[59]

In November 2010, Wikileaks leaked confidential diplomatic cables pertaining to the United States and its allies which revealed that the late Saudi King Abdullah urged the United States to attack Iran in order to destroy its potential nuclear weapons program, describing Iran as “a snake whose head should be cut off without any procrastination”.[60]

Automobile industry

The oil crisis sent a signal to the auto industry globally, which changed many aspects of production and usage for decades to come.

Western Europe

After World War II, most West European countries taxed motor fuel to limit imports, and as a result most cars made in Europe were smaller and more economical than their American counterparts. By the late 1960s increasing incomes supported rising car sizes.

The oil crisis pushed West European car buyers away from larger, less economical cars.[61] The most notable result of this transition was the rise in popularity of compact hatchbacks. The only notable small hatchbacks built in Western Europe before the oil crisis were the Peugeot 104Renault 5 and Fiat 127. By the end of the decade, the market had expanded with the introduction of the Ford FiestaOpel Kadett (sold as the Vauxhall Astra in Great Britain), Chrysler Sunbeam and Citroën Visa.

Buyers looking for larger cars were increasingly drawn to medium-sized hatchbacks. Virtually unknown in Europe in 1973, by the end of the decade they were gradually replacing saloons as the mainstay of this sector. Between 1973 and 1980, medium-sized hatchbacks were launched across Europe: the Chrysler/Simca HorizonFiat Ritmo (Strada in the UK), Ford Escort MK3Renault 14Volvo 340 / 360Opel Kadett, and Volkswagen Golf.

These cars were considerably more economical than the traditional saloons they were replacing, and attracted buyers who traditionally bought larger vehicles. Some 15 years after the oil crisis, hatchbacks dominated most European small and medium car markets, and had gained a substantial share of the large family car market.

United States

Before the energy crisis, large, heavy, and powerful cars were popular. By 1971, the standard engine in a Chevrolet Caprice was a 400-cubic inch (6.5 liter) V8. The wheelbase of this car was 121.5 inches (3,090 mm), and Motor Trend‘s 1972 road test of the similar Chevrolet Impala achieved no more than 15 highway miles per gallon. In the fifteen years prior to the 1973 oil crisis, gasoline prices in the U.S. had lagged well behind inflation.[62]

The crisis reduced the demand for large cars.[39] Japanese imports, primarily the Toyota Corona, the Toyota Corolla, the Datsun B210, the Datsun 510, the Honda Civic, the Mitsubishi Galant (a captive import from Chrysler sold as the Dodge Colt), the Subaru DL, and later the Honda Accord all had four cylinder engines that were more fuel efficient than the typical American V8 and six cylinder engines. Japanese imports became mass-market leaders with unibody construction and front-wheel drive, which became de facto standards.

From Europe, the Volkswagen Beetle, the Volkswagen Fastback, the Renault 8, the Renault LeCar, and the Fiat Brava were successful. Detroit responded with the Ford Pinto, the Ford Maverick, the Chevrolet Vega, the Chevrolet Nova, the Plymouth Valiant and the Plymouth Volaré. American Motors sold its homegrown GremlinHornet and Pacer models.

Some buyers lamented the small size of the first Japanese compacts, and both Toyota and Nissan (then known as Datsun) introduced larger cars such as the Toyota Corona Mark II, the Toyota Cressida, the Mazda 616 and Datsun 810, which added passenger space and amenities such as air conditioning, power steering, AM-FM radios, and even power windows and central locking without increasing the price of the vehicle. A decade after the 1973 oil crisis, Honda, Toyota and Nissan, affected by the 1981 voluntary export restraints, opened US assembly plants and established their luxury divisions (Acura, Lexus and Infiniti, respectively) to distinguish themselves from their mass-market brands.

Compact trucks were introduced, such as the Toyota Hilux and the Datsun Truck, followed by the Mazda Truck (sold as the Ford Courier), and the Isuzu-built Chevrolet LUV. Mitsubishi rebranded its Forte as the Dodge D-50 a few years after the oil crisis. Mazda, Mitsubishi and Isuzu had joint partnerships with Ford, Chrysler, and GM, respectively. Later the American makers introduced their domestic replacements (Ford Ranger, Dodge Dakota and the Chevrolet S10/GMC S-15), ending their captive import policy.

An increase in imported cars into North America forced General Motors, Ford and Chrysler to introduce smaller and fuel-efficient models for domestic sales. The Dodge Omni / Plymouth Horizon from Chrysler, the Ford Fiesta and the Chevrolet Chevette all had four-cylinder engines and room for at least four passengers by the late 1970s. By 1985, the average American vehicle moved 17.4 miles per gallon, compared to 13.5 in 1970. The improvements stayed even though the price of a barrel of oil remained constant at $12 from 1974 to 1979.[39] Sales of large sedans for most makes (except Chrysler products) recovered within two model years of the 1973 crisis. The Cadillac DeVille and FleetwoodBuick ElectraOldsmobile 98Lincoln ContinentalMercury Marquis, and various other luxury oriented sedans became popular again in the mid-1970s. The only full-size models that did not recover were lower price models such as the Chevrolet Bel Air and Ford Galaxie 500. Slightly smaller models such as the Oldsmobile CutlassChevrolet Monte CarloFord Thunderbird and various others sold well.

Economical imports succeeded alongside heavy, expensive vehicles. In 1976 Toyota sold 346,920 cars (average weight around 2,100 lbs), while Cadillac sold 309,139 cars (average weight around 5,000 lbs).

Federal safety standards, such as NHTSA Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 215 (pertaining to safety bumpers), and compacts like the 1974 Mustang I were a prelude to the DOT “downsize” revision of vehicle categories.[63] By 1977, GM’s full-sized cars reflected the crisis.[64] By 1979, virtually all “full-size” American cars had shrunk, featuring smaller engines and smaller outside dimensions. Chrysler ended production of their full-sized luxury sedans at the end of the 1981 model year, moving instead to a full front-wheel drivelineup for 1982 (except for the M-body Dodge Diplomat/Plymouth Gran Fury and Chrysler New Yorker Fifth Avenue sedans).

Decline of OPEC

Fluctuations of OPEC net oil export revenues since 1972[65][66]

OPEC soon lost its preeminent position, and in 1981, its production was surpassed by that of other countries. Additionally, its own member nations were divided. Saudi Arabia, trying to recover market share, increased production, pushing prices down, shrinking or eliminating profits for high-cost producers. The world price, which had peaked during the 1979 energy crisis at nearly $40 per barrel, decreased during the 1980s to less than $10 per barrel. Adjusted for inflation, oil briefly fell back to pre-1973 levels. This “sale” price was a windfall for oil-importing nations, both developing and developed.

The embargo encouraged new venues for energy exploration including Alaska, the North Sea, the Caspian Sea, and the Caucasus.[67] Exploration in the Caspian Basin and Siberia became profitable. Cooperation changed into a far more adversarial relationship as the USSR increased its production. By 1980 the Soviet Union had become the world’s largest producer.[68][69]

Part of the decline in prices and economic and geopolitical power of OPEC came from the move to alternate energy sources. OPEC had relied on price inelasticity[70] to maintain high consumption, but had underestimated the extent to which conservation and other sources of supply would eventually reduce demand. Electricity generation from nuclear power and natural gas, home heating from natural gas, and ethanol-blended gasoline all reduced the demand for oil.

The drop in prices presented a serious problem for oil-exporting countries in northern Europe and the Persian Gulf. Heavily populated, impoverished countries, whose economies were largely dependent on oil—including MexicoNigeriaAlgeria, and Libya—did not prepare for a market reversal that left them in sometimes desperate situations.

When reduced demand and increased production glutted the world market in the mid-1980s, oil prices plummeted and the cartel lost its unity. Mexico (a non-member), Nigeria, and Venezuela, whose economies had expanded in the 1970s, faced near-bankruptcy, and even Saudi Arabian economic power was significantly weakened. The divisions within OPEC made concerted action more difficult. As of 2015, OPEC had never approached its earlier dominance.

See also

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_oil_crisis

 

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EMBARGOED UNTIL RELEASE AT 8:30 A.M. EDT, Wednesday, August 30, 2017
BEA 17—42

* See the navigation bar at the right side of the news release text for links to data tables, contact personnel and their telephone numbers, and supplementary materials.

Lisa Mataloni: (301) 278-9083 (GDP) gdpniwd@bea.gov
Kate Pinard: (301) 278-9417 (Corporate Profits) cpniwd@bea.gov
Jeannine Aversa: (301) 278-9003 (News Media) Jeannine.Aversa@bea.gov
National Income and Product Accounts
Gross Domestic Product: Second Quarter 2017 (Second Estimate)
Corporate Profits: Second Quarter 2017 (Preliminary Estimate)
Real gross domestic product (GDP) increased at an annual rate of 3.0 percent in the second quarter of
2017 (table 1), according to the "second" estimate released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. In the
first quarter, real GDP increased 1.2 percent.

The GDP estimate released today is based on more complete source data than were available for the
"advance" estimate issued last month.  In the advance estimate, the increase in real GDP was 2.6
percent. With this second estimate for the second quarter, the general picture of economic growth
remains the same; increases in personal consumption expenditures (PCE) and in nonresidential fixed
investment were larger than previously estimated. These increases were partly offset by a larger
decrease in state and local government spending (see "Updates to GDP" below).

Real GDP: Percent Change from Preceding Quarter
Real gross domestic income (GDI) increased 2.9 percent in the second quarter, compared with an
increase of 2.7 percent (revised) in the first. The average of real GDP and real GDI, a supplemental
measure of U.S. economic activity that equally weights GDP and GDI, increased 3.0 percent in the
second quarter, compared with an increase of 2.0 percent in the first quarter (table 1).

The increase in real GDP in the second quarter reflected positive contributions from PCE, nonresidential
fixed investment, exports, federal government spending, and private inventory investment that were
partly offset by negative contributions from residential fixed investment and state and local government
spending. Imports, which are a subtraction in the calculation of GDP, increased (table 2).

The acceleration in real GDP in the second quarter primarily reflected upturns in private inventory
investment and federal government spending and an acceleration in PCE that were partly offset by
downturns in residential fixed investment and state and local government spending and a deceleration
in exports.

Current-dollar GDP increased 4.0 percent, or $189.0 billion, in the second quarter to a level of $19,246.7
billion. In the first quarter, current-dollar GDP increased 3.3 percent, or $152.2 billion (table 1 and table
3).

The price index for gross domestic purchases increased 0.8 percent in the second quarter, compared
with an increase of 2.6 percent in the first quarter (table 4). The PCE price index increased 0.3 percent,
compared with an increase of 2.2 percent. Excluding food and energy prices, the PCE price index
increased 0.9 percent, compared with an increase of 1.8 percent (appendix table A).


Updates to GDP

The percent change in real GDP was revised up from the advance estimate, reflecting upward revisions
to PCE and to nonresidential fixed investment that were partly offset by a downward revision to state
and local government spending. For more information, see the Technical Note. A detailed "Key Source
Data and Assumptions" file is also posted for each release.  For information on updates to GDP, see the
“Additional Information” section that follows.

                                    Advance Estimate        Second Estimate
			           (Percent change from preceding quarter)
Real GDP                                  2.6                  3.0
Current-dollar GDP                        3.6                  4.0
Real GDI                                   …                   2.9
Average of Real GDP and Real GDI           …                   3.0
Gross domestic purchases price index      0.8                  0.8
PCE price index                           0.3                  0.3


For the first quarter of 2017, the percent change in real GDI was revised from 2.6 percent to 2.7 percent
based on revised first-quarter tabulations from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
program.

Corporate Profits (table 12)

Profits from current production (corporate profits with inventory valuation adjustment and capital
consumption adjustment) increased $26.8 billion in the second quarter, in contrast to a decrease of
$46.2 billion in the first quarter.

Profits of domestic financial corporations decreased $29.4 billion in the second quarter, compared with
a decrease of $40.7 billion in the first quarter. Profits of domestic nonfinancial corporations increased
$64.8 billion, compared with an increase of $3.8 billion. The rest-of-the-world component of profits
decreased $8.6 billion, compared with a decrease of $9.3 billion. This measure is calculated as the
difference between receipts from the rest of the world and payments to the rest of the world. In the
second quarter, receipts increased $8.5 billion, and payments increased $17.1 billion.





                                       *          *          *




                           Next release:  September 28, 2017 at 8:30 A.M. EDT
                     Gross Domestic Product:  Second Quarter 2017 (Third Estimate)
                      Corporate Profits:  Second Quarter 2017 (Revised Estimate)




                                       Additional Information

Resources

Additional resources available at www.bea.gov:
•	Stay informed about BEA developments by reading the BEA blog, signing up for BEA’s email
        subscription service, or following BEA on Twitter @BEA_News.
•	Historical time series for these estimates can be accessed in BEA’s Interactive Data Application.
•	Access BEA data by registering for BEA’s Data Application Programming Interface (API).
•	For more on BEA’s statistics, see our monthly online journal, the Survey of Current Business.
•	BEA's news release scheduleNIPA Handbook:  Concepts and Methods of the U.S. National Income and Product Accounts

Definitions

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the value of the goods and services produced by the nation’s economy
less the value of the goods and services used up in production. GDP is also equal to the sum of personal
consumption expenditures, gross private domestic investment, net exports of goods and services, and
government consumption expenditures and gross investment.

Gross domestic income (GDI) is the sum of incomes earned and costs incurred in the production of GDP.
In national economic accounting, GDP and GDI are conceptually equal. In practice, GDP and GDI differ
because they are constructed using largely independent source data. Real GDI is calculated by deflating
gross domestic income using the GDP price index as the deflator, and is therefore conceptually
equivalent to real GDP.

Current-dollar estimates are valued in the prices of the period when the transactions occurred—that is,
at “market value.” Also referred to as “nominal estimates” or as “current-price estimates.”
Real values are inflation-adjusted estimates—that is, estimates that exclude the effects of price changes.
The gross domestic purchases price index measures the prices of final goods and services purchased by
U.S. residents.

The personal consumption expenditure price index measures the prices paid for the goods and services
purchased by, or on the behalf of, “persons.”

Profits from current production, referred to as corporate profits with inventory valuation adjustment
(IVA) and capital consumption adjustment (CCAdj) in the NIPAs, is a measure of the net income of
corporations before deducting income taxes that is consistent with the value of goods and services
measured in GDP. The IVA and CCAdj are adjustments that convert inventory withdrawals and
depreciation of fixed assets reported on a tax-return, historical-cost basis to the current-cost economic
measures used in the national income and product accounts.

For more definitions, see the Glossary: National Income and Product Accounts.


Statistical conventions

Annual rates. Quarterly values are expressed at seasonally-adjusted annual rates (SAAR), unless
otherwise specified. Dollar changes are calculated as the difference between these SAAR values. For
detail, see the FAQ “Why does BEA publish estimates at annual rates?”

Percent changes in quarterly series are calculated from unrounded data and are displayed at annual
rates, unless otherwise specified. For details, see the FAQ “How is average annual growth calculated?”

Quantities and prices. Quantities, or “real” volume measures, and prices are expressed as index
numbers with a specified reference year equal to 100 (currently 2009). Quantity and price indexes are
calculated using a Fisher-chained weighted formula that incorporates weights from two adjacent
periods (quarters for quarterly data and annuals for annual data). “Real” dollar series are calculated by
multiplying the published quantity index by the current dollar value in the reference year (2009) and
then dividing by 100. Percent changes calculated from real quantity indexes and chained-dollar levels
are conceptually the same; any differences are due to rounding.

Chained-dollar values are not additive because the relative weights for a given period differ from those
of the reference year. In tables that display chained-dollar values, a “residual” line shows the difference
between the sum of detailed chained-dollar series and its corresponding aggregate.


Updates to GDP

BEA releases three vintages of the current quarterly estimate for GDP:  "Advance" estimates are
released near the end of the first month following the end of the quarter and are based on source data
that are incomplete or subject to further revision by the source agency; “second” and “third” estimates
are released near the end of the second and third months, respectively, and are based on more detailed
and more comprehensive data as they become available.

Annual and comprehensive updates are typically released in late July. Annual updates generally cover at
least the 3 most recent calendar years (and their associated quarters) and incorporate newly available
major annual source data as well as some changes in methods and definitions to improve the accounts.
Comprehensive (or benchmark) updates are carried out at about 5-year intervals and incorporate major
periodic source data, as well as major conceptual improvements.
The table below shows the average revisions to the quarterly percent changes in real GDP between
different estimate vintages, without regard to sign.

Vintage                               Average Revision Without Regard to Sign
                                         (percentage points, annual rates)
Advance to second                                     0.5
Advance to third                                      0.6
Second to third                                       0.2
Advance to latest                                     1.1
Note - Based on estimates from 1993 through 2015. For more information on GDP
updates, see Revision Information on the BEA Web site.

The larger average revision from the advance to the latest estimate reflects the fact that periodic
comprehensive updates include major statistical and methodological improvements.

Unlike GDP, an advance current quarterly estimate of GDI is not released because data on domestic
profits and on net interest of domestic industries are not available. For fourth quarter estimates, these
data are not available until the third estimate.

https://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/national/gdp/2017/gdp2q17_2nd.htm

 

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The Pronk Pops Show 954, August 29, 2017, Story 1: Houston Under Water — Rain In Houston Area Should End Tuesday With Record Rainfall Exceeding 50 Inches In Many Areas From Hurricane/Tropical Story Harvey — Flooding and Rescues Continue — Videos –Story 2: 12 Oil Refineries in a Houston Closed Due To Flooding As Gasoline Prices Rise By 20 Cents or More Per Gallon — Video — Story 3: President Trump and First Lady Visit Texas — Videos

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Story 1: Rain In Houston Area Should End Tuesday With Record Rain Fall Exceeding 50 Inches From Hurrican Harvey — Flooding and Rescues Continue — Videos —

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As Harvey breaks rainfall record, Houston imposes a curfew and death toll climbs to 18

City officials in Houston imposed an overnight curfew to guard against opportunistic crimes as Tropical Storm Harvey continued to deluge southeast Texas on Tuesday, breaking the record for the most extreme rainfall on the U.S. mainland.

Authorities announced the curfew — midnight to 5 a.m. — after police arrested a crew of armed robbers who were hijacking vehicles, and officials warned residents of people impersonating Homeland Security investigators. There also were fears of looting as thousands of houses lay partially submerged and abandoned.

Since Harvey made landfall Friday night as a hurricane, some areas around Houston have seen in excess of 50 inches of rain — more than what they usually receive in a year. Authorities said the death toll had risen to 18, including a Houston police officer who drowned in his car on the way to work.

On Tuesday afternoon, the Mont Belvieu industrial suburb east of Houston recorded 51.12 inches of water since Harvey’s arrival, breaking the highest previous record of 48 inches for a single storm, from Tropical Storm Amelia in Medina, Texas, in 1978.

“It’s the heaviest storm on record anywhere in the U.S. outside Hawaii,” said John Nielsen-Gammon, Texas state climatologist and professor at Texas A&M University. “And it’s still raining.”

With muddy brown water engulfing huge areas of the nation’s fourth-largest city and much of the Gulf Coast, thousands were forced to seek refuge in shelters. Federal officials have estimated that as many as 30,000 displaced residents may seek temporary shelter and more than 450,000 people are likely to apply for federal aid.

“In four days, we’ve seen a trillion gallons of water in Harris County — enough water to run Niagara Falls for 15 days,” said Jeff Lindner, a meteorologist with the Harris County Flood Control District, who estimated that up to 100,000 homes in the 1,777-square-mile area may have flooded. “It’s beyond anything we’ve ever seen and will probably ever see.”

After moving slowly east Tuesday evening, Harvey was poised to turn northeast early Wednesday and make a second landfall, moving inland over southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana.

After assuring Texas on Monday that Congress would deliver swift federal assistance, President Trump visited the storm-ravaged state Tuesday, saying he hoped the region’s long road to recovery would be viewed as a model.

He did not venture to Houston, where rescuers continued to rove from neighborhood to neighborhood in motorboats and kayaks, desperately trying to pluck residents from waterlogged homes. As a light rain drizzled, a reservoir west of downtown Houston spilled over Tuesday morning for the first time in its history, pouring yet more water onto already sodden communities.

Houston Police Chief Art Acevedo broke down in tears Tuesday as he announced that Sgt. Steve Perez, 60, a 34-year veteran of his department, drowned during the weekend while trying to get to work through an underpass in the darkness.

“He laid down his life,” Acevedo said during a briefing, noting that before Perez left for work he told his wife, who urged him to stay home: “I’ve got work to do.”

Later in the day, Acevedo said officers had rescued 4,100 people across the city and had more than 500 calls holding. The city’s fire chief, Samuel Peña, said his department had performed nearly 700 rescues.

“We’re still trying to get to folks,” Acevedo said. “Don’t give up on us. Seek the higher ground. We will get to you.”

By the end of the day, the number of people sheltering at the George R. Brown Convention Center swelled to 10,000. Its capacity is supposed to be 5,000. Mayor Sylvester Turner said the city had asked the Federal Emergency Management Agency for cots and food for an additional 10,000 people, and officials are set to open another mega shelter at the Toyota Center, the downtown home of the NBA’s Houston Rockets.

“We are not turning anyone away,” Turner said.

Houston highways remained mostly empty and blocked by police early Tuesday. A few cars and trucks navigated wet streets downtown.

Families were still arriving at the massive convention center, some with sleeping pads and rain boots, others with their belongings in garbage bags. Some feared for relatives left behind, and others worried they might soon face shortages of food and other supplies.

And the death toll kept rising. On Tuesday, local authorities reported a man in Montgomery County, north of Houston, drowned Monday night while trying to swim across a flooded road. In Galveston County, Clear Creek Independent School District reported that a former track and football coach had died in the flooding.

