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The Pronk Pops Show 546, October 2, 2015, Story 2: Stop Believing The Lying Lunatic Left Gun Grabbers — Pathetic Prevaricating President — Mass Shootings Due To Gun Bans and Gun Free Zones Which Are Magnets That Attract Homicidal and Suicidal Maniacs With Mental Illness, Drug Use, Fanatics and Terrorists — State Concealed Carry Laws Work As A Deterrent — Videos

Posted on October 2, 2015. Filed under: American History, Assault, Blogroll, Books, Breaking News, Cartoons, Communications, Congress, Corruption, Crime, Culture, Education, Employment, European History, Fast and Furious, Federal Government, Games, Gangs, Government, Government Spending, History, Homicide, House of Representatives, Illegal Immigration, Language, Law, Media, Movies, News, Obama, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, President Barack Obama, Progressives, Radio, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Regulation, Scandals, Second Amendment, Senate, Social Science, Success, Taxation, Taxes, Terror, Terrorism, United States Constitution, Videos, Violence | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 546: October 2, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 545: October 1, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 544: September 30, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 543: September 29, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 542: September 28, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 541: September 25, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 540: September 24, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 539: September 23, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 538: September 22, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 537: September 21, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 536: September 18, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 535: September 17, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 534: September 16, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 533: September 15, 2015  

Pronk Pops Show 532: September 14, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 531: September 11, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 530: September 10, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 529: September 9, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 528: September 8, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 527: September 4, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 526: September 3, 2015  

Pronk Pops Show 525: September 2, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 524: August 31, 2015  

Pronk Pops Show 523: August 27, 2015  

Pronk Pops Show 522: August 26, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 521: August 25, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 520: August 24, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 519: August 21, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 518: August 20, 2015  

Pronk Pops Show 517: August 19, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 516: August 18, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 515: August 17, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 514: August 14, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 513: August 13, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 512: August 12, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 511: August 11, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 510: August 10, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 509: July 24, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 508: July 20, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 507: July 17, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 506: July 16, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 505: July 15, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 504: July 14, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 503: July 13, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 502: July 10, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 501: July 9, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 500: July 8, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 499: July 6, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 498: July 2, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 497: July 1, 2015

Story 2: Stop Believing The Lying Lunatic Left Gun Grabbers — Pathetic Prevaricating President — Mass Shootings Due To Gun Bans and Gun Free Zones Which Are Magnets That Attract Homicidal and Suicidal Maniacs With Mental Illness, Drug Use, Fanatics and Terrorists — State Concealed Carry Laws Work As A Deterrent — Videos
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Down-by-Lib-600-CIGUN FREE ZONES MOST DANGEROUS ON EARTH

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Mass shooting shocks Oregon community college

MASS SHOOTING: Gunman among 13 dead at Oregon community college

Obama’s Anger at Oregon Community College Shootings

Obama, visibly upset, responds to Oregon shooting – 1 Oct 2015

THE EXECUTIVE: Obama’s Real Reason He Wants Your Guns (Full Documentary)

John Lott Jr. on Gun Rights in Wake of Shooting | “Dana”

President Obama’s Emotional Reaction to Oregon College Shooting

Gun Control and Mass Shootings: Facts, Lies and God

Gun Control: New Documentary

Megyn Kelly Panel Clashes Over Stricter Gun Control To Prevent Mass Shootings -Heated Debate

John Lott on Judge Jeanine’s show on Fox News: Why Chicago’s Crime Rates are so high

John Lott: Obama is the Most Radical President in American History

In a talk given on the very day a gunman was apprehended at the University of Austin, American senior research scientist at the University of Maryland and gun rights expert John Lott explains why guns bans only serve to increase gun crime rates, why the pilots should be armed, and how statistics prove that since the DC handgun ban was lifted, there has been a dramatic drop in the murder rate.

Lott points to his research which proves that there isn’t a place in the world where a gun ban lowers gun crime, in fact stricter firearms regulation habitually leads to an increase in murder rates, because the only people who follow such regulations are law-abiding citizens who turn in their guns and thus leave themselves vulnerable to armed criminals who don’t obey the law.

Speaking on the subject of pilots being armed, Lott points out that up until 1979, pilots were mandated to carry with them a loaded handgun and throughout decades of this policy there is not one example handguns causing a problem on an airliner, demolishing the innumerable “what if” hypothetical arguments of those who oppose arming the pilots, as well as the arguments against having concealed carry on college campuses.

Lott details statistics that show since the Washington DC handgun ban was lifted, there has been a huge drop in murder rates, a fact that has received virtually no news coverage in the anti-second amendment establishment media. Crimes using guns since the ban was lifted fell by about three times as fast as other crimes not involving guns. Alternatively, since the Chicago gun ban in 1982, Lott documents how gun crime soared in both Chicago and surrounding areas.

John Lott: More Guns, Less Crime book interview on CSPAN

Deadliest U.S. mass shootings | 1984-2015

DEVELOPING: 10 dead; 7 injured: Roseburg, Ore.

((Aaron Yost / Associated Press)

At least seven people were killed and 7 injured by a gunman who opened fire Thursday at a southwestern Oregon community college, officials said. The shooting happened at Umpqua Community College in Roseburg, about 180 miles south of Portland.

NOTE: Earlier reports had as many as 13 dead and 20 injured.

Follow our live blog for the latest developments >>

9 dead: Charleston, S.C.

An undated handout photo provided by the Berkeley County, South Carolina, shows 21-year-old Dylann Storm Roof of Columbia, S.C.
An undated handout photo provided by the Berkeley County, South Carolina, shows 21-year-old Dylann Storm Roof of Columbia, S.C. (EPA)

Dylann Storm Roof is identified as the suspect in the shooting that killed nine people at a historic black church in Charleston, S.C., on Wednesday night.

7 dead, 7 wounded: Isla Vista, Calif.

A car window is shot out after a series of shootings near the UC Santa Barbara campus.

A car window is shot out after a series of shootings near the UC Santa Barbara campus. (Associated Press / KEYT-TV)

A gunman opens fire in the UC Santa Barbara campus town of Isla Vista from inside a black BMW. The gunman was killed during the shooting rampage. Law enforcement sources identified Elliot Rodger as the preliminary suspect. Investigators believe the gunman acted alone and are analyzing a threatening video and written evidence that suggests the killings were premeditated.

3 killed; 16 injured: Ft. Hood, Texas

Media wait outside Fort Hood for an official statement Wednesday.

Media wait outside Fort Hood for an official statement Wednesday. (Deborah Cannon/Austin American-Statesman/MCT)

A gunman at Fort Hood, the scene of a deadly 2009 rampage, kills three people and injures 16 others, according to military officials. The gunman is dead at the scene.

13 killed, 3 injured: Washington, D.C.

Police work the scene on M Street, SE in Washington near the Washington Navy Yard.

Police work the scene on M Street, SE in Washington near the Washington Navy Yard. (Jacquelyn Martin / Associated Press)

A shooter who engaged police in a running firefight through the sprawling Washington Navy Yard is shot and killed.

At least 13 people including the shooter are killed in the rampage that began approximately 8:15 a.m. at the Navy Yard, a huge complex of buildings along Washington’s Anacostia River waterfront. The shooter is later identified as Aaron Alexis, a Navy contractor and former Navy enlisted man from Fort Worth.

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Workplace

5 killed: Santa Monica

(AP Photo / Santa Monica Police Department)

John Zawahri, an unemployed 23-year-old, kills five people in an attack that starts at his father’s home and ends at Santa Monica College, where he is fatally shot by police in the school’s library.

27 killed, one injured: Newtown, Conn.

Responders gather at scene of a mass school shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School.

Responders gather at scene of a mass school shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School. (Mario Tama / Getty Images)

A gunman forces his way into Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Conn. and shoots and kills 20 first graders and six adults. The shooter, Adam Lanza, 20, kills himself at the scene. Lanza also killed his mother at the home they shared, prior to his shooting rampage. In emotional remarks from the White House, President Obama wiped away tears. “Our hearts are broken today,” the president said.
Photos | Full coverage

3 dead, 4 injured: Brookfield, Wis.

Rescue personnel arrive at the Azana Salon and Spa

Rescue personnel arrive at the Azana Salon and Spa (Michael Sears / Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel)

Radcliffe Haughton, a 45-year-old former Marine, walks into the Azana Salon and Spa where his estranged wife works and shoots and kills her and two other women, wounding four others. Witnesses say Haughton’s wife, Zina, calmly tried to protect coworkers and customers before she was killed. She had recently sought a restraining order saying her husband had threatened to throw acid in her face and set her on fire with gasoline. Haughton was found dead inside the salon of a self-inflicted gunshot.

6 killed, 2 injured: Minneapolis, Minn.

Engeldinger working at Accent Signage in Minneapolis

Engeldinger working at Accent Signage in Minneapolis (Bill Klotz / Associated Press)

Andrew Engeldinger, 36, breaks into a sign company’s offices and opens fire, killing the owner and five others before turning the gun on himself. Engeldinger had been fired from Accent Signage Systems, a small company that specializes in making interior signs that comply with the Americans With Disabilities Act, including signs in Braille for the blind.

6 killed, 3 injured: Oak Creek, Wis.

Wade Michael Page

Wade Michael Page (Handout/ Getty Images)

Wade Michael Page fatally shoots six people at a Sikh temple before he is shot by a police officer. Page, an Army veteran who was a “psychological operations specialist,” committed suicide after he was wounded.

Page was a member of a white supremacist band called End Apathy and his views led federal officials to treat the shooting as an act of domestic terrorism. He had been administratively discharged from the Army in 1998 after being demoted in rank.

Victims: Who they were

12 killed, 58 injured: Aurora, Colo.

James Holmes

James Holmes (University of Colorado Denver/Zuma Press/MCT)

James Holmes, 24, is taken into custody in the parking lot outside the Century 16 movie theater after a post-midnight attack in Aurora, Colo. Holmes allegedly entered the theater through an exit door about half an hour into the local premiere of “The Dark Knight Rises.” He faces charges of of killing 12 people and injuring 58 others.

Victims: Who they were

7 killed, 3 injured: Oakland

One L. Goh

One L. Goh (Alameda County Sheriff’s Office)

One L. Goh, 43, a former student at a Oikos University, a small Christian college, allegedly opens fire in the middle of a classroom leaving seven people dead and three wounded.

Goh was charged with seven counts of murder with special circumstances and three counts of attempted murder. In a jailhouse interview with a San Francisco TV station shortly after the shooting, Goh said he was “deeply sorry” for his actions.

8 killed, 1 injured: Seal Beach, Calif.

Booking photo of Scott Dekraai

Booking photo of Scott Dekraai (Seal Beach Police Dept.)

Scott Dekraai, 41, apparently enraged over a custody dispute, allegedly walks into a crowded Seal Beach hair salon where his former wife works and opens fire. Eight people are killed, including a man sitting in a truck outside the salon. Another person is critically wounded. Dekraai has pleaded not guilty in the case.

6 killed, 11 injured: Tucson, Ariz.

Jared Lee Loughner in an undated MySpace photo

Jared Lee Loughner in an undated MySpace photo (AP Photo)

Jared Lee Loughner, 22, allegedly shoots Arizona Rep. Gabrielle Giffords in the head during a meet-and-greet with constituents at a Tucson supermarket. Six people are killed and 11 others wounded. Loughner is identified by witnesses as the gunman who fired at close range with semiautomatic pistol before being tackled.

8 killed, 2 injured: Manchester, Conn.

Omar S. Thornton, 34, a driver for Hartford Distributors, emerges from a disciplinary hearing and begins shooting, killing eight people at the family-owned distributorship and then himself.

3 killed, 3 wounded: Huntsville, Ala.

(Eric Schultz / Associated Press)

Amy Bishop 45, a neurobiologist and assistant professor at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, shoots and kills 3 people at a biology faculty meeting. Bishop is later sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole.

13 killed, 32 injured: Ft. Hood, Texas

Maj. Nidal Malik Hasan in a 2007 photo

Maj. Nidal Malik Hasan in a 2007 photo (Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences)

Maj. Nidal Malik Hasan, an Army psychiatrist, allegedly shoots and kills 13 people and injures 32 others in a rampage at Ft. Hood, where he is based. Authorities allege that Hasan was exchanging emails with Muslim extremists including American-born radical Anwar Awlaki.

13 killed, 4 injured: Binghamton, N.Y.

(AP Photo/Binghamton Police Department)

Jiverly Voong, 41, shoots and kills 13 people and seriously wounds four others before apparently committing suicide at the American Civic Assn., an immigration services center, in Binghamton, N.Y.

5 killed, 16 injured: Dekalb, Ill.

(Associated Press)

Steven Kazmierczak, dressed all in black, steps on stage in a lecture hall at Northern Illinois University and opens fire on a geology class. Five students are killed and 16 wounded before Kazmierczak kills himself on the lecture hall stage.

8 killed, 4 injured: Omaha

(EPA / Yearbook photo)

Robert Hawkins, 19, sprays an Omaha shopping mall with gunfire as holiday shoppers scatter in terror. He kills eight people and wounds four others before taking his own life. Authorities report he left several suicide notes.

32 killed, 17 injured: Blacksburg, Va.

Image taken from a video aired by NBC News shows Virginia Tech gunman Seung-hui Cho

Image taken from a video aired by NBC News shows Virginia Tech gunman Seung-hui Cho (Associated Press Photo/NBC)

Seung-hui Cho, a 23-year-old Virginia Tech senior, opens fire on campus, killing 32 people in a dorm and an academic building in attacks more than two hours apart. Cho takes his life after the second incident.

5 killed, 4 injured: Salt Lake City

Sulejman Talovic, 18, wearing a trenchcoat and carrying a shotgun, sprays a popular Salt Lake City shopping mall. Witnesses say he displays no emotion while killing five people and wounding four others. An off-duty police officer eating dinner with his wife exchanges gunfire with the Bosnian refugee before other officers arrive and fatally wound Talovic.

5 killed, 5 injured: Nickel Mines, Pa.

(Associated Press)

Charles Carl Roberts IV, a milk truck driver armed with a small arsenal, bursts into a one-room schoolhouse and kills five Amish girls. He kills himself as police storm the building.

9 killed, 7 injured: Red Lake Indian Reservation, Minn.

Jeffrey Weise, a 16-year-old student at Red Lake High School fatally shoots five students, a teacher, and a security guard and wounds seven others before taking his own life. Before his rampage at Red Lake, Weise kills his grandfather and his grandfather’s companion at their home on the Red Lake Indian Reservation.

5 killed, 9 injured: Meridian, Miss.

Doug Williams in an undated photo

Doug Williams in an undated photo (Lauderdale County Sheriff’s Office)

Doug Williams, 48, a production assemblyman for 19 years at Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co., goes on a rampage at the defense plant, fatally shooting five and wounding nine before taking his own life with a shotgun.

3 killed: Tucson

Robert S. Flores, 41, a Persian Gulf War veteran and student at the University of Arizona’s College of Nursing, enters a lecture hall and gun downs two of his nursing professors. Flores then orders the students out of the classroom and commits suicide. Another associate professor of nursing is later discovered shot to death in her second-floor office.

2 killed, 13 injured: Santee, Calif.

Charles Andrew Williams in court during his arraignment in San Diego County Superior Court in March 2001

Charles Andrew Williams in court during his arraignment in San Diego County Superior Court in March 2001(Associated Press)

Santana High student Charles Andrew Williams, 15, fatally shoots two classmates and wounds 13 others on the campus. He is apprehended by police in the school bathroom, where his attack began. Williams is later sentenced to 50 years to life.

7 killed: Wakefield, Mass.

Michael McDermott in Middlesex Superior Court in Cambridge, Mass.

Michael McDermott in Middlesex Superior Court in Cambridge, Mass. (John Blanding / Associated Press Photo)

Michael McDermott, a 42-year-old software tester shoots and kills seven co-workers at the Internet consulting firm where he is employed. McDermott, who is arrested at the offices of Edgewater Technology Inc., apparently was enraged because his salary was about to be garnished to satisfy tax claims by the Internal Revenue Service. He uses three weapons in his attack.

7 killed: Honolulu

(George F. Lee / AFP Photo)

Byran Uyesugi, a Xerox copier repairman, shoots and kills seven coworkers with a Glock 9-mm semiautomatic handgun as they gather for a meeting to discuss his light workload. Uyesugi is a former high school sharpshooter who legally owns 11 handguns, five rifles and two shotguns. He is later found guilty of seven counts of murder and one of attempted murder for shooting at a man who escaped. He is serving a life sentence without possibility of parole.

7 killed, 7 injured: Fort Worth

(Associated Press)

Larry Gene Ashbrook opens fire inside the crowded chapel of the Wedgwood Baptist Church. Worshipers, thinking at first that it must be a prank, keep singing. But when they realize what is happening, they dive to the floor and scrunch under pews, terrified and silent as the gunfire continues. Seven people are killed before Ashbrook takes his own life.

9 killed, 12 injured: Atlanta

Mark O. Barton

Mark O. Barton (Associated Press)

Mark Orrin Barton, a 44-year-old chemist-turned-day trader, strolls into two investment offices and opens fire on fellow investors and office workers. The shootings at All-Tech Investment and Momentum Securities Inc., across the street from each other, leave nine people dead and 12 wounded. Barton eludes a manhunt for six hours before killing himself.

13 killed, 24 injured: Columbine, Colo.

(Associated Press)

Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, students at Columbine High, open fire at the school, killing a dozen students and a teacher and causing injury to two dozen others before taking their own lives.

5 killed, 10 injured: Jonesboro, Ark.

(Associated Press)

Middle school students Mitchell Johnson and Andrew Golden pull a fire alarm at their school in a small rural Arkansas community and then open fire on students and teachers using an arsenal they had stashed in the nearby woods. Four students and a teacher who tried shield the children are killed and 10 others are injured. Because of their ages, Mitchell. 13, and Andrew, 11, are sentenced to confinement in a juvenile facility until they turn 21.

6 killed, 19 injured: Garden City, N.Y.

(Sharon M. Beard / Associated Press)

Colin Ferguson shoots and kills six passengers and wounds 19 others on a Long Island Rail Road commuter train before being stopped by other riders. Ferguson is later sentenced to life in prison.

