The Pronk Pops Show 1263, May 23, 2019, Story 1: Time for Total Embargo of All Communist China Goods Into The United States — Communist Chinese Spying on United States Businesses and Computer Systems — Long March of People Liberation Army (PLA) Against Chinese People Rebellion — Videos — Story 2: United States blacklisted Huawei Technology Co For Reasons of National Security — Death Penalty For Chinese Spy Companies — Competing Secret Surveillance States — Communist China and United States — Videos

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 1263 May 23, 2019 posted as soon as possible

Pronk Pops Show 1262 May 22, 2019 posted as soon as possible

Pronk Pops Show 1261 May 21, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1260 May 20, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1259 May 16, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1258 May 15, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1257 May 14, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1256 May 13, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1255 May 10, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1254 May 9, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1253 May 8, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1252 May 7, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1251 May 6, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1250 May 3, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1249 May 2, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1248 May 1, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1247 April 30, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1246 April 29, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1245 April 26, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1244 April 25, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1243 April 24, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1242 April 23, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1241 April 18, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1240 April 16, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1239 April 15, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1238 April 11, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1237 April 10, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1236 April 9, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1235 April 8, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1234 April 5, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1233 April 4, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1232 April 1, 2019 Part 2

Pronk Pops Show 1232 March 29, 2019 Part 1

Pronk Pops Show 1231 March 28, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1230 March 27, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1229 March 26, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1228 March 25, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1227 March 21, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1226 March 20, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1225 March 19, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1224 March 18, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1223 March 8, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1222 March 7, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1221 March 6, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1220 March 5, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1219 March 4, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1218 March 1, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1217 February 27, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1216 February 26, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1215 February 25, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1214 February 22, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1213 February 21, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1212 February 20, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1211 February 19, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1210 February 18, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1209 February 15, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1208 February 14, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1207 February 13, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1206 February 12, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1205 February 11, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1204 February 8, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1203 February 7, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1202 February 6, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1201 February 4, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1200 February 1, 2019

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Story 1: Time for Total Embargo of All Communist China Goods Into The United States — Communist Chinese Spying on United States Computer Systems and Stealing Data– Long March of People Liberation Army (PLA) Against Chinese People Rebellion — Videos —

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Trade war casualties: US businesses in China face retaliation

Xi Jinping calls for ‘New Long March’ amid trade tensions

Here’s a closer look at how China could retaliate during the trade war

Experts debate the effect of the China trade war on the market

This is a full-court press on Chinese behavior, says Michelle Caruso-Cabrera

U.S. Is in Decades-Long Competition With China: Kimmitt

Cramer: China will retaliate against Apple because of the trade war

 What’s next for Huawei after US trade blacklist? | Inside Story

How China will hit back at Trump and save Huawei

China can earn its way out of Trump’s tariffs: Michael Pillsbury

Has China been duping the US for nearly half a century?

Steve Says: Standing up to China

Imports and exports drop for Chinese cargo terminal as US-China trade war tensions rise

Why Trump Will Win the US China Trade War—Stephen Moore

Gingrich: China economy can’t take the battering Trump will deliver

China state-run media targets Trish Regan, calls Bannon ‘true enemy of America’

Steve Bannon: China was not prepared to have Trump in office

Tom Friedman explains why he agrees with Trump’s China trade approach

What Trump’s trade war with China means for American consumers

China Vows to ‘Fight to the Finish’ in Escalating Trade War Against the U.S.

China hits back in trade war by raising tariffs on US goods

Will China admit to IP theft?

Wall Street will get used to US, China trade tensions: Michael Pillsbury

China is on the brink of collapse: Art Laffer

The Realities Of Trump’s Trade War | VICE on HBO

Why are there dozens of ‘ghost cities’ in China?

China Builds Fake Paris, London and Jackson Hole | An Inside Look

What’s going on with China’s economy? – BBC News

China’s economy is in more than a slow patch, Harvard Economics Professor says

 

NKorea says talks won’t resume unless US changes position

today

North Korea said Friday that nuclear negotiations with the United States will never resume unless the Trump administration moves away from what Pyongyang described as unilateral demands for disarmament.

The statement by an unnamed North Korean foreign ministry spokesman published in state media was the country’s latest expression of displeasure over the stalled negotiations as it continues to press Washington to soften its stance on enforcing sanctions against the North’s crippled economy.

It came as President Donald Trump prepares to travel to Japan this weekend for a summit with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in which the North Korean nuclear issue will likely be high on the agenda.

In the statement carried by Pyongyang’s official Korean Central News Agency, the North Korean spokesman accused the U.S. of deliberately causing February’s collapse of talks between Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong Un with unilateral and impossible demands.