Tuesday night, the Harris County Institute of Forensic Sciences updated its storm-related deaths to include an 89-year-old woman, Agnes Stanley, who was found floating in 4 feet of floodwater in a home. Another woman, 76, was discovered floating in water near a vehicle. Her name was not released. A 45-year-old man, Travis Lynn Callihan, left his vehicle and fell into floodwater. He was taken to a hospital, where he died Monday.

Officials in Harris County, which includes Houston, had already reported at least six “potentially storm-related” fatalities. A 60-year-old woman died in Porter, a small community north of Houston, when a large oak tree fell on her mobile home. Another person died in the small coastal town of Rockport, near where Harvey made landfall. A 52-year-old homeless man was found dead in La Marque, a small city near Galveston.

Local officials were also looking into reports that a family of six — four children and their great-grandparents — drowned Sunday near Greens Bayou in east Houston. Virginia Saldivar, 59, said her brother-in-law, Sam, was driving her grandchildren and her husband’s parents to higher ground when the current swept up the van.

Early Tuesday, a major dam outside Houston began to overflow, threatening some of the hardest-hit neighborhoods to the west of the city. Engineers had tried to prevent Addicks Reservoir from overspilling by releasing some of its water Monday, but flood control officials reported Tuesday morning that water was beginning to seep over the top of a spillway, the first time water had breached the dam.

In some areas in and around Houston, the water was so deep that rain sensors no longer were working. The Harris County Flood Control District, a government agency that works to reduce the effects of flooding in the area, announced that multiple water level and rain sensors were out of service because of flooding.

In Brazoria County, south of Houston, the Brazos River was beginning to overflow its banks. On Tuesday morning, a levee breached in the Columbia Lakes neighborhood.

“We are asking residents to please get out,” said Sharon Trower, public information officer for the county, which already has rescued hundreds of residents after severe flooding from heavy rainfall. “The additional river flooding is just going to be catastrophic.”

Major roads throughout the county already were closed because of flooding.

At the Pentagon, Maj. Gen. James C. Witham, director of domestic operations for the National Guard, told reporters Tuesday that up to 30,000 Guardsmen as well as a U.S. naval amphibious assault ship could be called upon to help out in rescue efforts in Texas.

Already, 30 National Guard helicopters are supporting Hurricane Harvey relief, and 24 more are requested. Witham said that could increase to 100 helicopters in the days ahead.

“Texas has been given everything that they’ve asked for,” Witham said, noting that the Pentagon expects “more forces will be requested.”

While catastrophic flooding continued across southeast Texas, there was at least some good news: Flash-flood watches were dropped for western portions of the Houston area as light to moderate rain fell Monday night. The National Weather Service said the threat of flooding is gradually shifting east.

“Expect improving conditions this afternoon and evening across the area as Harvey pushes northeast,” the National Weather Service’s Houston/Galveston office said in an update.

“They say this too shall pass,” Mayor Turner said during an early evening news briefing as the sun, finally, appeared in the sky. “After the clouds pass, the sun will shine. In this city — regardless of the storm clouds, regardless of the rain — in this city the sun will shine.”

And as the sun finally returned to Houston, so did the unmistakable sight of traffic. Cars and trucks piled up at stoplights on roads that had only recently been totally abandoned as Texans waited out the storm in their homes. In the suburb of Rosenberg, there was even a pedestrian: a pale teenager in dark clothing, with a bowl haircut and headphones, who was dancing — doing the Robot, actually — on a street corner as traffic passed.

As Harvey moved closer to neighboring Louisiana on the 12th anniversary of Hurricane Katrina’s arrival there, New Orleans Mayor Mitch Landrieu urged residents to stay home and shelter in place.

A few inches of rain could cause serious problems in New Orleans, which is still recovering from flooding after thunderstorms this month overwhelmed the city’s drainage system.

More than 5 inches of rain fell in some parts of the city Monday, causing localized floods. Flash-flood watches were in effect as meteorologists forecast 4 more inches of rain Tuesday.

“Today, we are a resilient city with greater resolve, but we remain vigilant in the face of another threatening storm,” Landrieu said in a statement. “While this is a somber day for New Orleanians, the determination and spirit of our people gives us great hope for the future.”

In Texas, many stranded Houston and coastal residents drove to cities such as Dallas and San Antonio to avoid overcrowded shelters near the Gulf Coast.

After sleeping in the Houston convention center after his house in Dickinson, about 30 miles south, flooded on Saturday, Jose Banda, a 38-year-old landscaper, piled his four young children — all under the age of 12 – into his Chevy Silverado early Tuesday and made the four-hour drive to Dallas.

The family was among the first to check in at the Kay Bailey Hutchison Convention Center, which can shelter nearly 5,000 evacuees of Tropical Storm Harvey.

“This is at least far from the coast and not too many people are here yet,” Banda said.

Back home, most of Banda’s landscaping equipment — lawn mowers and weed whackers — that he had stored in his backyard were ruined.

“I don’t know how I’ll afford to buy new ones. It’ll be tough,” said Banda as sweat beaded on his forehead.

“I’m just glad they’re all right,” he said, nodding at his children who stood at his side wearing backpacks.

Hurricane damage shuts down major US oil refineries

Harvey hits gas prices no matter where you live

As Catastrophic Flooding Hits Houston, Fears Grow of Pollution from Oil Refineries & Superfund Sites

Environmental Crisis Unfolding in Houston as Oil & Chemical Industry Spew Toxic Pollutants into Ai

The nation’s largest oil refinery shuts down as Hurricane Harvey floods Texas

Energy prices to spike in Harvey’s wake

Oil and gas prices are expected to spike over the next week or more as about 10 refineries representing more than 15 percent of the nation’s refining capacity are shut down in the wake of Hurricane Harvey. (Aug. 28) AP

Flood waters closed oil refineries Wednesday along the Texas Gulf Coast, including the nation’s largest, as Hurricane Harvey showed its power to ravage the energy infrastructure and drive up gasoline prices.

Some 15 refineries were going off line from Corpus Cristi, Texas, to Port Arthur, Texas, the Energy Department reported. The list included the largest refinery in the U.S., the Saudi-owned Motiva plant in Port Arthur, which began what it called “a controlled shutdown.”

Taken together, the closures represent about 25% of U.S. refining capacity, GasBuddy.com petroleum analyst Patrick DeHaan said.

“It’s a chilling effect on the refining industry, which is in a dire state right now,” DeHaan said.

Just ahead of the Labor Day holiday weekend, one of the top travel weekends of the year, DeHaan estimated Wednesday that gas prices would increase 15 cents to 25 cents per gallon nationwide as a result of Harvey. Earlier, he had predicted a boost of 5 to 15 cents.

More: Gas prices to rise even faster as Harvey drenches refiners

More: Tropical Storm Harvey makes 2nd landfall just west of Cameron, La.

Refinery outages include facilities run by Exxon Mobil, Citgo, Petrobras, Flint Hills, Magellan, Buckeye, Shell, Phillips 66 and Valero Energy, according to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce’s Global Energy Institute.

Consequently, Americans are using about 9.7 million barrels per day of gasoline, while refineries are pumping out fewer than 8 million, DeHaan said.

“Gasoline inventories are going to be chiseled away quickly if that continues,” DeHaan said.

U.S. Sen. Edward J. Markey, D-Mass., exhorted President Trump to release supplies from the nation’s Strategic Petroleum Reserve to ease the impact on consumers.

But with nearly 230 million barrels of gasoline inventory on hand as of Friday, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, “we’re not running out of gas anytime soon by any means,” AAA’s Jeanette Casselano said.

Still, the refinery outages and the closure of several key ports have disrupted the supply of fresh fuel to Texas Gulf Coast stations and other regions. The Motiva operation alone generates about 635,000 barrels per day in normal times, according to the Oil Price Information Service.

“Return to service is contingent upon recession of floodwaters in the area,” Motiva spokesperson Angela Goodwin said in a statement. “Our priority remains the safety of our employees and the community.”

https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/cars/2017/08/30/largest-u-s-refinery-shuts-down-harvey-floods-texas/615524001/ 

Trump survey’s Texas storm damage

Donald Trump Visits Texas But Fails To Address The Victims Of Harvey | The 11th Hour | MSNBC

Trump Brings Up Crowd Size During Hurricane Speech

Christie on Harvey response: Criticism of Trump is ‘absurd’

Fox News Blasts Trump’s Hurricane Handling

Sen. Ted Cruz: Focus needs to be on saving lives in Texas

 

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The Pronk Pops Show 953, August 28, 2017, Story 1: The Aftermath of Hurricane Harvey — Catastrophic Unprecedented Massive Flooding — Bring A Boat — First Responders Searching and Rescuing Those Trapped In Homes By High Water Levels — Mopping Up After Hurricane Now Tropical Storm Harvey — Flooding Will Continue Into Wednesday — Public Health Emergency — Have you ever seen the rain? — Who Will Stop The Rain — Videos — Story 2: President Trump Will Visit Texas Tuesday — Fortunate Son — Lookin’ Out My Back Door — Videos — Story 3: Antifa (Anti-Capitalism) Communist Thugs Violently Attack Again In Berkeley — Where Were The Berkeley Police? Standing Down Once Again — Unmask and Arrest Communist Antifa Thugs —  Bad Moon Rising — Videos

Posted on August 28, 2017. Filed under: American History, Assault, Banking System, Blogroll, Breaking News, Budgetary Policy, Communications, Constitutional Law, Countries, Crime, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Donald Trump, Economics, Education, Elections, Empires, Fiscal Policy, Freedom of Speech, Government, Government Spending, History, Language, Law, Media, News, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, Radio, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Rule of Law, Scandals, Security, Success, Tax Policy, Taxation, Taxes, Terror, Terrorism, Unemployment, United States of America, Videos, Violence, War, Wealth, Weather, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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Pronk Pops Show 953, August 28, 2017

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Pronk Pops Show 942, August 8, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 941, August 7, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 940, August 3, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 939,  August 2, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 938, August 1, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 937, July 31, 2017

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Pronk Pops Show 911, June 14, 2017

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Pronk Pops Show 896, May 18, 2017

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Pronk Pops Show 892, May 12, 2017

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Pronk Pops Show 885, May 3, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 884, May 1, 2017

Image result for 28 august 2017 hurricane harvey Houston A man is hit multiple times with a bike lock in Berkeley, Calif., on April 15. The Antifa member with the bike lock was later identified as former philosophy professor Eric Clanton, who was charged with four counts of assault on three people. (JOSH EDELSON/AFP/GETTY IMAGES)Image result for august 2017 houston flooding after huricane harveyImage result for august 2017 city houston flooding after huricane harvey

Story 1: The Aftermath of Hurricane Harvey — Catastrophic Unprecedented Massive Flooding — Bring A Boat — First Responders Searching and Rescuing Those Trapped In Homes By High Water Levels — Mopping Up After Hurricane Now Tropical Storm Harvey — Flooding Will Continue Into Wednesday — Public Health Emergency — Have you ever seen the rain? — Who Will Stop The Rain — Videos —

bayou

nounplural bayous. Chiefly Lower Mississippi Valley and Gulf States.

1.

a marshy arm, inlet, or outlet of a lake, river, etc., usually sluggish orstagnant.

2.

any of various other often boggy and slow-moving or still bodies of water.

Born On The Bayou – Creedence Clearwater Revival

Before & After: Flooding on Buffalo Bayou in Houston

Texas Hurricane Harvey | Houston Flood 2017 Rescue Operations, Raining, Tornado Footage

Tropical Storm Harvey Causes Houston’s Brays Bayou to Overflow

Why Harvey’s flood is worse than previous storms

Hurricane Harvey Will Linger Over Southeast Texas And Bring More Rain | TODAY

Officials search flooded Houston neighborhoods for victims

Another 25 inches of rain expected to fall in Houston area

Midtown Houston, TX Epic Flooding – 8/27/2017

Catastrophic flooding in Harvey’s wake across southeast Texas

Before-and-after photos reveal Harvey’s flooding impact

Drone footage shows devastation caused by Harvey

Massive floods from Hurricane Harvey in Houston, TX

Special Report: Catastrophic Flooding In Houston | NBC News

Houston WATER FLOOD Compilation 2017

Stuck at a hotel in Houston Texas due to Hurricane Harvey flooding.

I’m Gonna Put The Mic Down! CNN Reporter Helps Rescue Elderly Couple From House in Texas Flooding

Hurricane Harvey: Ordinary American heroes inspire

Watch heroic rescues in the middle of Harvey’s devastation

Some of the Many True Acts of Heroism During Hurricane Harvey

Rising waters inundate whole section of Houston

HARVEY AFTERMATH – MASSIVE FLOODING IN TEXAS. Roads Turned Into Rivers

Historic Floods Hit Houston as Hundreds Rescued from Water | NBC Nightly News

A Look At Why Houston Floods | NBC Nightly News

Hurricane Harvey Flooding In The Woodlands Texas 2017

Cars & Homes Underwater in Houston’s Catastrophic Flooding – Hurricane Harvey Aftermath

HOUSTON FLOODING FOOTAGE – Part.2

Man Cries Like Baby on CNN Live as Hurricane Harvey Destroys Everything, Aransas Pass, Texas

Creedence Clearwater Revival – Have you ever seen the rain?

Have You Ever Seen the Rain

Someone told me long ago
There’s a calm before the storm
I know it’s been comin’ for some time
When it’s over so they say
It’ll rain a sunny day
I know shinin’ down like water
I want to know
Have you ever seen the rain?
I want to know
Have you ever seen the rain
Comin’ down on a sunny day?
Yesterday and days before
Sun is cold and rain is hard
I know been that way for all my time
‘Til forever, on it goes
Through the circle, fast and slow,
I know it can’t stop, I wonder
I want to know
Have you ever seen the rain?
I want to know
Have you ever seen the rain
Comin’ down on a sunny day?
Yeah
I want to know
Have you ever seen the rain?
I want to know
Have you ever seen the rain
Comin’ down on a sunny day?
Songwriters: John Cameron Fogerty

Creedence Clearwater Revival – Who’ll Stop The Rain [Clip Archives] 1969

Who’ll Stop the Rain

Long as I remember the rain been coming down.
Clouds of myst’ry pouring confusion on the ground.
Good men through the ages, trying to find the sun;
And I wonder, still I wonder, who’ll stop the rain.
I went down Virginia, seeking shelter from the storm.
Caught up in the fable, I watched the tower grow.
Five year plans and new deals, wrapped in golden chains.
And I wonder, still I wonder who’ll stop the rain.
Heard the singers playing, how we cheered for more.
The crowd had rushed together, trying to keep warm.
Still the rain kept pouring, falling on my ears.
And I wonder, still I wonder who’ll stop the rain.
Songwriters: John Cameron Fogerty

 

Houston crippled by catastrophic flooding, with more rain on the way

  • Texas Gov. Greg Abbott activated his state’s entire National Guard, deploying 12,000 servicemen to respond to the hurricane.
  • The Harris County Sheriff’s Office used motorboats, airboats, and other vehicles to rescue more than 2,000 people in the greater Houston area on Sunday, a spokesman said.
  • The National Weather Service has issued flood watches and warnings from near San Antonio to New Orleans, an area home to more than 13 million people.

Published 14 Hours Ago  | Updated 3 Hours Ago

Sen. Ted Cruz on Hurricane Harvey: Texas will rebuild

Sen. Ted Cruz on Hurricane Harvey: Texas will rebuild  6 Hours Ago | 02:36

The historic flooding that Tropical Storm Harvey unleashed on Houston will likely worsen as federal engineers release water from overflowing reservoirs to keep it from jumping dams and surging uncontrollably into the homes they protect, officials said on Monday.

Some 30,000 residents of the nation’s fourth-largest city were expected to be left temporarily homeless by Harvey, which became the most powerful hurricane to strike Texas in more than 50 years when it came ashore on Friday near Corpus Christi, about 220 miles (354 km) south of Houston.

Stunned families surveyed the wreckage of destroyed homes along the nearby coast and roads that were not flooded were clogged with debris. Death estimates vary, but at least two people have been confirmed killed by the storm.

Harvey was expected to remain over the state’s Gulf Coast for the next few days, dropping a year’s worth of rain in about a week, with threats of flooding extending into neighboring Louisiana.

The FAA said that the Houston airport is not expected to reopen until 12 p.m. local time on Thursday.

In scenes evoking the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans in 2005, police and Coast Guard teams have rescued at least 2,000 people so far, plucking many from rooftops by helicopter, as they urged the hundreds believed to be marooned in flooded houses to hang towels or sheets outside to alert rescuers.

Thousands of members of the National Guard, as well as state and local police were rushing in helicopters, boats and trucks to rescue people before waters rise again, with another 15 inches to 25 inches (38-64 cm) of rain expected in the coming days.

“The goal is rescue. That’s the major focus for today,” Houston Mayor Sylvester Turner told reporters.

On Monday, Texas Gov. Greg Abbott said he was activating his state’s entire National Guard in response to the aftermath of the hurricane. Roughly 12,000 servicemen will be deployed to assist in ongoing search and rescue efforts.

Eighteen Texas counties have received the federal disaster declaration needed to widen financial help and secure the aid of the Federal Emergency Management Agency in recovering from Tropical Storm Harvey, Abbott said.

The list includes Houston and other areas battered by Tropical Storm Harvey, such as Nueces and Aransas counties. People in those counties can start registering online and calling their insurance companies for assistance.

“We are just beginning the process of responding to the storm,” Abbott told a news conference in Corpus Christi, one of the coastal cities affected by the storm, which came ashore last week as a powerful Category 4 hurricane and triggered devastating flooding.

“We’ll be here until we can restore this region as back to normal as possible. … We need to recognize this is going to be a new and different normal for this entire region,” he said.

He said Texas had requested all the help it could get from the National Guard, and that efforts were being made to restore services, including power in areas that “desperately need it.”

Search-and-rescue missions were still going on in Rockport and Port Aransas, which were also hit hard by the storm, the governor said.

Harvey’s center was 90 miles (148 km) south-southwest of Houston on Monday afternoon and forecast to arc slowly toward the city through Wednesday, with the worst floods expected later that day and on Thursday.

Ted Cruz on Hurricane Harvey: Our focus is on search and rescue

Ted Cruz on Hurricane Harvey: Our focus is on search and rescue  6 Hours Ago | 03:28

Schools and office buildings were closed throughout in the metropolitan area, home to 6.8 million people, on Monday as chest-high water filled some neighborhoods in the low-lying city.

Numerous refiners shut operations, likely for weeks, in the nation’s refining and petrochemical hub.

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers said Monday that it was releasing water from the nearby Addicks and Barker reservoirs into Buffalo Bayou, the primary body of water running through Houston. Officials warned that would lead to more flooding.

“The more they release it could go up and it could create even additional problems,” Turner warned. The release was necessary to prevent an uncontrolled surge of water, which Turner said “would be exponentially worse.”

Torrential rain also hit areas more than 150 miles (240 km) away, swelling rivers upstream and causing a surge that was heading toward the Houston area, where numerous rivers and streams already have been breached.

Dave Holom, 44, manager of Big Tex Tree Nurseries, was one of many civilians who joined in the rescue effort on Monday.

“We can fit a lot of people in the back of this truck and it is tall enough off the ground to get safely through high water,” Holom said as he prepared to drive his 24-foot (7.3 m) long vehicle into a flooded neighborhood.

‘Not complaining, we’re alive’

About 5,500 people were in shelters as of Monday morning, city officials said, with FEMA Administrator Brock Long forecasting that as more than 30,000 people would eventually are expected to be placed temporarily in shelters.

Many area residents were left in limbo, wondering what remained of their flooded homes.

Regina Costilla, 48, said she and her 16-year-old son had been rescued from their home by a good Samaritan with a boat. She sat and worried until she was reunited with her husband and large dog, who had been left behind because they didn’t fit into the boat.

“I’m not complaining, we’re alive,” said Costilla. “When I saw the forecast of the storm I said I’ll be happy if we get out with our lives”

Houston did not order an evacuation due to concerns about people being stranded on city highways now consumed by floods, Turner said.

FEMA’s Long on Monday did not question the decision, saying the “evacuation of the city of Houston could take days, days, literally days.”

Texas Governor Greg Abbott, who had suggested on Friday that people leave the area, on Monday told “CBS This Morning” that “the time for making that determination has passed, and (there’s) no need to for us to relitigate that issue right now.”

Trump visit

U.S. President Donald Trump plans to go to Texas on Tuesday to survey the damage, a White House spokeswoman said on Sunday. On Monday he approved an emergency declaration for Louisiana.

Pres. Trump will visit Corpus Christi on Tuesday

Pres. Trump will visit Corpus Christi on Tuesday  5 Hours Ago | 00:56

Trump, facing the biggest U.S. natural disaster since he took office in January, signed a disaster proclamation for Texas on Friday, triggering federal relief efforts.

Hurricane recovery efforts will be very expensive and said he would be talking to the U.S. Congress about it as he prepared for a trip to the storm zone, the president told reporters in the Oval Office.

Trump lauded the efforts by Texans to extract storm victims from flooded areas of Houston and beyond after record amounts of rainfall from Hurricane Harvey.

“We’re dealing with Congress. As you know it’s going to be a very expensive situation,” said Trump.

Almost half of the U.S. refining capacity is in the Gulf region. Shutdowns extended across the coast, including Exxon Mobil’s facility in Baytown, the nation’s second largest refinery. About 13 percent of daily U.S. capacity was offline as of Monday morning.

The outages will limit the availability of U.S. gasoline and other refined products and push prices higher, analysts said. Gasoline futures rose as much as 7 percent on Monday.