8 killed, 6 injured: San Francisco

(AP Photo/Marin Independent Journal)

Gian Luigi Ferri, 55, kills eight people in an office building in San Francisco’s financial district. His rampage begins in the 34th-floor offices of Pettit &Martin, an international law firm, and ends in a stairwell between the 29th and 30th floors where he encounters police and shoots himself.

4 killed, 10 wounded: Olivehurst, Calif.

Eric Houston, a 20-year-old unemployed computer assembler, invades Lindhurst High School and opens fire, killing his former teacher Robert Brens and three students and wounding 10 others. He holds 85 students hostage for 8 1/2 hours before giving himself up.

Houston was convicted in July 1993 on four counts of murder. He is currently on death row at San Quentin State Prison.

4 killed, 2 injured: Iowa City, Iowa

A University of Iowa campus security officer checks the hallway outside the sealed Office of Academic Affairs in Jessup Hall.

A University of Iowa campus security officer checks the hallway outside the sealed Office of Academic Affairs in Jessup Hall. (The Gazette / Associated Press)

Gang Lu, a gradu­ate stu­dent in phys­ics from China, shoots four people to death at the Uni­versity of Iowa. Lu, who took his own life in the in­cid­ent, was up­set about not get­ting an aca­dem­ic hon­or. The dead included fac­ulty mem­bers and the stu­dent who had won the hon­or. Two oth­ers were crit­ic­ally wounded.

22 killed, 20 wounded: Killeen, Texas

Police officers gather outside Luby's Cafeteria in Killeen, Texas

Police officers gather outside Luby’s Cafeteria in Killeen, Texas (Rick McFarland / Associated Press)

George Jo Hennard, 35, crashes his pickup truck in­to a Luby’s cafet­er­ia crowded with lunch­time pat­rons and be­gins firing indiscriminately with a semi­auto­mat­ic pistol, killing 22 people. Hennard is later found dead of a gun­shot wound in a res­taur­ant restroom.

10 killed, 4 wounded: Jacksonville, Fla.

James E. Pough, a 42-year-old day laborer apparently distraught over the repossession of his car, walks into the offices of General Motors Acceptance Corp. and opens fire, killing seven employees and one customer before fatally shooting himself. Police later said they had confirmed that Pough was responsible for gunning down a man and woman on a Jacksonsville street 33 hours earlier.

5 killed, 29 injured; Stockton, Calif.

Patrick Edward Purdy turns a powerful assault rifle on a crowded school playground, killing five children and wounding 29 more. Purdy, who also killed himself, had been a student at the school from kindergarten through third grade.

Police officials described Purdy as a troubled drifter in his mid-20s with a history of relatively minor brushes with the law. The midday attack lasted only minutes.

14 killed, 6 wounded: Edmond, Okla.

Patrick H. Sherrill, 44, a mail carrier, walks into his post office and opens fire, killing 14 coworkers and wounding six others before killing himself with a bullet to the head. Sherrill, who faced possible dismissal, had been given a poor performance report by his supervisor the previous day.

21 killed, 19 wounded: San Ysidro, Calif.

James Oliver Huberty, a 41-year-old out-of-work security guard, kills 21 employees and customers at a McDonald’s restaurant. Huberty is fatally shot by a police sniper perched on the roof of a nearby post office.

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The Pronk Pops Show 141, October 2, 2013, Segment 0: Breaking News — Tom Clancy — Rest In Peace — Photos — Videos

Posted on October 3, 2013. Filed under: Bombs, Books, Communications, Consitutional Law, Cruise Missiles, Culture, Disasters, Energy, Federal Government, Foreign Policy, Games, Government, Law, Media, Movies, Music, Philosophy, Photos, Pistols, Politics, Religion, Rifles, Security, Social Networking, Social Science, Success, Technology, Terror, Terrorism, Videos, Violence, War, Wealth, Weapons, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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Pronk Pops Show 141: October 2, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 140: September 30, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 139: September 27, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 138: September 26, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 137: September 25, 2013

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Pronk Pops Show 128: September 12, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 127: September 11, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 126: September 10, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 125: September 9, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 124: September 6, 2013

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Segment 0: Breaking News — Tom Clancy — Rest In Peace — Photos — Video

Tom Clancy And General Zinni Promote "Battle Ready"

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Author-Tom-Clancy

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 CLANCY-smoking

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Tom Clancy11

Author Tom Clancy dies at 66

Best-selling Author Tom Clancy Dead at 66

Author Tom Clancy, master of the modern day thriller, dead at 66

VIDEO – Worldwide Trend Topic Tom Clancy’s Dead WorldWideTT

US author Tom Clancy dies aged 66

Archive Tom Clancy on prophetic 9 11 plot

Tom Clancy Dead Tom Clancy dies in Baltimore age 66 Author Tom Clancy’s Splinter Cell 1947-2013

Tom Clancy Dead Tom Clancy dies in Baltimore age 66 Author Tom Clancy’s Rainbow Six 1947 2013

9/11 Tom Clancy Coverage of the WTC 7 Collapse CNN 5 35 PM 9 11 2001

Politika (1997) – Tom Clancy’s Fictional Interview on Boris Yeltsin

Tom Clancy on Government

Tom Clancy – Greek Island Interview – SSN – 1996

Tom Clancy, Dead or Alive: Discussion w/ ‘Chuck’ A. Horner, retired Air Force General

Tom Clancy – OP Center (Full movie)

Tom Clancy’s Splinter Cell: Blacklist – All Cutscenes | Movie [HD]

The Hunt For Red October (1990) Trailer.flv

The Hunt for Red October (1/9) Movie CLIP – Another Possibility (1990) HD

The Hunt for Red October (2/9) Movie CLIP – Ryan’s Plan (1990) HD

The Sum of All Fears (1/9) Movie CLIP – Everyone Has Opinions (2002) HD

The Sum of All Fears (2/9) Movie CLIP – I Can’t Tell You That (2002) HD

The True Story The Hunt For Red October

Tom Clancy – Wiki Article

Published on May 21, 2013

Thomas Leo “Tom” Clancy, Jr. is an American author who is best known for his technically detailed espionage and military science storylines that are set during and in the aftermath of the Cold War, along with video games which bear his name for licensing and promotional purposes, although he did not actually work on them himself. His name is also a brand for similar movie scripts written by ghost writers and many series of non-fiction books on military subjects and merged biographies of key leaders. He is Vice Chairman of Community Activities and Public Affairs, as well as a part-owner of the Baltimore Orioles.

Personal life

Clancy was born in Baltimore, Maryland. He attended Loyola Blakefield in Towson, Maryland, graduating with the class of 1965. He then attended Loyola College in Baltimore, graduating in 1969. Before making his literary debut, he spent some time running an independent insurance agency. This agency thrived for a few years before joining a group of investors.

Clancy and his first wife Wanda married in 1969, separated briefly in 1995, and permanently separated in December 1996. Clancy filed for divorce in November 1997, which became final in January 1999.

In 1993, Tom Clancy joined a group of investors that included Peter Angelos and bought the Baltimore Orioles from Eli Jacobs. In 1998, he reached an agreement to purchase the Minnesota Vikings, but had to abandon the deal because of the divorce settlement cost.

On June 26, 1999, Clancy married freelance journalist Alexandra Marie Llewellyn, whom he had met in 1997. Llewellyn is the daughter of J. Bruce Llewellyn, and a family friend of Colin Powell, who originally introduced the couple to each other.

In 2008, the French video game manufacturer Ubisoft purchased the use of Clancy’s name for an undisclosed sum. It has been used in conjunction with video games and related products such as movies and books. Based on his interest in space, and his investment in the launch vehicle company Rotary Rocket, in 2007 Clancy was interviewed for the documentary film Orphans of Apollo.

Political views

Tom Clancy has been a lifetime supporter of conservative and Republican causes in America. His books bear dedications to conservative political figures, most notably Ronald Reagan. A week after the September 11, 2001 attacks, on The O’Reilly Factor, Clancy stated that left-wing politicians in the United States were partly responsible for September 11 due to their “gutting” of the Central Intelligence Agency. Clancy has also associated himself with General Anthony Zinni, a critic of the George W. Bush administration, and has been critical of former Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld as well.

On September 11, 2001, Clancy was interviewed by Judy Woodruff on CNN. During the interview, he asserted “Islam does not permit suicide” (see Islam and suicide). Among other observations during this interview, Clancy cited discussions he had with military experts on the lack of planning to handle a hijacked plane being used in a suicide attack and criticized the news media’s treatment of the United States Intelligence Community. Clancy appeared again on PBS’s Charlie Rose, to discuss the implications of the day’s events with Richard Holbrooke, New York Times journalist Judith Miller, and Senator John Edwards, among others. Clancy was interviewed on these shows because his 1994 book Debt of Honor included a scenario where a disgruntled Japanese character crashes a fueled Boeing 747 into the U.S. Capitol dome during a State of the Union address, killing the President and most of Congress. This plot device bore strong similarities to the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001.

Clancy has been a Life Member of the National Rifle Association since 1978.

Bibliography

The Hunt for Red October, Patriot Games, Clear and Present Danger, and The Sum of All Fears have been turned into commercially successful films with actors Alec Baldwin, Harrison Ford, and Ben Affleck as Clancy’s most famous fictional

Tom Clancy, Best-Selling Novelist of Military Thrillers, Dies

at 66

By JULIE BOSMAN

Tom Clancy, whose complex, adrenaline-fueled military novels made him one of the world’s best-selling and best-known authors, died on Tuesday in a hospital in Baltimore. He was 66.

Ivan Held, the president of G. P. Putnam’s Sons, his publisher, did not provide a cause of death.

Mr. Clancy’s books were successfully transformed into blockbuster Hollywood films, including “Patriot Games,” “The Hunt for Red October“ and “Clear and Present Danger.”

His next book, “Command Authority,” is planned for publication on Dec. 3.

Seventeen of his novels were No. 1 New York Times best sellers, including his most recent, “Threat Vector,” which was released in December 2012.

Mr. Clancy was an insurance salesman when he sold his first novel, “The Hunt for Red October,” to the Naval Institute Press for only $5,000.

That publisher had never released a novel before, but the editors were taken with Mr. Clancy’s manuscript. They were concerned, however, that there were too many technical descriptions, so they asked him to make cuts. Mr. Clancy made revisions and cut at least 100 pages.

The book took off when President Ronald Reagan, who had received a copy, called it was “my kind of yarn” and said that he couldn’t put it down.

After the book’s publication in 1985, Mr. Clancy was praised for his mastery of technical details about Soviet submarines and weaponry. Even high-ranking members of the military took notice of the book’s apparent inside knowledge.

In an interview in 1986, Mr. Clancy said, “When I met Navy Secretary John Lehman last year, the first thing he asked me about the book was, ‘Who the hell cleared it?’ “

David Shanks, a Penguin executive who worked with Mr. Clancy for decades, called him “a consummate author, creating the modern-day thriller, and one of the most visionary storytellers of our time.”Born to a middle-class family in Baltimore on April 12, 1947, Mr. Clancy skipped over the usual children’s literature and became obsessed by naval history from a young age, reading journals and books whose intended audience was career military officers and engineering experts.

He absorbed details of submarine warfare, espionage, missile systems and covert plots between superpowers.

He attended Loyola College in Baltimore, where he majored in English, and graduated in 1969. While Mr. Clancy harbored ambitions to join the military, even joining the Army R.O.T.C., he was told that he was too nearsighted to qualify.

Mr. Clancy began working at a small insurance agency in rural Maryland that was founded by his wife’s grandfather.

After “The Hunt for Red October” was published, Mr. Clancy’s fame was fairly instant. Frequently posing for photographs in darkened aviator sunglasses, jeans and holding a cigarette, Mr. Clancy spoke of the laserlike focus required to succeed.

“I tell them you learn to write the same way you learn to play golf,” he said. “You do it, and keep doing it until you get it right. A lot of people think something mystical happens to you, that maybe the muse kisses you on the ear. But writing isn’t divinely inspired — it’s hard work.”

He followed “The Hunt for Red October” with “Red Storm Rising“ in 1986, “Patriot Games” in 1987, “The Cardinal of the Kremlin“ in 1988 and “Clear and Present Danger” in 1989.

The critical reception to his novels was gushing from the start. Reviewing “Red Storm Rising” in The New York Times in 1986, Christopher Lehmann-Haupt wrote that the book “far surpassed” Mr. Clancy’s debut novel.

“Red Storm Rising” is a “superpower thriller,” he wrote, “the verbal equivalent of a high-tech video game.” (Mr. Clancy would eventually venture into video games, which were easily adapted from his novels.)

Other critics questioned the unwaveringly virtuous nature of many of Mr. Clancy’s heroes, particularly his protagonist Jack Ryan.

“All the Americans are paragons of courage, endurance and devotion to service and country,” Robert Lekachman wrote in the Times in 1986. “Their officers are uniformly competent and occasionally inspired. Men of all ranks are faithful husbands and devoted fathers.”

Mr. Clancy was frequently accused of using classified information in his novels, a claim that amused him. While he spent time on military bases, visited the Pentagon and dined with high-level military officials, he insisted that he didn’t want to know any classified information.

“I hang my hat on getting as many things right as I can,” Mr. Clancy once said in an interview. “I’ve made up stuff that’s turned out to be real, that’s the spooky part.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/03/books/tom-clancy-best-selling-novelist-of-military-thrillers-dies-at-66.html?_r=1&

Tom Clancy

Thomas Leo “Tom” Clancy, Jr. (April 12, 1947 – October 1, 2013)[1][2] was an American author best known for his technically detailed espionage and military science storylines that are set during and in the aftermath of the Cold War, along with video games which bear his name for licensing and promotional purposes. His name was also a brand for similar movie scripts written by ghost writers and many series of non-fiction books on military subjects and merged biographies of key leaders. He was Vice Chairman of Community Activities and Public Affairs, as well as a part-owner, of the Baltimore Orioles.

Literary career

Clancy’s fiction works, The Hunt for Red OctoberPatriot GamesClear and Present Danger, and The Sum of All Fears, have been turned into commercially successful films with actors Alec BaldwinHarrison Ford, and Ben Affleck as Clancy’s most famous fictional character Jack Ryan, while his second most famous character John Clark has been played by actors Willem Dafoe and Liev Schreiber. All but two of Clancy’s solely written novels feature Jack Ryan or John Clark.

The first NetForce novel was adapted as a television movie, starring Scott Bakula and Joanna Going. The first Op-Center novel was released to coincide with a 1995 NBC television mini-series of the same name (Tom Clancy’s Op-Center) starring Harry Hamlin and a cast of stars. Though the mini-series did not continue, the book series did, but it had little in common with the first mini-series other than the title and the names of the main characters.

With the release of The Teeth of the Tiger, Clancy introduced Jack Ryan’s son and two nephews as main characters; these characters continue in his three latest novels, Dead or AliveLocked On and Threat Vector.

Clancy wrote several nonfiction books about various branches of the U.S. armed forces (see non-fiction listing, below). Clancy also branded several lines of books and video games with his name that are written by other authors, following premises or storylines generally in keeping with Clancy’s works. These are sometimes referred to by fans as “apostrophe” books; Clancy did not initially acknowledge that these series were being authored by others, only thanking the actual authors in the headnotes for their “invaluable contribution to the manuscript”.

By 1988, Clancy had earned $1.3 million for The Hunt for Red October and had signed a $3 million contract for his next three books.[3] By 1997, it was reported that Penguin Putnam Inc. (part of Pearson Education) would pay Clancy $50 million for world rights to two new books, and another $25 million to Red Storm Entertainment for a four-year book/multimedia deal.[4] Clancy followed this up with an agreement with Penguin’s Berkley Books for 24 paperbacks to tie in with the ABC television miniseries Tom Clancy’s Net Force aired in the fall/winter of 1998. The Op-Center universe has laid the ground for the series of books written by Jeff Rovin, which was in an agreement worth $22 million, bringing the total value of the package to $97 million.[4]

In 1993, Clancy joined a group of investors that included Peter Angelos and bought the Baltimore Orioles from Eli Jacobs. In 1998, he reached an agreement to purchase theMinnesota Vikings, but had to abandon the deal because of the divorce settlement cost.

On June 26, 1999, Clancy married freelance journalist Alexandra Marie Llewellyn, whom he had met in 1997.[5] Llewellyn is the daughter of J. Bruce Llewellyn, and a family friend ofColin Powell, who originally introduced the couple to each other.[6]

In 2008, the French video game manufacturer Ubisoft purchased the use of Clancy’s name for an undisclosed sum. It has been used in conjunction with video games and related products such as movies and books.[7] Based on his interest in space, and his investment in the launch vehicle company Rotary Rocket, in 2007 Clancy was interviewed for the documentary film Orphans of Apollo.

Political views

A longtime holder of conservative and Republican views, Clancy’s books bear dedications to American conservative political figures, most notably Ronald Reagan. A week after theSeptember 11, 2001 attacks, on The O’Reilly Factor, Clancy claimed that left-wing politicians in the United States were partly responsible for September 11 due to their “gutting” of the Central Intelligence Agency.[6]

In recent years, Clancy associated himself with General Anthony Zinni, a critic of the George W. Bush administration, and has been critical of former Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld as well.[8]

On September 11, 2001, Clancy was interviewed by Judy Woodruff on CNN.[9] During the interview, he asserted “Islam does not permit suicide” (see Islam and suicide). Among other observations during this interview, Clancy cited discussions he had with military experts on the lack of planning to handle a hijacked plane being used in a suicide attack and criticized the news media’s treatment of the United States Intelligence Community. Clancy appeared again on PBS‘s Charlie Rose, to discuss the implications of the day’s events with Richard Holbrooke, New York Times journalist Judith Miller, and Senator John Edwards, among others.[10] Clancy was interviewed on these shows because his 1994 book Debt of Honor included a scenario where a disgruntled Japanese character crashes a fueled Boeing 747 into the U.S. Capitol dome during an address by the President to a joint session of Congress, killing the President and most of Congress. This plot device bore strong similarities to the attacks of September 11, 2001.

Clancy was also a Life Member of the National Rifle Association since 1978.[11]

Personal

Clancy was born in Baltimore, Maryland.[1] He attended Loyola Blakefield in Towson, Maryland, graduating with the class of 1965.[1] He then attended Loyola College (now Loyola University) in Baltimore, graduating in 1969.[1] Before making his literary debut, he spent some time running an independent insurance agency.

Clancy and his first wife Wanda married in 1969, separated briefly in 1995, and permanently separated in December 1996.[12] Clancy filed for divorce in November 1997,[13] which became final in January 1999.[14] In 1999, Clancy married freelance journalist Alexandra Marie Llewellyn.[15]

Clancy died October 1, 2013, after a brief illness at Johns Hopkins Hospital, near his Baltimore home. He was 66 and no cause of death was released. He is survived by four children and his second wife, Alexandra Marie Llewellyn.[16]

Bibliography

Works, by year of publication

The Hunt for Red October (1984)
Clancy’s first published novel. CIA analyst Jack Ryan assists in the defection of a respected Soviet naval captain, along with the most advanced ballistic missile submarine of the Soviet fleet. The movie (1990) stars Alec Baldwin as Ryan and Sean Connery as Captain Ramius. Captain Mancuso is introduced here. Nearly every book after has Mancuso in ever increasing command of U.S. submarine forces.
Red Storm Rising (1986)
War between NATO and USSR. The basis of the combat game of the same name, this book is not a member of the Ryan story series (although the protagonist of the story has many similarities with Jack Ryan). Cowritten with Larry Bond.
Patriot Games (1987)
Patriot Games chronologically predates the first book that Clancy wrote, The Hunt for Red October. Jack Ryan foils an attack in London on the Prince and Princess of Wales by the “Ulster Liberation Army”. The ULA then attacks Ryan’s Maryland home while he is hosting the Prince and Princess for dinner. The movie stars Harrison Ford as Ryan and Samuel L. Jackson as Robby Jackson.
The Cardinal of the Kremlin (1988)
The sequel to “The Hunt for Red October.” First appearance of John Clark and Sergey Golovko. Ryan leads a CIA operation which forces the head of the KGB to defect. Other elements include anti-satellite lasers and other SDI-type weapons, and the Soviet war in Afghanistan. Major Alan Gregory is introduced here. (He appears later, updating SAMsoftware in The Bear and the Dragon). Colonel Bondarenko also is introduced here. (He appears in later books offering advice to Golovko in “Executive Orders” and commanding the Russian Army defenses against China in its sequel “The Bear and the Dragon”.)
Clear and Present Danger (1989)
The President authorizes the CIA to use American military forces in a covert war against cocaine producers in Colombia. The operation is betrayed. Ryan meets John Clark as they lead a mission to rescue abandoned soldiers. Domingo “Ding” Chavez (Clark’s protege in later novels) is one of the rescued soldiers. The 1994 film stars Harrison Ford as Ryan, Willem Dafoe as Clark, and Raymond Cruz as Chavez.
The Sum of All Fears (1991)
Arab terrorists find a nuclear weapon that had been lost by Israel, and use it to attack the United States. This nearly triggers a war between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, due to the incompetence of the new President and his mistress with an anti-Ryan agenda. Ryan intervenes to avert the war. The 2002 film stars Ben Affleck as Ryan and Liev Schreiber as Clark, and changes the identity and motivation of the terrorists to neo-Nazis.
Without Remorse (1993)
Without Remorse takes place during the Vietnam War, when Jack Ryan was a teenager. Ex-SEAL John Clark (then John Kelly) fights a one-man war against drug dealers in Baltimore, attracting the attention of Jack’s father Emmett, a Baltimore police detective. He also helps plan and execute a raid on a prisoner-of-war camp in North Vietnam. Clark joins the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Debt of Honor (1994)
A secret cabal of extreme nationalists gains control of Japan (having acquired some nuclear weapons), and start a war with the U.S. Ryan, now National Security Advisor, and Clark and Chavez, agents in Japan, help win the war. The Vice President resigns in a scandal, and the President appoints Ryan to replace him. A vengeful, die-hard Japanese airline pilot then crashes a jetliner into the U.S. Capitol during a joint session of Congress attended by most senior U.S. government officials, including the President. Ryan thus becomes the new President through succession.
Executive Orders (1996)
This is the immediate sequel to Debt of Honor. President Ryan survives press hazing, an assassination attempt, and a biological warfare attack on the United States. Clark and Chavez trace the virus to a Middle Eastern madman, and the U.S. military goes to work.
SSN: Strategies for Submarine Warfare (1996)
Follows the missions of USS Cheyenne in a future war with China precipitated by China’s invasion of the disputed Spratly Islands. Also not a Ryan universe book, SSN is actually a loosely connected collection of “scenario” chapters in support of the eponymous video game.
Rainbow Six (1998)
Released to coincide with the video game of the same name. John Clark and Ding, who is now Clark’s son-in-law, lead an elite multi-national anti-terrorist unit that combats a worldwide genocide attempt by eco-terrorists. Ryan is the U.S. President and only mentioned or referred to as either ‘The President’ or ‘Jack’.
The Bear and the Dragon (2000)
War between Russia and China. Ryan recognizes the independence of Taiwan, Chinese police officers kill a Roman Catholic Cardinal, and the American armed forces help Russia defeat a Chinese invasion of Siberia.
Red Rabbit (2002)
In the early 1980s, CIA analyst Ryan aids in the defection of a Soviet officer who knows of a plan to assassinate Pope John Paul II.
The Teeth of the Tiger (2003)
Jack Ryan’s son, Jack Ryan, Jr., becomes an intelligence analyst, and then a field consultant, for The Campus, an off-the-books intelligence agency with the freedom to discreetly assassinate individuals “who threaten national security”, following the end of the Jack Ryan Sr. presidential administration. This book of the Jack Ryan series by Tom Clancy introduces Ryan’s son and two nephews as heirs to his spook-legacy.
Dead or Alive (2010, with Grant Blackwood)
The story picks up where The Teeth of the Tiger left off with Jack Ryan, Jr. and The Campus trying to catch a terrorist known as “The Emir”.
Against All Enemies (2011, with Peter Telep)
A terrorist bombing in Pakistan wipes out Max Moore’s entire CIA team. As the only survivor, the former Navy SEAL plunges deeper into the treacherous tribal lands to find the terrorist cell, but what he discovers there leads him to a much darker conspiracy in an unexpected part of the globe — the United States/Mexico border.
Locked On (Dec 2011, with Mark Greaney)
While Jack Ryan Jr. trains to become a field operative within The Campus, his father campaigns for re-election as President of the United States. A devout enemy of Jack Sr. launches a privately funded vendetta to discredit him, while a corrupt Pakistani general has entered into a deadly pact with a fanatical terrorist to procure nuclear warheads.
Search and Destroy (July 2012, with Peter Telep) (Cancelled)
Threat Vector (Dec 2012, with Mark Greaney)
Jack Ryan has only just moved back into the Oval Office when he is faced with a new international threat. An aborted coup in the People’s Republic of China has left President Wei Zhen Lin with no choice but to agree with the expansionist policies of General Su Ke Quiang. They have declared the South China Sea a protectorate and are planning an invasion of Taiwan. The Ryan administration is determined to thwart China’s ambitions, but the stakes are dangerously high as a new breed of powerful Chinese anti-ship missiles endanger the US Navy’s plans to protect the island. Meanwhile, Chinese cyber warfare experts have launched a devastating attack on American infrastructure.
Command Authority (December 2013, with Mark Greaney)
There is a new strong man in Russia but his rise to power is based on a dark secret hidden decades in the past. The clue to the mystery lies with a most unexpected source, President Jack Ryan.[17]

Novels not in a series

Jack Ryan/John Clark universe chronology

In the order in which they occur in the storyline (and when they occur):

  • Without Remorse (1969–70, 1973 – Starts late 1969, in Hurricane Camille’s aftermath. Continues the following spring, in 1970. Epilogue is titled “February 12, 1973”) Ryan briefly appears in this novel.
  • Patriot Games (1982, based on a reference to Ryan’s age, which is 31 at the beginning of the novel. This roughly fits with a reference to the Princess of Wales’s first child being a baby and a few months old, Prince William was born in 1982) Discrepancies include the reference to a van having a likely year of manufacture of 1984.
  • Red Rabbit (circa spring of 1982, based on references to living Leonid Brezhnev and Mikhail Suslov, both of whom died in 1982 (although Suslov died already in January of that year), as well as Jack Ryan, Jr.’s age in the novel, 6 months) Discrepancies with the estimate of 1982 include frequent references to “Transformers” which did not appear until 1984 and the fact that the Orioles played the Phillies in the World Series in 1983, not to mention that the World Series is played in the Fall, not the Spring. Also a reference to “Coke Classic” which did not debut until the summer of 1985.
  • The Hunt for Red October (1984)
  • The Cardinal of the Kremlin (1986) – “The first chapter is set in January and states that Ryan is 35 years old. It also has references to the other books set earlier. For example the Foleys have been in Moscow for almost four years. The book must begin (not including prologue which was set end of previous year) in January 1986.

Starting with the following novel, the series becomes distinctly different from real history as noted below.

  • Clear and Present Danger (1988) The book refers to Jack’s age as 40.
  • The Sum of All Fears (1990–1991) — Israel partially cedes sovereignty over Jerusalem to the Vatican and Saudi Arabia, and the city becomes a United Nations protectorate policed by Swiss Guards. Residents of Jerusalem can choose between either Vatican, Israeli or Islamic judicial law. Denver is devastated by a terrorist nuclear explosion. The book occurs after the Persian Gulf War and before the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It is implied that both events occur at the same time in the Ryan universe as in actual history (of the Soviet Union dissolution), 1991. In the earlier chapters it states that it had almost been two Novembers since President Fowler had been elected, making the beginning set in 1990. Interestingly, the video game Tom Clancy’s Rainbow Six puts the atomic detonation in Denver as having occurred in 1989.
  • Debt of Honor (1995–1996) — The U.S. and Russia destroy all of their ballistic missiles. After crippling the U.S. economy and becoming a nuclear power, Japan invades and takes the Marianas Islands; the United States and Japan fight a brief war, which the Japanese lose (they are subsequently denuclearized); an embittered Japanese pilot and proponent of the war crashes a 747 into the United States Capitol Building immediately after Ryan’s confirmation vote for the Vice President, killing most of the House andSenate, the President, all nine Supreme Court justices, the senior military establishment (including the JCS), and most of the Cabinet; Ryan is left in charge of a gutted government. The end of the book occurs eleven months before 1997 presidential inauguration. Of interest, but not crucial to the plot of this or further books is that North and South Korea were said to be unified at some point between The Sum of All Fears and this book.
  • Executive Orders (1996) — Saddam Hussein is assassinatedIran and Iraq merge forming the United Islamic Republic; the UIR launches a biological attack on the U.S. using the Ebola virus; the United States launches the Second Persian Gulf War against the UIR and defeats them; the Ayatollah is killed in a smart-bomb attack by the U.S.
  • Rainbow Six (1999–2000) – events are based on the Sydney Olympics held in 2000, RAINBOW – an elite counter-terrorist force – is created and engages terrorists acrossEurope. Ecoterrorists plan to create a genetically-enhanced virus based on Ebola and cancer cells, which they plan to use to wipe out much of the world’s population.
  • The Bear and the Dragon (2002) — Russia is admitted to NATO; China and Russia fight a major war, in which the U.S. intervenes on its NATO ally’s side. It implies that theBritish Prime Minister is Tony Blair. Ryan has won re-election as president (2001). He resigns before the 2004 election making Robby Jackson president.
  • The Teeth of the Tiger (2006, based on the age of Jack Ryan, Jr.) The U.S. is now engaged in a global war on terrorism, in response to the September 11 attacks, which occurred in the Ryan universe as they did in the real world. It is mentioned that the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq occurred in the Ryan universe continuity, and that the Jerusalem Treaty signed in The Sum of All Fears has failed as Israelis and Palestinians went back to fighting each other.
  • Dead or Alive (2007, based on Jack Ryan’s announcement that he would run against Ed Kealty for President “in the coming year”) — The Umayyad Revolutionary Council (the Ryan universe version of Al-Qaeda) and its leader “The Emir” (based on Osama bin Laden) plan a string of major attacks on the U.S. The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq continue, as in our timeline, and President Kealty is in the process of withdrawing U.S. troops from Iraq. A character also explicitly refers to the date as May 2010, in the process of decoding encrypted messages, but this must be seen as a contradiction, as Ed Kealty is president and is only president for one term. In accordance with the Jack Ryan continuity, Kealty must be president in the term 2005-2009.
  • Locked On (2008, based on Jack Ryan Sr.’s campaign for re-election). Jack Ryan is running for president again. Since it is only possible for Kealty to serve one term per the rules of the Constitution, that term must be from 2005 to 2009. The election happens in this book, too, making it only possible that the events take place in 2008. Jack Ryan Sr.’s opponent, Edward Kealty, tries to dig up dirt on him by going after John Clark. Meanwhile, a renegade Pakistani general steals nuclear weapons from his country and delivers them to rebel Dagestani forces. In the middle of all this, Jack Ryan Jr. and The Campus try to prevent the use of the lethal weapon and come to help Clark.
  • Threat Vector (2012). Ryan has been sworn in as president of the United States after having been elected the previous year. It also states that the events of this novel happen six months after the previous novel.
  • Command Authority To be released 12-3-2013

Op-Center universe

  1. Op-Center (1995)
  2. Mirror Image (1995)
  3. Games of State (1996)
  4. Acts of War (1996)
  5. Balance of Power (1998)
  6. State of Siege (1999)
  7. Divide and Conquer (2000)
  8. Line of Control (2001)
  9. Mission of Honor (2002)
  10. Sea of Fire (2003)
  11. Call to Treason (2004)
  12. War of Eagles (2005)

Net Force universe

  • Net Force (1999)
  • Hidden Agendas (1999)
  • Night Moves (1999)
  • Breaking Point (2000)
  • Point of Impact (2001)
  • CyberNation (2001)
  • State of War (2003)
  • Changing of the Guard (2003)
  • Springboard (2005)
  • The Archimedes Effect (2006)

Net Force Explorers universe

Power Plays series

  • Politika (novel, 1997)
    • Politika (video game) by Red Storm Entertainment
    • Politika (board game)
  • ruthless.com (novel, 1998)
    • ruthless.com (video game, 1998) by Red Storm Entertainment
  • Shadow Watch (novel, 1999) by Jerome Preisler
    • Shadow Watch (video game, 1999) by Red Storm Entertainment
  • Bio-Strike (novel, 2000) by Jerome Preisler
  • Cold War (novel, 2001) by Jerome Preisler
  • Cutting Edge (novel, 2002) by Jerome Preisler
  • Zero Hour (novel, 2003) by Jerome Preisler
  • Wild Card (novel, 2004) by Jerome Preisler

Ghost Recon universe

EndWar universe

H.A.W.X universe

  • Tom Clancy’s H.A.W.X by Grant Blackwood as David Michaels

Non-fiction

Guided Tour

Study in Command

Other

  • The Tom Clancy Companion — Edited by Martin H. Greenberg — Writings by Clancy along with a concordance of all his fiction novels, detailing characters and military units or equipment.

Video games

In 1996, Clancy co-founded the video game developer Red Storm Entertainment and ever since he has had his name on several of Red Storm’s most successful games. Red Storm was later bought by publisher Ubisoft Entertainment, which continued to use the Clancy name, though the extent of Clancy’s actual involvement with creation of the games and development of intellectual properties, if any, was unclear. This game series includes:

Board games

Achievements and awards

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d Clancy, Tom (October 31, 1997). “alt.books.tom-clancy”. groups.google.com. Retrieved 2012-03-20.
  2. Jump up^ A few sources, such as Who’s Who and “Tom Clancy”Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved March 20, 2012., give his birth date as March 12, 1947. He died Wednesday October 2, 2013.
  3. Jump up^ Anderson, Patrick (1 May 1988). “King of the Techno-thriller”New York Times Magazine.
  4. Jump up to:a b Quinn, Judy (24 August 1997). “$100M Mega-Deals for Clancy”Publishers Weekly 243 (34).[dead link]
  5. Jump up^ “Alexandra Llewellyn, Tom Clancy,” The New York Times, June 27, 1999.
  6. Jump up to:a b “Tom Clancy”. NNDB. 1999-06-26. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
  7. Jump up^ Mitchell, Richard (2008-03-25). “Clancy name bought by Ubisoft, worth big bucks. SOURCE: www.chatwave.in”. Xbox360fanboy.com. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
  8. Jump up^ Paperback Writer, The New Republic, May 25, 2004.
  9. Jump up^ 23 October 2007. “Tom Clancy on Sept 11 2001 & WTC 7 Collapse”. Youtube.com. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
  10. Jump up^ “An hour about the 9/11 attacks”. Charlierose.com. 2001-09-11. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
  11. Jump up^ LaPierre, Wayne (1994). Guns, Crime, and Freedom. HarperPerennial. p. xiii.ISBN 978-0-06-097674-3.
  12. Jump up^ Schindehette, Susan (15 June 1998). “Storm Rising”People Magazine 49 (23): 141.
  13. Jump up^ Jones, Brent (27 August 2008). “Reconsider Clancy case ruling”Baltimore Sun.
  14. Jump up^ “Case No. 04-C-03-000749 OC”. Circuit Court for Calvert County. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
  15. Jump up^ Kennedy, John R. (2013-10-02). “Author Tom Clancy dead at 66 – Okanagan”. Globalnews.ca. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
  16. Jump up^ “Tom Clancy, author of ‘Hunt for Red October’ and ‘Patriot Games,’ dead at 66”. NY Times. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
  17. Jump up^ “Command Authority by Tom Clancy”. Barnesandnoble.com. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
  18. Jump up^ Ryan, Michael E. (12 April 2000). “Shadow Watch”. Gamespot. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
  19. Jump up^ Totilo, Stephen (May 12, 2011). “Ghost Recon: Future Soldier Will Rival the Shooter Heavyweights, but is Getting Far Out of the Way”. Kotaku. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
  20. Jump up^ “Tom Clancy’s Politika | Board Game”. BoardGameGeek. Retrieved 2011-12-19.
  21. Jump up^ “Washington Post”. Washington Post. 1997-06-01. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
  22. Jump up^ “Rensselaer Magazine: Summer 2004: At Rensselaer”. Rpi.edu. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
  23. Jump up^ “TC Post: Clancy Speaks Again Briefly”. Clancyfaq.com. 2000-06-25. Retrieved 2010-02-28.