“We hereby make it clear once again that the United States would not be able to move us even an inch with the device it is now weighing in its mind, and the further its mistrust and hostile acts toward the DPRK grow, the fiercer our reaction will be,” the statement said, referring to North Korea’s formal name, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

“Unless the United States puts aside the current method of calculation and comes forward with a new method of calculation, the DPRK-U.S. dialogue will never be resumed and by extension, the prospect for resolving the nuclear issue will be much gloomy,” the statement added.

The U.S. has said the Trump-Kim talks broke down because of North Korean demands for sanctions relief in exchange for a partial surrender of its nuclear capabilities. Kim has since declared that the Trump administration has until the end of the year to come up with mutually acceptable terms for a deal.

Friday’s statement follows two separate launches of short-range missiles earlier this month, which ended a pause in North Korea’s ballistic missile launches that began in late 2017 and was seen as measured brinkmanship aimed at increasing pressure on Washington without actually causing the negotiations to collapse. The North has also strongly protested the recent U.S. seizure of a North Korean cargo ship that had been involved in banned coal exports and demanded the vessel to be immediately returned.

Following the collapse of the Trump-Kim summit, North Korea also significantly slowed the pace of its engagement with South Korea, which has been eager to improve bilateral relations and help revive discussions between Washington and Pyongyang.

South Korea earlier this week vowed to push ahead with plans to resume large-scale humanitarian aid to the North. But it’s unclear whether any aid package from South Korea would influence the behavior of North Korea, which has been demanding much bigger concessions from Seoul, such as the resumption of inter-Korean economic projects currently blocked by U.S.-led sanctions against Pyongyang.

https://apnews.com/c20ba627fe4c4c38a45246e4df5ffb8a

China says trade talks can’t continue unless US addresses its ‘wrong actions’

Evelyn Cheng
  • President Trump announced earlier this month that tariffs on $200 billion worth of Chinese goods would increase to 25% from 10% on May 10.
  • In the last two weeks, his administration also put Chinese telecom giant Huawei on a blacklist that prevents it from buying from American companies without U.S. government permission.
  • Nearly three-fourths of respondents to a joint survey by the American Chambers of Commerce in Shanghai and Beijing said the latest round of U.S. tariffs and planned counter-tariffs from China are negatively affecting their businesses.

The latest U.S. actions on trade are preventing negotiations with Beijing from proceeding, China’s Commerce Ministry said Thursday.

“If the U.S. would like to keep on negotiating it should, with sincerity, adjust its wrong actions. Only then can talks continue,” Ministry of Commerce spokesperson Gao Feng said Thursday in Mandarin, according to a CNBC translation.

He did not mention any U.S. actions specifically, but it’s been a tense couple of weeks between the world’s two-largest economies. President Donald Trump unexpectedly accused China of reneging on a deal earlier this month and announced that tariffs on $200 billion worth of Chinese goods would increase to 25% from 10% on May 10. Beijing retaliated with raising levies on $60 billion worth of U.S. products. In the last two weeks, his administration also put Chinese telecom giant Huawei on a blacklist that prevents it from buying from American companies without U.S. government permission.

Google said Sunday it would cut ties with Huawei in order to comply with the order. But after the U.S. temporarily eased some restrictions on trade for the telecom and smartphone company, Google said Tuesday it plans to work with Huawei over the next 90 days.

“The U.S. … crackdown on Chinese companies not only seriously damages the normal commercial cooperation between both countries, but it also forms a great threat to the security of the global industrial and supply chain,” Gao said. “China is firmly opposed to this. We will closely monitor developments and make adequate preparations.”

U.S Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin told CNBC’s Ylan Mui on Wednesdaythat a trip to Beijing has not been planned. Trump has said he plans to meet Chinese President Xi Jinping in late June at the G-20 meeting in Japan.

When asked Thursday whether Xi would meet Trump then, Gao referred reporters to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Nearly three-fourths of respondents to a joint survey by the American Chambers of Commerce in Shanghai and Beijing said the latest round of U.S. tariffs and planned counter-tariffs from China are negatively affecting their businesses. Some respondents also noted increased scrutiny by customs authorities and other bureaucratic challenges.

Gao said Thursday that all foreign companies in China will be protected by the Chinese government. Regarding the issues some foreign companies raised, he said that China is working to address them and improve the business environment.

https://www.cnbc.com/2019/05/23/china-says-trade-talks-cant-continue-unless-us-addresses-its-wrong-actions.html

Made in China 2025

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Made in China 2025 (Chinese中国制造2025pinyinZhōngguó zhìzào èrlíng’èrwǔ)[1] is a strategic plan of China issued by Chinese Premier Li Keqiang and his cabinet in May 2015.[2] With it, China aims to move away from being the world’s “factory” (producing cheap, low quality goods due to lower labour costs) and move to producing higher value products and services.[3] It is in essence a blueprint to upgrade the manufacturing capabilities of Chinese industries.[4]