Damages are not likely to be as extensive as Katrina, which killed 1,800 people in and around New Orleans, or Sandy, which hit New York in 2012, said a spokeswoman for Hannover Re, one of the worlds largest reinsurers. Those caused $80 billion and $36 billion in insured losses, respectively.

https://www.cnbc.com/2017/08/28/houston-crippled-by-catastrophic-flood-mass-evacuations-ordered.html

 

Ruinous Texas floods test Trump’s leadership

As Harvey pummelled Texas over the weekend, the White House released photos of the president -- decked in a USA cap -- huddling with aides to discuss the response to the storm

As Harvey pummelled Texas over the weekend, the White House released photos of the president — decked in a USA cap — huddling with aides to discuss the response to the storm

The floodwaters deluging Houston — America’s fourth largest city and a major global oil hub — also present Donald Trump with a significant long-term test of his presidential leadership.

Facing tropical storm Harvey, Trump plans to travel to “The Lone Star State” on Tuesday, a demonstration that he is on top of a disaster that is already posing a fierce challenge for local and federal responders.

The full impact of the ongoing storm is unknown, but up to 30,000 people are expected to need emergency shelter as — thanks to plant-shutdowns — gasoline prices surged four percent in early New York trade.

Since the crisis began on Friday, Trump has seized on his role marshalling the federal response, issuing a disaster declaration for Texas and neighboring Louisiana and deploying 8,000 officials throughout the flood zone.

During a busy weekend, the White House released photos of the president — decked in a USA cap — huddling with aides, liaising with cabinet secretaries to discuss what he called a “once in 500 year flood.”

A steady stream of tweets have sought to show that the president, who spent the weekend at the bucolic presidential retreat of Camp David, was well apprised and in control.

“They’re providing everything we’ve asked for” Texas’s Republican governor Greg Abbott said describing Washington’s response.

Trump’s trip to Texas comes much more quickly than other presidents may have dared. Along with a high-impact presidential trip comes the risk of hampering recovery efforts and tying up resources.

First Lady Melania Trump is also expected to travel.

With the rain still falling, they will have to avoid the area around Houston that has been hardest hit. But the president seems determined to show leadership on the ground.

In responding to Harvey, Trump appears cognizant of the political pitfalls his predecessors found in their flawed responses to Hurricanes Katrina and Andrew, when the federal government came up short.

Images of George W. Bush looking safely from the window of Air Force One down at ravaged New Orleans in 2005 became an indelible image of his presidency.

Trump’s display of decisiveness comes in stark contrast to Trump’s prevarications in the face of a white supremacist rally that turned deadly two weeks ago in Charlottesville, Virginia.

His failure to condemn the extreme right shook an already fragile administration.

And despite his hands-on response, Trump has already been pilloried for making a series of controversial announcements just hours before Harvey hit.

As the storm barreled towards the Gulf Coast, Trump pardoned a sheriff who had been accused of racism and convicted of defying the courts and banning transsexuals in the military.

Flood-hit Houston, the fourth-largest US city, was among the areas hardest hit as Harvey deluged the state of Texas

Flood-hit Houston, the fourth-largest US city, was among the areas hardest hit as Harvey deluged the state of Texas

Post-Katrina reforms give Trump more levers to manage the crisis, but he will still have to coordinate several agencies and work with Congress to unblock funds.

That could be made more difficult by Trump’s poor relationship with Republican members of Congress and a contentious and already jam-packed legislative agenda in September.

In the wake of Hurricane Sandy in 2012, a large number of Republican senators blocked relief to the devastated and predominantly Democratic northeastern states.

Grudges over that episode remain, and could be exacerbated by tensions over the need to raise the government’s debt ceiling and a vote on the 2018 budget.

Trump has demanded Congress provide funds for his unpopular border “wall,” something many lawmakers are reluctant to do.

Beyond that, the scope and scale of the damage from Harvey may pose a durable challenge for a president who often seems to think in 140-character blocs.

The long-term economic impact could be as severe as the immediate humanitarian need, with small businesses in need of loans and insurance payouts to get the local economy back on its feet.

And Houston’s role as an oil hub and major port makes the impact truly global in scale.

According to research from Goldman Sachs, the storm has put 16.5 percent of US refinery capacity offline and 11 percent of crude oil production, although many of the closures have been preventative.

“This is going to be a very long-term project, helping Texas dig out,” governor Abbott told CNN.

Vice President Mike Pence tried to reassure Texans that the White House’s focus would not be fleeting.

“We’re very confident that, working with the Congress, we’ll be there for the long haul,” he said. “We’ll see Houston all the way back and provide all of the appropriate support from the federal government.”

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-4830552/Ruinous-Texas-floods-test-Trumps-leadership.html

 

Army Corps releases water from 2 Houston dams; thousands of homes to be affected

Emergency workers began releasing water into the Buffalo Bayou from two flood-control dams in Houston on Monday — a move that could affect thousands of area residents, officials said.

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers said it began to release water from the Addicks and Barker dams early Monday to prevent uncontrollable flooding of the Houston metropolitan area as water levels continued to rise rapidly from torrential rains released by Tropical Storm Harvey.

Engineers were forced to start the process earlier than previously announced because water levels in the reservoirs had “increased dramatically in the last few hours,” officials said early Monday, adding that the release would likely cause additional street flooding that could spill into homes.

This is the first time engineers have done this for flood control, officials said.

http://abcnews.go.com/US/army-corps-releases-water-houston-dams-levels-increased/story?id=49462262

Taking matters into his own paws! Otis the German shepherd returns home after he was spotted in a viral photo carrying a huge bag of dog food after Hurricane Harvey

  • Otis was spotted carrying a bag of dog food down a street in Sinton, Texas on Saturday following Hurricane Harvey
  • He managed to break free from his home during the storm and disappeared
  • A resident snapped a photo of Otis walking the streets with the food and it quickly went viral
  • Otis made his way back home and apparently walked straight up to his front porch where his owner was, set down the food and laid down 
  • He is known for wandering around town to places where he knows he will be given treats 

A clever German Shepherd cross managed to take matters into his own paws when he was spotted strolling the streets of Texas carrying a huge bag of food in the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey.

But in addition to the free bag of food the six-year-old pooch named Otis managed to pick up, he is now also basking in the spotlight after a photo of him quickly went viral.

Otis had somehow gotten loose from his home in Sinton, north of Corpus Christi, after the tropical storm hit on Friday night.

Otis somehow got loose from his home in Sinton, Texas during Hurricane Harvey but returned to his owner Salvador Segovia with a bag of food on Saturday

Otis somehow got loose from his home in Sinton, Texas during Hurricane Harvey but returned to his owner Salvador Segovia with a bag of food on Saturday

Owner Salvador Segovia had initially called out in the storm to try and locate Otis before heading out first thing Saturday morning find him.

Meanwhile, fellow resident Tiele Dockens was out checking the damage from the storm when she spotted Otis strolling down a storm-damaged street carrying his bag of food.

She snapped a photo and moments later it was being shared thousands of times on social media. Dockens followed Otis to make sure he wasn’t lost and he led her straight back to his home.

Otis apparently walked straight up to his front porch where his owner was, set down the food and laid down.

‘I turn around, there comes Otis and he’s carrying food,’ Segovia told the Washington Post. ‘Otis is a smart dog. He knows where to go pick up a treat.’

Tiele Dockens was out checking the damage from the storm when she spotted Otis strolling down a storm-damaged street carrying his bag of food. She snapped a photo and it quickly went viral on Facebook

Tiele Dockens was out checking the damage from the storm when she spotted Otis strolling down a storm-damaged street carrying his bag of food. She snapped a photo and it quickly went viral on Facebook

Otis apparently walked straight up to his front porch where his owner was, set down the food and laid down (above)

Otis apparently walked straight up to his front porch where his owner was, set down the food and laid down (above)

The pooch regularly wanders off and knows how to make his way around the town.

He often stops in at the Dairy Queen where he gets a hamburger or the lumber store because it sells dog food.

Segovia thinks on this occasion Otis may have been scared by the storm and took off before making his way to the lumber store.

‘I’m thinking he picked up that dog food and he knew where it was. Nobody was there to feed him and he picks up the dog food,’ Segovia said.

Otis’ family are still in shock over the viral fame the pooch has attracted.

Segovia’s son Shane wrote on Facebook: ‘First things first people, Otis wasn’t in need of help! Second of all, I promise he wasn’t looting!

‘Lol… He was just out on a stroll through town AFTER the storm and doing what a survivor would do! Salvador Segovia you taught him right!’

A damaged car sits outside a heavily damaged apartment complex in Rockport, Texas, after Hurricane Harvey. Rockport is about 45 minutes away from Stinton, where Otis is from

A damaged car sits outside a heavily damaged apartment complex in Rockport, Texas, after Hurricane Harvey. Rockport is about 45 minutes away from Stinton, where Otis is from

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4830248/Dog-carries-bag-food-Hurricane-Harvey.html#ixzz4r5rsIzMB

Story 2: President Trump Will Visit Texas Tuesday — Fortunate Son — Lookin’ Out My Back Door — Videos —

Donald Trump sends support to those affected by Harvey

Americans coming together to help the people of Texas after Hurricane Harvey

Should Trump be going to Texas at a time like this?

President Trump to survey the damage in Texas

Americans Are Dying After Trump Hating Houston Mayor Defies President’s Hurricane Warnings

Creedence Clearwater Revival – “Fortunate Son”

Some folks are born made to wave the flag
Ooh, they’re red, white and blue
And when the band plays “Hail to the chief”
Ooh, they point the cannon at you, Lord
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no senator’s son, son
It ain’t me, it ain’t me; I ain’t no fortunate one, no
Some folks are born silver spoon in hand
Lord, don’t they help themselves, oh
But when the taxman comes to the door
Lord, the house looks like a rummage sale, yes
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no millionaire’s son, no
It ain’t me, it ain’t me; I ain’t no fortunate one, no
Yeah, yeah
Some folks inherit star spangled eyes
Ooh, they send you down to war, Lord
And when you ask them, “How much should we give?”
Ooh, they only answer More! more! more! y’all
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no military son, son
It ain’t me, it ain’t me; I ain’t no fortunate one, one
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no fortunate one, no no no
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no fortunate son, no no no
Songwriters: John Cameron Fogerty

Creedence Clearwater Revival – Lookin’ Out My Back Door

Dick Clark Interview Creedence Clearwater Revival – American Bandstand 1969

John Fogerty Talks Trump and Lack Of Socially Conscious Music In Today’s Pop (VIDEO)

 

Story 3: Antifa (Anti-Capitalism) Communist Thugs Violently Attack Again In Berkeley — Where Were The Berkeley Police? Standing Down Once Again — Unmask and Arrest Communist Antifa Thugs —  Bad Moon Rising — Videos

SHOCK VIDEO: Alt-Left / ANTIFA Savagely Attack Prayer Meeting, Democrats Cheer

Highlights of Alt-Left / AntiFa Violence at Berkeley ‘Rally Against Hate’ (27th August 2017)

BREAKING NOW: ANTIFA ATTACK TRUMP SUPPORTERS AT BERKELEY PROTEST

Antifa Disrupt Peaceful Rally in Berkeley with Violence

Berkeley Antifa Assault Survivor Joey Gibson Interviewed on Tucker Carlson

Antifa anarchists attack peaceful right-wing Berkeley rally

Why ANTIFA Violence Not Being Condemned By The Left, Tucker Carlson

Berkeley Police Chief Admits Stand-Down Orders, Allowed Antifa to Attack

Antifa Crashes Patriot Prayer Rally in Berkeley, Policed Ordered to Stand Down

[youtubehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6qs0kv_58ZA]

Antifa Stalk Female UC Berkeley Student Trying to Exit Rally

Antifa Violence Finally Covered on MSNBC.

Growing Division: Antifa clash with right-wing supporters at Berkeley rally

Part 2—Antifa: A Look at the Anti-Fascist Movement Confronting White Supremacists in the Streets

Noam Chomsky: Antifa Is ‘A Major Gift To The Right’

 

Antifa and the Black Bloc Explained

What is Antifa?: Antifa Exposed

Former ‘Antifa’ Speaks Out

Antifa: A Look at the Antifascist Movement Confronting White Supremacists in the Streets

250K+ Sign Petition To Label Antifa As Terror Group – Specialists

Petition to label Antifa a terrorist group gets 250k signatures

How to Effectively Stop Antifa (No Petition)

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Creedence Clearwater Revival: Bad Moon Rising

I see a bad moon a-rising
I see trouble on the way
I see earthquakes and lightnin’
I see bad times today
Don’t go ’round tonight
It’s bound to take your life
There’s a bad moon on the rise
I hear hurricanes a-blowing
I know the end is coming soon
I fear rivers over flowing
I hear the voice of rage and ruin
Don’t go ’round tonight
It’s bound to take your life
There’s a bad moon on the rise
I hope you got your things together
I hope you are quit prepared to die
Look’s like we’re in for nasty weather
One eye is taken for an eye
Oh don’t go ’round tonight
It’s bound to take your life
There’s a bad moon on the rise
There’s a bad moon on the rise
Songwriters: John Cameron Fogerty

Creedence Clearwater Revival-Royal Albert Hall – 1970

Bruce Springsteen Inducts Creedence Clearwater Revival

 

Black-clad antifa members attack peaceful right-wing demonstrators in Berkeley

 August 28 at 3:47 AM

Left-wing counterprotesters clashed with right-wing protesters and Trump supporters on Aug. 27 in Berkeley, Calif. Violence erupted when a small group of masked antifa and anarchists attacked right-wing demonstrators. (The Washington Post)

Their faces hidden behind black bandannas and hoodies, about 100 anarchists and antifa— “anti-fascist” — members barreled into a protest Sunday afternoon in Berkeley’s Martin Luther King Jr. Civic Center Park.

Jumping over plastic and concrete barriers, the group melted into a larger crowd of around 2,000 that had marched peacefully throughout the sunny afternoon for a “Rally Against Hate” gathering.

Shortly after, violence began to flare. A pepper-spray-wielding Trump supporter was smacked to the ground with homemade shields. Another was attacked by five black-clad antifa members, each windmilling kicks and punches into a man desperately trying to protect himself. A conservative group leader retreated for safety behind a line of riot police as marchers chucked water bottles, shot off pepper spray and screamed, “Fascist go home!”

All told, the Associated Press reported at least five individuals were attacked. An AP reporter witnessed the assaults. Berkeley Police’s Lt. Joe Okies told The Washington Post the rally resulted in “13 arrests on a range of charges including assault with a deadly weapon, obstructing a police officer, and various Berkeley municipal code violations.”

And although the anti-hate and left-wing protesters largely drowned out the smaller clutch of far-right marchers attending a planned “No to Marxism in America” rally, Sunday’s confrontation marked another street brawl between opposing ends of the political spectrum — violence that has become a regular feature of the Trump years and gives signs of spiraling upward, particularly in the wake of the violence in Charlottesville.

“I applaud the more than 7,000 people who came out today to peacefully oppose bigotry, hatred and racism that we saw on display in Charlottesville,” Berkeley Mayor Jesse Arreguín said in a statement. ” … However, the violence that small group of protesters engaged in against residents and the police, including throwing smoke bombs, is unacceptable. Fighting hate with hate does not work and only makes each side more entrenched in their ideological camps.”

How some ‘antifa’ protesters are using black bloc tactics
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Black bloc tactics are used by “antifascist action” or “antifa” protesters. Here’s what that means. (Gillian Brockell/The Washington Post)

In February, 150 similarly black-clad agitators caused $100,000 worth of damage when they smashed through Berkeley protesting a University of California at Berkeley speech by right-wing provocateur Milo Yiannopoulos. Portland, Ore., has been the scene of street battles between antifa members and white nationalists this summer. White nationalist Richard Spencer was sucker-punched by a protester in a January video that went viral. And Inauguration Day 2017 in Washington, D.C., was marked by violence when masked protesters burned vehicles, smashed windows and clashed with police, leading to 231 arrests.

On Sunday, police in Berkeley maintained a strict perimeter around the area in the beginning of the afternoon, including enforcing an emergency city rule outlawing sticks and other potential weapons from the park. Fifty officers were spread out at the area’s four entrances, according to the Daily Californian.

But antifa protesters — armed with sticks and shields and clad in shin pads and gloves — largely routed the security checks and by 1:30 p.m. police reportedly left the security line at the Center Street and Milvaia Street entrance to the park. Berkeley Police Chief Andrew Greenwood told the AP the decision was strategic — a confrontation was sure to spark more violence between the protesters and police.

“No need for a confrontation over a grass patch,” Greenwood said.

Demonstrator Joey Gibson, second from left, is chased by anti-fascists during a free-speech rally Aug. 27 in Berkeley, Calif. (Marcio Jose Sanchez/AP)

Joey Gibson was among the right-wing activists assaulted Sunday. Gibson, the leader of the Oregon-based Patriot Prayer group, had planned to hold a “Freedom Rally” at Crissy Field Beach. Gibson previously told the L.A. Times his group was not “white supremacist” but “feared that extreme or racist figures might try to co-opt his event.”

Yet, as with other planned right-wing events in the wake of Charlottesville, Saturday’s rally drew controversy in the San Francisco area, with one group stockpiling dog feces to lay at the scene on Saturday.

Last Friday, Gibson canceled the event because of the mounting pressure. “It doesn’t seem safe; a lot of people’s lives are going to be in danger tomorrow,” he told Unite America First.

Attention shifted to Sunday’s “No to Marxism in America” event. However, last week, that event’s organizer, Amber Cummings, also signaled the event was off due to the growing tensions. “I stress I DO NOT WANT ANYONE COMING and if they do you will be turned away, I’m sorry for this but I want this event to happen peacefully and I do not want to risk anyone getting harmed by terrorists,” Cummings wrote online, according to NBC Bay Area.

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Violence breaks out as counter-protesters meet right-wing demonstrators in Berkeley
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Thousands of counter-protesters showed up at a right-wing rally in Berkeley, Calif., on Aug. 27, to counter-protest peacefully. About 100 masked, black-clad antifa and anarchists stormed over police barricades and attacked at least five right-wing demonstrators. (Reuters)

On Sunday, Cummings reportedly did not appear for her event, and anti-hate marchers far outnumbered the right-wing element that did make an appearance, the AP reported.

Although Gibson was reportedly seen being taken into custody, on Sunday the Patriot Prayer Facebook page stated “Joey is NOT in jail, and has NOT been arrested. He was cuffed and released after being shoved through the police line.” Gibson did not reply to a Facebook message seeking comment.

“We’re just puzzled as to why people consider violence a valid tactic,” Berkeley resident Kristin Leiumkuhler, 60, told SFGate. She, like others, had turned out with neighbors for a peaceful rally but left when things got ugly. “We felt disappointed and surprised by how many people were not in any way discreet about being with antifa — in fact being very bold and prepared to be violent.”

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2017/08/28/black-clad-antifa-attack-right-wing-demonstrators-in-berkeley/?utm_term=.d927aa972fa1

The Communist Origins of the Antifa Extremist Group
Group promoted communist dictatorship in Germany on Soviet Union’s behalf and labeled all ideologies other than communism as ‘fascism’

 

The extremist anarchist-communist group Antifa has been in the headlines because of recent violent clashes in Charlottesville, Virginia. Yet while the organization has been applauded by some left-leaning news outlets for including white nationalists and neo-Nazis in its list of targets, the organization wasn’t always about targeting “fascism,” as it claims.

The organization was initially part of the Soviet Union’s front operations to bring about communist dictatorship in Germany, and it worked to label all rival parties as “fascist.”

The organization can be traced to the “united front” of the Soviet Union’s Communist International (Comintern) during the Third World Congress in Moscow in June and July 1921, according to the German booklet “80 Years of Anti-Fascist Action” by Bernd Langer, published by the Association for the Promotion of Anti-Fascist Culture. Langer is a former member of the Autonome Antifa, formerly one of Germany’s largest Antifa organizations, which disbanded in 2004.

The Soviet Union was among the world’s most violent dictatorships, killing an estimated 20 million people, according to “The Black Book of Communism,” published by Harvard University Press. The Soviet regime is second only to the Chinese Communist Party under Mao Zedong, which killed an estimated 65 million people.

Anti-fascism is a strategy rather than an ideology.

— Bernd Langer, former member, Autonome Antifa

The idea of the united front strategy was to bring together left-wing organizations in order to incite communist revolution. The Soviets believed that following Russia’s revolution in 1917, communism would next spread to Germany, since Germany had the second-largest communist party, the KPD (Communist Party of Germany).

It was at the Fourth World Congress of the Comintern in 1922 that the plan took shape. Moscow formed the slogan “To the Masses” for its united front strategy and sought to join together the various communist and workers’ parties of Germany under a single ideological banner that it controlled.

“The ‘unified front’ thus did not mean an equal cooperation between different organizations, but the dominance of the workers’ movement by the communists,” Langer writes.

After its formation under the

After its formation under the “united front” strategy of the Soviet Union under Vladimir Lenin in 1921, Antifa came more directly under the control of the Soviets when the Communist Party of Germany became a Stalinist party and financially dependent on Moscow.

Benito Mussolini, a Marxist and socialist who had been expelled from Italy’s Socialist Party in 1914 for his support for World War I, later founded the fascist movement as his own political party. He took power through his “March on Rome” in October 1922.

In Germany, Adolf Hitler became head of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party) in 1921 and mounted a coup attempt in 1923.

The KPD decided to use the banner of anti-fascism to form a movement. Langer notes, though, that to the KPD, the ideas of “fascism” and “anti-fascism” were “undifferentiated,” and the term “fascism” served merely as rhetoric meant to support their aggressive opposition.

Both the communist and fascist systems were based in collectivism and state-planned economies. Both also proposed systems wherein the individual was heavily controlled by a powerful state, and both were responsible for large-scale atrocities and genocide.

The 2016 annual report by Germany’s domestic intelligence service, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV), notes the same point: From the viewpoint of the “left-wing extremist,” the label of “fascism” as pushed by Antifa often does not refer to actual fascism, but is merely a label assigned to “capitalism.”

While leftist extremists claim to be fighting “fascism” while launching their attacks on other groups, the report states the term “fascism” has a double meaning under the extreme-left ideology, indicating the “fight against the capitalist system.”

This held true from the beginning, according to Langer. For the communists in Germany, “anti-fascism” merely meant “anti-capitalism.” He notes the labels merely served as “battle concepts” under a “political vocabulary.”

A member of the Antifa extremist group vandalizes a storefront in Nantes, France, on Feb. 14, 2014. (FRANK PERRY/AFP/Getty Images)

A member of the Antifa extremist group vandalizes a storefront in Nantes, France, on Feb. 14, 2014. (FRANK PERRY/AFP/Getty Images)

description of Antifa on the BfV website notes that the organization still holds this same basic definition of capitalism as being “fascism.”

“They argue that the capitalist state produces fascism, or at least tolerates it. Therefore, anti-fascism is directed not only against actual or supposed right-wing extremists, but also always against the state and its representatives, in particular members of the security authorities,” it states.

Langer notes that historically, by labeling the anti-capitalist interests of the communist movement as “anti-fascism,” the KPD was able to use this rhetoric to label all other political parties as fascist. Langer states, “According to this, the other parties opposed to the KPD were fascist, especially the SPD [Social Democratic Party of Germany].”

Thus, in what would today be considered ironic, the group that the communist “anti-fascists” most heavily targeted under their new label of “fascism” was the social democrats.

On Aug. 23, 1923, the Politburo of the Communist Party of Russia held a secret meeting, and according to Langer, “all the important officials spoke out for an armed insurrection in Germany.”

The KPD was at the front of this call, launching a movement under the banner of United Front Action and branding its armed “anti-fascist” wing under the name Antifaschistische Aktion (“Antifascist Action”), which Antifa still carries in Germany, and from which the Antifa organizations in other countries are rooted.

The Unity Congress of Antifa, held at the Philharmonic Opera House in Berlin, on July 10, 1932. The congress was organized by the Communist Party of Germany as a rallying point to defeat the Social Democratic Party and the Nazi Party. Antifa labeled both parties as "fascist," which was a political label they used for all rival parties. (Public Domain)

The Unity Congress of Antifa, held at the Philharmonic Opera House in Berlin, on July 10, 1932. The congress was organized by the Communist Party of Germany as a rallying point to defeat the Social Democratic Party and the Nazi Party. Antifa labeled both parties as “fascist,” which was a political label they used for all rival parties. (Public Domain)

At this time, Hitler and his Nazi Party had begun to emerge on the world stage, and the Nazi Party employed a similar group to Antifaschistische Aktion for political violence and intimidation, called the “brownshirts.”

Antifaschistische Aktion, meanwhile, began to attract some members who opposed the arrival of actual fascism in Germany and who did not subscribe to—or were potentially unaware of—the organization’s ties to the Soviet Union.

However, the violence instigated by Antifaschistische Aktion largely had an opposite effect. The ongoing tactics of violence and intimidation of all rival systems under the Antifa movement, along with its violent ideology, drove many people toward fascism.

“The Communists’ violent revolutionary rhetoric, promising the destruction of capitalism and the creation of a Soviet Germany, terrified the country’s middle class, who knew only too well what had happened to their counterparts in Russia after 1918,” writes Richard J. Evans in “The Third Reich in Power.”

Anti-fascism is directed not only against actual or supposed right-wing extremists, but also always against the state and its representatives, in particular members of the security authorities.

— Germany’s Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution

“Appalled at the failure of the government to solve the crisis, and frightened into desperation by the rise of the Communists,” he states, “they began to leave the squabbling little factions of the conventional political right and gravitate towards the Nazis instead.”

Langer notes that from the beginning, the KPD was a member of the Comintern, and “within a few years, it became a Stalinist party,” both ideologically and logistically. He states that it even became “financially dependent on the Moscow headquarters.”

Leaders of the KPD, with Antifa as their on-the-ground movement for violence and intimidation of rival political parties, fell under the command of the Soviet apparatus. Many KPD leaders would later become leaders in the communist German Democratic Republic, including of its infamous Ministry for State Security, the Stasi.

As Langer states, “anti-fascism is a strategy rather than an ideology.”

“It was brought into play in Germany in the 1920s by the KPD”, not as a legitimate movement against the fascism that would later arise in Germany, but instead “as an anti-capitalist concept of struggle,” he writes.

Christian Watjen contributed to this report.

http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/2282816-the-communist-origins-of-the-antifa-extremist-group/

Antifa (United States)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Antifa
Preceded by Anti-Racist Action[1]
Headquarters none (autonomous groups and websites throughout the United States)
Membership Unknown; approximately 200 groups of varying degrees of engagement.
Ideology Antifascism
Anarchism
Anarcho-communism
Radicalism
Anti-capitalism
Alter-globalization
Political position Far left

Antifa is a radical political movement of autonomous, self-styled anti-fascist groups, including in the United States.[2][3][4] They have been described as being left wing to far-left.[5][6] The salient feature of self-described antifa groups is to oppose fascism by direct action, including violence if need be.[6] Antifa groups tend to be anti-government and anti-capitalist;[7] its adherents are mostly socialistsanarchists, and communists who, according to Mark Bray, a historian at Dartmouth College and author of Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook, “reject turning to the police or the state to halt the advance of white supremacy. Instead they advocate popular opposition to fascism as we witnessed in Charlottesville.”[8]

According to The Economist, the “word Antifa has its roots in Anti-Fascist Action, a name taken up by European political movements in the 1930s” which was revived in the 1990s, particularly in Germany.[9][10] Peter Beinartwrites that “in the late ’80s, left-wing punk fans in the United States began following suit, though they initially called their groups Anti-Racist Action, on the theory that Americans would be more familiar with fighting racism than fascism.”[5] Antifa groups are known for militant protest tactics, including property damage and physical violence.[11][12][13][2] Antifa focuses more on fighting far-right ideology directly than on encouraging pro-left policy.[6]

History

The American Antifa traces its ideological lineage to both Germany[14]and the British Battle of Cable Street[15]

The first group described as Antifa was the Antifaschistische Aktion which formed on July 10, 1932[16] by the Communist Party of Germany.[17] Anti-fascists were involved in battles against Benito Mussolini’s BlackshirtsAdolf Hitler’s BrownshirtsFrancisco Franco‘s nationalist army, and Oswald Mosley‘s British Union of Fascists. Outside of Europe, anti-fascist tactics were used as a model for anti-Japanese resistance in occupied-China during World War II.[18][2]

Anti-Racist Action (ARA), which came from the punk and skinhead scene of the late ’80s,[19][5] is the main precursor of many if not most contemporary US antifa groups. Other antifa groups in the US have other genealogies. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, a group called the Baldies formed in 1987 with the intent to fight neo-Nazi groups directly.[7]

Activity

Antifa is composed of autonomous groups, and thus has no formal organization.[5][20] Antifa groups either form loose support networks, such as NYC Antifa, or operate independently.[21] Activists typically organize protests via social media and through websites and list-serves.[5][20] According to Salon.com it is an organizing strategy, not a group of people,[22] While its membership numbers are hard to pin down, since the election of Donald Trump to the presidency members and experts have both stated that the movement has boomed; approximately 200 chapters are currently extant in the U.S., of varying sizes and levels of engagement.[14]

It is commonly associated with a willingness to engage in a show of force. Antifa groups, along with black bloc activists, were among those who protested the 2016 election of Donald Trump.[5][23][24] During the inauguration celebrations mask-wearing “black bloc” protestors “rage[d] across the area just outside” of the security perimeter, “smashing windows and burning cars.”[25]

According to Peter Beinart, Antifa activists “combat white supremacism not by trying to change government policy but through direct action. They try to publicly identify white supremacists and get them fired from their jobs and evicted from their apartments,” in addition to “disrupt(ing) white-supremacist rallies, including by force.”[26]

In June 2017 Antifa was linked to anarchist extremism by the New Jersey Office of Homeland Security and Preparedness.[27]

Notable street protests and violence

Antifa protesters participated in the 2017 Berkeley protests on February 1, where they gained mainstream media attention, “throwing Molotov cocktails and smashing windows;” causing $100,000 worth of damage.[28][2][20] Later, two Antifa groups threatened to disrupt the 82nd Avenue of Roses Parade after hearing the Multnomah County Republican Party would participate. The parade organizers received an anonymous email, saying, “You have seen how much power we have downtown and that the police cannot stop us from shutting down roads so please consider your decision wisely”. The email also said that 200 people would “rush into the parade” and “drag and push” those marching with the Republican Party. The two groups denied having anything to do with the email. The parade ended up being canceled by the organizers due to safety concerns.[29][30]

Antifa counter protestors at the far-right 2017 Unite the Right rally in CharlottesvilleVirginia in August “certainly used clubs and dyed liquids against the white supremacists.”[31] Journalist Adele Stan interviewed an Antifa protester at the rally who said that the sticks carried by Antifa protesters are a justifiable countermeasure to the fact that “the right has a goon squad.”[32] Some Antifa participants at the Charlottesville rally chanted that counter-protesters should “punch a Nazi in the mouth.”[33] Antifa participants also protected Cornel West and various clergy from attack by the white supremacist. West said that he felt that Antifa had “saved his life”;[34] clergy expressed similar sentiments.[35] Another religious leader stated that Antifa defended the First United Methodist Church, where the Charlottesville Clergy Collective provided refreshments, music and training to the counter-protesters, and “chased (the white supremacists) off with sticks”.[34][36]

Antifa also participated in the protests in Phoenix, Arizona on August 22, on the occasion of a Trump rally. They were the only protest group singled out by President Trump: ““They’ve got clubs and they’ve got everything,” he said of the far-left anti-fascist group accused of instigating violence against white supremacists and other members of the “alt-right.” “ANTEEFAH.” His peculiar pronunciation inspired a meme inspired by the 1958 song “Tequila“.[37]

At the Berkeley protests on August 27, an estimated hundred Antifa protestors among a crowd of 2,000 – 4,000 counter-protestors attacked the “handful” of alt-right demonstrators who showed up for a “Say No to Marxism” rally that had been cancelled by organizers due to security concerns. Antifa activists, beat and kicked the unarmed handful of right-wing demonstrators, and threatened to smash the cameras of journalists.[28][38][28]

Approaches

The nature and activities of Antifa have caused some debate among anarchists; the prominent anarcho-communist website It’s Going Down published a critique of Antifa in November 2016 originally from Lucha No Feik, entitled “On Antifa: Some Critical Notes”.[39] The article criticised Antifa for essentially being a reactive, rather than a proactive force. The article argues that Antifa are too hyper-focused on micro Neo-Nazi groups or single figures such as President Donald Trump, instead of “analyzing the structural nature of our racist society.”[39] The article stated that the Antifa’s ideological position was “but a few steps removed from the Liberal position that we should just all get along.”[39] It also pointed out that Antifa did not protest against the administration of President Barack Obama.[39] This elicited a response from three active participants in the movement with “What do US Antifascists Actually Believe?”, where they stated, “Mobilizing large radical movements against neoliberal (or populist) capitalism is not the focus of anti-fascism; this is the work of the anarchist and anti-capitalist movements as a whole.”[40] The movement has also been criticised by mainstream media.[41]

According to National Public Radio, “People who speak for the Antifa movement acknowledge they sometimes carry clubs and sticks,” and their “approach is confrontational.”[33] CNN describes Antifa as “known for causing damage to property during protests.”[2] Scott Crow, described by CNN as “a longtime Antifa organizer,” argues that destroying property is not a form of violence.[2]

According to Brian Levin, director of the Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism at the California State University, San Bernardino, Antifa activists participate in violent actions because “they believe that elites are controlling the government and the media. So they need to make a statement head-on against the people who they regard as racist.”[2] According to Antifa organizer Crow, Antifa is based on the idea of direct action, “The idea in Antifa is that we go where they (right-wingers) go. That hate speech is not free speech. That if you are endangering people with what you say and the actions that are behind them, then you do not have the right to do that. And so we go to cause conflict, to shut them down where they are, because we don’t believe that Nazis or fascists of any stripe should have a mouthpiece.”[2]

Criticism

Antifa has been subjected to smear campaigns by elements of the far right and alt-right. In August 2017 the image of British actress Anna Friel portraying a battered woman in a 2007 Women’s Aid anti-domestic violence campaign was re-purposed using fake Antifa Twitteraccounts organized by way of 4chan, an investigation by Bellingcat found. The image is captioned “53% of white women voted for Trump, 53% of white women should look like this” and includes the Antifa flag; another image featuring an injured woman is captioned “She chose to be a Nazi. Choices have consequences,” and includes the hashtag #PunchANazi. Although the smear campaign was not regarded as particularly sophisticated, investigator Elliot Higgins remarked to the BBC that “This was a transparent and quite pathetic attempt, but I wouldn’t be surprised if white nationalist groups try to mount more sophisticated attacks in the future.” [42]

In August 2017 The White House petitioning system We the People gathered more than 100,000 signatures requesting Antifa be classified as a terrorist organization in three days, and perforce shall receive an official review and response from the White House; at over 300,000 signatures, it is currently the third most-signed submission posted[43]. The originator, who goes by the nom de plume Microchip, said to Politico that getting conservatives to share and discuss the petition was the entire point, rather than prompting any concrete action by the government.[44]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^

Further reading

  • Bray, Mark (2017). Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook. Melville House. ISBN 978-1612197036.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antifa_(United_States)

 

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The Pronk Pops Show 952, August 25, 2017, Breaking News –Weather Warning — Part 2 of 2 —  Story 1: Hurricane Harvey Messes With Texas and Louisiana — Upgraded To Category 4 Hurricane — A Real Disaster — Up to 40 To 60 Inches of Rain Possible and Wind Speeds From 131 – 155 Miles Per Hour Winds — Flood Surges 13-18 Feet — Will Hit Friday Evening or Early Saturday Morning —  Damages Extreme — Rain For Next Four Days — Gas Prices Will Rise If Refineries Closed/Flooded — 20 Cent Plus Spike Per Gallon in Gasoline Prices — Videos

Posted on August 25, 2017. Filed under: American History, Breaking News, Communications, Countries, Economics, Energy, Federal Government, Foreign Policy, Freedom of Speech, Government, Government Spending, History, Human Behavior, Independence, Language, Law, Lying, Natural Gas, Oil, Videos, Wealth, Weather, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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Weather Warning — Part 2 of 2 —  Story 1: Hurricane Harvey Messes With Texas and Louisiana — Upgraded To Category 4 Hurricane — A Real Disaster — Up to 40 To 60 Inches of Rain Possible and Wind Speeds From 131 – 155 Miles Per Hour Winds — Flood Surges 13-18 Feet — Will Hit Friday Evening or Early Saturday Morning —  Damages Extreme — Rain For Next Four Days — Gas Prices Will Rise If Refineries Closed/Flooded — 20 Cent Plus Spike Per Gallon in Gasoline Prices — Videos

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Updated and Revised Saturday, August 26, 2017

America’s News HQ 8/26/17 | 4PM | Fox News Show August 26, 2017

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Breaking News 8/26/2017 – Rockport, Texas, sustains ‘catastrophic damage’ in Hurricane Harvey

BREAKING NEWS 8/26/2017 – Hurricane Harvey douses Texas as coastal residents find ‘devastation’

Hurricane Harvey Strikes Rockport/Galveston Still Getting Pounded

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Hurricane Harvey | State of Emergency in Texas

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Published on Aug 25, 2017

Governor Greg Abbott has already asked for a disaster declaration in anticipation of the damage expected from Hurricane Harvey. He is also urging people in low-lying areas to leave now while they can.

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Galveston: Home of America’s Deadliest Natural Disaster

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On Sept. 8, 1900, an unnamed hurricane slammed into the unprotected barrier island of Galveston, Texas, killing between 6,000 and 8,000 people. More than 111 years later, the natural disaster stands as the worst in the history of the United States. Watch the NewsHour Health Unit’s report on long-term recovery efforts after Hurricane Ike, Galveston’s most recent disaster: http://to.pbs.org/oFWSso.

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This educational HD video explains the phenomena known as a typhoon or cyclone the the people survived. Typhoons originate mostly in Asia with six conditions required for formation: warm sea surface temperatures, atmospheric instability, high humidity in the lower to middle levels of the troposphere, enough Coriolis force to develop a low pressure center, a pre-existing low level focus or disturbance, and low vertical wind shear.

Texas braces for massive flooding and WALLS OF WATER as Hurricane Harvey barrels over the state after 130 mph winds slam the coast causing at least 10 injuries and buildings to collapse with more than 300,000 left without power

  • Texas residents are dealing with ‘catastrophic’ flooding  after Hurricane Harvey hit the state’s coast
  • The storm sustained winds of 130mph and a storm surge of up to 13 feet when it crashed onto land
  • Buildings have collapsed, 300,000 have been left without power in the area, and 10 have been injured
  • Those who didn’t evacuate were asked to write their names on their arms so bodies could be identified
  • On Saturday morning, the hurricane was downgraded to a Category 1 storm with winds of 75mph
  • By storm’s end, 40 inches of rain is expected to fall and an estimated $40billion worth of damage left behind 
  •  The National Weather Service warned that this was the ‘start of many difficult days to come’

Texas has been left reeling by Harvey after the monstrous storm slammed into the state Friday evening as a Category Four hurricane, bringing 130mph winds and the threat of catastrophic flooding throughout the weekend.

Eight million residents have been warned the worst is yet to come, as hundreds of thousands of shell-shocked Texans on the Gulf Coast began to pick up the pieces after Harvey destroyed homes and businesses, left several injured and the state facing a clean-up bill of $40billion.

Texas utility companies said more than 300,000 were without power and the seaside town of Rockport, 30 miles north of Corpus Christi was hardest hit as the storm – which has weakened to a Category One with winds of 75mph – settled over southeast Texas.

It will sit over the Lone Star State well into next week pounding hundreds of miles of coastline with life-threatening storm surges, causing deadly walls of water to move inland.

With streets flooded and strewn with power lines and debris, authorities warned the storm’s most destructive powers were just beginning. Rainfall that will continue for days could dump more than FIVE FEET of water and inundate many communities, including dangerously flood-prone Houston, the nation’s fourth-largest city.

No deaths have been immediately reported, however, high winds have kept emergency crews out of many places, and authorities said it could be hours before emergency teams are able to fully assess damage.

 

Texas has been left reeling by Harvey after the monstrous storm slammed into the state Friday evening as a Category Four hurricane. Pictured: A contractor walks over fallen debris from Hurricane Harvey on Saturday in Missouri City, Texas

Texas has been left reeling by Harvey after the monstrous storm slammed into the state Friday evening as a Category Four hurricane. Pictured: A contractor walks over fallen debris from Hurricane Harvey on Saturday in Missouri City, Texas

Texas utility companies said more than 300,000 were without power and the seaside town of Rockport, 30 miles north of Corpus Christi was hardest hit as the storm. Pictured: Billy and Donna Raney climb over the wreckage of whats left of their apartment after Hurricane Harvey destroyed it in Rockport

Texas utility companies said more than 300,000 were without power and the seaside town of Rockport, 30 miles north of Corpus Christi was hardest hit as the storm. Pictured: Billy and Donna Raney climb over the wreckage of whats left of their apartment after Hurricane Harvey destroyed it in Rockport

Eight million residents have been warned the worst is yet to come as the state faces a clean-up bill of $40billion. Pictured: Terry Smith stands in the kitchen as Henry McKay sleeps in the apartment where the ceiling collapse when Hurricane Harvey hit on August 26, 2017 in Rockport, Texas

Eight million residents have been warned the worst is yet to come as the state faces a clean-up bill of $40billion. Pictured: Terry Smith stands in the kitchen as Henry McKay sleeps in the apartment where the ceiling collapse when Hurricane Harvey hit on August 26, 2017 in Rockport, Texas

The storm will sit over the Lone Star State well into next week pounding hundreds of miles of coastline with life-threatening storm surges, causing deadly walls of water to move inland. Pictured: A destroyed apartment complex is seen after Hurricane Harvey passed through on August 26, 2017 in Rockport

The storm will sit over the Lone Star State well into next week pounding hundreds of miles of coastline with life-threatening storm surges, causing deadly walls of water to move inland. Pictured: A destroyed apartment complex is seen after Hurricane Harvey passed through on August 26, 2017 in Rockport

Authorities have warned that the storm's most destructive powers are just beginning. Pictured: Donna Raney is helped out of the window by Lee Guerrero and Daisy Graham after Hurricane Harvey destroyed her apartment in Rockport

Authorities have warned that the storm’s most destructive powers are just beginning. Pictured: Donna Raney is helped out of the window by Lee Guerrero and Daisy Graham after Hurricane Harvey destroyed her apartment in Rockport

Jacque McKay walks through the apartment complex where she lives after she remained behind when Hurricane Harvey swept through Rockport

Jacque McKay walks through the apartment complex where she lives after she remained behind when Hurricane Harvey swept through Rockport

The latest satellite images from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (above) showed Hurricane Harvey moving into the Texas mainland at speeds of up to six mph

The latest satellite images from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (above) showed Hurricane Harvey moving into the Texas mainland at speeds of up to six mph

The hurricane made landfall around 10pm local time between Port Aransas and Port O’Connor, as waves flooded onto roads, roofs were sent flying into the air and residents in the storm’s path were told to label themselves in case they died.

As of Saturday morning at least 10 people have been injured after the roof of a single story senior housing complex collapsed – but the extent of the injuries are unknown.

By dawn, nearly 20 inches  of rain had fallen in some places. By storm’s end, more than 40 inches of rain is expected to fall.

The mayor of Rockport, a coastal city of about 10,000 that was directly in the storm’s path, said his community took a blow ‘right on the nose’ that left ‘widespread devastation,’ including homes, businesses and schools that were heavily damaged. Some structures were destroyed.

Mayor Charles ‘CJ’ Wax told The Weather Channel that the city’s emergency response system had been hampered by the loss of cellphone service and other forms of communication.

Ahead of the storm, residents  were told to head north to cities such as San Antonio, which is a federally and state-designated evacuation center.

Texas state parks are open to hurricane evacuees to camp for free and 12 campgrounds and RV parks were made available for Hurricane Harvey evacuees. Some have even headed east to evacuation centers in Louisiana.

All seven counties on the Texas coast from Corpus Christi to the western end of Galveston Island were under mandatory evacuations from low-lying areas. Four counties ordered full evacuations and warned there was no guarantee of rescue for those choosing to stay behind.

Business owner and resident Carlos Lopez assesses damage from Hurricane Harvey after arriving at his electronics repair shop in Rockport, Texas

Business owner and resident Carlos Lopez assesses damage from Hurricane Harvey after arriving at his electronics repair shop in Rockport, Texas

Children sleep in a hotel lobby waiting out Hurricane Harvey in Victoria, Texas, on Saturday

Children sleep in a hotel lobby waiting out Hurricane Harvey in Victoria, Texas, on Saturday

As of Saturday morning at least 10 people have been injured after the roof of a single story senior housing complex collapsed - but the extent of the injuries are unknown. Pictured: A store sits damaged after Hurricane Harvey ripped through Rockport, Texas, on Saturday

As of Saturday morning at least 10 people have been injured after the roof of a single story senior housing complex collapsed – but the extent of the injuries are unknown. Pictured: A store sits damaged after Hurricane Harvey ripped through Rockport, Texas, on Saturday
By dawn, nearly 20 inches of rain had fallen in some places. By storm's end, more than 40 inches of rain is expected to fall. Pictured: A damaged home is seen after Hurricane Harvey passed through on August 26, 2017 in Rockport

By dawn, nearly 20 inches of rain had fallen in some places. By storm’s end, more than 40 inches of rain is expected to fall. Pictured: A damaged home is seen after Hurricane Harvey passed through on August 26, 2017 in Rockport

A Rockport firefighter goes door to door on a search and rescue mission as he looks for people that may need help Saturday

A Rockport firefighter goes door to door on a search and rescue mission as he looks for people that may need help Saturday

Rockpot Mayor Charles Wax said the city's emergency response system had been hampered by the loss of cellphone service and other forms of communication. Pictured: A damaged home is seen after Hurricane Harvey passed through Rockport

Rockpot Mayor Charles Wax said the city’s emergency response system had been hampered by the loss of cellphone service and other forms of communication. Pictured: A damaged home is seen after Hurricane Harvey passed through Rockport

Valerie Brown and her dog walk through a flooded area after leaving the apartment that she rode out Hurricane Harvey in in Rockport

Valerie Brown and her dog walk through a flooded area after leaving the apartment that she rode out Hurricane Harvey in in Rockport

The mayor of Rockport, a coastal city of about 10,000 that was directly in the storm's path, said his community took a blow 'right on the nose' that left 'widespread devastation. Pictured:A gas station's  fallen awning blocks a street after Hurricane Harvey ripped through Rockport, Texas, on Saturday

The mayor of Rockport, a coastal city of about 10,000 that was directly in the storm’s path, said his community took a blow ‘right on the nose’ that left ‘widespread devastation. Pictured:A gas station’s  fallen awning blocks a street after Hurricane Harvey ripped through Rockport, Texas, on Saturday

A satellite maps warns the areas that need to watch for flash flooding (green), tornados (red), and severe thunderstorms (yellow)

A satellite maps warns the areas that need to watch for flash flooding (green), tornados (red), and severe thunderstorms (yellow)

‘We are leaving nothing to chance. City, State and Federal Govs. working great together!’ he wrote

To Texas Senator Chuck Grassley he tweeted: ‘[G]ot your message loud and clear. We have fantastic people on the ground, got there long before #Harvey. So far, so good!’

Texas Governor Greg Abbott warned that Hurricane Harvey would be ‘a major disaster’ before the storm barreled into the state with violent winds and massive rainfall, all on top of storm surges up to 13 feet.

Harvey is the strongest storm to hit the US in 12 years and the National Weather Service warned that this was the ‘start of many difficult days to come’.

Despite the storm’s weekend, forecasters say that Harvey’s impact will be devastating and leave areas ‘uninhabitable for weeks or months’.

A trailer home sits lodged in trees after Hurricane Harvey Rockport, Texas

A trailer home sits lodged in trees after Hurricane Harvey Rockport, Texas

Several homes, businesses and schools in Rockport were severely damaged. Pictured: A laundromat's machines sit exposed in the elements after the building collapsed when Hurricane Harvey ripped through Rockport, Texas

Several homes, businesses and schools in Rockport were severely damaged. Pictured: A laundromat’s machines sit exposed in the elements after the building collapsed when Hurricane Harvey ripped through Rockport, Texas

A trailer overturned and objects strewen about in the wake of Hurricane Harvey on Saturday in Aransas Pass, Texas

A trailer overturned and objects strewen about in the wake of Hurricane Harvey on Saturday in Aransas Pass, Texas

Buildings collapsed and more than 300,000 were left without power as the storm made landfall around 10pm local time. Pictured: A burnt out house and cars that caught fire are seen in Corpus Christi on Saturday

Buildings collapsed and more than 300,000 were left without power as the storm made landfall around 10pm local time. Pictured (left and right): A burnt out house and cars that caught fire are seen in Corpus Christi on Saturday

The threat of 'catastrophic' flooding in the Lone Star State will persist into next week. Pictured: a car lies submerged in Corpus Christi on Saturday 

Cars were sent careening into the side of the road, including this tractor-trailer, which was blown over on US Highway 59 in Inez, Texas, just outside the eye of the storm 

The threat of ‘catastrophic’ flooding in the Lone Star State will persist into next week (Pictured, left,a car lies submerged in Corpus Christi on Saturday, and right, a tractor-trailer is blown over on US Highway 59 in Inez, Texas, just outside the eye of the storm on Saturday)

President Donald Trump signed a disaster proclamation from the Camp David retreat and wrote to Texas Senator Chuck Grassley on Saturday morning: 'We have fantastic people on the ground, got there long before #Harvey. So far, so good!' (above)

President Donald Trump signed a disaster proclamation from the Camp David retreat and wrote to Texas Senator Chuck Grassley on Saturday morning: ‘We have fantastic people on the ground, got there long before #Harvey. So far, so good!’ (above)

Trump tweeted that the administration was closely monitoring the storm from the Camp David retreat and that federal funds would be allocated to help residents in the storm's aftermath (above)

Trump tweeted that the administration was closely monitoring the storm from the Camp David retreat and that federal funds would be allocated to help residents in the storm’s aftermath (above)

 Daybreak revealed downed lamp posts and tree limbs and roof tiles torn off buildings. The city’s marina was nearly unscathed, save an awning ripped from a restaurant entrance and a wooden garbage bin uprooted and thrown.

Along Interstate 45 leaving Galveston, motorists had to stop under bridges to avoid driving in whiteout conditions.

Fueled by warm Gulf of Mexico waters, Harvey grew rapidly, accelerating from a Category One early Friday morning to a Category Four by evening. Its transformation from an ordinary storm to a life-threatening behemoth took only 56 hours, an incredibly fast

Harvey came ashore as the fiercest hurricane to hit the U.S. in 13 years and the strongest to strike Texas since 1961’s Hurricane Carla, the most powerful Texas hurricane on record.

Before the storm arrived, property owners raced to nail plywood over windows and fill sandbags. Steady traffic filled the highways leaving Corpus Christi, but there were no apparent jams. In Houston, where mass evacuations can include changing major highways to a one-way vehicle flow, authorities left traffic patterns unchanged.

Residents have begun a clean up after roofs were left damaged, houses burned to the grounds and cars careened onto the side of the road. Pictured: The National Weather Service confirmed that a tornado struck the Sienna Plantation neighborhood in Missouri City, causing damage to as many as 50 homes

Residents have begun a clean up after roofs were left damaged, houses burned to the grounds and cars careened onto the side of the road. Pictured: The National Weather Service confirmed that a tornado struck the Sienna Plantation neighborhood in Missouri City, causing damage to as many as 50 homes

An apparent tornado ripped through Katy, Texas, causing damage to several buildings. Pictured: A collapsed Denny's restaurant

An apparent tornado ripped through Katy, Texas, causing damage to several buildings. Pictured: A collapsed Denny’s restaurant

Scientists warned that Harvey could also spawn tornadoes such as one that appears to have ripped through Katy (above), a city west of Houston

Scientists warned that Harvey could also spawn tornadoes such as one that appears to have ripped through Katy (above), a city west of Houston

Flash flood warnings continue to be in effect as Hurricane Harvey pounds Port Lavaca, Texas, one of the city's under mandatory evacuations

Flash flood warnings continue to be in effect as Hurricane Harvey pounds Port Lavaca, Texas, one of the city’s under mandatory evacuations

Powerful winds swept through Port Lavaca,including a six-foot surge that has stayed at that height since 2am Saturday

Powerful winds swept through Port Lavaca,including a six-foot surge that has stayed at that height since 2am Saturday

A house suffers roof damage after Hurricane Harvey hit Corpus Christi on Saturday

A house suffers roof damage after Hurricane Harvey hit Corpus Christi on Saturday

Destruction continued to spread on Saturday as homes crumpled and were subjected to massive flooding (pictured, Victoria, Texas)

Destruction continued to spread on Saturday as homes crumpled and were subjected to massive flooding (pictured, Victoria, Texas)

More than 300,000 customers were without power as of 10am ET, on the Texas Gulf Coast, the Electric Reliability Council of Texas said, amid reports of downed power lines and trees

The Council warned people to stay away from downed power lines and to report them, as massive flooding is expected to wreak havoc on the area.

Relief has begun to pour in from other states. New York Governor Andrew Cuomo deployed aircraft, vessels, and Airmen from the 106th Rescue Wing of the New York Air National Guard to help the Hurricane Harvey response in Texas and Louisiana.

‘As Hurricane Harvey continues to devastate the Gulf Coast, I am deploying emergency personnel and equipment to help mitigate damage and aid in the recovery effort,’ Governor Cuomo said. ”New Yorkers first-hand know the damage Mother Nature can cause, and we stand shoulder to shoulder with Louisiana and Texas as they brace for Hurricane Harvey.’

The governor’s comments reference Hurricane Sandy, which struck the Atlantic coat in October 2012. In New York City, almost all road tunnels entering Manhattan were flooded as was the New York City subway system, Large parts of the city lost electricity for days and hundreds of homes were damaged by flooding or fire.

Economic losses were estimated to be roughly $19billion with an approximate $32.8billion required for restoration across the state.

Already more than nine inches of rain have fallen in south Texas (Pictured, a traffic signal lies at an intersection in Corpus Christi on Saturday)

Already more than nine inches of rain have fallen in south Texas (Pictured, a traffic signal lies at an intersection in Corpus Christi on Saturday)

Texas Governor Greg Abbott warned the storm would be 'a major disaster' for the state (Pictured, wires are exposed after a traffic signal is snapped by Hurricane Harvey's winds on Saturday)

Texas Governor Greg Abbott warned the storm would be ‘a major disaster’ for the state (Pictured, wires are exposed after a traffic signal is snapped by Hurricane Harvey’s winds on Saturday)

By storm's end, more than $40billion worth of damage is expected to be left behind (Pictured, a garage's walls collapse by the winds of Hurricane Harvey)

By storm’s end, more than $40billion worth of damage is expected to be left behind (Pictured, a garage’s walls collapse by the winds of Hurricane Harvey)

The hurricane hit shortly after 10pm local time, as waves flooded onto roads, roofs were sent flying into the air. Pictured: A power generator container tips in front of a hospital on the Corpus Christi shoreline

The hurricane hit shortly after 10pm local time, as waves flooded onto roads, roofs were sent flying into the air. Pictured: A power generator container tips in front of a hospital on the Corpus Christi shoreline

 Trees were knocked over by the massive winds as torrential rains swept Corpus Christi (pictured)

 Trees were knocked over by the massive winds as torrential rains swept Corpus Christi (pictured)

Rain is blown past palm trees as Hurricane Harvey makes landfall in Corpus Christi. An estimated 40 inches of rain is expected to fall by the storm's end

Rain is blown past palm trees as Hurricane Harvey makes landfall in Corpus Christi. An estimated 40 inches of rain is expected to fall by the storm’s end

Thousands remained indoors even as Harvey was downgraded to a Category 1 storm with trees being knocked down and on-the-ground reporters forced to take cover (pictured)

Thousands remained indoors even as Harvey was downgraded to a Category 1 storm with trees being knocked down and on-the-ground reporters forced to take cover (pictured)

Texas residents woke up Saturday morning to the massive damage caused by Hurricane Harvey as it slammed into the Texas coast with winds of up 130mph (Pictured, a street light is knocked off its base by Harvey's winds in Corpus Christi)

Texas residents woke up Saturday morning to the massive damage caused by Hurricane Harvey as it slammed into the Texas coast with winds of up 130mph (Pictured, a street light is knocked off its base by Harvey’s winds in Corpus Christi)

Photos and social media videos show the grim scene as structures have walls ripped from their frames and wet debris is strewn about. Pictured: A highway sign has been blown over 

Photos and social media videos show the grim scene as structures have walls ripped from their frames and wet debris is strewn about. Pictured: A highway sign has been blown over

In this NOAA handout image, a satellite captures Hurricane Harvey making landfall shortly after 8.00pm local time on Friday

In this NOAA handout image, a satellite captures Hurricane Harvey making landfall shortly after 8.00pm local time on Friday

The storm had sustained winds of 130mph on Friday evening when it made landfall on the Texas coast

The storm had sustained winds of 130mph on Friday evening when it made landfall on the Texas coast

Further tragedy struck when police were called to scene of a shooting in Corpus Christi during the middle of the hurricane, with a victim in serious condition

Further tragedy struck when police were called to scene of a shooting in Corpus Christi during the middle of the hurricane, with a victim in serious condition

Further tragedy struck when police were called to scene of a shooting in Corpus Christi during the middle of the hurricane.

Corpus Christi police responded to a shooting incident at 7100 Ficus Court around midnight local time when a homeowner shot an intruder.

As the storm hit, people took to social media to capture the force of nature, posting videos of trees being bent by the wind and buildings flying away.

Some were briefly aghast after Jeff Piotrowski,  a storm chaser, posted video that abruptly cut off leaving viewers wondering if he was killed by a collapsing building.

Piotrowski live streamed himself on Periscope as he and his partners sat through 130mph wind gusts in Rockport, Texas. As Harvey’s eye reached the Texas coast, Piotrowski remained in the area and filmed the effects of the hurricane.

At one point, Piotrowski said that a ‘car wash’-like structure collapsed and that the roof of the building in which his car was parked was also in danger of collapsing.

‘There’s total destruction here outside my window,’ Piotrowski said, his voice rising as he dramatically describes the effects of the devastation around him.

‘There’s zero visibility,’ he said in one Periscope video. ‘I see walls and debris now flying through the air.’

Piotrowski described ‘roofs being ripped off’ and ‘high beams splitting.’

Those who aren't evacuating and are remaining in the storm's path, such as Corpus Christi, were told to write their names or social security numbers on their arms so that their bodies can be later identified

Those who aren’t evacuating and are remaining in the storm’s path, such as Corpus Christi, were told to write their names or social security numbers on their arms so that their bodies can be later identified

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4825124/Hurricane-Harvey-hits-Texas-130mph-winds.html#ixzz4qsvbCzr3

 

Harvey rolls over Texas coast, smashes homes and businesses

 

CORPUS CHRISTI, Texas (AP) — Hurricane Harvey rolled over the Texas Gulf Coast on Saturday, smashing homes and businesses and lashing the shore with wind and rain so intense that drivers were forced off the road because they could not see in front of them.

The fiercest hurricane to hit the U.S. in more than a decade came ashore late Friday about 30 miles (48 kilometers) northeast of Corpus Christi as a mammoth Category 4 storm with 130 mph (209 kph) winds. It weakened overnight to Category 1.

But the storm’s most destructive powers were just beginning. Rainfall that will continue for days could dump more than 40 inches of water and inundate many communities, including dangerously flood-prone Houston, the nation’s fourth-largest city.

“Our focus is shifting to the extreme and potentially historic levels of flooding that we could see,” said Eric Blake, a specialist at the National Hurricane Center in Miami.

No deaths were immediately reported. High winds kept emergency crews out of many places, and authorities said it could be hours before emergency teams are able to fully assess damage.

By dawn, nearly 300,000 consumers were without power in the coastal region, and nearly 20 inches (0.5 meters) of rain had fallen in some places.

The mayor of Rockport, a coastal city of about 10,000 that was directly in the storm’s path, said his community took a blow “right on the nose” that left “widespread devastation,” including homes, businesses and schools that were heavily damaged. Some structures were destroyed.

Mayor Charles “C.J.” Wax told The Weather Channel that the city’s emergency response system had been hampered by the loss of cellphone service and other forms of communication.

About 10 people were taken to the county jail for treatment after the roof of a senior housing complex collapsed, television station KIII reported.

On Friday, Rockport Mayor Pro Tem Patrick Rios offered ominous advice, telling the station that people who chose not to evacuate should mark their arm with a Sharpie pen, implying that the marks would make it easier for rescuers to identify them.

In the storm’s immediate aftermath, the Coast Guard sent two helicopters to try to rescue the crews of three tugboats reported in distress in a channel near Port Aransas.

About 4,500 inmates were evacuated from three state prisons in Brazoria County south of Houston because the nearby Brazos River is rising from Hurricane Harvey’s heavy rain.

By late morning, Harvey’s maximum sustained winds had fallen to about 75 mph (120 kph) and the storm was centered about 25 miles (40 kilometers) west of Victoria, Texas. It was moving north at 2 mph (3 kph), according to the hurricane center.

The system was expected to become tropical storm by Saturday afternoon.

The hurricane posed the first major emergency management test of President Donald Trump’s administration. The president signed a federal disaster declaration for coastal counties Friday night.

Trump commended the head of the Federal Emergency Management Agency for his handling of the storm.

In a tweet Saturday morning addressed to FEMA head Brock Long, Trump said: “You are doing a great job — the world is watching! Be safe.”

In a separate tweet, Trump said he is monitoring the hurricane closely from Camp David. “We are leaving nothing to chance. City, State and Federal Govs. working great together!”

The president also tweeted, “We have fantastic people on the ground, got there long before #Harvey. So far, so good!”

In Corpus Christi, the major city closest to the storm’s center, wind whipped palm trees and stinging sheets of horizontal rain slapped against hotels and office buildings along the seawall as the storm made landfall.

Daybreak revealed downed lamp posts and tree limbs and roof tiles torn off buildings. The city’s marina was nearly unscathed, save an awning ripped from a restaurant entrance and a wooden garbage bin uprooted and thrown.

Along Interstate 45 leaving Galveston, motorists had to stop under bridges to avoid driving in whiteout conditions.

Fueled by warm Gulf of Mexico waters, Harvey grew rapidly, accelerating from a Category 1 early Friday morning to a Category 4 by evening. Its transformation from an ordinary storm to a life-threatening behemoth took only 56 hours, an incredibly fast intensification.

Harvey came ashore as the fiercest hurricane to hit the U.S. in 13 years and the strongest to strike Texas since 1961′s Hurricane Carla, the most powerful Texas hurricane on record.

The storm’s approach sent tens of thousands of people fleeing inland. Families who escaped Rockport were worried about neighbors and whether their homes are still standing.

Johanna Cochran was panicking over whether her house or the McDonald’s where she works survived the storm. She and her boyfriend evacuated to a San Antonio shelter.

Another Rockport resident, Pamela Montes, said she knew many people who stayed behind because “no one felt like it was going to hit.”

Just hours before the projected landfall, the governor and Houston leaders issued conflicting statements on evacuation.

Gov. Greg Abbott urged more people to flee, but Houston authorities told people to remain in their homes and recommended no widespread evacuations.

Houston Mayor Sylvester Turner said there might be a “greater danger” in having people who don’t need to be evacuated on roads that could flood. Harris County Judge Ed Emmett said that because the hurricane was not taking direct aim at Houston, the city’s primary concern was heavy flooding.

“We are not having a hurricane,” said Emmett, the top elected official for the county, which encompasses Houston. “We are having a rain event.”

The last Category 4 storm to hit the U.S. was Hurricane Charley in August 2004 in Florida. Superstorm Sandy, which pummeled New York and New Jersey in 2012, never had the high winds and had lost tropical status by the time it struck. But it was devastating without formally being called a major hurricane.

Harvey is the first significant hurricane to hit Texas since Ike in September 2008 brought winds of 110 mph (177 kph) to the Galveston and Houston areas, inflicting $22 billion in damage.

___

Associated Press writers Michael Graczyk, Juan Lozano and Nomaan Merchant in Houston; Seth Borenstein and Catherine Lucey in Washington; Tammy Webber in Chicago; David Phillip in Dickinson, Texas; and Diana Heidgerd, Jamie Stengle, David Warren, Claudia Lauer and Terry Wallace in Dallas contributed to this report.

https://apnews.com/3032baf558e34d7a8d3ea7866bdd732f/Damaging-Hurricane-Harvey-settles-in-over-southeast-Texas

 

Category 4 Hurricane Harvey’s Landfall Imminent; Catastrophic Rainfall Flood Threat; Strongest Texas Coastal Bend Landfall in at Least 47 Years

By Jon Erdman
Aug 25 2017 09:15 PM EDT

Story Highlights

Harvey is now a Category 4 hurricane off the coast of Texas, with the eyewall beginning to move onshore.

It is expected to make landfall as a major hurricane tonight along the Texas Gulf Coast.

Harvey will then stall or meander for several days, leading to a threat of catastrophic flooding in parts of Texas.

Dangerous storm-surge flooding, damaging winds and a couple tornadoes are also threats.

Hurricane, tropical storm and storm surge warnings have been issued for parts of Texas.

Hurricane Harvey has rapidly intensified and is now a Category 4 hurricane, with landfall just a couple hours away along the Texas Gulf Coast. However, the eyewall – the location of the strongest winds – is beginning to move onshore along the Texas Coastal Bend, and a wind gust of 116 mph has already been reported near Port Aransas.

Harvey will be the nation’s first major (Category 3 or stronger) hurricane landfall in almost 12 years tonight, poised to clobber the Texas Gulf Coast with catastrophic rainfall flooding, dangerous storm-surge flooding and destructive winds this weekend that could leave parts of the area uninhabitable for an extended period of time.

(MORE: Hurricane Central | Texas Braces for Harvey’s Wrath)

Right Now

After a slight pause Thursday night, Harvey has reintensified today with maximum sustained winds now 130 mph. Harvey is located about 35 miles east of Corpus Christi, Texas, moving northwest at around 8 mph.

Current Storm Information

Current Storm Information

(MORE: A Message from The Weather Channel’s Hurricane Expert)

Harvey’s central pressure has plummeted once again, another 25-plus millibars since early this morning, as another rapid intensification phase is ongoing.

Outer rainbands are currently spiraling ashore as far north as the upper Texas and Louisiana coasts, bringing periods of heavy rain and gusty winds.

Sustained hurricane-force winds (74-plus mph) have arrived along the Texas Coastal Bend. Hurricane-force winds extend outward up to 35 miles from the center, and tropical-storm-force winds extend outward up to 140 miles, according to the National Hurricane Center (NHC).

A Texas Coastal Ocean Observing Network station at Aransas Pass recently reported sustained winds of 90 mph and a wind gust of 116 mph.

Water levels are already 1 to 2 feet above average tide levels near Corpus Christi and Port Aransas, Texas, and levels are continuing to rise with the onset of high tide.

Current Radar, Winds

Current Radar, Winds

Current Warnings

A hurricane warning has been issued for a portion of the Texas coast, from Port Mansfield to Sargent, including the city of Corpus Christi. A hurricane warning means hurricane conditions are likely within the warning area.

Importantly, sustained hurricane-force winds are currently moving onshore within the hurricane warning area specified above.

Tropical storm warnings are in effect from north of Sargent to High Island, Texas, including the cities of Houston and Galveston.

(MORE: First Hurricane Landfall in Texas in Almost Nine Years)

Tropical Alerts

Tropical Alerts

The NHC also issued its first-ever public storm surge warning, which includes a swath of the Texas coast from Port Mansfield to High Island. This means a life-threatening storm surge is expected in the warned area in the next 36 hours. This warning does not include Galveston Bay, but does include Galveston Island and the Bolivar Peninsula.

Storm Surge Forecast

Storm Surge Forecast

Source: National Hurricane Center

Additionally, a tornado watch is in effect until 2 a.m. CDT Saturday for southeast Texas and far southwest Louisiana, as a couple tornadoes will be possible within Harvey’s outer rainbands. This watch area includes Houston, Galveston and Port Arthur, Texas.

A reported tornado damaged a McDonald’s sign in northeast Galveston late Friday afternoon.

Track/Intensity Timeline

With a favorable environment that includes deep, warm Gulf of Mexico water and low wind shear, Harvey has strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane and should remain at this insensity until landfall along the Texas coast tonight.

After making landfall, Harvey will be caught in a zone of light steering winds aloft that will stall the circulation for more than two days.

Once moving again, potentially by Monday, Harvey’s center may re-emerge over the Gulf of Mexico, opening up the possibility of some restrengthening before a final landfall in Louisiana. But that remains highly uncertain, as stalled or slow-moving tropical cyclones are notoriously difficult to forecast.

(MORE: Interactive Harvey Forecast Path)

Projected Path

Projected Path

The projected path shows the expected track of the circulation center. Note that impacts such as heavy rain and storm surge can extend beyond this forecast path.

This will be the nation’s first major (Category 3 or stronger) hurricane landfall since Hurricane Wilmastruck South Florida in October 2005, an almost 12-year run.

Harvey will also be the strongest landfall in this area, known as the Texas Coastal Bend, since the infamous Category 3 Hurricane Celia hammered the Corpus Christi area in August 1970 with wind gusts up to 161 mph, damaging almost 90 percent of the city’s businesses and 70 percent of its residences and destroying two hangars at the city’s airport.

The Texas Coastal Bend hasn’t seen a Category 4 landfall since Hurricane Carla, in September 1961, produced catastrophic damage from storm surge and high winds in Port O’Connor and Palacios, Texas, among other locations.

The only other Category 4 landfall of record near the Texas Coastal Bend was the infamous Indianola hurricane of August 1886, which devastated the town of Indianola just 11 years after another Category 3hurricane, eventually turning the former bustling port into a ghost town.

Harvey will bring a mess of coastal impacts, including storm-surge flooding, high surf with battering waves and damaging winds.

(MORE: Three Reasons Slow-Moving Tropical Storms and Hurricanes Are the Worst)

Devastating Rainfall Flooding

A tropical cyclone’s rainfall potential is a function of its forward speed, not its intensity.

(MORE: Water, Not Wind, the Deadliest Factor in U.S. Tropical Storms, Hurricanes)

With Harvey stalling for a few days, prolific rainfall, capable of catastrophic flash flooding, will result near the middle and upper Texas coast.

For now, areas near the Texas and southwest Louisiana Gulf coasts are in the biggest threat area for torrential rainfall and major flash flooding, potentially including Houston and Corpus Christi.

Local National Weather Service (NWS) offices have not minced words about the threat, warning of “some structures becoming uninhabitable or washed away” and “numerous road and bridge closures with some weakened or washed out,” with record river flooding expected in some areas.

Harvey’s heavy rain may not entirely exit the areas of Texas it soaks until sometime next Thursday, and may not exit the Mississippi Valley until next Friday.

(MAPS: 7-Day U.S. Daily Rainfall Forecasts)

Here are the latest rainfall forecasts from the NHC and NOAA’s Weather Prediction Center through next Wednesday. Keep in mind, locally higher amounts are possible where rainbands stall.

  • Middle/upper Texas coast: 15 to 30 inches, with isolated totals up to 40 inches
  • Deep South Texas and Texas Hill Country eastward to central and southwest Louisiana: 5 to 15 inches
Rainfall Outlook

Rainfall Outlook

Areas in red, purple, pink and white are in the highest threat for flooding rainfall from Harvey through the weekend. Some of this rain may linger into Thursday or beyond in some areas.

To put this into perspective, these peak rain totals are roughly the average yearly precipitation in Austin (34.29 inches) and Corpus Christi, Texas (31.73 inches). So, a year’s worth of rain may fall in the span of a few days near the Texas Gulf Coast.

This forecast is subject to change depending on the exact path of Harvey, locations of rainbands and how long it stalls. Generally, areas along and east of Harvey’s path are in the greatest threat of flooding rainfall.

(MORE: Your Vehicle Can Be the Biggest Danger in a Flood)

Among the biggest uncertainties is the heavy rain potential in central Texas, including for the flood-prone cities of Austin and San Antonio. That all depends on how far inland and to the west Harvey tracks and how long it stalls in that area.

Flash flood watches have been issued for much of southeast, southern and parts of central Texas.

Storm Surge Threat

Here are the latest storm surge forecasts, according to the NHC. Peak surge will occur along along parts of the Texas coast tonight into early Saturday morning with Harvey’s landfall. Note that these inundations above ground level are worst-case scenarios along the immediate coast if the peak surge coincides with high tide.

  • Port Aransas to Port O’Connor: 9 to 13 feet
  • Elsewhere from the north entrance of Padre Island Nat’l Seashore to Sargent, Texas: 6 to 12 feet
  • Sargent to Jamaica Beach, Texas: 5 to 8 feet
  • Port Mansfield to the north entrance of Padre Island Nat’l Seashore, Texas: 3 to 5 feet
  • Jamaica Beach to High Island, Texas: 2 to 4 feet
  • Mouth of the Rio Grande River to Port Mansfield, Texas: 1 to 3 feet
  • High Island, Texas, to Morgan City, Louisiana: 1 to 3 feet
Coastal Flood, Waves, Wind Setup

Coastal Flood, Waves, Wind Setup

Here are the times of high tide tonight into Saturday night, all in local time.

According to the NWS, structural damage to buildings near the coast is expected, with “many washing away.” Battering waves riding atop the surge will lead to “extreme beach erosion,” “massive damage to marinas, docks, boardwalks and piers” in the areas of highest storm surge.

Importantly, rising water will cut off near-shore escape routes and secondary routes before peak surge arrives.

Given Harvey’s expected slow crawl near the coast, at least some coastal flooding, along with battering waves, could persist for several days over multiple tide cycles along the Texas and southwest Louisiana coasts into next week.

This coastal flooding and wave action could increase if Harvey’s center re-emerges over the Gulf and intensifies, potentially leading to a second storm surge along parts of the Louisiana or upper Texas coast next week. Again, this part of the forecast is highly uncertain at this time.

Furthermore, this water rise from the Gulf of Mexico won’t allow rain-swollen rivers and bayous to drain, compounding the inland flood threat.

Destructive Wind Threat

If that wasn’t enough, there’s the winds.

The NWS warns of “structural damage to sturdy buildings” and “complete destruction of mobile homes” where the eyewall of Harvey tracks.

Roads not already impassable by flooding may become blocked from downed trees or other debris. Power and communication outages will be widespread near and inland of the landfall in central and southeast Texas.

Potential Power Outages

Potential Power Outages

Furthermore, persistent winds, even if they are not particularly high-end when Harvey is over land, could down more trees than they otherwise would given the rain-soaked or flooded ground, possibly for several days as Harvey lingers.

The Federal Alliance for Safe Homes can help you plan for a hurricane. NOAA also has excellent resources to plan for flooding.

https://weather.com/storms/hurricane/news/hurricane-harvey-forecast-gulf-coast-texas-louisiana

 

Saffir–Simpson scale

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Saffir–Simpson scale
Category Wind speeds
Five ≥70 m/s, ≥137 knots
≥157 mph, ≥252 km/h
Four 58–70 m/s, 113–136 knots
130–156 mph, 209–251 km/h
Three 50–58 m/s, 96–112 knots
111–129 mph, 178–208 km/h
Two 43–49 m/s, 83–95 knots
96–110 mph, 154–177 km/h
One 33–42 m/s, 64–82 knots
74–95 mph, 119–153 km/h
Related classifications
Tropical
storm
18–32 m/s, 34–63 knots
39–73 mph, 63–118 km/h
Tropical
depression
≤17 m/s, ≤33 knots
≤38 mph, ≤62 km/h

The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS), formerly the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale (SSHS), classifies hurricanes – Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions, and tropical storms – into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds. To be classified as a hurricane, a tropical cyclone must have maximum sustained winds of at least 74 mph (33 m/s; 64 kn; 119 km/h) (Category 1). The highest classification in the scale, Category 5, is reserved for storms with winds exceeding 156 mph (70 m/s; 136 kn; 251 km/h).

The classifications can provide some indication of the potential damage and flooding a hurricane will cause upon landfall.

Officially, the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale is used only to describe hurricanes forming in the Atlantic Ocean and northern Pacific Ocean east of the International Date Line. Other areas use different scales to label these storms, which are called “cyclones” or “typhoons“, depending on the area.

There is some criticism of the SSHS for not taking rain, storm surge, and other important factors into consideration, but SSHS defenders say that part of the goal of SSHS is to be straightforward and simple to understand.

History

In 1967 Robert Simpson became the director of the National Hurricane Center and started to look at the problem of communicating the forecasts to the public better. During 1968 Robert spoke to Herbert Saffir about work that he had just completed for the United Nations, about damage to structures that was expected by winds of different strengths.

The scale was developed in 1971 by civil engineer Herbert Saffir and meteorologist Robert Simpson, who at the time was director of the U.S. National Hurricane Center (NHC).[1] The scale was introduced to the general public in 1973,[2] and saw widespread use after Neil Frank replaced Simpson at the helm of the NHC in 1974.[3]

The initial scale was developed by Saffir, a structural engineer, who in 1969 went on commission for the United Nations to study low-cost housing in hurricane-prone areas.[4] While performing the study, Saffir realized there was no simple scale for describing the likely effects of a hurricane. Mirroring the utility of the Richter magnitude scale in describing earthquakes, he devised a 1–5 scale based on wind speed that showed expected damage to structures. Saffir gave the scale to the NHC, and Simpson added the effects of storm surgeand flooding.

In 2009, the NHC made moves to eliminate pressure and storm surge ranges from the categories, transforming it into a pure wind scale, called the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale (Experimental) [SSHWS].[5] The new scale became operational on May 15, 2010.[6]The scale excludes flood ranges, storm surge estimations, rainfall, and location, which means a Category 2 hurricane which hits a major city will likely do far more cumulative damage than a Category 5 hurricane that hits a rural area.[7] The agency cited various hurricanes as reasons for removing the “scientifically inaccurate” information, including Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Hurricane Ike (2008), which both had stronger than estimated storm surges, and Hurricane Charley (2004), which had weaker than estimated storm surge.[8] Since removed from the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, storm surge predicting and modeling is now handled with the use of a computerized numerical model developed by the National Weather Service called “Sea, Lake, and Overland Surge from Hurricanes” (SLOSH).

In 2012, the NHC expanded the windspeed range for Category 4 by 1 mph in both directions, to 130–156 mph, with corresponding changes in the other units (113–136 kn, 209–251 km/h), instead of 131–155 mph (114–135 kn, 210–249 km/h). The NHC and the Central Pacific Hurricane Center assign tropical cyclone intensities in 5 knot increments, and then convert to mph and km/h with a similar rounding for other reports. So an intensity of 115 knots is rated Category 4, but the conversion to miles per hour (132.3 mph) would round down to 130 mph, making it appear to be a Category 3 storm. Likewise, an intensity of 135 knots (~155 mph, and thus Category 4) is 250.02 km/h, which according to the definition used before the change would be Category 5. To resolve these issues, the NHC had been obliged to incorrectly report storms with wind speeds of 115 kn as 135 mph, and 135 kn as 245 km/h. The change in definition allows storms of 115 kn to be correctly rounded down to 130 mph, and storms of 135 kn to be correctly reported as 250 km/h, and still qualify as Category 4. Since the NHC had previously rounded incorrectly to keep storms in Category 4 in each unit of measure, the change does not affect the classification of storms from previous years.[5] The new scale became operational on May 15, 2012.[9]

Categories

The scale separates hurricanes into five different categories based on wind. The U.S. National Hurricane Center classifies hurricanes of Category 3 and above as major hurricanes, and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center classifies typhoons of 150 mph or greater (strong Category 4 and Category 5) as super typhoons (although all tropical cyclones can be very dangerous). Most weather agencies use the definition for sustained winds recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), which specifies measuring winds at a height of 33 ft (10.1 m) for 10 minutes, and then taking the average. By contrast, the U.S. National Weather ServiceCentral Pacific Hurricane Center and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center define sustained winds as average winds over a period of one minute, measured at the same 33 ft (10.1 m) height,[10][11] and that is the definition used for this scale. Intensity of example hurricanes is from both the time of landfall and the maximum intensity.

The scale is roughly logarithmic in wind speed, and the top wind speed for Category “c” (c=1 to 4, as there is no upper limit for category 5) can be expressed as 83×10^(c/15) miles per hour rounded to the nearest multiple of 5 – except that after the change mentioned above, Category 4 is now widened by 1 mph in each direction.

The five categories are, in order of increasing intensity:

Category 1

Category 1
Sustained winds Example
33–42 m/s
64–82 kn
119–153 km/h
74–95 mph
Newton 2016-09-06 1825Z.jpg
Hurricane Newton in 2016 making landfall.

Very dangerous winds will produce some damage

Category 1 storms usually cause no significant structural damage to most well-constructed permanent structures; however, they can topple unanchored mobile homes, as well as uproot or snap weak trees. Poorly attached roof shingles or tiles can blow off. Coastal flooding and pier damage are often associated with Category 1 storms. Power outages are typically widespread to extensive, sometimes lasting several days. Even though it is the least intense type of hurricane, the storm can still produce widespread damage and can be a life-threatening storm.[5]

Hurricanes that peaked at Category 1 intensity, and made landfall at that intensity include: Flossy (1956), Gladys (1968), Agnes (1972), Juan (1985), Ismael (1995), Claudette (2003), Gaston (2004), Stan (2005), Humberto (2007), Isaac (2012), Manuel (2013), Earl (2016), Hermine (2016), Newton (2016), and Franklin (2017).

Category 2

Category 2
Sustained winds Example
43–49 m/s
83–95 kn
154–177 km/h
96–110 mph
Arthur Jul 3 2014 1615Z.jpg
Arthur in 2014 approaching North Carolina

Extremely dangerous winds will cause extensive damage

Storms of Category 2 intensity often damage roofing material (sometimes exposing the roof) and inflict damage upon poorly constructed doors and windows. Poorly constructed signs and piers can receive considerable damage and many trees are uprooted or snapped. Mobile homes, whether anchored or not, are typically damaged and sometimes destroyed, and many manufactured homes also suffer structural damage. Small craft in unprotected anchorages may break their moorings. Extensive to near-total power outages and scattered loss of potable water are likely, possibly lasting many days.[5]

Hurricanes that peaked at Category 2 intensity, and made landfall at that intensity include: Alice (1954), Fifi (1974), Diana (1990), Calvin (1993), Gert (1993), Rosa (1994), Erin (1995), Alma (1996), Juan (2003), Alex(2010), Tomas (2010), Carlotta (2012), Ernesto (2012), Richard (2012), and Arthur (2014).

Category 3

Category 3
Sustained winds Example
50–58 m/s
96–112 kn
178–208 km/h
111–129 mph
Otto 2016-11-24 1605Z.jpg
Hurricane Otto near its landfall on Nicaragua.

Devastating damage will occur

Tropical cyclones of Category 3 and higher are described as major hurricanes in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific basins. These storms can cause some structural damage to small residences and utility buildings, particularly those of wood frame or manufactured materials with minor curtain wall failures. Buildings that lack a solid foundation, such as mobile homes, are usually destroyed, and gable-end roofs are peeled off. Manufactured homes usually sustain severe and irreparable damage. Flooding near the coast destroys smaller structures, while larger structures are struck by floating debris. A large number of trees are uprooted or snapped, isolating many areas. Additionally, terrain may be flooded well inland. Near-total to total power loss is likely for up to several weeks and water will likely also be lost or contaminated.[5]

Hurricanes that peaked at Category 3 intensity, and made landfall at that intensity include: Carol (1954), Hilda (1955), Audrey (1957), Celia (1970), Eloise (1975), Olivia (1975), Alicia (1983), Elena (1985), Roxanne(1995), Fran (1996), Isidore (2002), Lane (2006), Karl (2010), Sandy (2012) and Otto (2016).

Category 4

Category 4
Sustained winds Example
58–70 m/s
113–136 kn
209–251 km/h
130–156 mph
Joaquin 2015-10-02 1530Z.jpg
Joaquin at Bahamian landfall

Catastrophic damage will occur

Category 4 hurricanes tend to produce more extensive curtainwall failures, with some complete structural failure on small residences. Heavy, irreparable damage and near complete destruction of gas station canopies and other wide span overhang type structures are common. Mobile and manufactured homes are often flattened. Most trees, except for the heartiest, are uprooted or snapped, isolating many areas. These storms cause extensive beach erosion, while terrain may be flooded far inland. Total and long-lived electrical and water losses are to be expected, possibly for many weeks.[5]

The 1900 Galveston hurricane, the deadliest natural disaster to hit the United States, peaked at an intensity that corresponds to a modern-day Category 4 storm. Other examples of storms that peaked at Category 4 intensity, and made landfall at that intensity include: Hazel (1954), Gracie (1959), Flora (1963), Cleo (1964), Madeline (1976), Frederic (1979), Joan (1988), Iniki (1992), Luis (1995), Iris (2001), Charley (2004), Dennis (2005), Gustav (2008), Ike (2008) and Joaquin (2015).

Category 5

Category 5
Sustained winds Example
≥ 70 m/s
≥ 137 kn
≥ 252 km/h
≥ 157 mph
Felix from ISS 03 sept 2007 1138Z.jpg
Felix near peak intensity

Catastrophic damage will occur

Category 5 is the highest category of the Saffir–Simpson scale. These storms cause complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings, and some complete building failures with small utility buildings blown over or away. Collapse of many wide-span roofs and walls, especially those with no interior supports, is common. Very heavy and irreparable damage to many wood frame structures and total destruction to mobile/manufactured homes is prevalent. Only a few types of structures are capable of surviving intact, and only if located at least 3 to 5 miles (5 to 8 km) inland. They include office, condominium and apartment buildings and hotels that are of solid concrete or steel frame construction, public multi-story concrete parking garages, and residences that are made of either reinforced brick or concrete/cement block and have hipped roofs with slopes of no less than 35 degrees from horizontal and no overhangs of any kind, and if the windows are either made of hurricane-resistant safety glass or covered with shutters. Unless all of these requirements are met, the absolute destruction of a structure is certain.[5]

The storm’s flooding causes major damage to the lower floors of all structures near the shoreline, and many coastal structures can be completely flattened or washed away by the storm surge. Virtually all trees are uprooted or snapped and some may be debarked, isolating most communities impacted. Massive evacuation of residential areas may be required if the hurricane threatens populated areas. Total and extremely long-lived power outages and water losses are to be expected, possibly for up to several months.[5]

Historical examples of storms that made landfall at Category 5 status include: Janet (1955), Camille (1969), Edith (1971), Anita (1977), David (1979), Gilbert (1988), Andrew (1992),Katrina (2005), Dean (2007), and Felix (2007). No Category 5 hurricane is known to have made landfall as such in the eastern Pacific basin.

Criticism

Some scientists, including Kerry Emanuel and Lakshmi Kantha, have criticized the scale as being simplistic, indicating that the scale takes into account neither the physical size of a storm nor the amount of precipitation it produces.[7] Additionally, they and others point out that the Saffir–Simpson scale, unlike the Richter scale used to measure earthquakes, is not continuous, and is quantized into a small number of categories. Proposed replacement classifications include the Hurricane Intensity Index, which is based on the dynamic pressure caused by a storm’s winds, and the Hurricane Hazard Index, which bases itself on surface wind speeds, the radius of maximum winds of the storm, and its translational velocity.[12][13] Both of these scales are continuous, akin to the Richter scale;[14] however, neither of these scales have been used by officials.

Should a ‘Category 6’ be introduced?

After the series of powerful storm systems of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, a few newspaper columnists and scientists brought up the suggestion of introducing Category 6, and they have suggested pegging Category 6 to storms with winds greater than 174 or 180 mph (78 or 80 m/s; 151 or 156 kn; 280 or 290 km/h).[7][15] Only a few storms of this intensity have been recorded. Of the 31 hurricanes currently considered to have attained Category 5 status in the Atlantic, only 16 had wind speeds at 175 mph (78 m/s; 152 kn; 282 km/h) or greater and only 6 had wind speeds at 180 mph (80 m/s; 160 kn; 290 km/h) or greater. Of the 15 hurricanes currently considered to have attained Category 5 status in the eastern Pacific, only five had wind speeds at 175 mph (78 m/s; 152 kn; 282 km/h) or greater (PatsyJohnLindaRick and Patricia), and only three had wind speeds at 180 mph (80 m/s; 160 kn; 290 km/h) or greater (Linda, Rick and Patricia). However, most storms which would be eligible for this category were typhoons in the western Pacific, most notably Typhoon Tip in 1979 with sustained winds of 190 mph (310 km/h) and typhoons Haiyan and Meranti in 2013 and 2016, respectively, with sustained winds of 195 mph (314 km/h).[16]

According to Robert Simpson, there are no reasons for a Category 6 on the Saffir–Simpson Scale because it is designed to measure the potential damage of a hurricane to man-made structures. Simpson stated that “…when you get up into winds in excess of 155 mph (249 km/h) you have enough damage if that extreme wind sustains itself for as much as six seconds on a building it’s going to cause rupturing damages that are serious no matter how well it’s engineered”.[3]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Williams, Jack (May 17, 2005). “Hurricane scale invented to communicate storm danger”USA Today. Retrieved February 25, 2007.
  2. Jump up^ Staff writer (May 9, 1973). “’73, Hurricanes to be Graded”. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 19, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
  3. Jump up to:a b Debi Iacovelli (July 2001). “The Saffir/Simpson Hurricane Scale: An Interview with Dr. Robert Simpson”Sun-Sentinel. Fort Lauderdale, Fla. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
  4. Jump up^ Press Writer (August 23, 2001). “Hurricanes shaped life of scale inventor”. Retrieved March 20, 2016.[dead link]
  5. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h The Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale National Hurricane Center. Accessed 2009-05-15.
  6. Jump up^ National Hurricane Operations PlanNOAA. Accessed July 3, 2010.
  7. Jump up to:a b c Ker Than (October 20, 2005). “Wilma’s Rage Suggests New Hurricane Categories Needed”LiveScience. Retrieved October 20, 2005.
  8. Jump up^ “Experimental Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale” (PDF). National Hurricane Center. 2009.
  9. Jump up^ Public Information StatementNOAA. Accessed March 9, 2012.
  10. Jump up^ Tropical Cyclone Weather Services Program (June 1, 2006). “Tropical cyclone definitions” (PDF). National Weather Service. Retrieved November 30, 2006.
  11. Jump up^ Federal Emergency Management Agency (2004). “Hurricane Glossary of Terms”. Archived from the original on December 14, 2005. Retrieved March 24, 2006. Accessed through the Wayback Machine.
  12. Jump up^ Kantha, L. (January 2006). “Time to Replace the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale?” (PDF). Eos87 (1): 3, 6. Bibcode:2006EOSTr..87….3Kdoi:10.1029/2006eo010003. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
  13. Jump up^ Kantha, Lakshmi (February 2008). “Tropical Cyclone Destructive Potential by Integrated Kinetic Energy” (PDF). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. Boston: American Meteorological Society89 (2): 219–221. Bibcode:2008BAMS…89..219Kdoi:10.1175/BAMS-89-2-219.
  14. Jump up^ Benfield Hazard Research Centre (2006). “Atmospheric Hazards”Hazard & Risk Science Review 2006University College London. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
  15. Jump up^ Bill Blakemore (May 21, 2006). “Category 6 Hurricanes? They’ve Happened: Global Warming Winds Up Hurricane Scientists as NOAA Issues Its Atlantic Hurricane Predictions for Summer 2006”ABC News. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
  16. Jump up^ Debi Iacovelli and Tim Vasquez (1998). “Supertyphoon Tip: Shattering all records” (PDF). Monthly Weather Log. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 19, 2010.

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saffir%E2%80%93Simpson_scale

List of United States hurricanes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Continental United States hurricane strikes 1950-2007

The list of United States hurricanes includes all tropical cyclones officially recorded to have produced sustained winds of greater than 74 mph (118 km/h) in the United States, which is the minimum threshold for hurricane intensity. The list, which is sorted by U.S. state, begins in 1851 with the start of the official Atlantic hurricane database (HURDAT), as provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration‘s Hurricane Research Division; the data from 1951 to 1979 is subject to change, due to the lack of official wind speed estimates during the time period. Since 1851, a total of 291 North Atlantic hurricanes produced hurricane-force winds in 19 states along the Atlantic coast. Some of these storms may not have made a direct landfall (i.e. remained just offshore) while producing hurricane-force winds on land; some of them may have weakened to a tropical storm or became extratropical before landfall but produced hurricane conditions on land while still a hurricane and some of them made landfall in an adjacent state but produced hurricane conditions over multiple states. This list does not include storms that only produced tropical storm conditions on land in the United States.

Additionally, three Pacific hurricanes struck Hawaii, and one Pacific tropical cyclone brought hurricane-force winds to California. The tables list hurricanes by category on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, based on winds that occurred in each state.

Statistics

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Delaware Maryland New Hampshire New Jersey Massachusetts Connecticut West Virginia Vermont Rhode Island

Map of USA with state names.svg

About this image
Map of the United States; click on individual states to be directed to its article,
or click on some coastal states to be directed to a list of tropical cyclones in those locations

A total of 291 Atlantic tropical cyclones have produced hurricane-force winds in every state along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, as well as PennsylvaniaFlorida was affected by 118 hurricanes, which is more than any other state; Texas ranked second. Hurricane Donna affected a total of eight states—more than any other hurricane.[1]

The earliest time in the year for a hurricane to strike the nation was June 9, which was set by Hurricane Alma in 1966. The earliest major hurricane to strike the nation occurred in 1934, when an unnamed tropical cyclone made landfall on June 16. The latest in the year for a hurricane to strike the nation was on November 24 with Hurricane Iwa in Hawaii; for the Atlantic basin the latest was on November 22, which was set by Hurricane Kate in 1985. The latest in the year for a major hurricane to strike the nation was from the 1921 Tampa Bay hurricane, which moved ashore on October 25.[1]

The 1880s were the most active decade for the United States, with a total of 25 hurricanes affecting the nation. By contrast, the least active decade was the 1970s, with a total of only 12 hurricanes affecting the American coastline. A total of 33 seasons on record passed without an Atlantic hurricane affecting the country—the most recent of which was the 2015 season. Seven Atlantic hurricanes affected the country in the 1886 season, which was the year with the most United States hurricanes.[1]

Impact

The Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 was the most intense hurricane to make landfall on the country, having struck the Florida Keys with a pressure of 892 mbar. It was one of only three hurricanes to move ashore as a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale; the others were Hurricane Camille in 1969 and Hurricane Andrew in 1992, which had a landfalling pressure of 900 mbar and 922 mbar, respectively. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 was the third most intense hurricane to strike the country with a pressure of 920 mbar, though its winds were not as strong as Andrew.[2]

The Galveston Hurricane of 1900 was the deadliest hurricane in the history of the United States, killing at least 8,000 people. The 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane caused at least 2,500 casualties, and in 2005, Hurricane Katrina killed about 1,500 people. In the 1893 season, two hurricanes each caused over 1,000 deaths.[2]

Accounting for inflation, nine Atlantic hurricanes caused a damage total of over $10 billion (2006 USD), including three from the 2005 season. The costliest was Hurricane Katrina, with damage amounting to $84.6 billion, though in normalized dollars it may only be second to the Great Miami Hurricane of 1926. Of the thirty costliest United States hurricanes, ten were after the year 2000.[2]

A 2010 study published in Natural Hazards Review, a journal of the American Society of Civil Engineers, “Normalized Hurricane Damage in the United State: 1900-2005” (PDF), analyzed storm-related property damage figures from 1900 through 2005 adjusted (“normalized”) for inflation, wealth and population factors over time. The study found that: 1) Using normalized figures, hurricane-related damages steadily increased from 1900 to 2005; 2) Based on the adjusted data, Hurricane Katrina is the second-most destructive storm in U.S. history. The top-ranking storm in terms of property damage is the Great Miami Hurricane of 1926, with losses between $140–157 billion in 2005 dollars; 3) While 1996–2005 was the second-most costly period for storm-related damages, the preceding periods of 1976–1985 and 1986–1995 were “anomalously benign,” accounting for only 10% of all storm damage reported since 1900; 4) Approximately 85% of all storm-related damages occur in the months of August (35%) and September (50%).[3]

States bordering the Atlantic Ocean

The category listed for each state indicates the maximum category of sustained winds that was recorded or analyzed to have occurred in that state. It is not necessarily the category of the storm at the time of landfall or closest approach (if the strongest winds were occurring elsewhere or only over water at the time).

Alabama

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 3 August 26 1852 Unnamed 2 October 18 1916
Unnamed 1 September 29 1917 Unnamed 3 August 21 1926
Unnamed 1[notes 1] August 31 1856 Unnamed 1 September 1 1932
Unnamed 1 September 16 1859 Baker 1 August 31 1950
Unnamed 2 August 12 1860 Camille 1 August 18 1969
Unnamed 1 September 16 1860 Eloise 1[notes 1] September 23 1975
Unnamed 1 July 30 1870 Frederic 3 September 13 1979
Unnamed 1[notes 1] September 10 1882 Elena 3 September 2 1985
Unnamed 2 October 3 1893 Opal 1[notes 1] October 4 1995
Unnamed 1 August 15 1901 Danny 1 July 19 1997
Unnamed 2 September 27 1906 Ivan 3 September 16 2004
Unnamed 1 September 14 1912 Dennis 1[notes 1] July 10 2005
Unnamed 2 July 5 1916 Katrina 1 August 29 2005
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]
Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT[4]

Connecticut

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 September 16 1858 Carol 3 August 31 1954
Unnamed 1 September 8 1869 Donna 1 September 12 1960
Unnamed 1 August 24 1893 Agnes 1 June 22 1972
Unnamed 1 October 10 1894 Gloria 2 September 27 1985
Unnamed 3 September 21 1938 Bob 2 August 19 1991
Unnamed 2 September 15 1944
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Delaware

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 October 23 1878
Unnamed 1 September 16 1903
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Florida

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 3 August 23 1851 Unnamed 1 October 21 1924
Unnamed 1 August 26 1852 Unnamed 2 July 27 1926
Unnamed 1 September 12 1852 Unnamed 4 September 18 1926
Unnamed 2 October 9 1852 Unnamed 1[notes 2] October 21 1926
Unnamed 1 September 8 1854 Unnamed 2 August 8 1928
Unnamed 2 August 31 1856 Unnamed 4 September 17 1928
Unnamed 1 September 16 1859 Unnamed 3 September 28 1929
Unnamed 1 October 28 1859 Unnamed 1 September 1 1932
Unnamed 1[notes 2] August 16 1861 Unnamed 1 July 30 1933
Unnamed 2 October 23 1865 Unnamed 3 September 4 1933
Unnamed 1 October 6 1867 “Labor Day” 5 September 3 1935
Unnamed 1[notes 2] October 9 1870 Unnamed 2 November 4 1935
Unnamed 1 October 20 1870 Unnamed 2 July 31 1936
Unnamed 3 August 16 1871 Unnamed 1 August 11 1939
Unnamed 2 August 25 1871 Unnamed 2 October 6 1941
Unnamed 1 September 6 1871 Unnamed 3 October 19 1944
Unnamed 1 September 19 1873 Unnamed 1 June 24 1945
Unnamed 3 October 7 1873 Unnamed 3 September 15 1945
Unnamed 1 September 28 1874 Unnamed 1 October 8 1946
Unnamed 2 October 20 1876 Unnamed 4 September 17 1947
Unnamed 1 September 19 1877 Unnamed 1 October 11 1947
Unnamed 3 October 3 1877 Unnamed 4 September 21 1948
Unnamed 2 September 10 1878 Unnamed 2 October 5 1948
Unnamed 2 August 29 1880 Unnamed 4 August 26 1949
Unnamed 1 October 8 1880 Easy 3 September 5 1950
Unnamed 3 September 10 1882 King 4 October 18 1950
Unnamed 1 October 11 1882 Florence 1 September 26 1953
Unnamed 1 August 24 1885 Hazel 1 October 9 1953
Unnamed 2 June 21 1886 Flossy 1 September 24 1956
Unnamed 2 June 30 1886 Donna 4 September 10 1960
Unnamed 1 July 18 1886 Cleo 2 August 27 1964
Unnamed 1 July 27 1887 Dora 2 September 10 1964
Unnamed 3 August 16 1888 Isbell 2 October 14 1964
Unnamed 2 October 11 1888 Betsy 3 September 8 1965
Unnamed 1 August 24 1891 Alma 2 June 9 1966
Unnamed 1 August 27 1893 Inez 1 October 8 1966
Unnamed 2 September 25 1894 Gladys 2 October 19 1968
Unnamed 3 October 9 1894 Agnes 1 June 19 1972
Unnamed 2 July 7 1896 Eloise 3 September 23 1975
Unnamed 3 September 29 1896 David 2 September 3 1979
Unnamed 1 August 3 1898 Elena 3 September 1 1985
Unnamed 2 October 2 1898 Kate 2 November 21 1985
Unnamed 2 August 1 1899 Floyd 1 October 12 1987
Unnamed 1 August 11 1903 Andrew 5 August 24 1992
Unnamed 1 October 17 1904 Erin 2 August 3 1995
Unnamed 1 June 16 1906 Opal 3 October 4 1995
Unnamed 2 September 27 1906 Earl 1 September 3 1998
Unnamed 3 October 18 1906 Georges 2 September 25 1998
Unnamed 3 October 11 1909 Irene 1 October 15 1999
Unnamed 2 October 18 1910 Charley 4 August 13 2004
Unnamed 1 August 11 1911 Frances 2 September 5 2004
Unnamed 1 September 14 1912 Ivan 3 September 16 2004
Unnamed 1 August 1 1915 Jeanne 3 September 26 2004
Unnamed 1 September 4 1915 Dennis 3 July 10 2005
Unnamed 2 July 5 1916 Katrina 1 August 25 2005
Unnamed 2 October 18 1916 Rita 1[notes 2] September 20 2005
Unnamed 3 September 29 1917 Wilma 3 October 24 2005
Unnamed 4 September 10 1919 Hermine 1 September 2 2016
Unnamed 3 October 25 1921 Matthew 2[notes 2] October 7 2016
Unnamed 1 September 15 1924
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Georgia

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1[notes 1] August 24 1851 Unnamed 2 September 29 1896
Unnamed 1[notes 1] October 10 1852 Unnamed 1 August 31 1898
Unnamed 1 October 21 1853 Unnamed 4 October 2 1898
Unnamed 3 September 8 1854 Unnamed 1 August 28 1911
Unnamed 1[notes 1] August 31 1856 Unnamed 1 September 18 1928
Unnamed 1[notes 1] October 3 1877 “Labor Day” 1[notes 1] September 5 1935
Unnamed 1 September 11 1878 Unnamed 1 August 11 1940
Unnamed 2 August 28 1881 Unnamed 2 October 15 1947
Unnamed 1 August 25 1885 Unnamed 1 August 27 1949
Unnamed 1[notes 1] June 21 1886 David 2 September 4 1979
Unnamed 1[notes 1] June 30 1886 Kate 1[notes 1] November 22 1985
Unnamed 3 August 28 1893 Matthew 1[notes 2] October 8 2016
Unnamed 1[notes 1] October 9 1894
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]
Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT[4]

Louisiana

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 2 August 25 1852 Unnamed 3 August 26 1926
Unnamed 3 September 16 1855 Unnamed 2 June 16 1934
Unnamed 4 August 11 1856 Unnamed 1 August 15 1938
Unnamed 3 August 11 1860 Unnamed 2 August 7 1940
Unnamed 2 September 15 1860 Unnamed 2 September 19 1947
Unnamed 2 October 2 1860 Unnamed 1 September 4 1948
Unnamed 2 September 13 1865 Flossy 2 September 24 1956
Unnamed 2 October 4 1867 Audrey 3 June 27 1957
Unnamed 1 September 5 1869 Ethel 1 September 15 1964
Unnamed 1 September 18 1877 Hilda 3 October 3 1964
Unnamed 2 August 23 1879 Betsy 3 September 10 1965
Unnamed 3 September 1 1879 Camille 5 August 17 1969
Unnamed 2 June 14 1886 Edith 2 September 16 1971
Unnamed 3 October 12 1886 Carmen 3 September 8 1974
Unnamed 1 October 19 1887 Babe 1 September 5 1977
Unnamed 2 August 19 1888 Bob 1 September 11 1979
Unnamed 1 September 23 1889 Danny 1 August 15 1985
Unnamed 2 September 7 1893 Juan 1 October 28 1985
Unnamed 4 October 2 1893 Florence 1 September 10 1988
Unnamed 1 September 12 1897 Andrew 3 August 26 1992
Unnamed 1 August 14 1901 Danny 1 July 18 1997
Unnamed 1 September 27 1906 Lili 1 October 3 2002
Unnamed 3 September 20 1909 Cindy 1 July 6 2005
Unnamed 1 August 17 1915 Katrina 3 August 29 2005
Unnamed 3 September 29 1915 Rita 3 September 24 2005
Unnamed 2 September 29 1917 Humberto 1 September 13 2007
Unnamed 3 August 7 1918 Gustav 2 September 1 2008
Unnamed 2 September 21
Unnamed 1 October 16 1923 Isaac 1 August 28 2012
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]
Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT[4]

Maine

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 2 October 4 1869
Gerda 1 September 10 1969
Gloria 1 September 27 1985
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Maryland

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 October 23 1878
Unnamed 1 August 23 1933
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Massachusetts

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 September 16 1858 Unnamed 2 September 21 1938
Unnamed 3 September 8 1869 Unnamed 1 September 15 1944
Unnamed 1 October 4 1869 Carol 2 August 31 1954
Unnamed 1 August 19 1879 Edna 2 September 11 1954
Unnamed 1 September 10 1896 Donna 1 September 12 1960
Unnamed 1 August 26 1924 Bob 2 August 19 1991
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Mississippi

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 3 August 26 1852 Unnamed 3 July 6 1916
Unnamed 3 August 16 1855 Unnamed 1 October 16 1923
Unnamed 3 August 12 1860 Unnamed 1 September 21 1926
Unnamed 2 September 15 1860 Unnamed 2 September 19 1947
Unnamed 1[notes 1] August 20 1888 Ethel 1 September 15 1960
Unnamed 2 October 2 1893 Camille 5 August 18 1969
Unnamed 1 August 15 1901 Frederic 3 September 13 1979
Unnamed 2 September 27 1906 Elena 3 September 2 1985
Unnamed 2 September 21 1909 Georges 2 September 29 1998
Unnamed 2 September 29 1915 Katrina 3 August 29 2005
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

New Hampshire

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Gloria 2 September 27 1985
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

New Jersey

Although Hurricane Sandy struck the state in October 2012 and produced hurricane-force winds, it became an extratropical cyclone before landfall or producing any hurricane-strength winds.[5]

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1[notes 2] October 23 1878
Unnamed 1 September 16 1903
Unnamed 1[notes 2] September 8 1934
Unnamed 1[notes 2] September 14 1944
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

New York

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 September 16 1858 Edna 1 September 11 1954
Unnamed 1 September 8 1869 Donna 2 September 12 1960
Unnamed 1 August 24 1893 Agnes 1 June 22 1972
Unnamed 1 October 10 1894 Belle 1 August 10 1976
Unnamed 1 September 8 1934 Gloria 3 September 27 1985
Unnamed 3 September 21 1938 Bob 2 August 19 1991
Unnamed 2 September 15 1944 Sandy 1[notes 3] October 29 2012
Carol 3 August 31 1954
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

North Carolina

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 September 13 1857 Unnamed 2[notes 2] September 14 1944
Unnamed 1 September 27 1861 Unnamed 1[notes 2] August 24 1949
Unnamed 1 November 2 1861 Barbara 1 August 14 1953
Unnamed 1 September 24 1874 Carol 1[notes 2] August 31 1954
Unnamed 1 September 17 1876 Edna 1[notes 2] September 11 1954
Unnamed 2 October 23 1878 Hazel 4 October 15 1954
Unnamed 3 August 18 1879 Connie 2 August 12 1955
Unnamed 1 September 9 1880 Ione 2 September 19 1955
Unnamed 2 September 9 1881 Helene 3[notes 2] September 27 1958
Unnamed 2 September 11 1883 Donna 2 September 12 1960
Unnamed 2 September 25 1885 Ginger 1 September 30 1971
Unnamed 1[notes 2] August 20 1887 Diana 2 September 13 1984
Unnamed 1[notes 1] August 28 1893 Gloria 3 September 27 1985
Unnamed 1 October 13 1893 Charley 1 August 17 1986
Unnamed 1[notes 1] September 29 1896 Hugo 1[notes 1] September 22 1989
Unnamed 3 August 18 1899 Emily 3[notes 2] August 31 1993
Unnamed 2 October 31 1899 Bertha 2 July 12 1996
Unnamed 1 July 11 1901 Fran 3 September 6 1996
Unnamed 1 September 17 1906 Bonnie 2 August 27 1998
Unnamed 1 July 31 1908 Floyd 2 September 16 1999
Unnamed 1 September 3 1913 Irene 2[notes 2] October 18 1999
Unnamed 1 August 24 1918 Isabel 2 September 18 2003
Unnamed 1[notes 2] August 26 1924 Alex 1[notes 2] August 3 2004
Unnamed 1 August 23 1933 Charley 1 August 14 2004
Unnamed 2[notes 2] September 16 1933 Ophelia 1[notes 2] September 14 2005
Unnamed 1[notes 2] September 9 1934 Irene 1 August 27 2011
Unnamed 1 September 18 1936 Arthur 2 July 4 2014
Unnamed 1 August 1 1944 Matthew 1[notes 2] October 8 2016
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]
Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT[4]

Pennsylvania

Though not directly bordering the Atlantic Ocean, the Gale of 1878 produced hurricane-force winds in the state, the only tropical cyclone on record to do so.[1] Furthermore, Hurricane Agnes (1972) had a severe impact on the state. Although it had been only a Category 1 storm, and had weakened to a tropical depression by the time it reached Pennsylvania, Hurricane Agnes nevertheless caused severe flooding, as well as enormous economic damage.

Rhode Island

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 September 16 1858 Unnamed 2 September 15 1944
Unnamed 1 September 8 1869 Carol 3 August 31 1954
Unnamed 1 October 10 1894 Edna 1 September 11 1954
Unnamed 1 September 10 1896 Donna 1 September 12 1960
Unnamed 3 September 21 1938 Bob 2 August 19 1991
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

South Carolina

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 2 September 8 1854 Unnamed 1 October 8 1913
Unnamed 1 June 22 1867 Unnamed 2 July 14 1916
Unnamed 1 September 28 1874 Unnamed 1 September 18 1928
Unnamed 1 September 12 1878 Unnamed 2 August 11 1940
Unnamed 1 August 28 1881 Unnamed 2 October 15 1947
Unnamed 1 September 11 1883 Able 2 August 31 1952
Unnamed 3 August 25 1885 Hazel 4 October 15 1954
Unnamed 3 August 28 1893 Cindy 1 July 9 1959
Unnamed 3 October 13 1893 Gracie 4 September 29 1959
Unnamed 1 September 27 1894 David 2 September 4 1979
Unnamed 1 September 29 1896 Bob 1 July 25 1985
Unnamed 1 August 31 1898 Hugo 4 September 22 1989
Unnamed 2 October 31 1899 Charley 1 August 14 2004
Unnamed 1 September 14 1904 Gaston 1 August 29 2004
Unnamed 1 September 17 1906 Matthew 1 October 8 2016
Unnamed 2 August 28 1911
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Texas

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 June 25 1851 Unnamed 4 August 14 1932
Unnamed 1 June 26 1854 Unnamed 2[notes 4] August 7 1933
Unnamed 2 September 18 1854 Unnamed 3 September 5 1933
Unnamed 1 September 13 1865 Unnamed 2 July 25 1934
Unnamed 2 July 15 1866 Unnamed 1 June 27 1936
Unnamed 1 October 2 1867 Unnamed 2 August 8 1940
Unnamed 2 August 17 1869 Unnamed 3 September 23 1941
Unnamed 3 September 16 1875 Unnamed 1 August 21 1942
Unnamed 2 August 23 1879 Unnamed 3 August 30 1942
Unnamed 3[notes 4] August 13 1880 Unnamed 2 July 27 1943
Unnamed 2 June 14 1886 Unnamed 2 August 27 1945
Unnamed 4 August 20 1886 Unnamed 1 August 24 1947
Unnamed 1[notes 4] September 23 1886 Unnamed 2 October 4 1949
Unnamed 2 October 12 1886 Audrey 2 June 27 1957
Unnamed 2 September 21 1887 Debra 1 July 25 1959
Unnamed 1 June 17 1888 Carla 4 September 11 1961
Unnamed 1 July 5 1891 Cindy 1 September 17 1963
Unnamed 1[notes 4] August 30 1895 Beulah 3 September 20 1967
Unnamed 1 September 13 1897 Celia 3 August 3 1970
Unnamed 4 September 9 1900 Fern 1 September 10 1971
Unnamed 2 June 29 1909 Allen 3 August 10 1980
Unnamed 3 July 21 1909 Alicia 3 August 18 1983
Unnamed 1[notes 4] August 27 1909 Bonnie 1 June 28 1986
Unnamed 2 September 14 1910 Chantal 1 August 1 1989
Unnamed 2 October 16 1912 Jerry 1 October 16 1989
Unnamed 1 June 27 1913 Bret 3 August 23 1999
Unnamed 4 August 17 1915 Claudette 1 July 15 2003
Unnamed 4 August 18 1916 Rita 2 September 24 2005
Unnamed 1 August 7 1918 Humberto 1 September 13 2007
Unnamed 3 September 14 1919 Dolly 1 July 23 2008
Unnamed 1 June 22 1921 Ike 2 September 13 2008
Unnamed 1 June 28 1929
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Virginia

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Unnamed 1 September 17 1876 Unnamed 1[notes 2] September 16 1933
Unnamed 1 October 23 1878 Unnamed 1 September 18 1936
Unnamed 2 August 18 1879 Unnamed 2[notes 2] September 14 1944
Unnamed 1[notes 1] October 13 1893 Connie 1 August 12 1955
Unnamed 1 September 29 1894 Donna 1[notes 2] September 12 1960
Unnamed 1[notes 1] September 30 1896 Isabel 1 September 18 2003
Unnamed 1 August 23 1933
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

States bordering the Pacific Ocean

Southwestern United States

The 1858 San Diego Hurricane is the only Pacific tropical cyclone known to have produced hurricane-force winds in California; it affected San Diego on October 2, 1858, though its center remained just offshore. In the 20th century, only four tropical cyclones produced tropical storm force winds in the southwestern United States: a tropical storm in September 1939 in California, Hurricane Joanne in October 1972 in Arizona, Hurricane Kathleen in September 1976 in Arizona and California, and Hurricane Nora in September 1997 in Arizona.[6]

Hawaii

Name Saffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approach Year
Dot 1 August 7 1959
Iwa 1 November 24 1982
Iniki 4 September 11 1992
Source: 1959 Central Pacific Hurricane Season[7]
1982 Central Pacific Hurricane Season[8]
1992 Central Pacific Hurricane Season[9]

Climatological statistics

See also

Notes

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Hurricane conditions in this state were limited to inland areas.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z This hurricane did not made landfall, but produced hurricane conditions over the state indicated.
  3. Jump up^ This storm became extratropical before landfall, but produced hurricane conditions over the state indicated while still a tropical cyclone.
  4. Jump up to:a b c d e This hurricane made landfall in Mexico but produced hurricane conditions in Texas.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Hurricane Research Division (2012). “Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012”. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2014-02-10. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
  2. Jump up to:a b c Eric S. Blake; Edward N. Rappaport; Christopher W. Landsea (2007). “The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones From 1851 to 2006” (PDF). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-05-05.
  3. Jump up^ “Normalized Hurricane Damage in the United States: 1900–2005”. Journalist’s Resource.org.
  4. Jump up to:a b c d Hurricane Research Division (2008). “Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT”. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2011-06-04. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
  5. Jump up^ Eric S. Blake; et al. (2013-02-12). Hurricane Sandy Tropical Cyclone Report (PDF) (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
  6. Jump up^ Michael Chenoweth & Chris Landsea (2004). “The San Diego Hurricane of October 2, 1858” (PDF). American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
  7. Jump up^ Central Pacific Hurricane Season. “1959 Central Pacific Hurricane Season”. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
  8. Jump up^ Central Pacific Hurricane Season. “1982 Central Pacific Hurricane Season”. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
  9. Jump up^ Central Pacific Hurricane Season. “1992 Central Pacific Hurricane Season”. Retrieved 2008-01-26.

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_hurricanes

List of natural disasters by death toll

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

natural disaster is a sudden event that causes widespread destruction, lots of collateral damage or loss of life, brought about by forces other than the acts of human beings. A natural disaster might be caused by earthquakes, flooding, volcanic eruption, landslide, hurricanes etc. In order to be classified as a disaster, it will have profound environmental effect and/or human loss and frequently incurs financial loss.

Ten deadliest natural disasters

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. 1,000,000–4,000,000*[1] 1931 China floods China July 1931
2. 900,000–2,000,000[2] 1887 Yellow River flood China September 1887
3. 830,000[3] 1556 Shaanxi earthquake China January 23, 1556
4. 300,000[4] 1839 India cyclone India November 26, 1839
4. 300,000[5] 1737 Calcutta cyclone India October 7, 1737
5. 280,000 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami Indian Ocean December 26, 2004
6. 273,400[6] 1920 Haiyuan earthquake China December 16, 1920
7. 250,000–500,000[1] 1970 Bhola cyclone East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) November 13, 1970
7. 250,000–300,000[7] 526 Antioch earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) May 526
8. 242,000–655,000 1976 Tangshan earthquake China July 28, 1976
9. 230,000 1138 Aleppo earthquake Zengid dynasty (now Syria) October 11, 1138
10. 229,000 Typhoon Nina—contributed to Banqiao Dam failure China August 7, 1975

* Estimate by Nova’s sources are close to 4 million and yet Encarta’s sources report as few as 1 million. Expert estimates report wide variance.

The list does not include several volcanic eruptions with uncertain death tolls resulting from collateral effects (crop failures, etc.), though these may have numbered in the millions; see List of volcanic eruptions by death toll.

The list does not include the man-made 1938 Yellow River flood, caused entirely by a deliberate man-made act (an act of war, destroying dikes).

An alternative listing is given by Peter Hough in his 2008 book Global Security.[8]

Ten deadliest natural disasters since 1900

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event* Location Date
1. 1,000,000–4,000,000 1931 China floods China July 1931
2. 280,000 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami Indian Ocean December 26, 2004
3. 273,400 1920 Haiyuan earthquake China December 16, 1920
4. 250,000–500,000 1970 Bhola cyclone East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) November 1970
5. 242,000–655,000 1976 Tangshan earthquake China July 28, 1976
6. 229,000 Typhoon Nina—contributed to Banqiao Dam failure China August 7, 1975
7. 160,000[9] 2010 Haiti earthquake Haiti January 12, 2010
8. 145,000 1935 Yangtze river flood China 1935
9. 143,000 1923 Great Kanto earthquake Japan September 1, 1923
10. 138,866 1991 Bangladesh cyclone Bangladesh April 1991

This list does not include industrial or technological accidents, epidemics, or the 1938 Yellow River flood.

Lists of natural disasters by cause

Deadliest earthquakes

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. 820,000–830,000 1556 Shaanxi earthquake China January 23, 1556
2. 280,000 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake Indonesia December 26, 2004
3. 242,769–700,000[10][11][12] 1976 Tangshan earthquake China July 28, 1976
4. 273,400[6] 1920 Haiyuan earthquake NingxiaChina December 16, 1920
5. 250,000–300,000[7] 526 Antioch earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) May 526
6. 260,000[13] 115 Antioch earthquake Roman Empire (now Turkey) December 13, 115
7. 230,000 1138 Aleppo earthquake Zengid dynasty (now Syria) October 11, 1138
8. 200,000[14] 1303 Hongdong earthquake Mongol Empire (now China) September 17, 1303
8. 200,000 856 Damghan earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran) December 22, 856
8. 200,000[15] 1780 Tabriz earthquake Iran January 8, 1780
9. 170,000[16] 896 Udaipur earthquake India 896
10. 160,000[9] 2010 Haiti earthquake Haiti January 12, 2010
11. 150,000 893 Ardabil earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran) March 23, 893
12. 142,807[17][18] 1923 Great Kanto earthquake Japan September 1, 1923
13. 130,000[19] 533 Aleppo earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Syria) November 29, 533
14. 123,000[1] 1908 Messina earthquake Italy December 28, 1908
15. 110,000 1948 Ashgabat earthquake Turkmen SSRSoviet Union (now Turkmenistan) October 5, 1948
16. 100,000 1290 Chihli earthquake Mongol Empire (now China) September 27, 1290
16. 100,000[20] 2005 Kashmir earthquake Pakistan (Azad Kashmir) October 8, 2005
17. 87,587[21][22] 2008 Sichuan earthquake China May 12, 2008
18. 80,000[23] 1721 Tabriz earthquake Iran April 26, 1721
18. 80,000[24] 458 Antioch earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) September 458
18. 80,000 1667 Shamakhi earthquake Safavid dynasty (now Azerbaijan) November 1667
18. 80,000 1854 Great Nankaidō earthquake Japan November 1854
18. 80,000[25][26] 1169 Aleppo earthquake Zengid dynasty (now Syria) 1169
19. 77,000 1727 Tabriz earthquake Iran November 18, 1727
20. 73,000[27] 1718 Gansu earthquake Qing Empire (now China) June 19, 1718
21. 70,000 1970 Ancash earthquake Peru May 31, 1970[28]
21. 70,000[29] 1033 Ramala earthquake Fatimid Caliphate (now West Bank) December 10, 1033
21. 70,000[30] 847 Damascus earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria) 847
21. 70,000[31] 1868 Ecuador earthquakes Ecuador August 15, 1868 and August 16, 1868
22. 60,000[32] 587 Antioch earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) September 30, 587
22. 60,000[33] 1101 Khorasan earthquake Great Seljuq Empire (now Iran) 1101
22. 60,000 1268 Cilicia earthquake Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (now Turkey) 1268
22. 60,000 1693 Sicily earthquake Kingdom of Sicily (now Italy) January 11, 1693
22. 60,000 1935 Quetta earthquake India (now part of Pakistan) May 31, 1935
23. 50,000[34] 844 Damascus earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria) September 18, 844
23. 50,000[35] 1042 Tabriz earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran) November 4, 1042
23. 50,000 1783 Calabrian earthquakes Kingdom of Naples (now Italy) 1783
23. 50,000 1990 Manjil–Rudbar earthquake Iran June 21, 1990
24. 40,000–50,000[36] 1755 Lisbon earthquake Portugal November 1, 1755
25. 45,000[37] 850 Iran earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran) July 15, 850
25. 45,000[38] 856 Corinth earthquake Byzantine Empire (now Greece) November 856
25. 45,000[39][40] 856 Tunisia earthquake Abbasid Caliphate (now Tunisia) December 3, 856
26. 42,571[41] 1668 Shandong earthquake Qing Empire (now China) July 25, 1668
27. 40,900 1927 Gulang earthquake GansuChina May 22, 1927
28. 40,000[42] 342 Antioch earthquake Roman Empire (now Turkey) 342
28. 40,000[43] 662 Damghan earthquake Umayyad Caliphate (now Iran) April 26, 662
28. 40,000[44] 1455 Naples earthquake Crown of Aragon (now Italy) December 5, 1455
28. 40,000[45] 1754 Cairo earthquake Ottoman Empire (now Egypt) September 2, 1754
28. 40,000[46] 1755 Tabriz earthquake Iran June 7, 1755
28. 40,000 1797 Riobamba earthquake Spanish Empire (now Ecuador) February 4, 1797

Deadliest famines

Note: Some of these famines may be caused or partially caused by humans.

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 15,000,000–43,000,000 Great Chinese Famine China 1958–1961
2. 25,000,000[citation needed] Chinese Famine of 1907 China 1907
3. 13,000,000[47] Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879 China 1876–1879
4. 11,000,000 Doji bara famine or Skull famine India 1789–1792
5. 10,000,000 Bengal famine of 1770, incl. Bihar & Orissa India 1769–1771
6. 6,000,000+ Indian Famine British India 1896–1902
7. 7,500,000 Great European Famine Europe (all) 1315–1317
8. 7,000,000–10,000,000 Soviet famine of 1932–1933 (Holodomor in Ukraine) Soviet Union 1932–1934
9. 5,250,000 Indian Great Famine of 1876–78 India 1876–1878
10. 5,000,000 Chinese Famine of 1936 China 1936
10. 5,000,000 Russian famine of 1921 RussiaUkraine 1921–1922
11. 3,000,000 Chinese famine of 1928–1930 China 1928–1930
12. 2,000,000–3,000,000 Chinese Drought 1941 China 1942–1943
12. 2,000,000 Russian famine of 1601–1603 Russia (Muscovy) 1601–1603
12. 2,000,000 Deccan Famine of 1630–32 India 1630–1632
12. 2,000,000 Upper Doab famine of 1860–61 India 1860–1861
12. 2,000,000 French Famine France 1693–1694
12. 2,000,000 Great Persian Famine of 1870–71 Persia 1870–1871
13. 1,500,000–7,000,000 Bengal Famine of 1943 India 1943
14. 1,500,000 Great Irish Famine Ireland 1846–1849

Deadliest impact events

Note: Although there have been no scientifically verified cases of astronomical objects resulting in human fatalities, there have been several reported occurrences throughout human history. Consequently, the casualty figures for all events listed are considered unofficial.

Rank Death toll (unofficial) Location Date Notes
1. 10,000+ QingyangGansu, China 1490 1490 Ch’ing-yang event
2. Tens Changshou District, China 1639 10 homes destroyed[48][49]
3. 10+ China 616 AD a large shooting star fell onto the rebel Lu Ming-Yueh’s camp, destroying a wall-attacking tower[49]
4. 2 Malacca ship, Indian Ocean 1648 2 sailors killed on board a ship[49]
4. 2 Podkamennaya Tunguska RiverSiberiaRussian Empire 1908 Tunguska event[48]
5. 1 CremonaLombardy, Italy 1511 monk and several animals were killed by stones weighing up to 50 kg[49]
5. 1 Milan, Italy 1633 or 1664 a monk died after being struck on the thigh by a meteorite[49]
5. 1 Gascony, France 1790 a farmer was reportedly struck and killed by a meteorite[49]
5. 1 Oriang, Malwate, India 1825 [48][50]
5. 1 Chin-kuei Shan, China 1874 cottage was crushed by a meteorite, killing a child[48][51]
5. 1 Newtown, Indiana, United States 1879 a man was killed in bed by a meteorite[48]
5. 1 Dun-le-Poëlier, France 1879 a farmer was killed by a meteorite[48]
5. 1 Zvezvan, Yugoslavia 1929 a meteorite hit a bridal party[48]

Deadliest limnic eruptions

(Only 2 recorded cases.)

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 1,744 Lake Nyos Cameroon 1986
2. 37 Lake Monoun Cameroon 1984

Ten deadliest avalanches

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. 20,000 1970 Huascarán avalanche; triggered by the 1970 Ancash earthquake[52] Peru 1970
2. 10,000 Tyrolean Alps Avalanche[53][54] Italy 1916
3. 4,000 1962 Huascarán avalanche[52] Peru 1962
4. 310 2015 Afghanistan avalanches Afghanistan 2015
5. 265 Winter of Terror AustriaSwitzerland 1951
6. 201 2012 Afghanistan avalanches Afghanistan 2012
7. 172 2010 Salang avalanches Afghanistan 2010
8. 140 2012 Siachen Glacier avalanche Pakistan 2012
9. 125 Kolka-Karmadon rock ice slide Russia 2002
10. 107 Saint-Martin (Hautes-Pyrénées) France 1600

Ten deadliest blizzards

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. 4,000 1972 Iran blizzard Iran 1972
2. 3,000 Carolean Death March Sweden/Norway 1719
3. 926 2008 Afghanistan blizzard Afghanistan 2008
4. 400 Great Blizzard of 1888 United States 1888
5. 353 Great Appalachian Storm of 1950 United States 1950
6. 318 1993 Storm of the Century United States 1993
7. 250 Great Lakes Storm of 1913 United States and Canada (Great Lakes region) 1913
8. 235 Schoolhouse Blizzard United States 1888
9. 199 Hakko-da Mountains incident Japan 1902
10. 154 1940 Armistice Day Blizzard United States 1940
10. 154 North American blizzard of 1996 United States 1996

Ten deadliest floods / landslides

Note: Some of these floods and landslides may be partially caused by humans – for example, by failure of damsleveesseawalls or retaining walls.

Rank Death toll Event Location