External links

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The Pronk Pops Show 132, September 18, 2013, Segment 1: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) Drugs Not Guns Are The Problem — Videos

Posted on September 21, 2013. Filed under: American History, Business, Communications, Crime, Culture, Drugs, Education, Games, History, Homicide, Law, Media, Philosophy, Photos, Pistols, Politics, Regulation, Rifles, Scandals, Taxes, Videos, Violence, War, Wealth, Weapons, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , |

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Segment 1: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) Drugs Not Guns Are The Problem — Videos

Psychiatric Drugs and Mass Shootings ᴴᴰ

Fact: At least fourteen recent school shootings were committed by those taking or withdrawing from psychiatric drugs resulting in 109 wounded and 58 killed (in other school shootings, information about their drug use was never made public—neither confirming or refuting if they were under the influence of prescribed drugs.)

Fact: Between 2004 and 2011, there have been over 11,000 reports to the U.S. FDA’s MedWatch system of psychiatric drug side effects related to violence. These include 300 cases of homicide, nearly 3,000 cases of mania and over 7,000 cases of aggression. Note: By the FDA’s own admission, only 1-10% of side effects are ever reported to the FDA, so the actual number of side effects occurring are most certainly higher. http://www.cchr.org/

Fox News: SSRI Antidepressants Causing School Shootings? With Dr. Peter Breggin

SSRI Drugs are Dangerous!

PHARMACOLOGY; ANTI ANXIETY & SSRI DRUGS by Professor Fink

Media Buries Psychiatric Drug Connection to Navy Shooter

Networks don’t want to risk losing $2.4 billion in ad revenue from pharmaceutical giants

Paul Joseph Watson
Infowars.com
September 18, 2013

Despite every indication that Navy Yard shooter Aaron Alexis was on SSRI drugs that have been linked to dozens of previous mass shootings, the mainstream media has once again avoided all discussion of the issue, preferring instead to blame the tragedy on a non-existent AR-15 that the gunman didn’t even use.

Image: Wikimedia Commons

We now know that Alexis “had been treated since August by the Veterans Administration for his mental problems.”

As Mike Adams points out, “This is proof that Aaron Alexis was on psychiatric drugs, because that’s the only treatment currently being offered by the Veterans Administration for mental problems. Alexis’ family members also confirmed to the press that he was being “treated” for his mental health problems. Across the medical industry, “treatment” is the code word for psychiatric drugging.”

Alexis also suffered from PTSD, blackouts and anger issues – all of which are treated with SSRI drugs. The most common form of treatment for PTSD is Paroxetine, which is listed as the number 3 top violence-causing drug by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP).

The Navy Yard shooter was clearly on some form of psychiatric drug, but the media has shown no interest in discovering its identity.

Despite it being reported that prescription drugs were found in the apartment of ‘Batman’ shooter James Holmes days after the Aurora massacre, it took nine months to find out exactly what those drugs were. Like Columbine killer Eric Harris, Holmes had been taking Zoloft, another SSRI drug linked with violent outbursts.

The length of time it took to find out that Holmes was on Zoloft was partly because the media habitually shows zero interest in pursuing the link between anti-depressants and violence.

As the website SSRI Stories profusely documents, there are literally hundreds of examples of mass shootings, murders and other violent episodes that have been committed by individuals on psychiatric drugs over the past three decades. The number of cases is staggering.

Why is the corporate media so disinterested in pursuing this clear connection?

Perhaps it has something to do with the fact that the pharmaceutical giants who produce drugs like Zoloft, Prozac and Paxil spend around $2.4 billion dollars a year on direct-to-consumer television advertising every year. By running negative stories about prescription drugs, networks risk losing tens of millions of dollars in ad revenue.

While failing to ask questions about what SSRI drugs Aaron Alexis was taking prior to his rampage, the media instead blamed the shooting on assault rifles, even after it had been confirmed that no AR-15 was used by Alexis during the massacre.

FBI assistant director Victoria Parlave stated at a press conference on Tuesday that authorities, “do not have any information at this time that [Alexis] had an AR-15 in his possession.”

Despite there being no evidence that an AR-15 was used, the New York Daily News ran a front page headline yesterday morning entitled, “Same Gun Different Slay,” next to a picture of an assault rifle.

Hours after the FBI stated that no AR-15 had been used, MSNBC’s Alex Wagner, who previously blamed the Boston bombings on Alex Jones, continued to use an animated graphic depicting Alexis carrying an assault rifle during the massacre.

Anti-second amendment crusader Piers Morgan also erroneously blamed the shooting on “a man with a legally purchased AR-15, who just committed the same kind of atrocity as we saw at Sandy Hook, and Aurora,” during his CNN show on Monday.

CNN’s live news coverage also reported that Alexis had “recently purchased (an) AR-15 shotgun,” when in fact that purchase had been denied.

Both the New York Times and the Washington Post also falsely reported that an AR-15 had been found on Alexis after the massacre.

D.C. gun grabbers Dianne Feinstein and Dick Durbin also regurgitated the false claim that Alexis used an AR-15 during the rampage.

The U.S. press has once again behaved like state media in the aftermath of the Navy Yard shooting by pursuing the assault rifle angle – despite the fact that it was patently false – in order to bolster the White House’s gun control agenda.

In doing so, they have concurrently buried an integral aspect of mass shootings that needs to be highlighted as part of a national conversation – the clear connection between violent outbursts and SSRI drugs.

Facebook @ https://www.facebook.com/paul.j.watson.71
FOLLOW Paul Joseph Watson @ https://twitter.com/PrisonPlanet

*********************

Paul Joseph Watson is the editor and writer for Infowars.com and Prison Planet.com. He is the author of Order Out Of Chaos. Watson is also a host for Infowars Nightly News.

http://www.infowars.com/media-buries-psychiatric-drug-connection-to-navy-shooter/

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor[1] (SSRIs) are a class of compounds typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders, and some personality disorders.

SSRIs are believed to increase the extracellular level of the neurotransmitter serotonin by inhibiting its reuptake into the presynaptic cell, increasing the level of serotonin in the synaptic cleft available to bind to the postsynaptic receptor. They have varying degrees of selectivity for the other monoamine transporters, with pure SSRIs having only weak affinity for the noradrenaline and dopamine transporter.

SSRIs are the first class of psychotropic drugs discovered using the process called rational drug design, a process that starts with a specific biological target and then creates a molecule designed to affect it.[2] They are the most widely prescribed antidepressants in many countries.[2] The efficacy of SSRIs in mild or moderate cases of depression has been disputed.[3][4][5]

Medical uses

The main indication for SSRIs is major depressive disorder (also called “major depression”, “clinical depression” and often simply “depression”). SSRIs are frequently prescribed for anxiety disorders, such as social anxiety disorder, panic disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), eating disorders, chronic pain and occasionally, for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They are also frequently used to treat depersonalization disorder, although generally with poor results.[6]

Depression

Antidepressants are recommended by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) as a first-line treatment of severe depression and for the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression that persists after conservative measures such as cognitive therapy.[7] They recommend against their routine use in those who have chronic health problems and mild depression.[7] There has been controversy regarding the efficacy of antidepressants in treating depression depending on its severity and duration. A comprehensive review conducted by NICE concluded that antidepressants have no advantage over placebo in the treatment of short term mild depression, but that the available evidence supported the use of antidepressants in the treatment of dysthymia and other forms of chronic mild depression.[8] Two meta-analyses of clinical trials published in 2008 and 2011 found that in mild and moderate depression, the effect of SSRIs is small or none compared to placebo, while in very severe depression the effect of SSRIs is between “relatively small ” and “substantial”.[3][9] Unlike the NICE study, these studies did not discriminate between the acutely and chronically depressed. The 2008 meta-analysis combined 35 clinical trials submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before licensing of four newer antidepressants (including the SSRIs paroxetine and fluoxetine, the non-SSRI antidepressant nefazodone, and the SNRI (serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) venlafaxine). The authors attributed the relationship between severity and efficacy to a reduction of the placebo effect in severely depressed patients, rather than an increase in the effect of the medication.[9] Some researchers have questioned the statistical basis of this study suggesting that it underestimates the effect size of antidepressants.[10][11] A 2010 review reached similar conclusions: in mild and moderate depression, specifically that the effect of SSRI is very small or none compared to placebo, while it is clinically significant in very severe depression.[3][12] However, this analysis included only 6 studies out of the over 2,000 that have been done, involved just 2 medications, and did not involve studies with placebo washout periods typically used as controls.[4][5]

SSRIs are recommended by NICE over tricyclics due to their superior tolerability.[13] One study showed that SSRIs have greater adverse effects than TCAs in the elderly, though the authors caution that more research is needed.[14] There does not appear to be a substantial differences in efficacy among the various second generation antidepressants (SSRIs and SNRIs).[15]

Generalized anxiety disorder

SSRIs are recommended by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) that has failed to respond to conservative measures such as education and self-help activities. GAD is a common disorder of which the central feature is excessive worry about a number of different events. Key symptoms include excessive anxiety about multiple events and issues, and difficulty controlling worrisome thoughts that persists for at least 6 months.

Antidepressants provide a modest-to-moderate reduction in anxiety in GAD,[16] and are superior to placebo in treating GAD.[17] The efficacy of different antidepressants is similar.[16][17]

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

SSRIs are recommended for the second line treatment of adult obsessive compulsive disorder patients with mild functional impairment and as first line treatment for those with moderate or severe impairment. In children, SSRIs can be considered as a second line therapy in those with moderate-to-severe impairment, with close monitoring for psychiatric adverse effects.[18] SSRIs are efficacious in the treatment of OCD; patients treated with SSRIs are about twice as likely to respond to treatment as those treated with placebo.[19][20]

Eating disorders

Anti-depressants are recommended as an alternative or additional first step to self-help programs in the treatment of bulimia nervosa.[16] SSRIs (fluoxetine in particular) are preferred over other anti-depressants due to their acceptability, tolerability, and superior reduction of symptoms in short term trials. Long term efficacy remains poorly characterized.

Similar recommendations apply to binge eating disorder.[16] SSRIs provide short term reductions in binge eating behavior, but have not been associated with significant weight loss.[21]

Clinical trials have generated mostly negative results for the use of SSRI’s in the treatment of anorexia nervosa.[22] Treatment guidelines from the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence[16] recommend against the use of SSRIs in this disorder. Those from the American Psychiatric Association note that SSRIs confer no advantage regarding weight gain, but that they may be used for the treatment of co-existing depressive, anxiety, or obsessive-compulsive disorders.[21]

Stroke recovery

SSRIs have been used in the treatment of stroke patients, including those with and without symptoms of depression. A recent meta analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials found a statistically significant effect of SSRIs on dependence, neurological deficit, depression, and anxiety. There was no statistically significant effect on death, motor deficits, or cognition.[23]

Premature ejaculation

A general disadvantage of SSRIs in treating premature ejaculation is that they require continuous daily treatment to delay ejaculation significantly.[24] For the occasional “on-demand” treatment, a few hours before coitus, clomipramine gave better results than paroxetine in one study,[25] while in another study both sertraline and clomipramine were indistinguishable from the pause–squeeze technique and inferior to paroxetine.[26] The most recent research, conducted in 2007, suggests that on-demand treatment with sildenafil (Viagra) offers a dramatic improvement in ejaculation delay and sexual satisfaction as compared with daily paroxetine,[27] with on-demand sertraline, paroxetine or clomipramine,[26] and with the pause–squeeze technique.[26][27]

Adverse effects

General side effects are mostly present during the first one to four weeks while the body adapts to the drug (with the exception of sexual side effects, which tend to occur later in treatment). In fact, it often takes six to eight weeks for the drug to begin reaching its full potential (the slow onset is considered a downside to treatment with SSRIs). Almost all SSRIs are known to cause one or more of these symptoms:

Many side effects disappear after the adaptation phase, when the antidepressant effects begin to come to prominence. However, despite being called general, the side effects and their durations are highly individual and drug-specific. Usually the treatment is begun with a small dose to see how the patient’s body reacts to the drug, after that either the dose can be adjusted (e.g. Prozac in the UK is begun at a 20 mg dose, and then adjusted as necessary to 40 mg or 60 mg). Should the drug prove ineffective, or the side effects intolerable to the patient, another common route is to switch treatment to either another SSRI, or an SNRI.[30]

Mania or hypomania is a possible side effect. Users with some type of bipolar disorder are at a much higher risk, however SSRI-induced mania in patients previously diagnosed with unipolar depression can trigger a bipolar episode; however, according to DSM IV-TR, the diagnosis of bipolar disorder requires that the individuals symptoms must not stem from medication side effects, toxins, drug abuse, or another general medical condition.

Sexual dysfunction

SSRIs can cause various types of sexual dysfunction such as anorgasmia, erectile dysfunction, and diminished libido.[31] It can last for months, years, or sometimes indefinitely after the discontinuation of SSRIs. Initial studies found sexual side effects not significantly different from placebo, but since these studies relied on unprompted reporting, the frequency was probably underestimated. In more recent studies, doctors have specifically asked about sexual difficulties, and found that they are present in between 17% and 41%[32][33] of patients, although the lack of placebo control in these studies means they are likely underestimates. This is because release of extracellular concentrations of serotonin in the brain decreases dopamine and norepinephrine leading to erectile and/or sexual dysfunction.

Release of postsynaptic 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors decreases dopamine and norepinephrine release from the substantia nigra. A number of drugs are not associated with sexual side effects (such as bupropion, mirtazapine, tianeptine, agomelatine and moclobemide,[34][35] some of which are also not associated with weight gain).

A small number of case reports have appeared in the literature suggesting that in rare cases, sexual dysfunction may persist after discontinuing treatment.[36]

On the other hand, the effect of SSRIs to slow down sexual stimulation may be used as treatment; SSRIs have been proposed as a drug to treat premature ejaculation.[37] The Andean herbaceous biennial plant Lepidium meyenii (also known as “maca”) was found to be effective for alleviating SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction on a small double-blind, randomized, parallel group dose-finding pilot study.[38]

There is no FDA-approved treatment for SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction and there has been a lack of randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies of potential treatments. There is evidence for the following management strategies: for erectile dysfunction, the addition of a PDE5 inhibitor such as sildenafil; for decreased libido, possibly adding or switching to bupropion; and for overall sexual dysfunction, switching to nefazodone.[39]

Cardiovascular

Cardiovascular side effects are very rare with SSRI use, with a reported incidence of less than 0.0003 percent.[40] SSRIs inhibit cardiac and vascular sodium, calcium and potassium channels and prolong QT intervals.[41] A number of large studies of patients without known pre-existing heart disease have reported no EKG changes related to SSRI use.[42] More recently, however, concerns about cardiac problems have led to a reduction in the recommended maximum dose of two types of SSRI’s. The recommended maximum daily dose of citalopram was reduced to 40 mg. for most people and 20 mg. for those older than age 60 and some others.[43] The recommended maximum daily dose of escitalopram was reduced to 10 mg. for those older than age 65; the maximum daily dose for most other people remained unchanged at 20 mg.[44][45] In overdose, fluoxetine has been reported to cause sinus tachycardia, myocardial infarction, junctional rhythms and trigeminy. Some authors have suggested electrocardiographic monitoring in patients with severe pre-existing cardiovascular disease who are taking SSRI’s.[46]

Discontinuation syndrome

Antidepressants such as SSRIs have some dependence producing effects, most notably a withdrawal syndrome. Their dependence producing properties (depending on the antidepressant) may not be as significant as other psychotropic drugs such as benzodiazepines; however, withdrawal symptoms nonetheless may be quite severe and even debilitating. SSRIs have little abuse potential, but discontinuation can produce disturbing withdrawal symptoms that may be indistinguishable from a reoccurrence of the original illness.[47] Since physical dependence is a reality, discontinuation should be discussed with a medical practitioner before beginning treatment with this class of drugs.

When discontinuing an SSRI or SNRI some doctors may switch the patient to fluoxetine due to its much longer half-life. This may avoid many of the severe withdrawal symptoms associated with SSRI/SNRI discontinuation. This can be done either by administering a single 20 mg dose of fluoxetine or by beginning on a low dosage of fluoxetine and slowly tapering down. Any SSRI or SNRI may be requested in liquid form, which allows very gradual tapering. Alternatively, a patient wishing to stop taking an SSRI/SNRI may visit a compounding pharmacy where his or her prescription may be re-arranged into progressively smaller dosages. For example the lowest dose of cymbalta that can normally be prescribed is 20 mg in gel capsules; a compounding pharmacist may divide this into doses of 20, 15, 10, 5 and 2.5 mg so that a proper tapered reduction may take place.

Suicide risk

Children and adolescents

Several studies have found that SSRI use is related to a higher risk of suicidal behavior in children and adolescents.[48][49][50] For instance, a 2004 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analysis of clinical trials on children with major depressive disorder found statistically significant increases of the risks of “possible suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior” by about 80%, and of agitation and hostility by about 130%;[51] More infrequently, studies have been inconclusive.[52] however, a recent comparison of aggression and hostility occurring during treatment with fluoxetine to placebo in children and adolescents found that no significant difference between the fluoxetine group and a placebo group.[53] There is also evidence that higher rates of SSRI prescriptions are associated with lower rates of suicide in children, though since the evidence is correlational, the true nature of the relationship is unclear.[54]

In 2004, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) in the United Kingdom judged fluoxetine (Prozac) to be the only antidepressant that offered a favorable risk-benefit ratio in children with depression, though it was also associated with a slight increase in the risk of self-harm and suicidal ideation.[55] Only two SSRIs are licensed for use with children in the UK, sertraline (Zoloft) and fluvoxamine (Luvox), and only for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Fluoxetine is not licensed for this use.[56]

Adults

It is unclear whether or not SSRIs affect the risk of suicidal behavior for adults.

  • A 2005 meta-analysis of drug company data found no evidence that SSRIs increased the risk of suicide; however, important protective or hazardous effects could not be excluded.[57] Also among high-risk adult patients, antidepressant drug treatment does not seem related to suicide attempts and death.[50]
  • A 2005 review observed that suicide attempts are increased in those who use SSRIs as compared to placebo and compared to therapeutic interventions other than tricyclic antidepressants. No difference risk of suicide attempts was detected between SSRIs versus tricyclic antidepressants.[58]
  • On the other hand, a 2006 review suggests that the widespread use of antidepressants in the new “SSRI-era” appear to have led to highly significant decline in suicide rates in most countries with traditionally high baseline suicide rates. The decline is particularly striking for women who, compared with men, seek more help for depression. Recent clinical data on large samples in the US too have revealed a protective effect of antidepressant against suicide.[59]
  • A 2006 meta analysis of random controlled trials suggests that SSRIs increase suicide ideation compared with placebo. However, the observational studies suggests that SSRIs did not increase suicide risk more than older antidepressants. The researchers stated that if SSRIs increase suicide risk in some patients, the number of additional deaths is very small because ecological studies have generally found that suicide mortality has declined (or at least not increased) as SSRI use has increased.[60]
  • An additional meta-analysis by the FDA in 2006 found an age-related effect of SSRI’s. Among adults younger than 25 years, results indicated that there was a higher risk for suicidal behavior. For adults between 25 and 64, the effect appears neutral on suicidal behavior but possibly protective for suicidal behavior for adults between the ages of 25 and 64. For adults older than 64, SSRI’s seem to reduce the risk of both suicidal behavior.[48]

Suicide warnings

The FDA findings resulted in a black box warning on SSRI and other antidepressant medications regarding the increased risk of suicidal behavior in patients younger than 24.[61] Similar precautionary notice revisions were implemented by the Japanese Ministry of Health.[62] In 2004 the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency in the United Kingdom issued a warning about increases in ‘insomnia, agitation, weight loss, headache, tremor, loss of appetite, self-harm and suicidal thoughts’ when the medications are used with children and adolescents.[63]

The introduction of a warning regarding the association between SSRIs and suicide by the FDA in 2004 led to a dramatic decrease in prescriptions of these medications to young people. Originally, there were concerns that the decrease in prescriptions caused by the warnings could increase the number of teenage suicides in the US.[64] However, the most recent data from the US National Center for Health Statistics put these concerns to rest. The suicide rates for persons younger than 25 has actually decreased between 2004 and 2007.[original research?] [65][66]

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

SSRI use during pregnancy is associated with an increased rate of miscarriages, birth defects, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, newborn behavioral syndrome, and possibly long term behavioral problems.[67] The risk of spontaneous abortion is increased about 1.7 fold.[68]

The FDA issued a statement on July 19, 2006 stating nursing mothers on SSRIs must discuss treatment with their physicians. However, the medical literature on the safety of SSRIs has determined that some SSRIs like Sertraline and Paroxetine are considered safe for breastfeeding.[69][70][71]

Maternal SSRI use may be associated with autism.[72]

Neonatal abstinence syndrome

Neonatal abstinence syndrome is a withdrawal syndrome in newborn babies. It has been documented in SSRI treatment. By November 2003, a total of 93 cases of SSRI use associated with either neonatal convulsions or withdrawal syndrome had been reported. Subsequently, the authors of a Lancet study concluded that doctors should avoid or cautiously manage the prescribing of these drugs to pregnant women with psychiatric disorders.[73]

Neuropsychological changes due to SSRI use in infancy

Since the early 80’s scientists have used a technique called neonatal clomipramine to produce animals used in depression research. If rats are given the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine when 8–21 days old, they develop behavioural changes in adulthood that resemble depression in humans.[74][75] In 1997 Lundbeck found that treatment with the SSRI LU-10-134-C, which only differs from their product citalopram by two atoms could give similar results as clomipramine.[76] Later it was found that neonatal citalopram and escitalopram makes persistent changes in the serotonergic transmission of the brain resulting in behavioral changes,[77][78] which are reversed by treatment with antidepressants.[79] By treating normal and knockout mice lacking the serotonin transporter with fluoxetine scientists showed that normal emotional reactions in adulthood, like a short latency to escape foot shocks and inclination to explore new environments were dependent on active serotonin transporters during the neonatal period.[80][81]

But when young mice were treated with the SNRI desimipramine they developed to normal adults, which suggests that serotonin and noradrenaline have different effects in the developing brain. For humans, the developmental stage sensitive to SSRI:s corresponds with the last trimester to the first years of life. A study showed that 4-year old children perinatally exposed to SSRIs behave normally. However, the young mice and rats also seem normal until they reach puberty and develop behavioural disturbances.[82][83]

The mechanism is currently unknown, but it seems that early life overstimulation of the 5-HT1 receptor that regulates serotonin production results in low serotonin production after puberty.[84]

Persistent pulmonary hypertension

Persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) is a serious and life-threatening, but rare, lung condition that occurs soon after birth of the newborn. Newborn babies with PPHN have high pressure in their lung blood vessels and are not able to get enough oxygen into their bloodstream. About 1 to 2 babies per 1000 babies born in the U.S. develop PPHN shortly after birth, and often they need intensive medical care. One study has found that PPHN is six times more common in babies whose mothers take an SSRI antidepressant after the 20th week of the pregnancy compared to babies whose mothers do not take an antidepressant.[85]

A population-based cohort study, which included 1.6 million live births in five Nordic countries, of women with filled SSRI prescriptions later than the 20th week gestation by last menstrual period demonstrated an increased risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) compared to control infants (adjusted RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3). The increased risk of PPHN was of similar magnitude for the SSRI class of drugs (Fluoxetine, Citalopram, Paroxetine, Sertraline, Escitalopram). This study showed that the absolute risk of PPHN would only increase the incidence from 0.1 to 0.3 percent of live-births with late prenatal SSRI exposure.[86]

Bleeding tendencies

SSRIs appear to increase the risk of bleeding.[87] This includes an increased risk of GI bleeding, post operative bleeding,[87] and intracranial bleeding.[88] SSRIs are known to cause platelet dysfunction.[89][90]

Overdose

SSRIs appear safer in overdose when compared with traditional antidepressants, such as the tricyclic antidepressants. This relative safety is supported both by case series and studies of deaths per numbers of prescriptions.[91] However, case reports of SSRI poisoning have indicated that severe toxicity can occur[92] and deaths have been reported following massive single ingestions,[93] although this is exceedingly uncommon when compared to the tricyclic antidepressants.[91]

Because of the wide therapeutic index of the SSRIs, most patients will have mild or no symptoms following moderate overdoses. The most commonly reported severe effect following SSRI overdose is serotonin syndrome; serotonin toxicity is usually associated with very high overdoses or multiple drug ingestion.[94] Other reported significant effects include coma, seizures, and cardiac toxicity.[91]

Treatment for SSRI overdose is mainly based on symptomatic and supportive care. Medical care may be required for agitation, maintenance of the airways, and treatment for serotonin syndrome. ECG monitoring is usually indicated to detect any cardiac abnormalities.

Contraindications and drug interaction

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One major contraindication of SSRIs is the concomitant use of MAOIs (monoamine oxidase inhibitors). This is likely to cause severe serotonin syndrome/toxidrome.

People taking SSRIs should also avoid taking pimozide (an antipsychotic diphenylbutylpiperidine derivative). Tramadol hydrochloride (or Ultram, Ultracet) can, in rare cases, produce seizures when taken in conjunction with an SSRI or tricyclic antidepressant. Liver impairment is another contraindication for medications of this type.

SSRIs may increase blood levels and risk of toxicities of certain medications:

  1. highly protein-bound medications like warfarin (coumadin) and digoxin
  2. antiarrhythmic agents like propafenone (Rythmol) or flecainide (Tambocor)
  3. beta blockers like metoprolol (Toprol xl) or propranolol (Inderal)
  4. Tricyclic antidepressants like amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep) etc.
  5. triptans like sumatriptan (Imitrex, Imigran) etc.
  6. benzodiazepines like alprazolam (Xanax) or diazepam (Valium)[citation needed]
  7. carbamazepine (Tegretol)
  8. cisapride (Propulsid)
  9. clozapine (Clozaril)
  10. ciclosporin (Neoral)
  11. haloperidol (Haldol)
  12. phenytoin (Dilantin)
  13. pimozide (Orap)
  14. theophylline (Theo-dur)

Certain drugs may increase toxicities of SSRIs:

  1. alcohol and other CNS depressants
  2. methylene blue dye
  3. diuretics (water pills)
  4. MAOIs – possibly fatal serotonin syndrome/toxidrome
  5. sympathomimetic drugs like pseudoephedrine (Sudafed)
  6. lithium
  7. sibutramine (Meridia)
  8. MDMA (ecstasy)
  9. zolpidem (ambien)[95]
  10. dextromethorphan (cough suppressant) – increased risk of serotonin syndrome/toxidrome
  11. tramadol (synergistic serotoninergic effect said to increase risk of seizure or serotonin syndrome/toxidrome)
  12. pethidine/meperidine – increased risk of serotonin syndrome/toxidrome
  13. herbal Saint John’s wort or yohimbe – increased risk of serotonin syndrome/toxidrome

Painkillers of the NSAIDs drug family may interfere and reduce efficiency of SSRIs:[96][97]

  1. Aspirin
  2. Ibuprofen (Advil, Nurofen)
  3. Naproxen (Aleve)

SSRIs also directly interfere with ligands of 5-HT receptors, like the psychedelics and entactogens. SSRIs strongly diminish the effects of tryptamines (e.g. psilocybin and LSD), and phenethylamines (e.g. the 2C family), and almost completely eliminate the serotonergic effects of MDxx (e.g. MDMA). The exact mechanism that causes this interaction is still unclear.[citation needed]

List of agents

Drugs in this class include (trade names in parentheses):

  • citalopram (Celexa, Cipramil, Cipram, Dalsan, Recital, Emocal, Sepram, Seropram, Citox, Cital)
  • dapoxetine (Priligy)
  • escitalopram (Lexapro, Cipralex, Seroplex, Esertia)
  • fluoxetine (Depex, Prozac, Fontex, Seromex, Seronil, Sarafem, Ladose, Motivest, Flutop, Fluctin (EUR), Fluox (NZ), Depress (UZB), Lovan (AUS), Prodep (IND))
  • fluvoxamine (Luvox, Fevarin, Faverin, Dumyrox, Favoxil, Movox, Floxyfral)
  • indalpine (Upstene) (discontinued)
  • paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat, Sereupin, Aropax, Deroxat, Divarius, Rexetin, Xetanor, Paroxat, Loxamine, Deparoc)
  • sertraline (Zoloft, Lustral, Serlain, Asentra, Tresleen)
  • zimelidine (Zelmid, Normud) (discontinued)
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Citalopram structure.svgCitalopram Dapoxetine Structural Formulae V.1.svgDapoxetine Escitalopram.svgEscitalopram Fluoxetine-2D-skeletal.svgFluoxetine Fluvoxamine.pngFluvoxamine
Indalpine.pngIndalpine Paroxetine.svgParoxetine Sertraline Structural Formulae.pngSertraline Zimelidine Structural Formulae V.1.svgZimelidine

Related agents

SSRIs form a subclass of serotonin uptake inhibitors, which includes other non-selective inhibitors as well. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake enhancers are also serotonergic antidepressants.

Mechanism of action

SSRIs are believed to act by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin after being released in synapses. How much an individual will respond to this, however, also depends on genetics. In addition, several other mechanisms are suggested for the desired effect, e.g. neuroprotection and anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory factors. Taken together, SSRI has several advantages compared with tricyclic antidepressants (TCA)s and 5-HT-prodrugs. However, the latter might be required in addition to SSRIs in certain situations.

Basic understanding

Further information: Chemical synapse

In the brain, messages are passed between two nerve cells via a chemical synapse, a small gap between the cells. The (presynaptic) cell that sends the information releases neurotransmitters (including serotonin) into that gap. The neurotransmitters are then recognized by receptors on the surface of the recipient (postsynaptic) cell, which upon this stimulation, in turn, relays the signal. About 10% of the neurotransmitters are lost in this process; the other 90% are released from the receptors and taken up again by monoamine transporters into the sending (presynaptic) cell (a process called reuptake).

To stimulate the recipient cell, SSRIs inhibit the reuptake of serotonin. As a result, the serotonin stays in the synaptic gap longer than it normally would, and may repeatedly stimulate the receptors of the recipient cell. The current model of SSRIs (the Monoamine Hypothesis) assumes that a lower homeostatic level of serotonin is primarily responsible for depression. While this holds in cases of major depression, minor to moderate cases are not as clear cut, and may in fact be caused by excess serotonin in specific areas of the brain.

Some current research points to more than just a single type of chemical signaling – the classic synapse model – involving serotonin. Astrocytes are “helper cells” in the brain that do not participate directly in chemical signaling, but play a part in homeostasis for many chemical levels in the brain. Recent research[98] suggests that serotonin is one of the hormones regulated by astrocytes, and that astrocytes actually uptake, package, and resend serotonin in a way similar to neuronal axons, but do not have corresponding post-synaptic terminals, therefore appearing to function only to control the local levels of serotonin in the cerebrospinal fluid.

Still more research illustrates that the current model for the antidepressant activity of SSRIs may be misdirected, as a drug that works entirely opposite to SSRIs – Tianeptine, a selective serotonin reuptake enhancer – also exhibits antidepressant activity, especially in patients resistant to SSRI therapy. The effect of an SSRE in comparison to an SSRI requires that the nature of serotonin signaling in the areas of the brain related to mood and cognition needs further elucidation. If serotonin firing is regularly phasic (related to brain waves), or rapid and discrete, then SSRIs simply compress the signal potential at affected receptors (bringing down the maximum potential and bring up the minimum) by causing a constant leftover signal (serotonin left in the synaptic gap) coupled with weaker subsequent signals (due to the decrease in presynaptic serotonin available to send new signals). By this hypothetical model, SSREs increase the signal potential separation (min to max) at affected 5-HT sites by reducing the level of free cerebrospinal serotonin and increasing the amount uptaken into axons to send new signals.

Pharmacodynamics

SSRIs inhibit the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) into the presynaptic cell, increasing levels of 5-HT within the synaptic cleft.

However, there is one counteracting effect: high serotonin levels will not only activate the postsynaptic receptors, but also flood presynaptic autoreceptors, which serve as a feedback sensor for the cell. Activation of the autoreceptors (by agonists like serotonin) triggers a throttling back of serotonin production. The resulting serotonin deficiency persists for some time, as the transporter inhibition occurs downstream to the cause of the deficiency and therefore, is not able to counterbalance the serotonin deficiency. The body adapts gradually to this situation by lowering (downregulating) the sensitivity of the autoreceptors.[99]

Another adaptive process provoked by SSRIs is the downregulation of postsynaptic serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. After the use of an SSRI, since there is more serotonin available, the response is to decrease the number of postsynaptic receptors over time and in the long run, this modifies the serotonin/receptor ratio. This downregulation of 5-HT2A occurs when the antidepressant effects of SSRIs become apparent. Also, deceased suicidal and otherwise depressed patients have had more 5-HT2A receptors than normal patients. These considerations suggest that 5-HT2A overactivity is involved in the pathogenesis of depression.[100]

Most of the serotonin receptors on the surface of the cell are coupled to a G-protein inside it. These proteins activate or inhibit second messengers, which in turn affect transcription factors. Transcription factors are proteins that fit to the beginning of a gene and tell the cell to start using it.

These (slowly proceeding) neurophysiological adaptations of the brain tissue are the reason why usually several weeks of continuous SSRI use is necessary for the antidepressant effect to become fully manifested,[100] and why increased anxiety is a common side effect in the first few days or weeks of use.

Role in BDNF release

SSRIs act on signal pathways such as cAMP (Cyclic AMP) on the postsynaptic neuronal cell, which leads to the release of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). BDNF enhances the growth and survival of cortical neurons and synapses.[101]

Pharmacogenetics

Further information: Pharmacogenetics

Large bodies of research are devoted to using genetic markers to predict whether patients will respond to SSRIs or have side effects that will cause their discontinuation, although these tests are not yet ready for widespread clinical use.[102] Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the 5-HT(2A) gene correlated with paroxetine discontinuation due to side effects in a group of elderly patients with major depression, but not mirtazapine (a non-SSRI antidepressant) discontinuation.[103]

Neuroprotection

Studies have suggested that SSRIs may promote the growth of new neural pathways or neurogenesis in rats.[104] Also, SSRIs may protect against neurotoxicity caused by other compounds (for instance fenfluramine) as well as from depression itself. SSRIs have been found to induce programmed cell death in Burkitt lymphoma and the brain tumors neuroblastoma and glioma with minimal effect on normal tissue.[105][106]

Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulation

Recent studies show pro-inflammatory cytokine processes take place during depression, mania and bipolar disorder, in addition to somatic disease (such as autoimmune hypersensitivity) and it is possible that symptoms manifest in these psychiatric illnesses are being attenuated by pharmacological effect of antidepressants on the immune system.[107][108][109][110][111]

SSRIs have demonstrated immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects against pro-inflammatory cytokine processes, specifically on the regulation of Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10), as well as TNF-alpha and Interleukin-6 (IL-6). Antidepressants have also been shown to suppress TH1 upregulation.[112][113][114][115]

Future serotonergic antidepressants may be made to specifically target the immune system by either blocking the actions of pro-inflammatory cytokines or increasing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines.[116]

SSRIs versus TCAs

SSRIs are described as ‘selective‘ because they affect only the reuptake pumps responsible for serotonin, as opposed to earlier antidepressants, which affect other monoamine neurotransmitters as well, and as a result, SSRIs have fewer side effects.

There appears no significant difference in effectiveness between SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants, which were the most commonly used class of antidepressants before the development of SSRIs.[117] However, SSRIs have the important advantage that their toxic dose is high, and, therefore, they are much more difficult to use as a means to commit suicide. Further, they have fewer and milder side effects. Tricyclic antidepressant also have a higher risk of serious cardiovascular side effects, which SSRIs lack.

SSRIs versus 5-HT-Prodrugs

Further information: Prodrugs

Serotonin cannot be administered directly because when ingested orally, it will not cross the blood–brain barrier, and therefore would have no effect on brain functions. Also, serotonin would activate every synapse it reaches, whereas SSRIs only enhance a signal that is already present, but too weak to come through. The selectivity of the membrane can be reduced for a drug by injecting it in a concentrated sugar solution. The high osmotic pressure of the sugar solution causes the endothelial cells of the capillaries to shrink, which opens gaps between their tight junctions and makes the barrier more permeable. As a result the drug can enter the brain tissue.

SSRIs together with 5-HT-Prodrugs

Biosynthetic serotonin is made from tryptophan, an amino acid. In 1989, the Food and Drug Administration made tryptophan available by prescription only, in response to an outbreak of eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome caused by impure L-tryptophan supplements sold over-the-counter. With current standards, L-tryptophan is again available over the counter in the US as well as supplement 5-HTP, which is a direct precursor to serotonin.

Society and culture

Criticism

In late 2004 media attention was given to a proposed link between SSRI use and juvenile suicide. For this reason, the use of SSRIs in pediatric cases of depression is now recognized by the United States FDA as warranting a cautionary statement to the parents of children who may be prescribed SSRIs by a family doctor. The FDA’s currently required packaging insert for SSRIs includes a warning (known as a “black box warning”) that a pooled analysis of placebo controlled trials of 9 antidepressant drugs (including multiple SSRIs) resulted in a risk of suicidal behavior that was twice that of placebo. At the same time, in adults SSRIs do not increase the risk of suicide.[118]

Critics of SSRIs claim that the widely disseminated television and print advertising of SSRIs promotes an inaccurate message, oversimplifying what these medications actually do and deceiving the public.[119]

The criticism stems from questions about the validity of claims that SSRIs work by ‘correcting’ chemical imbalances. Without accurately measuring patients’ neurotransmitter levels to allow for continuous monitoring during treatment, it is impossible to know if one is correctly targeting a deficient neurotransmitter (i.e. correcting an imbalance), reaching a desirable level, or even introducing too much of a particular neurotransmitter. Thus it has been argued that SSRIs can actually cause chemical imbalances and abnormal brain states, as evidenced by the fact that many report problems of sexual dysfunction, whose effects last long after the medication has been discontinued. Hence, it is purported that when a patient discontinues an SSRI, they may have a chemical imbalance due to the rapid cessation of the drug that causes the discontinuation syndrome.[120]

One possible mechanism is by inhibition of dopaminergic neurotransmission.[121]

Biopsychiatrists believe that, among other factors, the balance of neurotransmitters in the brain is a biological regulator of mental health. In this theory, emotions within a “normal” spectrum reflect a proper balance of neurochemicals, but abnormally extreme emotions, such as clinical depression, reflect an imbalance. Psychiatrists[who?] claim that medications regulate neurotransmitters, and many if not most psychiatrists also claim they treat abnormal personalities by removing a neurochemical excess or replenishing a deficit.[citation needed] On the other hand, Elliot Valenstein, a psychologist and neuroscientist, claims that the broad biochemical assertions and assumptions of mainstream psychiatry are not supported by evidence.[122]

One controversial critic of antidepressants, Peter Breggin, a physician who opposes the overuse of prescription medications to treat patients for mental health issues, predicted iatrogenic issues that SSRIs incur on a significant percentage of patients. Another prominent SSRI critic is David Healy.

A widely reported meta-analysis combined 35 clinical trials submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before licensing of four newer antidepressants (including the SSRIs paroxetine and fluoxetine, and two non-SSRI antidepressants nefazodone and venlafaxine). The authors found that although the antidepressants were statistically superior to placebo they did not exceed the NICE criteria for a ‘clinically significant’ effect. For more detail, see the section “Efficacy“.

A study in The New England Journal of Medicine on a possible publication bias regarding the efficacy of SSRI medications in the treatment of depression suggests that their effectiveness and risk-benefit ratios may be greatly exaggerated. Of 74 studies registered with the United States FDA, 37 with positive results were published in academic journals, while 22 studies with negative results were not published and 11 with negative results were published in a way that conveyed a positive outcome (one positive study was not published and three negative studies were published with results that were portrayed as negative). Overall, 94% of studies actually published were positive outcomes; when published and unpublished studies were included for analysis, the percentage of positive outcomes was 51%.[123]

Although controversial, the existence of an SSRI-related withdrawal syndrome mimicking depression may inflate the therapeutic effect size reported in long-term (more than 6 months) placebo controlled trials of SSRI’s, due to a reliance on randomized discontinuation designs. Discontinuation trials are a variant of the classic 2-arm placebo controlled randomized controlled trials used in shorter placebo controlled studies of SSRI’s.[124][125]

Regulation

All SSRIs are approved in the U.S. for use with psychiatric disorders as outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV).

Approved uses for SSRIs vary by country and are determined by the overseeing branch of government in charge of regulating drugs. In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves drugs after trial results have been submitted by the pharmaceutical companies. In Europe, drugs can be approved either by the European Medicines Agency for human consumption throughout the European Union or by the regulatory agencies of individual countries for use within those countries.[citation needed]. In Canada, the drug approval process is carried out by Health Canada.

Lawsuits

Hundreds of lawsuits have been filed against drug manufacturers seeking compensation for harm attributed to the use of SSRIs. Suits based on product liability, for example, often allege failure to adequately warn users of potential side effects. Manufacturers have defended many suits on the merits and settled many others. In 2005, the U.S. FDA asked manufacturers to include black box warnings on antidepressant drug packaging.[126] Though a 2007 study[127] purportedly showed that the black box “warnings discouraged use of antidepressants in children and adolescents and… led to increases in suicide rates as a result of untreated depression” an article in the New York Times[128] that ran two weeks later questioned the results of the study, claiming that the data did not support a causal link between the black box warning and increased rates of suicide.

See also

References

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External links

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selective_serotonin_reuptake_inhibitor

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Segment 0: US Naval Base Shooting with  12 Dead Plus Shooter — Killer Mentally Ill Navy Veteran Discharged For Misconduct  Had Anger Issues  Was Video Game Addict– No Kidding — Videos

Shooting Military Building

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ABC World News Now : Aaron Alexis: The Man Behind the Washington Navy Yard Shooting

13 Confirmed Dead Including Gunman In Navy Yard Shooting Aaron Alexis Gunman Texas

Breaking: Navy Yard Shooter Identified As Aaron Alexis, 34 from Texas

INSANE! GUNMAN ARON ALEXIS Had PTSD After 911

INSANE! SOOTER’S FRIEND HE WAS POLITE, FRIENDLY

The Mystery Of The Rollie Chance ID Found Near Aaron Alexis Body At Navy Yard Shooting Scene

Massive Shooting at washington navy yard shooter leaves 7 wonded inside US navy yard

Shooting at Washington Navy Yard: Several wounded, gunman at large (breaking news: recorded live)

Shooting at washington navy yard – Active shooter Several people wonded inside US navy yard 9/16/13

At least 12 dead in Navy Yard shooting

Obama, Biden comment on Navy Yard shooting

US Naval Base Shooting: 12 Dead (Shooting at Washington Navy Yard)

Breaking News : Washington Navy Yard Shooting

13 People Killed BY A BLACK OBAMA VOTER, in Shooting at Washington Navy Yard

Navy Shooting Witness: Someone Shot in Head Right Next to Me

Washington Navy Yard Shooting Rampage Witness

Eyewitness sees man named Aaron Alexis as navy yard gunman, shot next to him

INSANE! DC Navy Yard shooting ‘may be related to US foreign policy’

Navy Yard Shooting Update: Gunman Identified as Aaron Alexis

Revealed: Washington gunman who murdered 12 had ‘anger issues’ after rescuing victims of 9/11 and had been kicked out of the Navy after gun charge

  • Aaron Alexis, 34, named as the heavily armed gunman who opened fire at the Washington Navy Yard in Washington D.C. – killing 12 people and injuring eight others on Monday morning
  • Used an AR-15 rifle the same weapon used in the Sandy Hook and Aurora mass shootings
  • SWAT Teams fought a heavy gun battle with him and shot him dead
  • Alexis served in the U.S. Navy for almost four years before he was discharged in 2011 for ‘misconduct’
  • It has been reported he was discharged from the U.S. Navy because of an arrest for firing his own gun in 2010; a similar incident occurred in 2004
  • The FBI has determined that Alexis was the only shooter, and police say a valid security pass was used to get into the Navy Yard buildings

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2421980/Washington-Naval-Yard-shooting-Aaron-Alexis-named-gunman-murdered-12-injured-15.html#ixzz2f9mEJn9n
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Gunman in Navy Yard rampage was hearing voices

By ERIC TUCKER, BRETT ZONGKER and LOLITA C. BALDOR, Associated Press

WASHINGTON (AP) — The former Navy reservist who slaughtered 12 people at the Washington Navy Yard had been hearing voices and was being treated for mental problems in the weeks before the shooting rampage, but was not stripped of his security clearance, officials said Tuesday.

Aaron Alexis, a 34-year-old information technology employee with a defense contractor, used a valid pass to get into the highly secured installation Monday morning and started firing inside a building, the FBI said. He was killed in a gun battle with police.

The motive for the mass shooting — the deadliest on a military installation in the U.S. since the attack at Fort Hood, Texas, in 2009 — was a mystery, investigators said.

U.S. law enforcement officials told The Associated Press that there was no known connection to international or domestic terrorism and that investigators have found no manifesto or other writings suggesting a political or religious motivation.

Alexis had been suffering a host of serious mental problems, including paranoia and a sleep disorder, and had been hearing voices in his head, according to the officials, who spoke on condition of anonymity because the criminal investigation was still going on.

He had been treated since August by Veterans Affairs for his mental problems, the officials said.

The Navy had not declared him mentally unfit, which would have rescinded a security clearance Alexis had from his earlier time in the Navy Reserves.

The assault is likely to raise more questions about the adequacy of the background checks done on contract employees and others who are issued security clearances — an issue that came up most recently with National Security Agency leaker Edward Snowden, an IT employee with a government contractor.

In the hours after the Navy Yard attack, a profile of Alexis began coming into focus.

A Buddhist convert who had also had flare-ups of rage, Alexis, a black man who grew up in New York City and whose last known address was in Fort Worth, Texas, complained about the Navy and being a victim of discrimination. He also had two run-ins with the law over shootings in 2004 and 2010 in Texas and Seattle.

In addition to those killed at the Navy Yard attack, eight people were hurt, including three who were shot and wounded, authorities. Those three were a police officer and two female civilians, authorities said. They were all expected to survive.

Monday’s onslaught at a single building at the Navy Yard unfolded about 8:20 a.m. in the heart of the nation’s capital, less than four miles from the White House and two miles from the Capitol. It put all of Washington on edge.

“This is a horrific tragedy,” Mayor Vincent Gray said.

Alexis carried three weapons: an AR-15 assault rifle, a shotgun, and a handgun that he took from a police officer at the scene, according to two federal law enforcement officials who spoke on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to discuss the investigation.

The AR-15 is the same type of rifle used in last year’s mass shooting at a Newtown, Conn., elementary school that killed 20 students and six women. The weapon was also used in the shooting at a Colorado movie theater that killed 12 and wounded 70.

For much of the day Monday, authorities said they were looking for a possible second attacker who may have been disguised in an olive-drab military-style uniform. But by late Monday night, they said they were convinced the shooting was the work of a lone gunman, and the lockdown around the area was eased.

“We do now feel comfortable that we have the single and sole person responsible for the loss of life inside the base today,” Washington Police Chief Cathy Lanier said.

President Barack Obama lamented yet another mass shooting in the U.S. that he said took the lives of American “patriots.” He promised to make sure “whoever carried out this cowardly act is held responsible.”

The FBI took charge of the investigation.

The attack came four years after Army psychiatrist Maj. Nidal Hasan killed 13 people at Fort Hood in what he said was an effort to save the lives of Muslims overseas. He was convicted last month and sentenced to death.

The dead in the Navy Yard attack ranged in age from 46 to 73, according to the mayor. A number of the victims were civilian employees and contractors, rather than active-duty military personnel, the police chief said.

At the time of the rampage, Alexis was an employee with The Experts, a company that was a Defense Department subcontractor on a Navy-Marine Corps computer project, authorities said.

Valerie Parlave, head of the FBI’s field office in Washington, said Alexis had access to the Navy Yard as a defense contractor and used a valid pass.

Alexis had been a full-time Navy reservist from 2007 to early 2011, leaving as a petty officer third class, the Navy said. It did not say why he left. He had been an aviation electrician’s mate with a unit in Fort Worth.

The Washington Navy Yard is a sprawling, 41-acre labyrinth of buildings and streets protected by armed guards and metal detectors, and employees have to show their IDs at doors and gates. More than 18,000 people work there.

The rampage took place at Building 197, the headquarters for Naval Sea Systems Command, which buys, builds and maintains ships and submarines. About 3,000 people work at headquarters, many of them civilians.

Witnesses on Monday described a gunman opening fire from a fourth-floor overlook, aiming down on people on the main floor, which includes a glass-walled cafeteria. Others said a gunman fired at them in a third-floor hallway.

Patricia Ward, a logistics-management specialist, said she was in the cafeteria getting breakfast.

“It was three gunshots straight in a row — pop, pop, pop. Three seconds later, it was pop, pop, pop, pop, pop, so it was like about a total of seven gunshots, and we just started running,” Ward said.

___

Associated Press writers Matt Apuzzo, Adam Goldman, Jesse Holland, Stacy A. Anderson, Brian Witte and Ben Nuckols in Washington contributed to this report.

http://www.stamfordadvocate.com/news/texas/article/Gunman-Navy-Yard-rampage-had-mental-problems-4820027.php

Officials: Gunman treated for mental health issues

By MATT APUZZO and ADAM GOLDMAN

U.S. law enforcement officials are telling The Associated Press that the Navy contractor identified as the gunman in the mass shootings at the Washington Navy Yard had been suffering a host of serious mental issues, including paranoia and a sleep disorder. He also had been hearing voices in his head, the officials said.

Aaron Alexis, 34, had been treated since August by the Veterans Administration for his mental problems, the officials said. They spoke on condition of anonymity because the criminal investigation in the case was continuing. The Navy had not declared him mentally unfit, which would have rescinded a security clearance that Alexis had from his earlier time in the Navy Reserves.

http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/U/US_NAVY_YARD_SHOOTING_GUNMAN_MENTAL_HEALTH?SITE=AP&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT&CTIME=2013-09-17-08-03-32

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Pronk Pops Show 122, August 23, 2013, Segment 0: Australian collegiate baseball player, Christopher Lane Murdered By Two Black Teenagers Out of Boredom Using Stolen Weapons In Senseless Thrill Killing — Photos and Videos

Posted on August 23, 2013. Filed under: Baseball, College, Communications, Culture, Drugs, Games, Gangs, Government, Government Spending, Homicide, Law, Media, Movies, Music, Philosophy, Politics, Security, Sports, Violence, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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Segment 0: Australian collegiate baseball player, Christopher Lane Murdered By Two Black Teenagers Out of Boredom Using Stolen Weapons In Senseless Thrill Killing — Photos and Videos

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Christopher Lane

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James Edwards, 15, charged with first-degree murder.

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Chancey Luna, 16, charged with first-degree murder.

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Michael Jones, 17, charged with being an accessory to the killing.

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Chris Lane’s Murder; Doesn’t fit the Liberal Media’s Narrative, on Race – Duncan Oklahoma

Glenn Beck On Chris Lane Shooting ‘Where’s The Outrage’ [HD]

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Sister of James Edwards doesn’t believe he would post about killing someone

Baseball Player Gunned Down by 3 Oklahoma Teens ‘For the Fun of It’

LISTEN: 911 Call Following Killing Of Chris Lane – 8/21/13

911 call from “thrill killing” of Chris Lane, released.

District Attorney Releases 911 Call in “Thrill Kill” that Left Australian Student Dead

Chris Lane’s parents speak about their son’s murder

Black Teens Who “Thrill Killed” Australian Baseball Player Show Off Guns On Vine!!

Australian Chris Lane Shot, Killed by Oklahoma Teens

Teens Killed College Athlete ‘For the Fun of It’

Bored Teens Shoot Man: Christopher Lane College Allegedly Gunned Down For The Fun Of It

Headline: Oklahoma teens allegedly killed Australian baseball player out of boredom

Black Teens Who “Thrill Killed” Australian Baseball Player Show Off Guns On Vine!!

Parents deny their kids involvement with Chris Lane murder

Australian baseball player remembered

Sarah Harper interview

Full interview with Sarah Harper the girlfriend of Australian baseball player Chris Lane who was killed by a drive-by shooting in Oklahoma

A Color-Blind Media and Benign Neglect of Black Violence?

By Raymond Thomas Pronk

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Murder victim, Christopher Lane, and girlfriend of four-years, Sarah Harper.

Credit: http://www.abc.net.au

What got my attention was three teenagers allegedly in broad daylight in a residential neighbor shot in the back and killed a complete stranger who was out jogging because they were bored.

I was listening to a newscast on one of the talk radio stations in Dallas when I first learned of the death of Australian collegiate baseball player Christopher Lane, 22, of Melbourne, Australia, by three teenagers in rural Duncan, in south central Oklahoma.

Later that day I was listening to a talk radio show when an Australian called in outraged that the American national media were not mentioning the race of the alleged teenage killers arrested for the murder. The two alleged killers were black and the alleged driver of the car was white. The caller said the homicide was a national news story in Australia where more details of what had happened were being broadcast than in the United States. The caller asked the question, if an Australian Aborigine been shot by three white teenagers, would this not be a national story with the race of the killers disclosed?

Yes, it most certainly would have with the Reverends Al Sharpton and Jesse Jackson leading the parade of outrage in protest of the murder. The national media would be broadcasting every detail of the teenage white killers’ background as well as the innocent black victim.

Lane was attending East Central University in Ada, Okla. on an athletic scholarship. He was a starting catcher on the baseball team and was entering his senior year. Lane was visiting his girlfriend in Duncan, which is about 85 miles east of Ada.

Lane and his girlfriend of four years, Sarah Harper, had just returned from a vacation in Australia. Harper said in an interview with Australia Broadcasting Company, “I’m really thankful I got to do that before this happened. Spent a lot of time with him and with his family in the place that he really loved being. Him being so proud to show everybody and everything off that he loved.”

The Duncan police have arrested and charged 15-year-old James Edwards Jr. and 16-year old Chancey Luna as adults with first degree felony murder. The police also arrested and charged the driver of the car, 17- year old Michael Jones with use of a vehicle in discharge of a weapon and accessor after the fact to murder in the first degree. Edwards and Chancey are black and Jones is white, according to a police affidavit.

The police said it was Jones who told them, “We were bored and didn’t have anything to do, so we decided to kill somebody.”

Harper said of the killers, “Never met them, never heard of them. And the fact that it was just they saw him running and chose him as a target is just unbearable, that it was just pointless. There was no rhyme or reason to any of it and it’s just not fair.”

The murder in Duncan with a population under 25,000 may be a rare event. However, in black neighborhoods in large cities across the United States, black-on black-crime, including homicides, is a very common event. Blacks are the overwhelming majority of the victims of black gang and drug related violence.

The black economist Walter Williams wrote, “between 1976 and 2005, blacks, while 13 percent of the population, committed over 52 percent of the nation’s homicides and were 46 percent of the homicide victims. Ninety-four percent of black homicide victims had a black person as their murderer.”

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reports, Crime in the United States 2011, there were 12,664 homicide victims in the U.S. of which 6,329 were black, 5,825 were white, 335 other race and 175 unknown race.

When it comes to black-on-black violent crime, especially homicides, the national media is apparently color-blind and treats such crime with benign neglect.

Fifty years ago on Aug. 28, 1963  the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered at the Lincoln Memorial, Washington D.C., his now famous I Have a Dream speech with its inspiring ending: “…when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual:  Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!”

Short Version of I Have A Dream Speech

Martin Luther King – I Have A Dream Speech – August 28, 1963

I hope the dream comes true. This will first require universal respect for all human life and the honesty to face and confront  the causes of evil in both black and white neighborhoods—gangs and drugs glorified by gangsta rap music, games and movies. Corrupting culture, entertainment, alcohol and drug use can lead to violence and murder of the innocent.

Until then in the words of singer-songwriter Kris Kristofferson, sung by his friend and lover, the late Port Arthur born Texas singer-songwriter Janis Joplin, who died at age 27 of a drug overdose of heroin with alcohol in Hollywood:

“…Freedom’s just another word for nothin’ left to lose,
Nothin’ don’t mean nothing honey if it ain’t free, no, no.
And feeling good was easy, Lord, when he sang the blues,
You know, feeling good was good enough for me,
Good enough for me and my Bobby McGee. ”

Janis Joplin – Me & Bobby McGee

Raymond Thomas Pronk presents the Pronk Pops Show on KDUX web radio from 3-5 p.m. Fridays and authors the companion blog http://www.pronkpops.wordpress.com.

Janis Joplin – Me & Bobby McGee

Melbourn)’I love you so much’ Girlfriend Sarah Harper’s tribute to slain baseballer Christopher Lane

THE girlfriend of slain Melbourne baseball star Chris Lane has posted an emotional tribute, describing their time together as “the most amazing years of my life”.

Sarah Harper, who was with Lane for four years, added to a raft of tributes for the 23-year-old after he was killed in a random drive-by shooting in Oklahoma.

“The past 4 years have been the most amazing years of my life and that’s all because of you babe,” she wrote on Facebook today.

“I love you so much babe. From 2009 until forever you will always be mine and in a very special and protected place in my heart.”

Ms Harper also posted a photo of a flower memorial erected by locals in the town of Duncan on the corner where he was tragically shot.

It comes after a 16-year-old boy confessed to pulling the trigger and killing Lane, according to police chief Danny Ford.

Chief Ford said the 16-year-old was with two other teens aged 15 and 17 when they killed Lane during a random drive-by shooting in the town of Duncan.
He said the three teenagers had no motive other than to make a name for themselves.

All three are facing the charge of first-degree murder, which carries a maximum sentence of the death penalty.

Chief Ford told 3AW this morning one of the accused has confessed to pulling the trigger, saying he just wanted to kill someone.

“Lately there has been some pretty weak motives, but I don’t know that I’ve had one that they told us they were just going to kill somebody,” he said.

He said the three teens were on a “killing spree” after , leaving a chilling message on Facebook.

Peter Lane said his son had left his mark and his death was just so pointless.
“There’s not going to be any good come out of this because it was just so senseless,” Mr Lane told reporters in Melbourne this morning.

“There wasn’t anything he did or could have done.

“He was an athlete going for a jog, like he would do five or six days a week in terms of his training schedule.

“It’s happened. It’s wrong and we just try and deal with it the best we can.”

Flowers and a baseball were placed on the home plate at Essendon Baseball Club this morning with a message that summed up the senseless shooting. “A wonderful young man taken too soon,” it read. “Why?”

As family and friends grappled with the unthinkable tragedy, the 22-year-old’s parents paid tribute to their boy at the field where his love for the sport began.
Peter Lane said he could not have been more proud of a remarkable young man.

“He did all the things a kid should have done,” Mr Lane said. “He caused us some grief but he caused us so much joy. He achieved a lot for a 22-year-old.

“He gave up a lot to follow his dream. He gave up 18th birthday parties to be at the Victorian Institute of Sport at 8am the next morning, ready to go.

Australian baseball player killed in OK

7News : Tributes for Aussie shot dead in US

Bored Teens Shoot Man: Christopher Lane College Allegedly Gunned Down For The Fun Of It

Christopher Lane Murder: Police Confirm That Teens Have Records

Chris Lane killer holding a shot gun and bragging on Vine

DUNCAN, Okla. — With the simplest of motives — breaking up the boredom of an Oklahoma summer — three teenagers followed an Australian collegiate baseball player who was attending school in the U.S. and killed him with a shot to the back for “the fun of it,” police say.

As authorities prepared to charge the teens with first-degree murder Tuesday, family and friends on two continents mourned Christopher Lane, who gave up pursuit of an Australian football career to pursue his passion for baseball, an American pastime. His girlfriend tearfully laid a cross at a streetside memorial in Duncan, while half a world away, an impromptu memorial grew at the home plate he protected as a catcher on his youth team.

“We just thought we’d leave it,” Sarah Harper said as she visited the memorial on Duncan’s north, well-to-do side. “This is his final spot.”

Flowers, photos and an Australian flag already adorned the roadside in a tribute to the 22-year-old.

“I don’t know anybody who’s left this. It means a lot,” Harper said.

Lane played at East Central University in Ada, 85 miles east of Duncan, and had been visiting Harper and her parents after he and his girlfriend returned to the U.S. from Australia about a week ago.

Police Chief Dan Ford said Lane appeared to have been chosen at random, saying in a variety of media interviews since Friday’s killing that a 17-year-old suspect told officers that he and other boys ages 15 and 16 were bored and that they followed Lane and killed him for “the fun of it.”

A former deputy prime minister in Australia called for a tourism boycott of the United States while Lane’s former clubs sought ways to honor their former teammate.

His old team, Essendon, scheduled a memorial game for Sunday to raise funds for Lane’s parents as they worked to have their boy’s remains sent home. The club said it would deliver notes of condolences sent to its headquarters.

At Essendon Catholic School, Lane will be remembered at a November Mass in which all former students who have died are mourned and celebrated, former school captain David Ireland told The Age newspaper in Melbourne.

“He was the sort of guy at school who everyone knew and knew quite well,” Ireland said of Lane. “He loved his footy (Australian football) and his sport and spent a lot of time with mates.”

Lane had attended St. Bernard’s college, where the principal at the time, Frank Fitzgerald, criticized the violence in Lane’s death.

“I think the rest of the countries around the world just look at that country and shake their head,” FitzGerald told The Age. He said Lane could have had a promising career in his country’s football league “but he already had indicated that baseball was what he would concentrate on.”

Melbourne’s Herald Sun newspaper reported that roses and a baseball were placed Monday on the home plate where Lane played as a youth with the message, “A wonderful young man taken too soon. Why?”

Former deputy prime minister Tim Fischer asked Australians to avoid the U.S. as a way to force its Congress to act on gun control.

“Tourists thinking of going to the USA should think twice,” Fischer told the Herald Sun. “This is the bitter harvest and legacy of the policies of the NRA that even blocked background checks for people buying guns at gunshows. People should take this into account before going to the United States. I am deeply angry about this because of the callous attitude of the three teenagers (but) it’s a sign of the proliferation of guns on the ground in the USA. There is a gun for almost every American.”

Tara Harper, Sarah Harper’s cousin, said her family was working with the Lanes on funeral arrangements.

Lane’s girlfriend had no intention of attending the suspects’ court appearance.

“She wants nothing to do with them. She doesn’t want to see them. She doesn’t want to hear them. She won’t be there. She won’t be there,” Tara Harper said. “I don’t think we’ll ever know why it happened. No answer will ever be satisfying, no matter what it is.”

Police say three bored teens killed an Australian collegiate baseball player

3 teens charged in ‘random’ killing of baseball player Christopher Lane

DUNCAN, Okla. – With a motive that’s both chilling and simple — to break up the boredom of an Oklahoma summer — three teenagers randomly targeted an Australian collegiate baseball player who was attending school in the U.S. and killed him for fun, prosecutors said Tuesday as they charged two of the boys with murder.

Prosecutor Jason Hicks called the boys “thugs” as he described how Christopher Lane, 22, of Melbourne, was shot once in the back and died along a tree-lined road on Duncan’s well-to-do north side. He said the three teens, from the grittier part of town, chose Lane at random and that one of the boys “thinks it’s all a joke.”

Hicks charged Chancey Allen Luna, 16, and James Francis Edwards Jr., 15, of Duncan, with first-degree murder. Under Oklahoma law they will be tried as adults. Michael Dewayne Jones, 17, of Duncan, was charged with using a vehicle in the discharge of a weapon and with accessory to first-degree murder after the fact. He is considered a youthful offender but will be tried in adult court.

Jones wept in the courtroom after he tried to speak about the incident but was cut off by the judge who said it wasn’t the time to sort out the facts of the case. Jones faces anywhere from two years to life in prison if convicted on the counts he faces.

The two younger teens face life in prison without parole if convicted on the murder charge.

“I’m appalled,” Hicks said after the hearing. “This is not supposed to happen in this community.”

In court, Hicks said Luna was sitting in the back seat of a car when he pulled the trigger on a .22 caliber revolver and shot Lane once in the back. Hicks said Jones was driving the vehicle and Edwards was in the passenger seat.

A recording of an emergency 911 call obtained Tuesday by The Associated Press offers a chilling account of the next moments as a woman identifying herself as Joyce Smith tells the operator she saw Lane fall over into a ditch as she drove by.

“He’s got blood on his back,” the woman says.

Later relaying word from another witness on the scene to the 911 operator, the woman says: “He’s turning blue. He’s making a noise.”

Edwards has had prior run-ins with the law and came to court Friday — apparently after the shooting — to sign documents related to his juvenile probation.

“I believe this man is a threat to the community and should not be let out,” Hicks said as he requested he be held without bail. “He thinks it’s all a joke.”

The two younger boys were held without bail, while bail for Jones was set at $1 million.

Before the hearing, Edwards’ father, James Edwards Sr., said he knew where his son was 95 percent of the time. He said his son was involved in wrestling and football, and was trying to forge the same sort of athletic career as Lane. He was heading into his sophomore year in high school.

Edwards Sr. said Luna was also like a son to him.

Luna’s mother, Jennifer Luna, said her son likes to play basketball at a local court and play on his iPhone and Xbox.

“I know my son. He is a good kid,” she said.

Lane played baseball at East Central University in Ada, 85 miles east of Duncan, and had been visiting his girlfriend and her parents in Duncan after he and his girlfriend returned to the U.S. from Australia about a week ago.

Duncan police Chief Dan Ford has said the boys wanted to overcome a boring end to their summer vacation — classes in Duncan resumed Tuesday — and that Jones told officers they were bored and killed Lane for “the fun of it.”

Family and friends on two continents were mourning Lane, who gave up pursuit of an Australian football career to pursue his passion for baseball, an American pastime. His girlfriend, Sarah Harper, tearfully laid a cross at a streetside memorial in Duncan, while half a world away, an impromptu memorial grew at the home plate he protected as a catcher on his youth team.

“We just thought we’d leave it,” Harper said as she visited the memorial in Duncan. “This is his final spot.”

His old baseball team, Essendon, scheduled a memorial game for Sunday to raise funds for Lane’s parents as they worked to have their boy’s remains sent home.

Tony Cornish, president of the Essendon Baseball Club, said Lane played with the club for 12 years.

“He started out as a T-baller, right from the age of 7, ” said Cornish.

Cornish said Lane was part of the club until he left to attend college in the U.S.

“Chris Lane was a good kid, just a great all-around guy,” Cornish said. “We’re still all in shock here.”

Meanwhile, St. Bernard’s College in Essendon, where Lane was a student, is planning a memorial Mass for Lane in November.

Melbourne’s Herald Sun newspaper reported that roses and a baseball were placed Monday on the home plate where Lane played as a youth with the message: “A wonderful young man taken too soon. Why?”

Tim Fischer, former Australia deputy prime minister, criticized the National Rifle Association and asked Australians to avoid the U.S. as a way to put pressure on its Congress to act on gun control.

“Tourists thinking of going to the USA should think twice,” Fischer told the Herald Sun. “I am deeply angry about this because of the callous attitude of the three teenagers, (but) it’s a sign of the proliferation of guns on the ground in the USA. There is a gun for almost every American.”

http://www.newsday.com/news/nation/3-teens-charged-in-random-killing-of-baseball-player-christopher-lane-1.5930352

These Are the Three Teens Charged in the Murder of Student Chris Lane ‘For the Fun of It’ (UPDATED)

Authorities formally charged three teenagers Tuesday afternoon for mercilessly gunning down Australian student Chris Lane Friday night “for the fun of it.”

James Edwards, 15, and Chancey Luna, 16, were reportedly charged with first degree murder and face life in prison if convicted. They are being held without bond.

Michael Jones, 17, was reportedly charged with using a vehicle to facilitate the discharge of a weapon and accessory after the fact of murder in the first degree. He reportedly said in court “I pulled the trigger” but the judge told him to remain silent. The boy cried and his bond was set at $1 million.

The three teens will be tried as adults, the Herald Sun reports.

A social networking page appearing to belong to Edwards reveals a video of Edwards brandishing a gun as well as multiple photos showing piles of cash he claims belong to him.

“B***h we up dem poles, f**k with me,” James can be heard saying in a newly surfaced Vine video, while brandishing a gun. The New York Post and Daily Mail both report this is authentic video of James.

http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2013/08/20/these-are-the-three-teens-arrested-and-suspected-of-murdering-student-chris-lane-for-the-fun-of-it/

Chilling 911 call details final moments of Melbourne baseballer Chris Lane’s life

THE harrowing last seconds of murdered Melbourne man Chris Lane’s life has been recorded on a 911 emergency call.

The seven-minute call, released by the District Attorney’s office in Duncan, Oklahoma, begins with local Joyce Smith telling the operator she was driving her Toyota Corolla and spotted a bloodied man at the side of the road.

“There’s a young man,” Ms Smith tells the operator.

“He’s just fell over in a ditch and he’s got blood on him.”

It is 2.57pm on Friday.

Authorities allege Lane, a 22-year-old baseball player who had a scholarship with a Oklahoma college and was visiting his US girlfriend in Duncan, was jogging along Country Club Road when he was shot in the back in a random drive-by shooting.

Ms Smith, unaware Lane has been shot, has no idea what has happened to him.

“I’m afraid to go over to him,” Ms Smith tells the operator.

“I don’t know him.”

Ms Smith tells the operator Mr Lane was standing at the side of the road, but then fell over in a ditch.

“I’m kind of scared to go over by myself,” Ms Smith tells the operator.

At 1:42 into the call, Richard Rhodes, a building contractor who was working on a house in front of where Mr Lane was shot, on the corner of Country Club Rd and Twilight Beach Rd, came out to investigate.

“The man that has come around the corner off Twilight Beach said, ‘He has been shot. Tell them to hurry’,” Ms Smith, panic in her voice, relays to the operator.

“He said, ‘He heard the shot and he knows what the car looks like’.”

Mr Rhodes will become key to the arrest of the three boys who are accused of the drive-by shooting – James Edwards, 15, Chancey Luna, 16, and Michael Jones, 17.

Mr Rhodes said he was working on the house, heard what sounded like a bullet being fired, looked down the street and saw a black car with a white sticker on the windshield.

Edwards, Luna and Jones were arrested four hours later in a black 2003 Ford Focus with a white sticker on the windshield.

At 2:45 into the 911 call, Mr Rhodes has some alarming news that Ms Smith relays to the operator.

“He’s turning blue,” Ms Smith says.

Mr Lane is struggling to breath.

Mr Rhodes said he believed the bullet went through Lane’s back and punctured his lungs.

At 3:19 into the call, the operator alerts authorities.

“We have a male who said he has been shot and is bleeding in the back,” the operator can be heard saying.

At 3:37 she informs Ms Smith help is on the way.

“OK. We have an ambulance and a PD (police) on the way,” the operator says.

At 3:54 the operator asks: “Is he breathing? Is he conscious? Is he talking to you?”

Ms Smith asks Mr Rhodes and the reply is Lane is not conscious and is “barely breathing”.

There’s extra panic in Ms Smith’s voice.

About 20 seconds later Ms Smith relays some promising news from Mr Rhodes: “He just took a breath.”

At 4:26 an urgent Ms Smith complains to the operator she can’t hear any sirens and at 5:53 she again raises her concerns.

“I hear no sirens. I see no lights. Oh my gosh how long is it going to be?” Ms Smith says.

At 6:06 Ms Smith says: “I finally see some lights coming.”

At 6:20 Ms Smith says an unidentified female passerby was performing CPR on Lane, however the woman delivers an ominous warning.

The ambulance is yet to arrive.

“If you don’t hurry, he’s gone,” Ms Smith, relaying the message, tells the operator.

“Ma’am. They’re coming OK. I can’t make them come any faster,” the operator replies.

At 6:47 Ms Smith says: “Finally I see them coming up the street.”

The operator asks if Lane has stopped breathing.

Mr Rhodes can be heard in the background saying: “Yes.”

“Yes, yes they said he has,” an emotional Ms Smith confirms.

At 7:06 the ambulance pulls up at the scene.

“Stop right here fella,” Ms Smith can be heard telling them.

Lane was taken to Duncan Regional Hospital where exactly 50 minutes after Ms Smith called 911, doctors pronounced the young Australian, who had so much life to live, dead.

Luna, the alleged shooter of a .22 calibre revolver, and Edwards, an alleged passenger in the Focus, were charged with first-degree murder and face life in prison without parole if convicted.

Jones, the alleged driver, was charged with using a vehicle to facilitate the discharge of a weapon and accessory after the fact of murder in the first degree.

He faces a maximum 45-year sentence.

The accused teenagers were dobbed in by a local who claims his son was the trio’s next target.

James Johnson, 52, called the police to tell them that the accused killers were hiding in the car park of the Immauel Baptist Church car park at about 5pm, two hours after they allegedly shot Lane.

“My son called me and said, “They’re saying they’re coming to kill me,” so I called the police and they got here within about three minutes,” Johnson told the Herald Sun.

Mr Johnson claimed that Edwards Jr had threatened the life of his own 17-year-old son Christopher on Facebook. His son was at home with his mother and sisters near the church when he received the death threat.

“They threatened to kill my son because they are in a gang, the Crips, and were trying to get my son in it and I wouldn’t let him do it.

“I told him he couldn’t run with those boys. He’s a little terrified.”

Mr Johnson said the Crips, a predominantly African American street gang that began in Los Angeles in 1969 and had been in Duncan for the past few years.

He said the group consisted of teenagers who he called “wannabes.”

“I’ve been living here all my life and we never had this, but in the past few years gangs from Lawton have been coming here,” Johnson said of the Crips.

Johnson’s son also attends Duncan High School, where suspect Luna and Edwards Jr. were students. He said he knew both boys, and described them as “troublemakers” and “bullies” who had “no parental supervision.”

“I’m just glad they found the other gun, because they haven’t found the murder weapon yet,” said Johnson.

Meanwhile, the US government says it is “deeply saddened” by the drive-by shooting murder.

“The United States is deeply saddened to hear the tragic news of the death of an Australian citizen in Oklahoma,” Ms Harf said.

“This is clearly a tragic death, and we extend our condolences to the family and the loved ones. We understand that local authorities are focused on bringing those responsible to justice. Clearly, we would support that.”

The State Department’s comments came after former deputy prime minister Tim Fischer urged Australian tourists to stay away from America to protest the need for stricter gun controls in the US.

Prosecutors have promised that the “thugs” charged over the brutal murder “will pay”.

District Attorney Jason Hicks said outside the first court hearing in the Oklahoma town of Duncan that he was “going to do everything I can to ensure these three thugs pay for what they did to Christopher Lane”.

“To those friends of ours in Australia, we would say to you this is not Duncan, Oklahoma,” Mr Hicks said.

“This is not Stephens County, Oklahoma.”

Stephens County Courthouse heard how one of the boys accused of murdering Lane, 22, danced and laughed as he was taken into a police station to be charged after the killing on Friday.

James Edwards, 15, was treating the murder as a joke, Mr Hicks told the hearing.

Mr Hicks told the court that Edwards has previously been in contact with police, and that he had “an attitude of total disregard for law enforcement” when he was being charged over Lane’s death.

“He thinks it’s funny, and it’s all a joke,” Mr Hicks said.

“I believe he is a threat to the community.”

Mr Hicks said Edwards kept a probation appointment for another matter at the courthouse just minutes after Lane was killed.

“He was cold, callous and that was the demeanour that we saw throughout the course of the investigation,” Mr Hicks said.

Edwards and Chancey Luna, 16, are charged with first-degree murder and face life in prison if convicted.

Mr Hicks said that Luna had refused to co-operate with police.

They were both refused bail.

Michael Jones, 17, was charged with using a vehicle to facilitate the discharge of a weapon and accessory after the fact of murder in the first degree.

Bail for Jones, who is assisting prosecutors and police, was set at $US1 million ($A1.1 million).

The three will be tried as adults.

They were dressed in orange prison jumpsuits and had their legs shackled during the brief appearance.

The court was told that the three boys spotted Lane jogging along a road in an upper-class area of Duncan on Friday.

They got into a car driven by Jones, drove behind Lane and then Luna shot him with .22 calibre revolver in the back, the court was told.

“The information we have was this was the person who pulled the trigger,” the prosecutor said of Luna.

Edwards and Luna did not show any emotion, but Jones broke down in tears after Mr Hicks said he was looking at a “very, very lengthy prison sentence”.

“I didn’t pull the trigger,” Jones said.

The courtroom was packed and divided.

In the front row sat about 20 family and friends of Sarah Harper, Lane’s longtime American girlfriend. Ms Harper, 23, was not in court.

Cindy Harper told the Herald Sun her daughter was at home “trying to relax”.

Another Harper family member said “this is surreal” as they were taken out a side door of the court building by sheriffs.

A few rows behind was a distraught Jennifer Luna, coming to grips with a nightmare 12 months that saw the death of her husband in a motorcycle accident and now the prospect her son could spend the rest of his life in prison.

On the right hand side of the courtroom was James Edwards Sr, refusing to believe his son was a killer.

“Yes, I do,” Mr Edwards replied outside court when asked if he believed his son, who hoped to be an Olympic wrestler, was innocent.

In the back left area of the court was Jones’s parents and supporters, including his pregnant girlfriend.

She sobbed in her seat, eventually leaving the court before Jones came in.

Edwards and Luna did not appear to be fazed during their court appearance.

Even when Ms Luna stood up in court to answer an administrative question from Judge Jerry Herberger, her son didn’t acknowledge her.

Edwards didn’t look for family members.

Asked if she had a message for the Lane family outside court, Ms Luna told the Herald Sun: “I feel sorry for them, my heart goes out to them, it really does, but that’s my baby too.

“My boy was a baby too.”

Luna said there were no guns at her house, and her son was at home playing X-Box with her soon-to-be stepson when she came home from work last Friday after finishing at 3pm.

It comes a day after Duncan Police Chief Danny Ford said he had secured the confession of Jones who had summoned investigators to his jail cell and claimed they were bored “so they decided to kill somebody”.

Chief Ford said the teens had no motive other than to ”make a name for themselves”.

Lane was staying with Ms Harper in Duncan before going back to Oklahoma’s East Central University where he majored in finance and was the catcher on the team’s baseball team.

Ms Harper yesterday revealed her heartbreak at losing her “best friend”, and parents of the accused protested their innocence.

She also told the Herald Sun that she didn’t know what punishment would be appropriate for the three teens.

Lane, who grew up in Oak Park in Melbourne’s north, had only been back in the US for three days after an eight-week break in Australia with Ms Harper.

“I don’t want them to have any future that Chris wasn’t able to have as well,” Ms Harper said of the accused yesterday.

“It’s been pretty rough. It’s been hard knowing he was taken so close to home, let alone taken in the way he was. To be pointed out like that …”

Ms Harper said she and Lane had joked about America’s soft gun laws before he was shot.

“He wasn’t a fan of guns,” she said.

She fondly described Lane as a smart, kind and curious guy who would “do anything for anybody”.

Ms Harper, also a talented sportswoman, said she and Lane just “meshed together” within weeks of meeting at college in Oklahoma in August 2009.

“It was more of a personality (we had in common), not so much interests. He was intellectual, into world news, and I found that quite boring,” she said.

“He really wanted to travel more. He loved the idea of seeing the world.”

Ms Harper said she would come back to Australia to farewell Lane with his family.

“I’m probably going to go back and say goodbye with the people he loved the most,” she said.

“It was a great time getting back there and seeing him in his element with all his favourite friends.

“It’s going to be hard going back but it’s something I need to do.

“Thank you to everyone who supported and loved Chris. I really appreciated it.”

– with Stephen Drill Andy Burns and AAP

http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/chilling-911-call-details-final-moments-of-melbourne-baseballer-chris-lane8217s-life/story-fni0fiyv-1226700172461

Background Articles and Videos

Bloods & Crips – Why We Bang (Documentary)

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Top 30 Gangsta Rap Songs

Crips

The Crips are a primarily, but not exclusively, African-American gang. They were founded in Los Angeles, California, in 1969 mainly by Raymond Washington and Stanley Williams. What was once a single alliance between two autonomous gangs is now a loosely connected network of individual sets, often engaged in open warfare with one another.

The Crips are one of the largest and most violent associations of street gangs in the United States,[1] with an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 members. The gang is known to be involved in murders, robberies, and drug dealing, among many other criminal pursuits. The gang is known for its gang members’ use of the color blue in their clothing. However, this practice has waned due to police crackdowns on gang members.

Crips are publicly known to have an intense and bitter rivalry with the Bloods. Crips have been documented in the U.S. military, found in bases in the United States and abroad

History

Stanley Tookie Williams met Raymond Lee Washington in 1969, and the two decided to unite their local gang members from the west and east sides of South Central Los Angeles in order to battle neighboring street gangs. Most of the members were 17 years old.[9] Williams discounted the sometimes cited founding date of 1969 in his memoir, Blue Rage, Black Redemption.[9] Gang activity in South Central Los Angeles has its roots in a variety of factors dating back to the 1950s and ’60s, including post-World War II economic decline leading to joblessness and poverty, racial segregation leading to the formation of black “street clubs” by young African American men who were excluded from organizations such as the Boy Scouts, and the waning of black nationalist organizations such as the Black Panther Party and the Black Power Movement.[10][11][12][13]

Etymology

The original name for the alliance was “Cribs,” a name narrowed down from a list of many options, and chosen unanimously from three final choices, which included the Black Overlords, and the Assassins. Cribs was chosen to reflect the young age of the majority of the gang members. The name “Cribs” evolved into the name “Crips” when gang members began carrying around canes to display their “pimp” status. People in the neighborhood then began calling them cripples, or “Crips” for short.[14] A Los Angeles Sentinel article in February 1972 referred to some members as “Crips” (for cripples).[1] The name had no political, organizational, cryptic, or acronymic meaning, though some have suggested it stands for Common Revolution In Progress, a backronym. Williams, in his memoir, further refuted claims that the group was a spin-off of the Black Panther Party or formed for a community agenda, the name “depicted a fighting alliance against street gangs—nothing more, nothing less.”[9] Washington, who attended Fremont High School, was the leader of the East Side Crips, and Williams, who attended Washington High School, led the West Side Crips.

Crip showing a gang signal.

Williams recalled that a blue bandana was first worn by Crips founding member Buddha, as a part of his color-coordinated clothing of blue Levi’s, a blue shirt, and dark blue suspenders. A blue bandana was worn in tribute to Buddha after he was shot and killed on February 23, 1973, which eventually became the color of blue associated with Crips.[9]

Chain of Command

Initially Crips leaders did not occupy leadership positions, but were recognized as leaders because of their personal charisma and influence. These leaders gave priority to expanding the gang’s membership to increase its power. By 1978, there were 45 Crips gangs, called sets, operating in Los Angeles. The gang became increasingly violent as they attempted to expand their turf.

Funding

By the early 1980s the gang was heavily involved with drug trade.[15] Some of these Crips sets began to produce and distribute PCP (phencyclidine) within the city. They also began to distribute marijuana and amphetamine in Los Angeles. In the early 1980s Crips sets began distributing crack cocaine in Los Angeles. The huge profits resulting from crack cocaine distribution induced many Crips members to establish new markets in other cities and states. In addition, many young men in other states adopted the Crips name and lifestyle. As a result of these two factors, Crips membership increased throughout the 1980s, making it one of the largest street gang associations in the country.[1] In 1999, there were at least 600 Crips sets with more than 30,000 members transporting drugs in the United States.[1]

Membership

Crips has over 800 sets with 30,000 to 35,000 members and associate members, including more than 13,000 members in Los Angeles. The states with the highest estimated number of Crips sets are California, Florida and Illinois . Members typically consist of young African-American men, with some members being white, Hispanic and Asian.[1]

Crip on Crip rivalries

The Crips became popular throughout southern Los Angeles as more youth gangs joined; at one point they outnumbered non-Crip gangs by 3 to 1, sparking disputes with non-Crip gangs, including the L.A. Brims, Athens Park Boys, the Bishops, The Drill Company, and the Denver Lanes. By 1971 the gang’s notoriety had spread across Los Angeles.

By 1971, a gang on Piru Street in Compton, California, known as the Piru Street Boys, was formed and associated themselves with the Crips as a set. After two years of peace, a feud began between the Piru Street Boys and the other Crip sets. It would later turn violent as gang warfare ensued between former allies. This battle continued and by 1973, the Piru Street Boys wanted to end the violence and called a meeting with other gangs that were targeted by the Crips. After a long discussion, the Pirus broke all connections to the Crips and started an organization that would later be called the Bloods,[16] a street gang infamous for its rivalry with the Crips.

Since then, other conflicts and feuds were started between many of the remaining sets of the Crips gang. It is a popular misconception that Crips sets feud only with Bloods. In reality, they fight each other—for example, the Rollin’ 60s and 83rd Street Gangster Crips have been rivals since 1979. In Watts, Los Angeles, the Grape Street Watts Crips and the P Jay Crips have feuded so much that the P Jay Crips even teamed up with the local Bloods set, the Bounty Hunter Bloods, to fight against the Grape Street Crips.[17]

Practices

Crip graffiti tag in Olympia, Washington.

Some practices of Crip gang life generally include rapping, graffiti and substitutions and deletions of particular letters of the alphabet. The letter “b” in the word “blood” will be “disrespected” among certain sets and written with a cross inside it because of its association with the enemy. The letters “CK”, which stand for “Crip killer”, will be avoided and substituted with a double “cc”, and the letter “b” will be replaced. The words “kick back” will instead be written as “kicc bkacc”. Many other letters are also altered due to symbolic associations.[18] Crips traditionally refer to each other as “Cuzz”, which itself is sometimes used as a moniker for Crip. “Crab” is the most disrespectful epithet to call a Crip, and can warrant fatal retaliation.[19] Crips in prison modules during the 1970s and 80s would speak in Kiswahili to maintain privacy among guards and rival gangs.[20]

Sets

Like the Bloods, the Crips are made up of gang sets.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j U.S. Department of Justice, Crips.
  2. ^ a b c “Los Angeles-based Gangs — Bloods and Crips”. Florida Department of Corrections. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
  3. ^ “Crips”. Gang Prevention Services. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
  4. ^ “Black Gangster Disciples”. Gang Prevention Services. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
  5. ^ http://info.publicintelligence.net/NGIC-Juggalos.pdf
  6. ^ Gold, Scott (2009-09-18). “A gang feud’s fallout”. The Los Angeles Times.
  7. ^ Audi, Tamara (2011-06-08). “Latino Gang Targeted Blacks, U.S. Says – WSJ.com”. Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  8. ^ “Gangs Increasing in Military, FBI Says”. Military.com. McClatchy-Tribune Information Services. 2008-06-30. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
  9. ^ a b c d Williams, Stanley Tookie; Smiley, Tavis (2007). Blue Rage, Black Redemption. Simon & Schuster. pp. xvii–xix, 91–92, 136. ISBN 1-4165-4449-6.
  10. ^ Washington was murdered August 9, 1979 and Williams was executed December 13, 2005. Stacy Peralta (Director) (2009). Crips and Bloods: Made in America (TV-Documentary). PBS Independent Lens series. Retrieved 2009-05-15. Unknown parameter |producer= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |executive producer= ignored (help)
  11. ^ “Timeline: South Central Los Angeles”. PBS (part of the “Crips and Bloods: Made in America” TV documentary). 2009-04-21. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
  12. ^ Sharkey, Betsy (2009-02-06). “Review: ‘Crips and Bloods: Made in America'”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-05-16.
  13. ^ Cle Sloan (Director) (2009). Keith Salmon, ed. Bastards of the Party (TV-Documentary). HBO. Retrieved 2009-05-15. Unknown parameter |producer= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |executive producer= ignored (help)
  14. ^ “Los Angeles”. Inside. National Geographic Channel. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
  15. ^ Crip History
  16. ^ Capozzoli, Thomas and McVey, R. Steve (1999). Kids Killing Kids: Managing Violence and Gangs in Schools. St. Lucie Press, Boca Raton, Florida, p. 72. ISBN 1-57444-283-X.
  17. ^ “War and Peace in Watts” (2005-07-14). LA Weekly. Retrieved 2007-05-04.
  18. ^ Smith, Debra; Whitmore, Kathryn F. (2006). Literacy and Advocacy in Adolescent Family, Gang, School, and Juvenile Court Communities. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-5599-8.
  19. ^ Simpson, Colton (2005). Inside the Crips: Life Inside L.A.’s Most Notorious Gang. St. Martin’s Press. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-312-32930-3.
  20. ^ Simpson, Colton (2005). Inside the Crips: Life Inside L.A.’s Most Notorious Gang. St. Martin’s Press. pp. 122–124. ISBN 978-0-312-32930-3.

References

  • Leon Bing (1991). Do or Die: America’s Most Notorious Gangs Speak for Themselves. Sagebrush. ISBN 0-8335-8499-5
  • Yusuf Jah, Sister Shah’keyah, Ice-T, UPRISING : Crips and Bloods Tell the Story of America’s Youth In The Crossfire, ISBN 0-684-80460-3
  • Capozzoli, Thomas og McVey, R. Steve (1999). Kids Killing Kids: Managing Violence and Gangs in Schools. St. Lucie Press, Boca Raton, Florida, side. 72 ISBN 1-57444-283-X
  • National Drug Intelligence Center (2002). Drugs and Crime: Gang Profile: Crips (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 2009-06-21. Product no. 2002-M0465-001.
  • Shakur, Sanyika (1993). Monster: The Autobiography of an L.A. Gang Member, Atlantic Monthly Pr, ISBN 0-87113-535-3
  • Colton Simpson, Ann Pearlman, Ice-T (Foreword) (2005). Inside the Crips : Life Inside L.A.’s Most Notorious Gang (HB) ISBN 0-312-32929-6
  • Smith, Debra; Whitmore, Kathryn F. (2006). Literacy and Advocacy in Adolescent Family, Gang, School, and Juvenile Court Communities. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-5599-8.
  • Stanley Tookie Williams (2005). Blue Rage, Black Redemption: A Memoir (PB) ISBN 0-9753584-0-5

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Crips

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crips

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Pronk Pops Show 117, July 19, 2013, Segment 1: Robust Self Defense: Stand Your Ground — No Duty To Retreat From Criminal Attackers — National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and Attorney General Holders Favor The Criminal Against The Law-Biding Victim Which The Gun Grabbers Like Obama and Holder Want To Also Disarm — Videos

Pronk Pops Show 117, July 19, 2013, Segment 2: Race Racketeers Running Race Rallies — Black Gangs Kill Blacks By The Thousands and Planned Parenthood Kills Black Babies By The Millions — Race Never Played A Role in Zimmerman Verdict Says Juror #b37!– Videos

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