Contents

Goals

The goals of Made in China 2025 include increasing the Chinese-domestic content of core materials to 40 percent by 2020 and 70 percent by 2025.[5] The plan focuses on high-tech fields including the pharmaceutical industryautomotive industryaerospace industrysemiconductorsIT and robotics etc, which are presently the purview of foreign companies.[6]

Reception

The Center for Strategic and International Studies describes it as an “initiative to comprehensively upgrade Chinese industry” directly inspired by the German Industry 4.0.[1] It is an attempt to move the country’s manufacturing up the value chain[7] and become a major manufacturing power in direct competition with the United States.[8][9] The Chinese government is committed to roughly investing $300 billion US dollars to achieve this plan.[3]

Background

China is facing a multitude of internal issues such as slower economic growth, higher wages, increased costs of an aging population, a shrinking workforce, wealth inequality, an underdeveloped social welfare system,[10] and environmental degradation.[11] It is also competing in the manufacturing space from newly emerging economies like Vietnam and highly industrialized countries.[3][11] In order to maintain economic growth, standards of living and meet its demand for its increasingly educated workforce, it needs to lift the game on its economic and technological competitiveness.[11] Alan Wheatley from British Think Tank Chatham House indicated a broad and growing middle class is necessary for economic and political stability.[12]

Key industries

The plan lists 10 key industries on which Chinese government focused to become a world leader.[13]

Key Industries of the Made in China 2025
Industry sector Description
Information Technology AI, IoT, smart appliances
Robotics AI, machine learning
Green energy and green vehicles energy efficiency, electric vehicles
Aerospace equipment
Ocean engineering and high tech ships
Railway equipment
Power equipment
New materials
Medicine and medical devices
Agriculture machinery

Premier Li has indicated advanced standards in industries are absolutely essential to foster innovation and eliminate bottlenecks in industrial development.[14] China has a growing middle class who are demanding higher quality goods and services.[14] Compared with overseas competition, the quality and innovation of Chinese goods have not caught up.[14] Premier Li talks about the quality revolution.[14] This revolves around entrepreneurship and craftsmanship.[14] It will involve embracing a culture of continuous innovations and refinement in quality of goods produced.[14]

Reactions

The United States think tank Council on Foreign Relations stated in 2018 that it is a “real existential threat to U.S. technological leadership“.[15] The Li Keqiang Government maintains that the plan is in line with the country’s World Trade Organization obligations.[16] On 15 June 2018, the Trump administration imposed higher tariffs on Chinese goods, escalating the trade tensions between China and the U.S. The tariff list mainly focuses on products included in the Made In China 2025 plan, including IT and robotics related products.[17]

It has been suggested that some aspects of the policy may violate World Trade Organization rules, such as the self-sufficiency quotas for several high-tech components.[3]

See also

Literature

  • Boris Lee (2019). Assessing Made in China 2025: The US – China Trade War and Ways Going Forward. Claremont Colleges Library.
  • Edward Alden, Nicholas Burns, Ash Carter, Jack Clark (2019). Technology and National Security: Maintaining America’s Edge. The Aspen Institute. ISBN978-0578427959.

References

  1. Jump up to:ab Made in China 2025. CSIS, June 1, 2015.
  2. ^ “Made in China 2025” plan unveiled to boost manufacturingChina News Service, May 2015.
  3. Jump up to:abcd Fang, Jason; Walsh, Michael (2018-04-29). “What is Made in China 2025 and why is the world concerned about it?”ABC News. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  4. ^ “China to invest big in ‘Made in China 2025’ strategy”english.gov.cn. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  5. ^ Foreign Firms Wary Of ‘Made In China 2025,’ But It May Be China’s Best Chance At Innovationforbes.com Sara Hsu, March 10, 2017.
  6. ^ China Prepares for Big Pharma. Zachary Torrey, thediplomat.com, March 2018.
  7. ^ Made In China 2025: A New Era For Chinese ManufacturingCKGSB, September 2, 2015
  8. ^ “What is ‘Made in China 2025’ — and why is it a threat to Trump’s trade goals?”.
  9. ^ “YouTube”http://www.youtube.com. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  10. ^ “The question mark hanging over China’s middle class”South China Morning Post. 2018-10-12. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  11. Jump up to:abc “Made in China 2025 and US–China power competition”http://www.lowyinstitute.org. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  12. ^ “The question mark hanging over China’s middle class”South China Morning Post. 2018-10-12. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  13. ^ China, McKinsey (2015-05-27). “China Is Betting Big on These 10 Industries”McKinsey Greater China. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  14. Jump up to:abcdef “Quality revolution needed for ‘Made in Chinaenglish.gov.cn. Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  15. ^ Why Does Everyone Hate Made in China 2025? CFR, March 28, 2018
  16. ^ China says “Made in China 2025” in line with WTO rulesXinhua, 2018-04-04, Zhou Xin
  17. ^ U.S. and China Expand Trade War as Beijing Matches Trump’s TariffsNY Times, 15 June 2018

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Made_in_China_2025

Story 2: United States blacklisted Huawei Technology Co For Reasons of National Security — Death Penalty For Chinese Spy Companies —  Communist China and United States — Huawei vs. AT&T, Verizon,  Sprint, T-Mobile US, Noika,

  — Competing Secret Surveillance States — Videos

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Sen. Moran Questions Industry Leaders on 5G Deployment, Digital Infrastructure

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Why Chinese Tech Giant Huawei Scares the U.S.

Why The US Thinks Huawei Is A National Security Threat

What’s behind Chinese telecom Huawei’s espionage allegations?

Interview With Ren Zhengfei, Founder And CEO Of Chinese Telecom Giant Huawei | TIME

Huawei founder: “5G is not an atomic bomb”

5G Technology: The Battleground for Wireless Dominance

US and China Fight for Supremacy in 5G Technology

Why nations are concerned over Chinese tech giant Huawei

Huawei Offers to Sign ‘No-Spy’ Agreements

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Why Chinese Tech Giant Huawei Scares Countries Like the U.S.

Huawei and U.S. in War of Words Over Network Security

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Google stops licensing Android to Huawei

The battle over 5G: What is it, who are the players, and why do we care?

Sen. Cruz Discusses 5G Nationalization and Other Topics with Internet and Technology Leaders

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Nokia 5G FIRST. Making 5G a commercial reality

Innovations in 5G with Nokia and Sprint leading the way

Qualcomm’s 5G Vision

Cisco CEO: Huawei is our biggest competitor on a global basis

Here’s what impact the Huawei blacklist is having on the China trade war

5G Caught in the Crosshairs of U.S-China Trade Tensions

Tech Cold War Spooks Markets

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China slams US for putting Huawei on export blacklist

U.S.-China Trade Relationship Is Too Big to Fail, Chamber of Commerce’s Brilliant Says

The Huawei ban explained

The Global Race to 5G Wireless Networks

Beijing vows to support its companies’ rights and hints at legal action after Google blocked Huawei from using its phone apps in China-U.S. trade war

  • Beijing says it supports its firms to protect themselves with ‘the weapon of law’  
  • Comes after Huawei was blocked from using Google software on its phones  
  • New bans means Huawei’s handsets will not work with Android in the future  
  • It’s the latest restriction Trump administration put on Huawei in the trade war  
  • Huawei has already been banned from buying parts from U.S. firms in trade war
  • The firm’s CFO Meng was arrested in Canada under a U.S. warrant in December 

China has vowed to protect its companies’ ‘legitimate rights’ after Huawei was blocked from using Google software on its phones during a tariff war between Beijing and Washington.

China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs has also hinted at legal action as the ban from the U.S. technology company is set to deal a huge blow to the Chinese telecom giant.

Google’s move comes after President Trump banned Huawei from U.S. networks, and the firm said today it was taking ‘steps to comply with recent government actions’.

Chinese smartphone maker Huawei has been blocked by Google from receiving updates for the Android operating system during a trade war between Beijing and Washington

Chinese smartphone maker Huawei has been blocked by Google from receiving updates for the Android operating system during a trade war between Beijing and Washington

Huawei has been the centre of an ongoing political row as well as an escalating trade war since its CFO Meng Wanzhou was arrested in Vancouver under the request of the U.S. last December.

The Trump administration also claimed Huawei’s gear could be used by China to spy on Americans – allegations Huawei has repeatedly denied. 

Last week, U.S. President Trump signed an executive order declaring a national emergency and barring U.S. companies from using telecommunications equipment made by firms posing a national security risk.

Washington has also banned Huawei and its 68 affiliates from buying parts and components from American companies without special approval.

The Chinese company beat Apple to become the world’s second largest smartphone maker after South Korea’s Samsung last August. 

Beijing says it supports Chinese companies to safeguard their proper rights through 'the weapon of law' after Huawei was blocked from using Google software on its phones

Beijing says it supports Chinese companies to safeguard their proper rights through ‘the weapon of law’ after Huawei was blocked from using Google software on its phones

The Chinese firm will have to resort to the Android Open Source Project, a version of the operating system which does not include Google apps, on its new phones

The move from Google deals a major blow to the expansion of Huawei and is likely to cripple its expansion. The Chinese firm will have to resort to the Android Open Source Project, a version of the operating system which does not include Google apps, on its new phones

The latest restriction from Google means new Huawei-made phones will not have access to apps such as Gmail, Google Maps and the Google Play store.

Existing phones will still have the apps, but users will not be able to upgrade to newer versions of the Android operating system.

Huawei can still use Android’s open-source alternative but it will not include Google’s own-brand apps such as YouTube and Chrome.

At a press briefing today, