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The Pronk Pops Show 798, November 17, 2016, Story 1: Gallup’s U.S. Economic Confidence Index Spikes Upward As The Trump Boom Begins? — Trumponomics: Lower Taxes More Govenment Spending and Deficits — Inflation and Interest Rates Rising — Recession — Stagflation — Videos

Posted on November 17, 2016. Filed under: American History, Banking System, Blogroll, Breaking News, Coal, Coal, College, Communications, Congress, Corruption, Culture, Defense Spending, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Economics, Employment, Energy, Fiscal Policy, Free Trade, Government, Government Dependency, Government Spending, Hillary Clinton, History, House of Representatives, Human, Illegal Immigration, Immigration, Legal Immigration, Life, Media, Medicare, Natural Gas, News, Oil, Oil, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, President Barack Obama, Radio, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Regulation, Religion, Resources, Securities and Exchange Commission, Senate, Social Networking, Social Security, Success, Taxation, Taxes, Transportation, United States of America, Videos, Welfare Spending | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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U.S. Economic Confidence Surges After Election

U.S. Economic Confidence Surges After Election
by Justin McCarthy and Jeffrey M. Jones

STORY HIGHLIGHTS

  • Economic Confidence Index climbs 13 points
  • Index positive for the first time since March 2015
  • Republicans’ economic outlook improves drastically

WASHINGTON, D.C. — Americans’ confidence in the U.S. economy increased sharply after the election, moving from a slightly negative evaluation (-10) to a slightly positive one (+3). Gallup’s U.S. Economic Confidence Index had been consistently negative throughout the year leading up to the election.

Gallup’s U.S. Economic Confidence Index, Before and After the Election
Nov 1-7, 2016 Nov 9-13, 2016
-10 +3
GALLUP DAILY TRACKING

Gallup’s U.S. Economic Confidence Index is the average of two components: how Americans rate current economic conditions and whether they feel the economy is improving or getting worse. The index has a theoretical maximum of +100 if all Americans were to say the economy is doing well and improving, and a theoretical minimum of -100 if all Americans were to say the economy is doing poorly and getting worse.

The index has registered positive only a handful of times over the nine years Gallup has tracked it daily — the most recent being March 2015. For the week of Nov. 7-13, including two pre-election and five post-election days of interviewing, the index averaged 0.

The increase in economic confidence mostly stems from Republicans’ more positive views after Republican Donald Trump won the election. Gallup has previously noted that Americans view the economy through a political lens. Republicans have had a dismal view of the economy — especially of its future direction — during Democratic President Barack Obama’s two terms.

Republicans’ Economic Outlook Improves Substantially

After Trump won last week’s election, Republicans and Republican-leaning independents now have a much more optimistic view of the U.S. economy’s outlook than they did before the election. Just 16% of Republicans said the economy was getting better in the week before the election, while 81% said it was getting worse. Since the election, 49% say it is getting better and 44% worse.

Conversely, Democrats and Democratic-leaning independents’ confidence in the economy plummeted after the election. Before the election, 61% of Democrats said the economy was getting better and 35% worse. Now, Democrats are evenly divided, with 46% saying it is getting better and 47% saying it is getting worse.

Perceptions of Whether Economy Is Getting Better or Worse by Political Party, Before and After the 2016 Presidential Election
Republicans, pre-election (Nov 1-7) Republicans, post-election (Nov 9-13) Democrats, pre-election (Nov 1-7) Democrats, post-election (Nov 9-13)
% Getting better 16 49 61 46
% Getting worse 81 44 35 47
Index (% better minus % worse) -65 +5 +26 -1
Party groups include independents who lean to the party
GALLUP DAILY TRACKING

Republicans Less Negative About Current Economic Conditions

In addition to being more optimistic about the economy’s future than they were before the election, Republicans are also slightly less negative about where economic conditions currently stand — likely because they will have a Republican president in the near future. However, they remain negative overall about the current state of the economy under the incumbent Democratic president. It is likely that their view of current economic conditions will further improve, possibly into positive territory, when Trump takes office in January.

Republicans’ current conditions component score has increased to -5, up significantly from -21 before the election. The latest score is the result of 21% of Republicans saying the economy is “excellent” or “good,” and 26% saying it is “poor.”

Democrats, on the other hand, have become more negative in their views of the current state of the U.S. economy, but the change is smaller among this group. Democrats’ component score fell to +17 after the election, compared with +26 beforehand.
Bottom Line

The election of Trump has transformed the way Republicans and Democrats view the economy, particularly in their assessments of whether it is getting better or worse. But given the political and economic tumult of the past week, measures of the index in the coming weeks may be more indicative of U.S. economic confidence in the year ahead. On the one hand, global markets trembled on election night as Trump’s victory became clearer. On the other hand, U.S. markets rallied later in the week, with the Dow Jones industrial average reaching a new high on Monday.

It’s too early to say whether these are sustainable gains in confidence. But in the immediate future, Trump’s victory has improved his party’s confidence in the economy. Barring any major events, it is likely that Republicans will shift to a positive index score once the incoming president takes office, while Democrats’ confidence will take a hit.

These data are available in Gallup Analytics.

Survey Methods

Results for this Gallup poll are based on telephone interviews conducted Nov. 9-13, 2016, on the Gallup U.S. Daily survey, with a random sample of 2,532 adults, aged 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. For results based on the total sample of national adults, the margin of sampling error is ±2 percentage points at the 95% confidence level. All reported margins of sampling error include computed design effects for weighting.

Each sample of national adults includes a minimum quota of 60% cellphone respondents and 40% landline respondents, with additional minimum quotas by time zone within region. Landline and cellular telephone numbers are selected using random-digit-dial methods.

Learn more about how Gallup Daily tracking works.

https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=us+economic+confidence+index

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The Pronk Pops Show 789, November 3, 2016, Story 1: Expanded FBI Investigations Into Clinton Foundations and Email Server Documents Will Likely Lead To Indictments for Public Corruption For Bill and Hillary Clinton and Co-Conspirators and Obstruction of Justice Charges For Department of Justice Political Appointees — Videos

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Story 1: Expanded FBI Investigations Into Clinton Foundations and Email Server Documents Will  Likely Lead To Indictments for Public Corruption For Bill and Hillary Clinton and Co-Conspirators and Obstruction of Justice Charges For Department of Justice Political Appointees  — Videos

Latest Polls

Friday, November 4
Race/Topic   (Click to Sort) Poll Results Spread
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein FOX News Clinton 45, Trump 43, Johnson 5, Stein 2 Clinton +2
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton FOX News Clinton 46, Trump 45 Clinton +1
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein ABC/Wash Post Tracking Clinton 47, Trump 44, Johnson 3, Stein 2 Clinton +3
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton ABC/Wash Post Tracking Clinton 49, Trump 46 Clinton +3
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton LA Times/USC Tracking Clinton 43, Trump 47 Trump +4
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein IBD/TIPP Tracking Clinton 44, Trump 44, Johnson 4, Stein 2 Tie
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton IBD/TIPP Tracking Clinton 45, Trump 44 Clinton +1
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Rasmussen Reports Clinton 44, Trump 44, Johnson 4, Stein 1 Tie
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton Reuters/Ipsos Clinton 44, Trump 39 Clinton +5
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Reuters/Ipsos Clinton 44, Trump 37, Johnson 6, Stein 2 Clinton +7
Michigan: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Detroit Free Press Clinton 42, Trump 38, Johnson 5, Stein Clinton +4
Michigan: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein PPP (D) Clinton 46, Trump 41, Johnson 6, Stein 2 Clinton +5
Iowa: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Emerson Trump 44, Clinton 41, Johnson 5, Stein 4 Trump +3
New Mexico: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Zia Poll Clinton 46, Trump 43, Johnson 7, Stein 1 Clinton +3
Colorado: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein PPP (D) Clinton 48, Trump 43, Johnson 4, Stein 2 Clinton +5
Colorado: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Trafalgar Group (R) Clinton 45, Trump 44, Johnson 5, Stein 4 Clinton +1
New Hampshire: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein UMass Lowell/7News Trump 44, Clinton 44, Johnson 5, Stein 2 Tie
New Hampshire: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Gravis Trump 43, Clinton 41, Johnson 7, Stein 2 Trump +2
Wisconsin: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Loras Clinton 44, Trump 38, Johnson 7, Stein 2 Clinton +6
Pennsylvania: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Harper (R) Clinton 46, Trump 46, Johnson 2, Stein 1 Tie
Indiana: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson WTHR/Howey Politics Trump 48, Clinton 37, Johnson 9 Trump +11
Indiana: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson Gravis Trump 49, Clinton 39, Johnson 5 Trump +10
Virginia: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Roanoke College Clinton 45, Trump 38, Johnson 5, Stein 2 Clinton +7
Virginia: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein PPP (D) Clinton 48, Trump 43, Johnson 4, Stein 1 Clinton +5
Georgia: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson WSB-TV/Landmark Trump 48, Clinton 46, Johnson 4 Trump +2
Georgia: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson Opinion Savvy Trump 49, Clinton 45, Johnson 6 Trump +4
New Jersey: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Richard Stockton College Clinton 51, Trump 40, Johnson 3, Stein 1 Clinton +11
Massachusetts: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Western NE University Clinton 56, Trump 26, Johnson 8, Stein 3 Clinton +30
Kansas: Trump vs. Clinton Fort Hays St. University Trump 58, Clinton 34 Trump +24
New Hampshire Senate – Ayotte vs. Hassan UMass Lowell/7News Ayotte 46, Hassan 47 Hassan +1
New Hampshire Senate – Ayotte vs. Hassan Gravis Ayotte 46, Hassan 44 Ayotte +2
Wisconsin Senate – Johnson vs. Feingold Loras* Feingold 47, Johnson 45 Feingold +2
Pennsylvania Senate – Toomey vs. McGinty Harper (R)* McGinty 44, Toomey 44 Tie
Indiana Senate – Young vs. Bayh WTHR/Howey Politics* Young 46, Bayh 41 Young +5
Indiana Senate – Young vs. Bayh Gravis* Young 37, Bayh 40 Bayh +3
Iowa Senate – Grassley vs. Judge Emerson Grassley 60, Judge 32 Grassley +28
Colorado Senate – Glenn vs. Bennet PPP (D)* Bennet 50, Glenn 40 Bennet +10
Georgia Senate: Isakson vs. Barksdale Opinion Savvy* Isakson 50, Barksdale 39 Isakson +11
California Senate – Harris vs. Sanchez LA Times/USC Harris 48, Sanchez 31 Harris +17
Kansas Senate – Moran vs. Wiesner Fort Hays St. University Moran 77, Wiesner 13 Moran +64
New Hampshire Governor – Sununu vs. Van Ostern UMass Lowell/7News Sununu 47, Ostern 43 Sununu +4
Indiana Governor – Holcomb vs. Gregg WTHR/Howey Politics Gregg 42, Holcomb 42 Tie
Indiana 9th District – Hollingsworth vs. Yoder WTHR/Howey Politics Hollingsworth 44, Yoder 42 Hollingsworth +2
President Obama Job Approval Gallup Approve 49, Disapprove 48 Approve +1
President Obama Job Approval Rasmussen Reports Approve 52, Disapprove 46 Approve +6
Thursday, November 3
Race/Topic   (Click to Sort) Poll Results Spread
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein CBS News/NY Times Clinton 45, Trump 42, Johnson 5, Stein 4 Clinton +3
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton CBS News/NY Times Clinton 47, Trump 44 Clinton +3
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton LA Times/USC Tracking Clinton 43, Trump 48 Trump +5
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein ABC/Wash Post Tracking Clinton 47, Trump 45, Johnson 3, Stein 2 Clinton +2
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton ABC/Wash Post Tracking Clinton 49, Trump 47 Clinton +2
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Rasmussen Reports Clinton 42, Trump 45, Johnson 4, Stein 1 Trump +3
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein IBD/TIPP Tracking Clinton 44, Trump 44, Johnson 4, Stein 2 Tie
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton IBD/TIPP Tracking Clinton 44, Trump 44 Tie
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Reuters/Ipsos Clinton 45, Trump 37, Johnson 5, Stein 2 Clinton +8
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton Reuters/Ipsos Clinton 45, Trump 39 Clinton +6
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Gravis Clinton 46, Trump 45, Johnson 4, Stein 2 Clinton +1
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton Gravis Clinton 50, Trump 50 Tie
New Hampshire: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein WBUR/MassINC Trump 40, Clinton 39, Johnson 10, Stein 3 Trump +1
New Hampshire: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Boston Globe/Suffolk Trump 42, Clinton 42, Johnson 5, Stein 2 Tie
New Hampshire: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein ARG Trump 48, Clinton 43, Johnson 4, Stein 1 Trump +5
Pennsylvania: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Gravis Clinton 47, Trump 46, Johnson 3, Stein 2 Clinton +1
Michigan: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein FOX 2 Detroit/Mitchell Clinton 47, Trump 44, Johnson 4, Stein 1 Clinton +3
Colorado: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein University of Denver Clinton 39, Trump 39, Johnson 5, Stein 4 Tie
Colorado: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Magellan Strategies (R) Clinton 44, Trump 38, Johnson 7, Stein 2 Clinton +6
Arizona: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein NBC/WSJ/Marist Trump 45, Clinton 40, Johnson 9, Stein 3 Trump +5
Florida: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein FOX 13/Opinion Savvy Clinton 49, Trump 45, Johnson 3, Stein 1 Clinton +4
Florida: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Gravis Clinton 49, Trump 46, Johnson 2, Stein 1 Clinton +3
Georgia: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson NBC/WSJ/Marist Trump 45, Clinton 44, Johnson 8 Trump +1
Utah: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein vs. McMullin Monmouth Trump 37, Clinton 31, McMullin 24, Johnson 4, Stein 1 Trump +6
Utah: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein vs. McMullin Emerson Trump 40, Clinton 20, McMullin 28, Johnson 3, Stein 2 Trump +12
Utah: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein vs. McMullin Heat Street/Rasmussen Trump 42, Clinton 31, McMullin 21, Johnson 3, Stein Trump +11
Texas: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein NBC/WSJ/Marist Trump 49, Clinton 40, Johnson 6, Stein 2 Trump +9
Texas: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Emerson Trump 49, Clinton 35, Johnson 5, Stein 4 Trump +14
California: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Field Clinton 53, Trump 33, Johnson 4, Stein 3 Clinton +20
Arkansas: Trump vs. Clinton The Arkansas Poll Trump 51, Clinton 31 Trump +20
Florida Senate – Rubio vs. Murphy Quinnipiac Rubio 50, Murphy 44 Rubio +6
Pennsylvania Senate – Toomey vs. McGinty Quinnipiac McGinty 48, Toomey 47 McGinty +1
New Hampshire Senate – Ayotte vs. Hassan WBUR/MassINC Ayotte 51, Hassan 45 Ayotte +6
New Hampshire Senate – Ayotte vs. Hassan Boston Globe/Suffolk* Ayotte 44, Hassan 42 Ayotte +2
North Carolina Senate – Burr vs. Ross Quinnipiac Burr 45, Ross 49 Ross +4
Ohio Senate – Portman vs. Strickland Quinnipiac Portman 56, Strickland 38 Portman +18
Arizona Senate – McCain vs. Kirkpatrick NBC/WSJ/Marist McCain 55, Kirkpatrick 39 McCain +16
Colorado Senate – Glenn vs. Bennet University of Denver Bennet 48, Glenn 40 Bennet +8
Georgia Senate: Isakson vs. Barksdale NBC/WSJ/Marist* Isakson 48, Barksdale 37 Isakson +11
Utah Senate – Lee vs. Snow Monmouth Lee 61, Snow 28 Lee +33
Utah Senate – Lee vs. Snow Heat Street/Rasmussen Lee 59, Snow 27 Lee +32
North Carolina Governor – McCrory vs. Cooper Quinnipiac Cooper 49, McCrory 47 Cooper +2
New Hampshire Governor – Sununu vs. Van Ostern WBUR/MassINC Sununu 49, Ostern 44 Sununu +5
New Hampshire Governor – Sununu vs. Van Ostern Boston Globe/Suffolk* Sununu 41, Ostern 37 Sununu +4
Utah Governor – Herbert vs. Weinholtz Monmouth Herbert 63, Weinholtz 30 Herbert +33
President Obama Job Approval CBS News/NY Times Approve 54, Disapprove 40 Approve +14
President Obama Job Approval Reuters/Ipsos Approve 51, Disapprove 45 Approve +6
2016 Generic Congressional Vote Reuters/Ipsos Democrats 42, Republicans 41 Democrats +1
Congressional Job Approval CBS News/NY Times Approve 15, Disapprove 76 Disapprove +61
Direction of Country CBS News/NY Times Right Direction 35, Wrong Track 61 Wrong Track +26
Direction of Country Reuters/Ipsos Right Direction 25, Wrong Track 64 Wrong Track +39

Image result for cartoons fbi investigating clinton foundationImage result for cartoons fbi investigating clinton foundationImage result for cartoons fbi investigating clinton foundationImage result for cartoons fbi investigating clinton foundation

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Image result for cartoons fbi investigating clinton foundation

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Image result for cartoons fbi investigating clinton foundationImage result for cartoons fbi investigating clinton foundationFox: FBI “Actively And Aggressively” Probing Clinton Foundation Corruption, “A Lot” Of Evidence

Special Report w/ Bret Baier | Fox News | November 3, 2016

Bret Baier on revelations on FBI’s Clinton Foundation probe

Hillary Now Under 5 FBI Criminal Investigations

Hillary Clinton’s FBI Investigation: What You Need To Know!

The Kelly File 11/2/16 | FBI’s Clinton Foundation investigation a “High Priority”, Rudy Giuliani

HUGE: FBI Expected To Tear Into Clinton Foundation!

Hillary Clinton’s Nightmare Has Become Reality – Special Report (FULL SHOW 10/31/2016)

BREAKING: FBI Field Offices Wanted Investigation Into Clinton Foundation, Killed By Obama DOJ

CLINTON CASH OFFICIAL DOCUMENTARY MOVIE ( FULL )

What Have We Learned from Wikileaks?

Secret Recordings Fueled FBI Feud in Clinton Probe

Agents thought they had enough material to merit aggressively pursuing investigation into Clinton Foundation

Secret recordings of a suspect talking about the Clinton Foundation fueled an internal battle between FBI agents who wanted to pursue the case and corruption prosecutors who viewed the statements as worthless hearsay, people familiar with the matter said.

Agents, using informants and recordings from unrelated corruption investigations, thought they had found enough material to merit aggressively pursuing the investigation into the foundation that started in summer 2015 based on claims made in a book by a conservative author called “Clinton Cash: The Untold Story of How and Why Foreign Governments and Businesses Helped Make Bill and Hillary Rich,” these people said.

The account of the case and resulting dispute comes from interviews with officials at multiple agencies.

Starting in February and continuing today, investigators from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and public-corruption prosecutors became increasingly frustrated with each other, as often happens within and between departments. At the center of the tension stood the U.S. attorney for Brooklyn,Robert Capers, who some at the FBI came to view as exacerbating the problems by telling each side what it wanted to hear, these people said. Through a spokeswoman, Mr. Capers declined to comment.

The roots of the dispute lie in a disagreement over the strength of the case, these people said, which broadly centered on whether Clinton Foundation contributors received favorable treatment from the State Department under Hillary Clinton.

Senior officials in the Justice Department and the FBI didn’t think much of the evidence, while investigators believed they had promising leads their bosses wouldn’t let them pursue, they said.

Bret Baier: FBI Sources Believe Clinton Foundation Case Moving Towards “Likely an Indictment”

Baier gives more details to Fox News Channel’s Brit Hume.

Transcript:

BRET BAIER: Here’s the deal: We talked to two separate sources with intimate knowledge of the FBI investigations. One: The Clinton Foundation investigation is far more expansive than anybody has reported so far… Several offices separately have been doing their own investigations.

Two: The immunity deal that Cheryl Mills and Heather Samuelson, two top aides to Hillary Clinton, got from the Justice Department in which it was beleived that the laptops they had, after a narrow review for classified materials, were going to be destroyed. We have been told that those have not been destroyed — they are at the FBI field office here on Washington and are being exploited. .

Three: The Clinton Foundation investigation is so expansive, they have interviewed and re-interviewed many people. They described the evidence they have as ‘a lot of it’ and said there is an ‘avalanche coming in every day.’ WikiLeaks and the new emails.

They are “actively and aggressively pursuing this case.” Remember the Foundation case is about accusations of pay-for-play… They are taking the new information and some of them are going back to interview people for the third time. As opposed to what has been written about the Clinton Foundation investigation, it is expansive.

The classified e-mail investigation is being run by the National Security division of the FBI. They are currently combing through Anthony Weiner’s laptop. They are having some success — finding what they believe to be new emaisls, not duplicates, that have been transported through Hillary Clinton’s server.

Finally, we learned there is a confidence from these sources that her server had been hacked. And that it was a 99% accuracy that it had been hacked by at least five foreign intelligence agencies, and that things had been taken from that…

There has been some angst about Attorney General Loretta Lynch — what she has done or not done. She obviously did not impanel, or go to a grand jury at the beginning. They also have a problem, these sources do, with what President Obama said today and back in October of 2015…

I pressed again and again on this very issue… The investigations will continue, there is a lot of evidence. And barring some obstruction in some way, they believe they will continue to likely an indictment.

http://www.realclearpolitics.com/video/2016/11/02/fbi_sources_tell_fox_news_indictment_likely_in_clinton_foundation_case.html

Secret Recordings Fueled FBI Feud in Clinton Probe

Agents thought they had enough material to merit aggressively pursuing investigation into Clinton Foundation

These details on the probe are emerging amid the continuing furor surrounding FBI Director James Comey’s disclosure to Congress that new emails had emerged that could be relevant to a separate, previously closed FBI investigation of Mrs. Clinton’s email arrangement while she was secretary of state.

On Wednesday, President Barack Obama took the unusual step of criticizing the FBI when asked about Mr. Comey’s disclosure of the emails.

Amid the internal finger-pointing on the Clinton Foundation matter, some have blamed the FBI’s No. 2 official, deputy director Andrew McCabe, claiming he sought to stop agents from pursuing the case this summer. His defenders deny that, and say it was the Justice Department that kept pushing back on the investigation.

At times, people on both sides of the dispute thought Mr. Capers agreed with them. Defenders of Mr. Capers said he was straightforward and always told people he thought the case wasn’t strong.

Much of the skepticism toward the case came from how it started—with the publication of a book suggesting possible financial misconduct and self-dealing surrounding the Clinton charity. The author of that book, Peter Schweizer—a former speechwriting consultant for President George W. Bush—was interviewed multiple times by FBI agents, people familiar with the matter said.

The Clinton campaign has long derided the book as a poorly researched collection of false claims and unsubstantiated assertions. The Clinton Foundation has denied any wrongdoing, saying it does immense good throughout the world.

Mr. Schweizer said in an interview that the book was never meant to be a legal document, but set out to describe “patterns of financial transactions that circled around decisions Hillary Clinton was making as secretary of state.”

As 2015 came to a close, the FBI and Justice Department had a general understanding that neither side would take major action on Clinton Foundation matters without meeting and discussing it first. In February, a meeting was held in Washington among FBI officials, public-integrity prosecutors and Leslie Caldwell, the head of the Justice Department’s criminal division. Prosecutors from the Eastern District of New York—Mr. Capers’ office—didn’t attend, these people said.

The public-integrity prosecutors weren’t impressed with the FBI presentation, people familiar with the discussion said. “The message was, ‘We’re done here,’ ” a person familiar with the matter said.

Justice Department officials became increasingly frustrated that the agents seemed to be disregarding or disobeying their instructions.

Following the February meeting, officials at Justice Department headquarters sent a message to all the offices involved to “stand down,’’ a person familiar with the matter said.

Within the FBI, some felt they had moved well beyond the allegations made in the anti-Clinton book. At least two confidential informants from other public-corruption investigations had provided details about the Clinton Foundation to the FBI, these people said.

The FBI had secretly recorded conversations of a suspect in a public-corruption case talking about alleged deals the Clintons made, these people said. The agents listening to the recordings couldn’t tell from the conversations if what the suspect was describing was accurate, but it was, they thought, worth checking out.

Prosecutors thought the talk was hearsay and a weak basis to warrant aggressive tactics, like presenting evidence to a grand jury, because the person who was secretly recorded wasn’t inside the Clinton Foundation.

FBI investigators grew increasingly frustrated with resistance from the corruption prosecutors, and some executives at the bureau itself, to keep pursuing the case.

As prosecutors rebuffed their requests to proceed more overtly, those Justice Department officials became more annoyed that the investigators didn’t seem to understand or care about the instructions issued by their own bosses and prosecutors to act discreetly.

In subsequent conversations with the Justice Department, Mr. Capers told officials in Washington that the FBI agents on the case “won’t let it go,” these people said.

As a result of those complaints, these people said, a senior Justice Department official called the FBI deputy director, Mr. McCabe, on Aug. 12 to say the agents in New York seemed to be disregarding or disobeying their instructions, these people said. The conversation was a tense one, they said, and at one point Mr. McCabe asked, “Are you telling me that I need to shut down a validly predicated investigation?’’ The senior Justice Department official replied: ”Of course not.”

Write to Devlin Barrett at devlin.barrett@wsj.com and Christopher M. Matthews at christopher.matthews@wsj.com

Corrections & Amplifications:
Peter Schweizer is the author of “Clinton Cash.” An earlier version of this article misspelled his surname as Schweitzer. (Nov. 2, 2016)

http://www.wsj.com/articles/secret-recordings-fueled-fbi-feud-in-clinton-probe-1478135518

WSJ: FBI Criminal Investigation of Clinton Foundation Includes ‘Secret Recordings’

Devlin Barrett and Christopher M. Matthews report in The Wall Street Journal on the latest revelation about the ongoing investigation of the Clinton Foundation.

From The Wall Street Journal:

Secret recordings of a suspect talking about the Clinton Foundation fueled an internal battle between FBI agents who wanted to pursue the case and corruption prosecutors who viewed the statements as worthless hearsay, people familiar with the matter said.

Agents, using informants and recordings from unrelated corruption investigations, thought they had found enough material to merit aggressively pursuing the investigation into the foundation that started in summer 2015 based on claims made in a book by a conservative author called “Clinton Cash: The Untold Story of How and Why Foreign Governments and Businesses Helped Make Bill and Hillary Rich,” these people said.

The account of the case and resulting dispute comes from interviews with officials at multiple agencies.

Read the rest here.

Hillary Clinton email controversy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In March 2015 it became publicly known that Hillary Clinton, during her tenure as United States Secretary of State, had exclusively used her family’s private email server for official communications, rather than official State Department email accounts maintained on federal servers. Those official communications included thousands of emails that would later be marked classified by the State Department retroactively.

The controversy unfolded against the backdrop of Clinton’s 2016 presidential election campaign and hearings held by the United States House Select Committee on Benghazi. Some experts, officials, and members of Congress have contended that her use of private messaging system software and a private server violated State Department protocols and procedures, as well as federal laws and regulations governing recordkeeping. In response, Clinton has said that her use of personal email was in compliance with federal laws and State Department regulations and that former secretaries of state had also maintained personal email accounts, though not their own private email servers.

After allegations were raised that some of the emails in question contained classified information, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) initiated an investigation regarding the origin and handling of classified emails on Clinton’s server. The FBI Report found that some of the emails originated in five other intelligence agencies. The FBI found that all classified emails on Clinton’s server were drafted on “unclassified systems,” meaning that they were stored and sent from unclassified servers, violating the same policies as those on Clinton’s personal server.

FBI Director James Comey identified 110 emails as containing information that was classified at the time it was sent, including 65 emails deemed “Secret” and 22 deemed “Top Secret.” None of these had classification markings. However, as noted in Clinton’s non-disclosure agreement, unmarked classified information should be treated the same as marked classified information. An additional three email chains contained “portion markings,” simply a “(C)” indicating “Confidential” in front of one or more paragraphs. These were not included in Comey’s list of 110 because the State Department failed to confirm they were classified at the time they were sent. Clinton told the FBI she did not know the meaning of “(C).” Nearly 2,100 emails on the server were retroactively marked as classified by the State Department.

In May 2016, the State Department’s Office of the Inspector General released an 83-page report about the State Department’s email practices, including Clinton’s. On July 5, 2016, Comey announced that the FBI’s investigation had concluded that Clinton was “extremely careless” in handling her email system but recommended that no charges be filed against her. On July 6, 2016, Attorney General Loretta Lynch announced that no charges would be filed.

On July 7, the State Department reopened its probe into the email controversy. On October 28, 2016, Comey notified Congress that the FBI has started looking into newly discovered emails that may be pertinent to the case. Law enforcement officials stated the emails were found on a laptop belonging to Clinton aide Huma Abedin‘s husband, Anthony Weiner(involved in his sexting scandals).

Background

Clinton’s use of BlackBerrys

Clinton holding a Blackberry phone in 2009

Prior to her appointment as Secretary of State in 2009, Clinton and her circle of friends and colleagues communicated via BlackBerry phones.[1] State Department security personnel suggested this would pose a security risk during her tenure.[2] The email account used on Clinton’s BlackBerry was then hosted on a private server in the basement of her home inChappaqua, New York, but that information was not disclosed to State Department security personnel or senior State Department personnel.[3] It proved impractical to find a solution, even after consulting the National Security Agency, which would not have allowed Clinton to use her BlackBerry, or a similarly unsecured device, linked to a private server in her home.[4] Setting up a secure desktop computer in her office was suggested, but Clinton was unfamiliar with their use[5] and opted for the convenience of her BlackBerry,[6] not the State Department, government protocol of a secured desktop computer. Efforts to find a secure solution were abandoned by Clinton,[4] and she was warned by State Department security personnel about the vulnerability of an unsecured BlackBerry to hacking.[7] She affirmed her knowledge of the danger, and was reportedly told that the Bureau of Diplomatic Security had obtained intelligence about her vulnerability while she was on a trip to Asia, but continued to use her BlackBerry outside her office.[8]

Domain names and email server

A screenshot of the Outlook Web App login page that is displayed when navigating to Clinton’s email service

At the time of Senate confirmation hearings on Hillary Clinton’s nomination as Secretary of State, the domain names clintonemail.com, wjcoffice.com, and presidentclinton.com wereregistered to Eric Hoteham,[9] with the home of Clinton and her husband in Chappaqua, New York, as the contact address.[10][11] The domains were pointed to a private email server that Clinton (who never had a state.gov email account) used to send and receive email, and which was purchased and installed in the Clintons’ home for her 2008 presidential campaign.[12][13]

The email server was located in the Clintons’ home in Chappaqua, New York, until 2013, when it was sent to a data center in New Jersey before being handed over to Platte River Networks, a Denver-based information technology firm that Clinton hired to manage her email system.[14][15][16][17][18]

The server itself runs a Microsoft Exchange 2010[19][20] server with access to emails over the internet being delivered by Outlook Web App. The webpage is secured with a TLS certificate to allow information to be transmitted securely when using the website.[8] However, prior to March 29, 2009, the webpage was reportedly not secured with a TLS certificate, meaning that information transmitted using the service was unencrypted and have been liable to interception.[8]

Initial awareness

As early as 2009, officials with the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) expressed concerns over possible violations of normal federal government record-keeping procedures at the Department of State under Secretary Clinton.[21]

In December 2012, near the end of Clinton’s tenure as Secretary of State, a nonprofit group called Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington, or CREW, filed a FOIA request seeking records about her email. CREW received a response in May 2013: “no records responsive to your request were located.”[22] Emails sent to Clinton’s private clintonemail.com address were first discovered in March 2013, when a hacker named “Guccifer” widely distributed emails sent to Clinton from Sidney Blumenthal, which Guccifer obtained by illegally accessing Blumenthal’s email account.[23][24][25] The emails dealt with the 2012 Benghazi attack and other issues in Libya and revealed the existence of her clintonemail.com address.[23][24][25] Blumenthal did not have a security clearance when he received material from Clinton that has since been characterized as classified by the State Department.[26][27]

In the summer of 2014, lawyers from the State Department noticed a number of emails from Clinton’s personal account, while reviewing documents requested by the House Select Committee on Benghazi. A request by the State Department for additional emails led to negotiations with her lawyers and advisors. In October, the State Department sent letters to Clinton and all previous Secretaries of State back to Madeleine Albright requesting emails and documents related to their work while in office. On December 5, 2014, Clinton lawyers delivered 12 file boxes filled with printed paper containing more than 30,000 emails. Clinton withheld almost 32,000 emails deemed to be of a personal nature.[22] Datto, Inc., which provided data backup service for Clinton’s email, agreed to give the FBI the hardware that stored the backups.[28] As of May 2016, no answer had been provided to the public as to whether 31,000 emails deleted by Hillary Clinton as personal have been or could be recovered.[29]

A March 2, 2015, New York Times article broke the story that the Benghazi panel had discovered that Clinton exclusively used her own private email server rather than a government-issued one throughout her time as Secretary of State, and that her aides took no action to preserve emails sent or received from her personal accounts as required by law.[30][31][32] At that point, Clinton announced that she had asked the State Department to release her emails.[33] Some in the media labeled the controversy “emailgate”.[34][35][36]

Use of private server for government business

According to Clinton’s spokesperson Nick Merrill, a number of government officials have used private email accounts for official business, including secretaries of state before Clinton.[37] State Department spokesperson Marie Harf said that: “For some historical context, Secretary Kerry is the first secretary of state to rely primarily on a state.gov email account.”[30] John Wonderlich, a transparency advocate with the Sunlight Foundation, observed while many government officials used private email accounts, their use of private email servers was much rarer.[38] Dan Metcalfe, a former head of the Justice Department’s Office of Information and Privacy, said this gave her even tighter control over her emails by not involving a third party such as Google and helped prevent their disclosure by Congressional subpoena. He added: “She managed successfully to insulate her official emails, categorically, from the FOIA, both during her tenure at State and long after her departure from it—perhaps forever”, making it “a blatant circumvention of the FOIA by someone who unquestionably knows better”.[30][39]

According to Department spokesperson Harf, use by government officials of personal email for government business is permissible under the Federal Records Act, so long as relevant official communications, including all work-related emails, are preserved by the agency.[30] The Act (which was amended in late 2014 after Clinton left office to require that personal emails be transferred to government servers within 20 days) requires agencies to retain all official communications, including all work-related emails, and stipulates that government employees cannot destroy or remove relevant records.[30] NARA regulations dictate how records should be created and maintained, require that they must be maintained “by the agency” and “readily found”, and that the records must “make possible a proper scrutiny by the Congress”.[30] Section 1924 of Title 18 of the United States Code addresses the deletion and retention of classified documents, under which “knowingly” removing or housing classified information at an “unauthorized location” is subject to a fine, or up to a year in prison.[30]

Experts such as Metcalfe agree that these practices are allowed by federal law assuming that the material is not supposed to be classified,[37][40] or at least these practices are allowed in case of emergencies,[31] but they discourage these practices, believing that official email accounts should be used.[30] Jason R. Baron, the former head of litigation at NARA, described the practice as “highly unusual” but not a violation of the law. In a separate interview, he said, “It is very difficult to conceive of a scenario—short of nuclear winter—where an agency would be justified in allowing its cabinet-level head officer to solely use a private email communications channel for the conduct of government business.”[31][41][42] Baron told the Senate Judiciary Committee in May 2015 that “any employee’s decision to conduct all email correspondence through a private email network, using a non-.gov address, is inconsistent with long-established policies and practices under the Federal Records Act and NARA regulations governing all federal agencies.”[43]

May 2016 report from State Department’s inspector general

In May 2016, the Department’s Office of the Inspector General Steve Linick released an 83-page report about the State Department’s email practices.[44][45][46] The Inspector General was unable to find evidence that Clinton had ever sought approval from the State Department staff for her use of a private email server, determining that if Clinton had sought approval, Department staff would have declined her setup because of the “security risks in doing so”.[44] Aside from security risks, the report stated that “she did not comply with the Department’s policies that were implemented in accordance with the Federal Records Act.”[47] Each of these findings contradicted what Clinton and her aides had been saying up to that point.[48][49][50] The report also stated that Clinton and her senior aides declined to speak with the investigators, while the previous four Secretaries of State did so.[44]

The report also reviewed the practices of several previous Secretaries of State and concluded that the Department’s recordkeeping practices were subpar for many years.[44] The Inspector General criticized Clinton’s use of private email for Department business, concluding that it was “not an appropriate method” of document preservation and did not follow Department policies that aim to comply with federal record laws.[44] The report also criticized Colin Powell, who used a personal email account for business, saying that this violated some of the same Department policies.[44] State Department spokesman Mark Toner said that the report emphasized the need for federal agencies to adapt “decades-old record-keeping practices to the email-dominated modern era” and said that the Department’s record-retention practices had been improved under the current Secretary of State John F. Kerry, Clinton’s successor.[44] The report also notes that the rules for preserving work-related emails were updated in 2009.[51]

Inspector General Linick wrote that he “found no evidence that staff in the Office of the Legal Adviser reviewed or approved Secretary Clinton’s personal system”, and also found that multiple State employees who raised concerns regarding Clinton’s server were told that the Office of the Legal Adviser had approved it, and were further told to “never speak of the Secretary’s personal email system again”.[52][53][54][55]

Clinton campaign spokesman Brian Fallon issued a statement saying: “The report shows that problems with the State Department’s electronic record-keeping systems were long-standing” and that Clinton “took steps that went much further than others to appropriately preserve and release her records.”[44] However, the Associated Press said, “The audit did note that former Secretary of State Colin Powell had also exclusively used a private email account…. But the failings of Clinton were singled out in the audit as being more serious than her predecessor.”[56] The report stated that “By Secretary Clinton’s tenure, the department’s guidance was considerably more detailed and more sophisticated, Secretary Clinton’s cybersecurity practices accordingly must be evaluated in light of these more comprehensive directives.”[56]

Server security and hacking attempts

Encryption and security

In 2008, before Hillary Clinton became Secretary of State, Justin Cooper, a longtime aide to Clinton’s husband, former President Bill Clinton, managed the system. Cooper had no security clearance or expertise in computer security.[57] Later, Bryan Pagliano, the former IT director for Clinton’s 2008 presidential campaign, was hired to maintain their private email server while Clinton was Secretary of State.[58][59] Pagliano had invoked the Fifth Amendment during congressional questioning about Clinton’s server. In early 2016, he was granted immunity by the Department of Justice in exchange for cooperation with prosecutors.[60] A Clinton spokesman said her campaign was “pleased” Pagliano was now cooperating with prosecutors.[61] As of May 2016, the State Department remained unable to locate most of Pagliano’s work-related emails from the period when he was employed by that department under Secretary Clinton.[62]

Security experts such as Chris Soghoian believe that emails to and from Clinton may have been at risk of hacking and foreign surveillance.[63] Marc Maiffret, a cybersecurity expert, said that the server had “amateur hour” vulnerabilities.[64] For the first two months after Clinton was appointed Secretary of State and began accessing mail on the server through her Blackberry, transmissions to and from the server were apparently not encrypted. On March 29, 2009, a “digital certificate” was obtained which would have permitted encryption.[8]

Former Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency Michael T. Flynn,[65] former United States Secretary of Defense Robert Gates,[66][67] and former deputy director of the Central Intelligence Agency Michael Morell[68][69] have said that it is likely that foreign governments were able to access the information on Clinton’s server. Michael Hayden, former Director of the National Security Agency, Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence, andDirector of the Central Intelligence Agency said “I would lose all respect for a whole bunch of foreign intelligence agencies if they weren’t sitting back, paging through the emails.”[70]

Hacking attempts

Clinton’s server was configured to allow users to connect openly from the Internet and control it remotely using Microsoft’s Remote Desktop Services.[64] It is known that hackers in Russia were aware of Clinton’s non-public email address as early as 2011.[71] It is also known that Secretary Clinton and her staff were aware of hacking attempts in 2011, and were worried about them.[72]

In 2012, according to server records, a hacker in Serbia scanned Clinton’s Chappaqua server at least twice, in August and in December 2012. It was unclear whether the hacker knew the server belonged to Clinton, although it did identify itself as providing email services for clintonemail.com.[64] During 2014, Clinton’s server was the target of repeated intrusions originating in Germany, China, and South Korea. Threat monitoring software on the server blocked at least five such attempts. The software was installed in October 2013, and for three months prior to that, no such software had been installed.[73][74]

According to Pagliano, security logs of Clinton’s email server showed no evidence of successful hacking.[75] The New York Times reported that “forensic experts can sometimes spot sophisticated hacking that is not apparent in the logs, but computer security experts view logs as key documents when detecting hackers,” adding the logs “bolster Mrs. Clinton’s assertion that her use of a personal email account […] did not put American secrets into the hands of hackers or foreign governments.[63][75][76]

In 2013, Romanian hacker Marcel Lehel Lazăr (“Guccifer“) distributed private memos from Sidney Blumenthal to Clinton on events in Libya.[77][78] In 2016, Lazăr was extradited from Romania to the U.S. to face unrelated federal charges related to his hacking into the accounts of a number of high-profile U.S. figures,[79] pleading guilty to these charges.[80][81] While detained pending trial, Lazăr claimed to the media that he had successfully hacked Clinton’s server, but provided no proof of this claim.[82] Officials associated with the investigation told the media that they found no evidence supporting Lazăr’s assertion,[83] and Clinton press secretary Brian Fallon said “There is absolutely no basis to believe the claims made by this criminal from his prison cell.”[84][85] FBI Director James Comey later stated in a congressional hearing that Guccifer admitted his claim was a lie.[86]

Classified information in emails

In various interviews, Clinton has said that “I did not send classified material, and I did not receive any material that was marked or designated classified.”[87] However, in June and July 2016, a number of news outlets reported that Clinton’s emails did include messages with classification “portion markings”.[88][89] The FBI investigation found that 110 messages contained information that was classified at the time it was sent. Sixty-five of those emails were found to contain information classified as “Secret”; more than 20 contained “Top-Secret” information.[90][91] Three emails, out of 30,000, were found to be marked as classified, although they lacked classified headers and were only marked with a small “c” in parentheses, described as “portion markings” by Comey.[dubious ] He also said it was possible Clinton was not “technically sophisticated” enough to understand what the three classified markings meant.[92][93][94]

According to the State Department, there were 2,093 email chains on the server that were retroactively marked as classified by the State Department at the “Confidential” confidential level.[95][96]

Of the 2,100 emails that contained classified information, Clinton personally wrote 104 and her aides wrote hundreds more.[44][97]

Inspector general reports and statements

A June 29, 2015, memorandum from the Inspector General of the State Department, Steve A. Linick, said that a review of the 55,000-page email release found “hundreds of potentially classified emails”.[98] A July 17, 2015, follow-up memo, sent jointly by Linick and the Intelligence Community (IC) inspector general, I. Charles McCullough III, to Under Secretary of State for Management Patrick F. Kennedy, stated that they had confirmed that several of the emails contained classified information that was not marked as classified, at least one of which was publicly released.[98] On July 24, 2015, Linick and McCullough said they had discovered classified information on Clinton’s email account,[99] but did not say whether Clinton sent or received the emails.[99] Investigators from their office, searching a randomly chosen sample of 40 emails, found four that contained classified information that originated from U.S. intelligence agencies, including the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the National Security Agency (NSA).[99] Their statement said that the information they found was classified when sent, remained so as of their inspection, and “never should have been transmitted via an unclassified personal system”.[99]

In a separate statement in the form of a letter to Congress, McCullough said that he had made a request to the State Department for access to the entire set of emails turned over by Clinton, but that the Department rejected his request.[99][100] The letter stated that none of the emails were marked as classified, but because they included classified information they should have been marked and handled as such, and transmitted securely.[100]

On August 10, 2015, the IC inspector general said that two of the 40 emails in the sample were “Top Secret/Sensitive Compartmented Information” and subsequently given classified labels of “TK” (for “Talent Keyhole”, indicating material obtained by aerial or space-based imagery sources and NOFORN).[101] One is a discussion of a news article about a U.S. drone strike operation.[101] The second, he said, either referred to classified material or else was “parallel reporting” of open-source intelligence, which would also be classified.[101][102] Clinton’s presidential campaign and the State Department disputed the letter, and questioned whether the emails had been over-classified by an arbitrary process. According to an unnamed source, a secondary review by the CIA and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency endorsed the earlier inspectors general findings concluding that the emails (one of which concerned North Korea’s nuclear weapons program) were “Top Secret” when received by Clinton through her private server in 2009 and 2011, a conclusion also disputed by the Clinton campaign.[103]

The IC inspector general issued another letter to Congress on January 14, 2016. In this letter he stated that an unnamed intelligence agency had made a sworn declaration that “several dozen emails [had been] determined by the IC element to be at the CONFIDENTIAL, SECRET, and TOP SECRET/SAP levels.” Other intelligence officials added that the several dozen were not the two emails from the previous sample and that the clearance of the IC inspector general himself had to be upgraded before he could learn about the programs referenced by the emails.[104][105][106]

On January 29, 2016, the State Department announced that 22 documents from Clinton’s email server would not be released because they contained highly classified information that was too sensitive for public consumption. At the same time, the State Department announced that it was initiating its own investigation into whether the server contained information that was classified at the time it was sent or received.[107]

In February 2016, State Department IG Linick addressed another report to Under Secretary of State Kennedy, stating his office had also found classified material in 10 emails in the personal email accounts of members of former Secretary Condoleezza Rice‘s staff and in two emails in the personal email account of former Secretary of State Colin Powell.[108][109] None of the emails were classified for intelligence reasons.[110] PolitiFact found a year earlier that Powell was the only former secretary of state to use a personal email account.[111] In February 2016, Clinton’s campaign chairman issued a statement claiming that her emails, like her predecessors’, were “being inappropriately subjected to over-classification.”[108][112]

FBI investigation

Major conclusions

On July 5, 2016, FBI Director Comey announced the results of the FBI investigation. The central conclusion of the investigation was, “Although there is evidence of potential violations of the statutes regarding the handling of classified information, our judgment is that no reasonable prosecutor would bring such a case… We are expressing to [the Department of] Justice our view that no charges are appropriate in this case.”[113][114] This conclusion was explained and reinforced by a series of answers given by Comey to a line of questioning by Rep. Will Hurd (R-Texas) during the July 7 hearing of the House Oversight Committee (CNN video at 1:43:09).[115][116]

Hurd: What does it take for someone to misuse classified information and get in trouble for it?
Comey: It takes mishandling it and criminal intent.
Hurd: And so an unauthorized server in a basement is not mishandling?
Comey: No, there is evidence of mishandling here. This whole investigation is focused on “is there sufficient evidence of intent.”
Hurd: Was this the unanimous opinion with the FBI on your decision?
Comey: The whole FBI wasn’t involved, but the team of agents, investigators, analysts, technologists — Yes.

Commenting on other cases that have been considered similar to this one but were prosecuted, Comey said, “All the cases prosecuted involved some combination of: clearly intentional and willful mishandling of classified information; or vast quantities of materials exposed in such a way as to support an inference of intentional misconduct; or indications of disloyalty to the United States; or efforts to obstruct justice. We do not see those things here.”[114][117]

With regard to mishandling of classified information, Comey said, “there is evidence that they [Clinton and her team] were extremely careless in their handling of very sensitive, highly classified information.” The investigation found 110 emails that were should have been regarded as classified at the time they were sent; another 2,000 emails were later reconsidered as classified.[118] Comey said that “any reasonable person in Secretary Clinton’s position, or in the position of those government employees with whom she was corresponding … should have known that an unclassified system was no place for that conversation.”[119][120] Investigators found that State Department employees often used private emails to conduct business. Comey noted, “We also developed evidence that the security culture of the State Department in general, and with respect to use of unclassified e-mail systems in particular, was generally lacking in the kind of care for classified information found elsewhere in the government.”[121]

Timeline

July 2015 – Security referral

The State Department and Intelligence Community (IC) inspector generals’ discovery of four emails containing classified information, out of a random sample of 40, prompted them to make a security referral to the FBI’s counterintelligence office, to alert authorities that classified information was being kept on Clinton’s server and by her lawyer on a thumb drive.[99][100] As part of an FBI probe at the request of the IC inspector general, Clinton agreed to turn over her email server to the U.S. Department of Justice, as well as thumb drives containing copies of her work-related emails. Other emails were obtained by the United States House Select Committee on Benghazi from other sources, in connection with the committee’s inquiry. Clinton’s own emails are being made public in stages by the State Department on a gradual schedule.[122][123][124]

Clinton’s IT contractors turned over her personal email server to the FBI on August 12, 2015,[18] as well as thumb drives containing copies of her emails.[125][126] In a letter describing the matter to Senator Ron Johnson, Chairman of the Senate Homeland Security Committee, Clinton’s lawyer David E. Kendall said that emails, and all other data stored on the server, had earlier been erased prior to the device being turned over to the authorities, and that both he and another lawyer had been given security clearances by the State Department to handle thumb drives containing about 30,000 emails that Clinton subsequently also turned over to authorities.[127] Kendall said the thumb drives had been stored in a safe provided to him in July by the State Department.[127][127]

August 2015 – Investigation continues; email recovery

On August 20, 2015, U.S. District Judge Emmet G. Sullivan stated that Hillary Clinton’s actions of maintaining a private email server were in direct conflict with U.S. government policy. “We wouldn’t be here today if this employee had followed government policy,” he said, and ordered the State Department to work with the FBI to determine if any emails on the server during her tenure as Secretary of State could be recovered.[128][129][130] Platte River Networks, the Denver-based firm that managed the Clinton server since 2013, said it had no knowledge of the server being wiped, and indicated that the emails that Clinton has said were deleted could likely be recovered. “Platte River has no knowledge of the server being wiped,” company spokesman Andy Boian told the Washington Post. “All the information we have is that the server wasn’t wiped.”[131] When asked by the Washington Post, the Clinton campaign declined to comment.[131]

In September 2015, FBI investigators were engaged in sorting messages recovered from the server.[132] In November 2015, the FBI expanded its inquiry to examine whether Clinton or her aides jeopardized national security secrets, and if so, who should be held responsible.[133][134]

Conflicting media sources sized the FBI investigation from 12[135] to 30 agents[136] as of March 2016.

May to July 2016 – Public statements

In May 2016, FBI Director James Comey said that Clinton’s description of the probe as a “security inquiry” was inaccurate saying “It’s in our name. I’m not familiar with the term ‘security inquiry'” and “We’re conducting an investigation … That’s what we do”.[137]

In late June 2016, it was reported that Bill Clinton met privately with Attorney General Loretta Lynch on her private plane on the tarmac at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport. Officials indicated that the 30 minute meeting took place when Clinton became aware that Lynch’s plane was on the same tarmac at the airport. When the meeting became public, Lynch stated that it was “primarily social” and “there was no discussion of any matter pending for the department or any matter pending for any other body”. Lynch was criticized for her involvement in the meeting and was called on by some critics to recuse herself from involvement in the FBI’s investigation of the email case. In response, she stated “The F.B.I. is investigating whether Mrs. Clinton, her aides or anyone else broke the law by setting up a private email server for her to use as secretary of state,” but “the case will be resolved by the same team that has been working on it from the beginning” and “I will be accepting their recommendations.”[138][139][140]

On July 1, 2016, the New York Times reported in the name of a “Justice Department official” that Attorney General Loretta Lynch will accept “whatever recommendation career prosecutors and the F.B.I. director make about whether to bring charges related to Hillary Clinton’s personal email server”, and added that “The F.B.I. is investigating whether Mrs. Clinton, her aides or anyone else broke the law by setting up a private email server for her to use as secretary of state.”[141]

Clinton maintained that she did not send or receive any confidential emails from her personal server. In a Democratic debate with Bernie Sanders on February 4, 2016, Clinton said, “I never sent or received any classified material.” In a Meet the Press interview on July 2, 2016, she stated: “Let me repeat what I have repeated for many months now, I never received nor sent any material that was marked classified.”[142][143][144]

July 2016 – Investigation concludes

On July 5, 2016, the FBI concluded its investigation. FBI director James Comey read his statement live. Among the FBI’s findings were that Clinton both sent and received emails that were classified at the “Top Secret/Special Access Program level” and were classified at the time.[114] They found that Clinton used her personal email extensively while outside the United States, both sending and receiving work-related emails in the territory of sophisticated adversaries. The FBI assessed that it “is possible that hostile actors gained access to Secretary Clinton’s personal email account.”[114]

Comey stated that although Clinton was “extremely careless in their handling of very sensitive, highly classified information”, the FBI was expressing to the Justice Department that “no charges are appropriate in this case.”[114]

On July 6, 2016, U.S. Attorney General Loretta Lynch confirmed that the investigation into Hillary Clinton’s use of private email servers while secretary of state will be closed without criminal charges.[145] On July 7, the State Department reopened its probe into the email controversy.[146]

October 2016 – Additional investigation

In early October 2016, FBI criminal investigators working on a case involving former Congressman Anthony Weiner allegedly sending sexually explicit texts to a fifteen year old girl discovered emails from Weiner’s estranged wife,Huma Abedin, vice chair of Hillary Clinton’s 2016 presidential campaign, that they considered potentially relevant to the Clinton server investigation. FBI officials decided to disclose the development despite its potential effect on the pending presidential election to preempt the possibility that it would be leaked in another way.[147]

On October 28, 2016, Comey informed Congress that “in connection with an unrelated case, the FBI has learned of the existence of emails that appear pertinent to the investigation.” He said the FBI will take “appropriate investigative steps designed to allow investigators to review these emails to determine whether they contain classified information, as well as to assess their importance to our investigation.” He added that the FBI “cannot yet assess whether or not this material may be significant.”[148] The FBI obtained a new search warrant to allow them to review Abedin’s emails.[147]

News of this renewed investigation being revealed shortly before the U.S. presidential election led to the announcement being described as an “October surprise“,[149] and prompted statements from both the Democratic and Republican campaigns. Donald Trump repeated his characterization that Hillary Clinton’s email usage as secretary of state was “worse than Watergate.”[150][151] Clinton called for the FBI to immediately release all information about the newly discovered emails and said she was confident the FBI would not change its earlier conclusion that there is no basis for criminal prosecution.[152]

Opinions of journalists and experts

According to the New York Times, if Clinton was a recipient of classified emails, “it is not clear that she would have known that they contained government secrets, since they were not marked classified.”[87][99] The newspaper also reported that “most specialists believe the occasional appearance of classified information in the Clinton account was probably of marginal consequence.”[12] Steven Aftergood, director of the Project on Government Secrecy at the Federation of American Scientists, said that inadvertent “spillage” of classified information into an unclassified realm is a common occurrence.[12]

Reuters‘ August 2015 review of a set of released emails found “at least 30 email threads from 2009, representing scores of individual emails,” that include what the State Department identifies as “foreign government information,” defined by the U.S. government as “any information, written or spoken, provided in confidence to U.S. officials by their foreign counterparts.”[87] Although unmarked, Reuters’ examination appeared to suggest that these emails “were classified from the start.”[87] J. William Leonard, a former director of the NARA Information Security Oversight Office, said that such information is “born classified” and that “If a foreign minister just told the secretary of state something in confidence, by U.S. rules that is classified at the moment it’s in U.S. channels and U.S. possession.”[87] According to Reuters, the standard U.S. government nondisclosure agreement “warns people authorized to handle classified information that it may not be marked that way and that it may come in oral form.”[87] The State Department “disputed Reuters’ analysis” but declined to elaborate.[87]

The Associated Press reported, “Some officials said they believed the designations were a stretch—a knee-jerk move in a bureaucracy rife with over-classification.”[101] Jeffrey Toobin, in an August 2015 New Yorker article, wrote that the Clinton email affair is an illustration of overclassification, a problem written about by Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan in his book Secrecy: The American Experience.[153] Toobin writes that “government bureaucracies use classification rules to protect turf, to avoid embarrassment, to embarrass rivals—in short, for a variety of motives that have little to do with national security.”[153] Toobin wrote that “It’s not only the public who cannot know the extent or content of government secrecy. Realistically, government officials can’t know either—and this is Hillary Clinton’s problem.[153] Toobin noted that “one of Clinton’s potentially classified email exchanges is nothing more than a discussion of a newspaper story about drones” and wrote: “That such a discussion could be classified underlines the absurdity of the current system. But that is the system that exists, and if and when the agencies determine that she sent or received classified information through her private server, Clinton will be accused of mishandling national-security secrets.”[153]

In an analysis of the Clinton email controversy published by the Brookings Institution, Richard Lempert wrote that “security professionals have a reputation for erring in the direction of overclassification.”[154] Elizabeth Goitein, co-director of the liberty and national security program at the Brennan Center for Justice at New York University School of Law, says that “The odds are good that any classified information in the Clinton emails should not have been classified,” since an estimated 50 percent to 90 percent of classified documents could be made public without risking national security.[154] Nate Jones, an expert with the National Security Archive at George Washington University, said: “Clinton’s mistreatment of federal records and the intelligence community’s desire to retroactively overclassify are two distinct troubling problems. No politician is giving the right message: Blame Clinton for poor records practices, but don’t embrace overclassification while you do it.”[154]

Responses and analysis

Clinton’s initial response

Clinton spokesman Nick Merrill defended Clinton’s use of the personal server and email accounts as being in compliance with the “letter and spirit of the rules.” Clinton herself stated that she had done so only as a matter of “convenience.”[155]

On March 10, 2015, while attending a conference at the headquarters of the United Nations in Manhattan, Clinton spoke with reporters for about 20 minutes.[156] Clinton said that she had used a private email for convenience, “because I thought it would be easier to carry just one device for my work and for my personal emails instead of two.”[157][158] It was later determined that Clinton had used both an iPad and a BlackBerry while Secretary of State.[157][159][160][161]

Clinton turned over copies of 30,000 State Department business-related emails from her private server that belonged in the public domain; she later explained that instructed her lawyer to err on the side of disclosure, turning over any emails that might be work-related. Her aides subsequently deleted about 31,000 emails from the server dated during the same time period that Clinton regarded as personal and private.[162][163][164]

In a court filing in September 2015, attorneys from the United States Department of Justice Civil Division wrote that Clinton had the right to delete personal emails, noting that under federal guidelines: “There is no question that former Secretary Clinton had authority to delete personal emails without agency supervision — she appropriately could have done so even if she were working on a government server. Under policies issue both by the National Archives and Records Administration and the State Department, individual officers and employees are permitted and expected to exercise judgment to determine what constitutes a federal record.”[164][165]

Clinton has used humor to shrug off the scandal.[166][167][168] In August 2015, when asked by a reporter whether she had “wiped” her server, Clinton laughed and said: “What? Like with a cloth or something? I don’t know how it works digitally at all.”[169] In September 2015, Clinton was asked in an interview with Jimmy Fallon on The Tonight Show about the content of the emails. She laughed it off, saying there was nothing interesting and joking that she was offended people found her emails ‘boring’.[170]

Later responses

Clinton’s responses to the question, made during her presidential campaign, have evolved over time.[153][171] Clinton initially said that there was no classified material on her server.[153] Later, after a government review discovered some of her emails contained classified information, she said she never sent or received information that was marked classified.[153] Her campaign also said that other emails contained information that is now classified, but was retroactively classified by U.S. intelligence agencies after Clinton had received the material.[172] See also the section above on the May 2016 IG report for a number of Clinton statements that were contradicted by the report, and how she and her supporters responded afterwards.

Campaign spokesman Brian Fallon said: “She was at worst a passive recipient of unwitting information that subsequently became deemed as classified.”[172] Clinton campaign spokeswoman Jennifer Palmieri has “stressed that Clinton was permitted to use her own email account as a government employee and that the same process concerning classification reviews would still be taking place had she used the standard ‘state.gov’ email account used by most department employees.”[101][173] Palmieri later stated: “Look, this kind of nonsense comes with the territory of running for president. We know it, Hillary knows it, and we expect it to continue from now until Election Day.”[14]

In her first national interview of the 2016 presidential race, on July 7, 2015, Clinton was asked by CNN‘s Brianna Keilar about her use of private email accounts while serving as Secretary of State. She said:

Everything I did was permitted. There was no law. There was no regulation. There was nothing that did not give me the full authority to decide how I was going to communicate. Previous secretaries of state have said they did the same thing…. Everything I did was permitted by law and regulation. I had one device. When I mailed anybody in the government, it would go into the government system.[174]

On September 9, 2015, Clinton apologized during an ABC News interview for using the private server, saying she was “sorry for that.”[175]

Appearing on NBC’s Meet the Press on September 27, 2015, Clinton defended her use of the private email server while she was secretary of state, comparing the investigations to Republican-led probes of her husband’s presidential administration more than two decades ago, saying, “It is like a drip, drip, drip. And that’s why I said, there’s only so much that I can control”.[176]

Clinton and the State Department said the emails were not marked classified when sent. However, Clinton signed a non-disclosure agreement which stated that classified material may be “marked or unmarked”.[177][178][179]Additionally, the author of an email is legally required to properly mark it as classified if it contains classified material, and to avoid sending classified material on a personal device, such as the ones used exclusively by Clinton.[180]

Clinton maintained that she did not send or receive any confidential emails from her personal server. In a Democratic debate with Bernie Sanders on February 4, 2016, Clinton said, “I never sent or received any classified material.” In a Meet the Press interview, Clinton said, “Let me repeat what I have repeated for many months now, I never received nor sent any material that was marked classified.” On July 2, 2016, Clinton stated: “Let me repeat what I have repeated for many months now, I never received nor sent any material that was marked classified.”[142][143][144]

In an interview with Fox News in late July 2016, Clinton stated “Director Comey said my answers were truthful, and what I’ve said is consistent with what I have told the American people, that there were decisions discussed and made to classify retroactively certain of the emails.” PolitiFact awarded Clinton four “Pinocchios”, its worst rating, for her statement saying “While Comey did say there was no evidence she lied to the FBI, that is not the same as saying she told the truth to the American public.”[181][182][183]

Democratic response

In August 2015, the New York Times reported on “interviews with more than 75 Democratic governors, lawmakers, candidates and party members” on the email issue.[184] The Times reported, “None of the Democrats interviewed went so far as to suggest that the email issue raised concerns about Mrs. Clinton’s ability to serve as president, and many expressed a belief that it had been manufactured by Republicans in Congress and other adversaries.”[184] At the same time, many Democratic leaders showed increasing frustration among party leaders of Clinton’s handling of the email issue.[184] For example, Edward G. Rendell, former governor of Pennsylvania, a Clinton supporter, said that a failure of the Clinton campaign to get ahead of the issue early on meant that the campaign was “left just playing defense.”[184] Other prominent Democrats, such as Governor Dannel P. Malloy ofConnecticut, were less concerned, noting that the campaign was at an early stage and that attacks on Clinton were to be expected.[184]

At the October 2015 primary debate, Clinton’s chief rival for the Democratic presidential nomination, Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont, defended Clinton, saying: “Let me say this. Let me say something that may not be great politics. But I think the secretary is right. And that is that the American people are sick and tired of hearing about your damn emails!” Clinton responded: “Thank you. Me too. Me too.” Clinton and Sanders shook hands on stage.[185][186] According to the Los Angeles Times: “The crowd went wild. So did the Internet.”[185][186] Sanders later clarified that he thinks Clinton’s emails is a “very serious issue”,[187] but that he thinks Americans want a discussion on issues that are “real” to them, such as paid family and medical leave, college affordability, and campaign finance reform.[186]

Republican response

Republican National Committee chairman Reince Priebus said, in a statement regarding the June 30 email releases, “These emails … are just the tip of the iceberg, and we will never get full disclosure until Hillary Clinton releases her secret server for an independent investigation.”[188] Gowdy, a Republican, said on June 29, 2015, that he would press the State Department for a fuller accounting of Clinton’s emails, after the Benghazi panel obtained 15 additional emails to Sidney Blumenthal that the department had not provided to the Committee.[189]

On September 12, 2015, Republican Senators Charles Grassley and Ron Johnson, chairmen of the Senate Judiciary and Homeland Security committees, respectively, said they will seek an independent review of the deleted emails, if they are recovered from Clinton’s server, to determine if there are any government related items among those deleted.[131] The Justice Department (DOJ), on behalf of the State Department has argued that personal emails are not federal records, that courts lack the jurisdiction to demand their preservation, and defended Clinton’s email practices in a court filing on September 9, 2015. DOJ lawyers argued that federal employees, including Clinton, are allowed to discard personal emails provided they preserve those pertaining to public business. “There is no question that former Secretary Clinton had authority to delete personal emails without agency supervision—she appropriately could have done so even if she were working on a government server,” the DOJ lawyers wrote in their filing.[131]

Comparisons and media coverage

Media commentators have drawn comparisons of Clinton’s email usage to past political controversies. Pacific Standard Magazine published an article in May 2015, comparing email controversy and her response to it with theWhitewater investigation 20 years earlier.[190]

In August 2015, Washington Post associate editor and investigative journalist Bob Woodward, when asked about Clinton’s handling of her emails, said they remind him of the Nixon tapes from the Watergate scandal.[191] On March 9, 2015, columnist Dana Milbank wrote that the email affair was “a needless, self-inflicted wound” brought about by “debilitating caution” in “trying to make sure an embarrassing e-mail or two didn’t become public,” which led to “obsessive secrecy.” Milibank pointed out that Clinton herself had justifiably criticized the George W. Bush administration in 2007 for its “secret” White House email accounts.[192][193]

On Fox News Sunday, political analyst Juan Williams contrasted the media coverage of Clinton’s emails to the coverage of the 2007 Bush White House email controversy.[194]

The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel published an editorial saying that “the only believable reason for the private server in her basement was to keep her emails out of the public eye by willfully avoiding freedom of information laws. No president, no secretary of state, no public official at any level is above the law. She chose to ignore it, and must face the consequences.”[195][196] Pascal-Emmanuel Gobry wrote in The Week that “Clinton set up a personal email server, in defiance or at least circumvention of rules, with the probable motive of evading federal records and transparency requirements, and did it with subpar security.”[197]

House Select Committee on Benghazi

On March 27, 2015, Republican Congressman Trey Gowdy, Chairman of the Select Committee on Benghazi, asserted that some time after October 2014, Clinton “unilaterally decided to wipe her server clean” and “summarily decided to delete all emails.”[198][199] Clinton’s attorney, David E. Kendall, said that day that an examination showed that no copies of any of Clinton’s emails remained on the server. Kendall said the server was reconfigured to only retain emails for 60 days after Clinton lawyers had decided which emails needed to be turned over.[200]

On June 22, 2015, the Benghazi panel released emails between Clinton and Sidney Blumenthal, who had been recently deposed by the committee. Committee chairman Gowdy issued a press release criticizing Clinton for not providing the emails to the State Department.[201] Clinton had said she provided all work-related emails to the State Department, and that only emails of a personal nature on her private server were destroyed. The State Department confirmed that 10 emails and parts of five others from Sidney Blumenthal regarding Benghazi, which the Committee had made public on June 22, could not be located in the Department’s records, but that the 46 other, previously unreleased Libya-related Blumenthal emails published by the Committee, were in the Department’s records. In response, Clinton campaign spokesman Nick Merrill, when asked about the discrepancy said: “She has turned over 55,000 pages of materials to the State Department, including all emails in her possession from Mr. Blumenthal.”[202] Republican Committee members were encouraged about their probe, having found emails that Clinton did not produce.[202][203] Clinton campaign staff accused Gowdy and Republicans of “clinging to their invented scandal.”[203]

In response to comments that House Republican Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy made on September 29, 2015, about damaging Clinton’s poll numbers,[204] Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi threatened to end the Democrats’ participation in the committee.[205][206][207] Representative Louise Slaughter introduced an amendment to disband the committee, which was defeated in a party-line vote.[208] On October 7, the editorial board of The New York Times called for the end of the committee.[209] Representative Alan Grayson took step towards filing an ethics complaint, calling the committee “the new McCarthyism” and alleging that it violates both House rules and federal law by using official funds for political purposes.[210] Richard L. Hanna, a Republican representative from New York,[211] and conservative pundit Bill O’Reilly acknowledged the partisan nature of the committee.[212]

Hillary Clinton’s public hearing before the House Select Committee on Benghazi

On October 22, 2015, Clinton testified before the Committee and answered members’ questions for eleven hours before the Committee in a public hearing.[213][213][214][215] The New York Times reported that “the long day of often-testy exchanges between committee members and their prominent witness revealed little new information about an episode that has been the subject of seven previous investigations…Perhaps stung by recent admissions that the pursuit of Mrs. Clinton’s emails was politically motivated, Republican lawmakers on the panel for the most part avoided any mention of her use of a private email server.”[213] The email issue did arise shortly before lunch, in “a shouting match” between Republican committee chair Trey Gowdy and two Democrats, Adam Schiff and Elijah Cummings.[213] Late in the hearing, Republican Representative Jim Jordan of Ohio accused Clinton of changing her accounts of the email service, leading to a “heated exchange” in which Clinton said that she had erred in making a private email account, but denied having dealt with anything marked classified, instead seeking “to be transparent by publicly releasing her emails.”[213]

Freedom of Information lawsuits

Judicial Watch v. U.S. Department of State

Judicial Watch, a nonprofit advocacy organization, filed a complaint against the Department of State in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia on September 10, 2013, seeking records under the federal Freedom of Information Act relating to Clinton aide Huma Abedin (a former deputy chief of staff and former senior advisor at the State Department).[216][217] Judicial Watch was particularly interested in Abedin’s role as a “special government employee” (SGE), a consulting position which allowed her to represent outside clients while also serving at the State Department.[216] After corresponding with the State Department, Judicial Watch agreed to dismiss its lawsuit on March 14, 2014.[216] On March 12, 2015, in response to the uncovering of Clinton’s private email account, it filed a motion to reopen the suit, alleging that the State Department had misrepresented its search and had not properly preserved and maintained records under the act.[216] U.S. District Judge Emmet G. Sullivan granted the motion to reopen the case on June 19, 2015.[218][219]

On July 21, 2015, Judge Sullivan issued supplemental discovery orders, including one that Clinton, Abedin, and former Deputy Secretary of State Cheryl Mills disclose any required information they had not disclosed already, and promise under oath that they had done so, including a description of the extent Abedin and Mills had used Clinton’s email server for official government business.[220][221] On August 10, 2015, Clinton filed her declaration, stating “I have directed that all my emails on clintonemail.com in my custody that were or potentially were federal records be provided to the Department of State”, and that as a result of this directive, 55,000 pages of emails were produced to the Department on December 5, 2014.[222][223][224] Clinton also said in her statement that Abedin did have an email account through clintonemail.com that “was used at times for government business”, but that Mills did not.[222][223][224] The statement was filed as Clinton faced questions over fifteen emails in exchanges with Blumenthal that were not among the emails she gave to the department the previous year.[223] She did not address the matter of those emails in the statement.[223] On September 25, 2015, several additional emails from her private server[225] surfaced that she had not provided to the State Department.[225][226][227] These emails between Clinton and General David Petraeus, discussing personnel matters, were part of an email chain that started on a different email account before her tenure as Secretary of State,[225][226][227] but continued onto her private server[225] in late January 2009 after she had taken office.[225][226][227] The existence of these emails also called into question Clinton’s previous statement that she did not use the server before March 18, 2009.[228]

In February 2016, Judge Sullivan issued a discovery order in the case, ruling that depositions of State Department officials and top Clinton aides were to proceed.[229] On May 26, 2016, Judicial Watch released the transcript of the deposition of Lewis Lukens,[230] on May 31, 2016, the transcript of Cheryl Mills,[231] on June 7, 2016, the transcript of Ambassador Stephen Mull,[232] and on June 9, 2016, Karin Lang, Director of Executive Secretariat Staff.[233] The testimony of Clarence Finney, who worked in the department responsible for FOIA searches, said that he first became curious about Clinton’s email setup after seeing the Texts from Hillary meme on the Internet.[234]

Jason Leopold v. U.S. Department of State

In November 2014, Jason Leopold of Vice News made a Freedom of Information Act request for Clinton’s State Department records,[235][236] and, on January 25, 2015, filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia seeking to compel production of responsive documents.[235][236][237] After some dispute between Leopold and the State Department over the request, U.S. District Judge Rudolph Contreras ordered rolling production and release of the emails on a schedule set by the State Department.[238][239][240]

Over the next several months, the State Department completed production of 30,068 emails, which were released in 14 batches, with the final batch released on February 29, 2016.[241] Both the Wall Street Journal and Wikileaksindependently set up search engines for anyone who would like to search through the Clinton emails released by the State Department.[242][243]

The emails showed that Blumenthal communicated with Clinton while Secretary on a variety of issues including Benghazi.[188][244][245][246]

Associated Press v. U.S. Department of State

On March 11, 2015, the day after Clinton acknowledged her private email account, the Associated Press (AP) filed suit against the State Department regarding multiple FOIA requests over the past five years. The requests were for various emails and other documents from Clinton’s time as secretary of state and were still unfulfilled at the time.[247][248][249] The State Department said that a high volume of FOIA requests and a large backlog had caused the delay.[247][250]

On July 20, 2015, U.S. District Judge Richard J. Leon reacted angrily to what he said was “the State Department for four years dragging their feet”.[250] Leon said that “even the least ambitious bureaucrat” could process the request faster than the State Department was doing.[251] On August 7, 2015, Leon issued an order setting a stringent schedule for the State Department to provide the AP with the requested documents over the next eight months.[249] The order issued by Leon did not include the 55,000 pages of Clinton emails the State Department scheduled to be released in the Leopold case, or take into account 20 boxes given to the State Department byPhilippe Reines, a former Clinton senior adviser.[249]

Other suits and coordination of email cases

In September 2015, the State Department filed a motion in court seeking to consolidate and coordinate the large number of Freedom of Information Act lawsuits relating to Clinton and Clinton-related emails. There were at the time at least three dozen lawsuits are pending, before 17 different judges.[252][253]

In an U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia order issued on October 8, 2015, Chief U.S. District Judge Richard W. Roberts wrote that the cases did not meet the usual criteria for consolidation but: “The judges who have been randomly assigned to these cases have been and continue to be committed to informal coordination so as to avoid unnecessary inefficiencies and confusion, and the parties are also urged to meet and confer to assist in coordination.”[253]

In 2015, Judicial Watch and the Cause of Action Institute filed two lawsuits seeking a court order to compel the Department of State and the National Archives and Records Administration to recover emails from Clinton’s server. In January 2016, these two suits (which were consolidated because they involved the same issues) were dismissed as moot by U.S. District Judge James Boasberg, because the government was already working to recover and preserve these emails.[254]

In March 2016, the Republican National Committee filed four new complaints in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia stemming from Freedom of Information Act requests it had filed the previous year. These new filings brought the total number of civil suits over access to Clinton’s records pending in federal court to at least 38.[255][256]

In June 2016, in response to the Republican National Committee’s complaints filed on March 2016, the State Department estimates it will take 75 years to complete the review of documents which are responsive to the complaints.[257] It has been observed that a delay of this nature would cause the documents to remain out of public view longer than the vast majority of classified documents which must be declassified after 25 years.

See also

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hillary_Clinton_email_controversy#Timeline

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The Pronk Pops Show 771, October 7, 2016, Story 1: Job Growth Slowing Down with 156,000 Non-farm Payroll Jobs in September and Uptick On U-3 Unemployment To 5% and Labor Participation Rate of 62. 9% With 94,184,000 Not In Labor Force — Heading For Another Recession? — Videos — Story 2: Will Fed Raise Fed Funds Target In December by .25% And Tip The Economy Into A Recession? Stagnation Then Stagflation — Buy Gold — Videos — Story 3: Tribute To Entrepreneurs — Restoring The American Dream — Videos

Posted on October 7, 2016. Filed under: 2016 Presidential Campaign, 2016 Presidential Candidates, American History, Blogroll, Breaking News, College, Communications, Congress, Constitutional Law, Corruption, Countries, Donald Trump, Elections, Hillary Clinton, History, House of Representatives, Housing, Illegal Immigration, Immigration, Impeachment, Independence, Law, Legal Immigration, Media, News, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Progressives, Radio, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Regulation, Securities and Exchange Commission, Security, Senate, Success, Taxation, Taxes, Terror, Terrorism, Unemployment, United States of America, Wall Street Journal, War, Wealth, Weapons, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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Pronk Pops Show 771: October 7, 2016

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Story 1: Job Growth Slowing Down with 156,000 Non-farm Payroll Jobs in September and Uptick On U-3 Unemployment To 5% and Labor Participation Rate of 62. 9% With 94,184,000 Not In Labor Force — Heading For Another Recession? — Videos

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‘Macro Mentoring’ With Hedgeye’s Keith McCullough : Session 4

Quarter-to-Quarter Growth in Real GDP

The ShadowStats Alternate Unemployment Rate for October 2016 is 23.0%

Alternate Unemployment Charts

The seasonally-adjusted SGS Alternate Unemployment Rate reflects current unemployment reporting methodology adjusted for SGS-estimated long-term discouraged workers, who were defined out of official existence in 1994. That estimate is added to the BLS estimate of U-6 unemployment, which includes short-term discouraged workers.

The U-3 unemployment rate is the monthly headline number. The U-6 unemployment rate is the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ (BLS) broadest unemployment measure, including short-term discouraged and other marginally-attached workers as well as those forced to work part-time because they cannot find full-time employment.

Employment, Hours, and Earnings from the Current Employment Statistics survey (National)

1-Month Net Change

Series Id:     CES0000000001
Seasonally Adjusted
Series Title:  All employees, thousands, total nonfarm, seasonally adjusted
Super Sector:  Total nonfarm
Industry:      Total nonfarm
NAICS Code:    -
Data Type:     ALL EMPLOYEES, THOUSANDS

Download:
Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1980 129 80 112 -144 -431 -320 -262 260 113 281 257 195
1981 94 68 105 73 10 197 112 -36 -87 -99 -209 -278
1982 -326 -5 -130 -280 -45 -243 -342 -158 -181 -277 -123 -14
1983 224 -75 172 276 277 379 418 -308 1115 271 353 356
1984 446 481 275 363 308 379 313 242 310 286 349 128
1985 266 124 346 196 274 146 190 193 203 188 209 167
1986 125 107 94 187 127 -94 318 114 347 186 186 205
1987 172 232 249 338 226 172 347 171 228 492 232 294
1988 94 453 276 245 229 363 222 124 339 268 339 290
1989 262 258 193 173 118 116 40 49 250 111 277 96
1990 335 249 214 40 151 24 -32 -216 -89 -159 -150 -56
1991 -120 -305 -158 -211 -125 97 -40 10 32 17 -58 26
1992 52 -63 54 159 126 68 71 138 36 182 136 212
1993 309 242 -49 308 266 182 301 156 240 286 263 312
1994 271 200 465 350 333 315 373 282 353 213 420 277
1995 324 204 221 162 -15 234 96 253 244 153 149 133
1996 -19 432 267 163 322 287 249 179 225 250 299 171
1997 234 303 316 292 260 266 306 -31 512 340 306 303
1998 276 196 151 280 404 219 129 342 223 199 282 346
1999 126 410 107 376 211 260 326 160 214 400 293 296
2000 230 130 468 287 227 -47 176 -10 136 -14 226 142
2001 -26 72 -25 -281 -38 -131 -112 -157 -240 -325 -293 -170
2002 -138 -134 -20 -79 -7 57 -85 -14 -59 126 10 -157
2003 92 -150 -209 -44 -8 9 24 -42 104 198 17 122
2004 162 46 332 249 308 76 44 121 164 346 64 130
2005 134 239 136 365 174 247 376 194 68 85 337 159
2006 278 316 281 183 23 82 207 181 158 4 208 171
2007 240 90 189 79 143 78 -33 -24 88 85 115 97
2008 19 -86 -78 -210 -185 -165 -209 -266 -452 -473 -769 -695
2009 -791 -703 -823 -686 -351 -470 -329 -212 -219 -200 -7 -279
2010 28 -69 163 243 522 -133 -70 -34 -52 257 123 88
2011 42 188 225 346 73 235 70 107 246 202 146 207
2012 338 257 239 75 115 87 143 190 181 132 149 243
2013 190 311 135 192 218 146 140 269 185 189 291 45
2014 187 168 272 310 213 306 232 218 286 200 331 292
2015 221 265 84 251 273 228 277 150 149 295 280 271
2016 168 233 186 144 24 271 252 167(P) 156(P)
P : preliminary

Civilian Labor Force Level

159,907,000

Series Id:           LNS11000000
Seasonally Adjusted
Series title:        (Seas) Civilian Labor Force Level
Labor force status:  Civilian labor force
Type of data:        Number in thousands
Age:                 16 years and over

Download:
Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
2000 142267(1) 142456 142434 142751 142388 142591 142278 142514 142518 142622 142962 143248
2001 143800 143701 143924 143569 143318 143357 143654 143284 143989 144086 144240 144305
2002 143883 144653 144481 144725 144938 144808 144803 145009 145552 145314 145041 145066
2003 145937(1) 146100 146022 146474 146500 147056 146485 146445 146530 146716 147000 146729
2004 146842(1) 146709 146944 146850 147065 147460 147692 147564 147415 147793 148162 148059
2005 148029(1) 148364 148391 148926 149261 149238 149432 149779 149954 150001 150065 150030
2006 150214(1) 150641 150813 150881 151069 151354 151377 151716 151662 152041 152406 152732
2007 153144(1) 152983 153051 152435 152670 153041 153054 152749 153414 153183 153835 153918
2008 154063(1) 153653 153908 153769 154303 154313 154469 154641 154570 154876 154639 154655
2009 154210(1) 154538 154133 154509 154747 154716 154502 154307 153827 153784 153878 153111
2010 153484(1) 153694 153954 154622 154091 153616 153691 154086 153975 153635 154125 153650
2011 153263(1) 153214 153376 153543 153479 153346 153288 153760 154131 153961 154128 153995
2012 154351(1) 154695 154768 154557 154859 155084 154943 154753 155168 155539 155356 155597
2013 155666(1) 155313 155034 155365 155483 155753 155662 155568 155749 154694 155352 155083
2014 155285(1) 155560 156187 155376 155511 155684 156090 156080 156129 156363 156442 156142
2015 157025(1) 156878 156890 157032 157367 156984 157115 157061 156867 157096 157367 157833
2016 158335(1) 158890 159286 158924 158466 158880 159287 159463 159907
1 : Data affected by changes in population controls.

Labor Force Participation Rate

62.8%

Series Id:           LNS11300000
Seasonally Adjusted
Series title:        (Seas) Labor Force Participation Rate
Labor force status:  Civilian labor force participation rate
Type of data:        Percent or rate
Age:                 16 years and over

Employment Level

151,968,000

Series Id:           LNS12000000
Seasonally Adjusted
Series title:        (Seas) Employment Level
Labor force status:  Employed
Type of data:        Number in thousands
Age:                 16 years and over

Download:
Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
2000 136559(1) 136598 136701 137270 136630 136940 136531 136662 136893 137088 137322 137614
2001 137778 137612 137783 137299 137092 136873 137071 136241 136846 136392 136238 136047
2002 135701 136438 136177 136126 136539 136415 136413 136705 137302 137008 136521 136426
2003 137417(1) 137482 137434 137633 137544 137790 137474 137549 137609 137984 138424 138411
2004 138472(1) 138542 138453 138680 138852 139174 139556 139573 139487 139732 140231 140125
2005 140245(1) 140385 140654 141254 141609 141714 142026 142434 142401 142548 142499 142752
2006 143150(1) 143457 143741 143761 144089 144353 144202 144625 144815 145314 145534 145970
2007 146028(1) 146057 146320 145586 145903 146063 145905 145682 146244 145946 146595 146273
2008 146378(1) 146156 146086 146132 145908 145737 145532 145203 145076 144802 144100 143369
2009 142152(1) 141640 140707 140656 140248 140009 139901 139492 138818 138432 138659 138013
2010 138438(1) 138581 138751 139297 139241 139141 139179 139438 139396 139119 139044 139301
2011 139250(1) 139394 139639 139586 139624 139384 139524 139942 140183 140368 140826 140902
2012 141596(1) 141877 142050 141916 142204 142387 142281 142278 143028 143404 143345 143298
2013 143249(1) 143359 143352 143622 143842 144003 144300 144284 144447 143537 144555 144684
2014 145092(1) 145185 145772 145677 145792 146214 146438 146464 146834 147374 147389 147439
2015 148104(1) 148231 148333 148509 148748 148722 148866 149043 148942 149197 149444 149929
2016 150544(1) 151074 151320 151004 151030 151097 151517 151614 151968

Employment-Population Ratio

59.8%

Series Id:           LNS12300000
Seasonally Adjusted
Series title:        (Seas) Employment-Population Ratio
Labor force status:  Employment-population ratio
Type of data:        Percent or rate
Age:                 16 years and over

Download:
Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
2000 64.6 64.6 64.6 64.7 64.4 64.5 64.2 64.2 64.2 64.2 64.3 64.4
2001 64.4 64.3 64.3 64.0 63.8 63.7 63.7 63.2 63.5 63.2 63.0 62.9
2002 62.7 63.0 62.8 62.7 62.9 62.7 62.7 62.7 63.0 62.7 62.5 62.4
2003 62.5 62.5 62.4 62.4 62.3 62.3 62.1 62.1 62.0 62.1 62.3 62.2
2004 62.3 62.3 62.2 62.3 62.3 62.4 62.5 62.4 62.3 62.3 62.5 62.4
2005 62.4 62.4 62.4 62.7 62.8 62.7 62.8 62.9 62.8 62.8 62.7 62.8
2006 62.9 63.0 63.1 63.0 63.1 63.1 63.0 63.1 63.1 63.3 63.3 63.4
2007 63.3 63.3 63.3 63.0 63.0 63.0 62.9 62.7 62.9 62.7 62.9 62.7
2008 62.9 62.8 62.7 62.7 62.5 62.4 62.2 62.0 61.9 61.7 61.4 61.0
2009 60.6 60.3 59.9 59.8 59.6 59.4 59.3 59.1 58.7 58.5 58.6 58.3
2010 58.5 58.5 58.5 58.7 58.6 58.5 58.5 58.6 58.5 58.3 58.2 58.3
2011 58.3 58.4 58.4 58.4 58.3 58.2 58.2 58.3 58.4 58.4 58.6 58.6
2012 58.4 58.5 58.6 58.5 58.5 58.6 58.5 58.4 58.7 58.8 58.7 58.6
2013 58.5 58.6 58.5 58.6 58.6 58.6 58.7 58.7 58.7 58.3 58.6 58.6
2014 58.8 58.8 59.0 58.9 58.9 59.0 59.0 59.0 59.1 59.3 59.2 59.2
2015 59.3 59.3 59.3 59.3 59.4 59.3 59.3 59.4 59.3 59.3 59.4 59.5
2016 59.6 59.8 59.9 59.7 59.7 59.6 59.7 59.7 59.8

Unemployment Level

7,939,000

Employment Situation Summary Table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Sept.
2015
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Change from:
Aug.
2016-
Sept.
2016

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

251,325 253,620 253,854 254,091 237

Civilian labor force

156,867 159,287 159,463 159,907 444

Participation rate

62.4 62.8 62.8 62.9 0.1

Employed

148,942 151,517 151,614 151,968 354

Employment-population ratio

59.3 59.7 59.7 59.8 0.1

Unemployed

7,925 7,770 7,849 7,939 90

Unemployment rate

5.1 4.9 4.9 5.0 0.1

Not in labor force

94,458 94,333 94,391 94,184 -207

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

5.1 4.9 4.9 5.0 0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

4.7 4.6 4.5 4.7 0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.5 4.3 4.5 4.4 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

16.2 15.6 15.7 15.8 0.1

White

4.4 4.3 4.4 4.4 0.0

Black or African American

9.2 8.4 8.1 8.3 0.2

Asian

3.7 3.8 4.2 3.9 -0.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

6.4 5.4 5.6 6.4 0.8

Total, 25 years and over

4.1 4.0 4.1 4.2 0.1

Less than a high school diploma

7.7 6.3 7.2 8.5 1.3

High school graduates, no college

5.3 5.0 5.1 5.2 0.1

Some college or associate degree

4.3 4.3 4.3 4.2 -0.1

Bachelor’s degree and higher

2.5 2.5 2.7 2.5 -0.2

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,883 3,739 3,791 3,967 176

Job leavers

778 824 885 893 8

Reentrants

2,443 2,298 2,271 2,333 62

New entrants

832 826 861 805 -56

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,373 2,160 2,290 2,574 284

5 to 14 weeks

2,211 2,266 2,329 2,234 -95

15 to 26 weeks

1,228 1,150 1,056 1,157 101

27 weeks and over

2,109 2,020 2,006 1,974 -32

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

6,034 5,940 6,053 5,894 -159

Slack work or business conditions

3,563 3,642 3,727 3,618 -109

Could only find part-time work

2,123 1,981 1,929 1,969 40

Part time for noneconomic reasons

19,997 20,717 20,523 20,688 165

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,921 1,950 1,713 1,844

Discouraged workers

635 591 576 553

– Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

Employment Situation Summary Table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Sept.
2015
July
2016
Aug.
2016(p)
Sept.
2016(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

149 252 167 156

Total private

162 221 144 167

Goods-producing

-12 14 -25 10

Mining and logging

-13 -4 -4 0

Construction

10 16 -5 23

Manufacturing

-9 2 -16 -13

Durable goods(1)

-7 4 -17 -11

Motor vehicles and parts

4.2 5.8 -4.6 -3.1

Nondurable goods

-2 -2 1 -2

Private service-providing

174 207 169 157

Wholesale trade

-1.0 3.0 4.7 9.7

Retail trade

6.4 12.9 20.9 22.0

Transportation and warehousing

4.4 12.2 18.6 -9.0

Utilities

-0.1 0.6 -0.8 0.4

Information

13 -5 -4 1

Financial activities

3 17 13 6

Professional and business services(1)

40 84 31 67

Temporary help services

7.5 15.8 -1.0 23.2

Education and health services(1)

55 42 57 29

Health care and social assistance

46.9 52.1 45.3 21.8

Leisure and hospitality

50 36 21 15

Other services

4 4 8 15

Government

-13 31 23 -11

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

192 182 230 192

Total private

177 153 201 177

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.4 49.6 49.7 49.7

Total private women employees

47.9 48.2 48.2 48.2

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.3 82.3

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.4 34.3 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$25.14 $25.71 $25.73 $25.79

Average weekly earnings

$867.33 $884.42 $882.54 $887.18

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

104.1 105.6 105.4 105.8

Over-the-month percent change

-0.2 0.2 -0.2 0.4

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

125.1 129.7 129.6 130.5

Over-the-month percent change

-0.1 0.5 -0.1 0.7

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (262 industries)

52.9 61.5 59.0 57.8

Manufacturing (79 industries)

38.6 48.1 46.8 39.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.

National Income and Product Accounts
Gross Domestic Product: Second Quarter 2016 (Third Estimate)
Corporate Profits: Second Quarter 2016 (Revised Estimate)
Real gross domestic product increased at an annual rate of 1.4 percent in the second quarter of 2016
(table 1), according to the "third" estimate released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. In the first
quarter, real GDP increased 0.8 percent.

The GDP estimate released today is based on more complete source data than were available for the
"second" estimate issued last month.  In the second estimate, the increase in real GDP was 1.1 percent.
With the third estimate for the second quarter, the general picture of economic growth remains the
same. The most notable change from the second to third estimate is that nonresidential fixed
investment increased in the second quarter; in the previous estimate, nonresidential fixed investment
decreased (see "Updates to GDP" on page 2).
Real GDP: Percent Change from Preceding Quarter
Real gross domestic income (GDI) decreased 0.2 percent in the second quarter, in contrast to an
increase of 0.8 percent in the first. The average of real GDP and real GDI, a supplemental measure of
U.S. economic activity that equally weights GDP and GDI, increased 0.6 percent in the second quarter,
compared with an increase of 0.8 percent in the first (table 1).

The increase in real GDP in the second quarter reflected positive contributions from personal
consumption expenditures (PCE), exports, and nonresidential fixed investment. These were partly offset
by negative contributions from private inventory investment, residential fixed investment, and state and
local government spending. Imports, which are a subtraction in the calculation of GDP, increased (table
2).

The acceleration in real GDP in the second quarter primarily reflected an acceleration in PCE and
upturns in nonresidential fixed investment and in exports. These were partly offset by a larger decrease
in private inventory investment, downturns in state and local government spending and in residential
fixed investment, and an upturn in imports.

Current-dollar GDP increased 3.7 percent, or $168.5 billion, in the second quarter to a level of $18,450.1
billion (table 1 and table 3). In the first quarter, current dollar GDP increased 1.3 percent, or $58.8
billion.

The price index for gross domestic purchases increased 2.1 percent in the second quarter, compared
with an increase of 0.2 percent in the first (table 4). The PCE price index increased 2.0 percent,
compared with an increase of 0.3 percent. Excluding food and energy prices, the PCE price index
increased 1.8 percent, compared with an increase of 2.1 percent (appendix table A).


Updates to GDP

The upward revision to the percent change in real GDP primarily reflected upward revisions to
nonresidential fixed investment, private inventory investment, and exports. For more information, see
the Technical Note. For information on updates to GDP, see the “Additional Information” section that
follows.


                                           Advance Estimate          Second Estimate            Third Estimate

                                                         (Percent change from preceding quarter)
Real GDP                                         1.2                       1.1                        1.4
Current-dollar GDP                               3.5                       3.4                        3.7
Real GDI                                         ---                       0.2                       -0.2
Average of Real GDP and Real GDI                 ---                       0.6                        0.6
Gross domestic purchases price index             2.0                       2.1                        2.1
PCE price index                                  1.9                       2.0                        2.0


Corporate Profits (table 12)

Profits from current production (corporate profits with inventory valuation adjustment and capital
consumption adjustment) decreased $12.5 billion in the second quarter, in contrast to an increase of
$66.0 billion in the first.

Profits of domestic financial corporations increased $5.6 billion in the second quarter, compared with
an increase of $8.1 billion in the first. Profits of domestic nonfinancial corporations decreased $56.1
billion, in contrast to an increase of $84.8 billion. The rest-of-the-world component of profits increased
$38.0 billion, in contrast to a decrease of $26.9 billion. This measure is calculated as the difference
between receipts from the rest of the world and payments to the rest of the world. In the second
quarter, receipts increased $37.5 billion, and payments decreased $0.5 billion.



                                                 *          *          *

                                   Next release:  October 28, 2016 at 8:30 A.M. EDT
                             Gross Domestic Product:  Third Quarter 2016 (Advance Estimate)
                         
                                                 *          *          *


                                                 Additional Information

Resources

Additional Resources available at www.bea.gov:
•	Stay informed about BEA developments by reading the BEA blog, signing up for BEA’s email subscription service, 
or following BEA on Twitter @BEA_News.
•	Historical time series for these estimates can be accessed in BEA’s Interactive Data Application.
•	Access BEA data by registering for BEA’s Data Application Programming Interface (API).
•	For more on BEA’s statistics, see our monthly online journal, the Survey of Current Business.
•	BEA's news release scheduleNIPA Handbook:  Concepts and Methods of the U.S. National Income and Product Accounts

Definitions

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the value of the goods and services produced by the nation’s economy
less the value of the goods and services used up in production. GDP is also equal to the sum of personal
consumption expenditures, gross private domestic investment, net exports of goods and services, and
government consumption expenditures and gross investment.

Gross domestic income (GDI) is the sum of incomes earned and costs incurred in the production of GDP.
In national economic accounting, GDP and GDI are conceptually equal. In practice, GDP and GDI differ
because they are constructed using largely independent source data. Real GDI is calculated by deflating
gross domestic income using the GDP price index as the deflator, and is therefore conceptually
equivalent to real GDP.

Current-dollar estimates are valued in the prices of the period when the transactions occurred—that is,
at “market value.” Also referred to as “nominal estimates” or as “current-price estimates.”
Real values are inflation-adjusted estimates—that is, estimates that exclude the effects of price changes.
The gross domestic purchases price index measures the prices of final goods and services purchased by
U.S. residents.

The personal consumption expenditure price index measures the prices paid for the goods and services
purchased by, or on the behalf of, “persons.”

Profits from current production, referred to as corporate profits with inventory valuation adjustment
(IVA) and capital consumption adjustment (CCAdj) in the NIPAs, is a measure of the net income of
corporations before deducting income taxes that is consistent with the value of goods and services
measured in GDP. The IVA and CCAdj are adjustments that convert inventory withdrawals and
depreciation of fixed assets reported on a tax-return, historical-cost basis to the current-cost economic
measures used in the national income and product accounts.

For more definitions, see the Glossary: National Income and Product Accounts.


Statistical conventions

Annual rates. Quarterly values are expressed at seasonally-adjusted annual rates (SAAR), unless
otherwise specified. Dollar changes are calculated as the difference between these SAAR values. For
detail, see the FAQ “Why does BEA publish estimates at annual rates?”

Percent changes in quarterly series are calculated from unrounded data and are displayed at annual
rates, unless otherwise specified. For details, see the FAQ “How is average annual growth calculated?”

Quantities and prices. Quantities, or “real” volume measures, and prices are expressed as index
numbers with a specified reference year equal to 100 (currently 2009). Quantity and price indexes are
calculated using a Fisher-chained weighted formula that incorporates weights from two adjacent
periods (quarters for quarterly data and annuals for annual data). “Real” dollar series are calculated by
multiplying the published quantity index by the current dollar value in the reference year (2009) and
then dividing by 100. Percent changes calculated from real quantity indexes and chained-dollar levels
are conceptually the same; any differences are due to rounding.

Chained-dollar values are not additive because the relative weights for a given period differ from those
of the reference year. In tables that display chained-dollar values, a “residual” line shows the difference
between the sum of detailed chained-dollar series and its corresponding aggregate.


Updates to GDP

BEA releases three vintages of the current quarterly estimate for GDP:  "Advance" estimates are
released near the end of the first month following the end of the quarter and are based on source data
that are incomplete or subject to further revision by the source agency; “second” and “third” estimates
are released near the end of the second and third months, respectively, and are based on more detailed
and more comprehensive data as they become available.

Annual and comprehensive updates are typically released in late July. Annual updates generally cover at
least the 3 most recent calendar years (and their associated quarters) and incorporate newly available
major annual source data as well as some changes in methods and definitions to improve the accounts.
Comprehensive (or benchmark) updates are carried out at about 5-year intervals and incorporate major
periodic source data, as well as major conceptual improvements.
The table below shows the average revisions to the quarterly percent changes in real GDP between
different estimate vintages, without regard to sign.

Vintage                               Average Revision Without Regard to Sign
                                         (percentage points, annual rates)
Advance to second                                     0.5
Advance to third                                      0.6
Second to third                                       0.2
Advance to latest                                     1.2
Note - Based on estimates from 1993 through 2014. For more information on GDP updates, see Revision
Information on the BEA Web site.

The larger average revision from the advance to the latest estimate reflects the fact that periodic
comprehensive updates include major statistical and methodological improvements.

Unlike GDP, an advance current quarterly estimate of GDI is not released because data on domestic
profits and on net interest of domestic industries are not available. For fourth quarter estimates, these
data are not available until the third estimate.

http://bea.gov/newsreleases/national/GDP/GDPnewsrelease.htm

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Pronk Pops Show 653: April 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 652: April 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 651: April 4, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 650: April 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 649: March 31, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 648: March 30, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 647: March 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 646: March 28, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 645: March 24, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 644: March 23, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 643: March 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 642: March 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 641: March 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 640: March 10, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 639: March 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 638: March 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 637: March 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 636: March 4, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 635: March 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 634: March 2, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 633: March 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 632: February 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 631: February 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 630: February 24, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 629: February 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 628: February 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 627: February 18, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 626: February 17, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 625: February 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 624: February 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 623: February 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 622: February 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 621: February 10, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 620: February 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 619: February 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 618: February 5, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 617: February 4, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 616: February 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 615: February 1, 2016

Story 1: The Decline and Fall of The American Empire and Warfare and Welfare State and The Coming Second American Revolution — The Two Party Income Tax Tyranny  — American Tax Rebellion For Fair Tax Less With $1,000 Per Month Tax Prebate For Every Adult American Citizen — Videos

tax revoltgood_evil_taxesthe fairtax

truth fairtaxthe fairtax benefitsacomparisonoffederaltaxation1gross paycheckFWFairShare

flat tax vs fairtax be fair benefits

fairtax unleash

FairTax: Fire Up Our Economic Engine 

Freedom from the IRS! – FairTax Explained in Detail

The FairTax: It’s Time

Trump uses tax plan to push back on criticisms

Donald Trump explains his 2016 tax plan

Donald Trump unveils his tax plan at Trump Tower

The pros and cons of Donald Trump’s tax plan

The War on Work

What Creates Wealth?

Why Capitalism Works

America’s Socialist Origins

Why Private Investment Works & Govt. Investment Doesn’t

Lower Taxes, Higher Revenue

How to Solve America’s Spending Problem

The Progressive Income Tax: A Tale of Three Brothers

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The Pronk Pops Show 170, November 19, 2013, Segment 1: Harry Markopolos — No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller — Videos

Posted on November 21, 2013. Filed under: American History, Budgetary Policy, Business, College, Communications, Economics, Education, Employment, Fiscal Policy, Government, History, Investments, Labor Economics, Law, Media, Monetary Policy, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Radio, Regulation, Securities and Exchange Commission, Success, Tax Policy, Taxes, Technology, Wealth | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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Pronk Pops Show 170: November 19, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 169: November 18, 2013

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Pronk Pops Show 160: November 1, 2013

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Pronk Pops Show 155: October 24, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 154: October 23, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 153: October 21, 2013

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Segment 1: Harry Markopolos — No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller — Videos

no_one_would_listen

Bernie Madoff: Thief

BernardMadoff

No One Would Listen, by Harry Markopolos

House+Finance+Group+Holds+Hearing+Madoff+Regulatory

The Man Who Knew

Book TV: After Words: Harry Markopolos, “No One Would Listen”

Madoff Whistleblower Speaks with ABC News Radios Aaron Kate

Ackerman Scolds SEC for Not Stopping Bernie Madoff Scheme Despite Being Told About It 10yrs Ago

Markopolos: I gift wrapped and delivered the largest Ponzi scheme in history to the SEC

Rep. Maloney on Madoff Fraud

Congressman Spencer Bachus questions at Madoff Ponzi Fraud Hearing

Congressman Sherman questions Harry Markopoulos

Ron Paul – Madoff Fraud Hearing – Congress – Big Ponzi Scheme 01-05-09

DP/30: Chasing Madoff, subject Harry Markopolos (pt 1 of 2)

DP/30: Chasing Madoff, subject Harry Markopolos (pt 2 of 2)

Background Articles and Videos

Bernie Madoff on the modern stock market

Bernie Madoff Reveals to Barbara Walters He Is ‘Happier in Prison’

Bernie Madoff’s Jail Cell and His Future Life in Prison, Levine: “He’s Worse Than a Child Molester.”

The Madoff Hustle – Part 1

The Madoff Hustle – Part 2

The Madoff Hustle – Part 3

The Madoff Hustle – Part 4

Part 1: The Hunt for Madoff’s Money

Part 2: The Hunt for Madoff?s Money

Too Good to be True- The Rise and Fall of Bernie Madoff Part 1

Erin Arvedlund first wrote about Bernie Madoff for Barrons in 2001 and published her book, Too Good to be True- The Rise and Fall of Bernie Madoff in August of 2009. In this episode of The Massachusetts School of Law’s Books of our Time, Dean Velvel, himself a Madoff victim, and Arvedlund discuss the history of the brokerage industry, the possible culpability of the entire Madoff family, the difference between Madoff’s legitimate brokerage firm and his illegitimate hedge fund and the steps that lead up to the largest Ponzi scheme in American History. Arvedlund tells the story of Madoff’s infamous Ponzi scheme with the knowledge and detail of an insider, and sheds new light on the greatest financial enigma of American History.

The Massachusetts School of Law also presents information on important current affairs to the general public in television and radio broadcasts, an intellectual journal, conferences, author appearances, blogs and books. For more information visit mslawledu.

Too Good to be True- The Rise and Fall of Bernie Madoff Part 2

[youtub4e=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8CdqYJZfyq0]

 

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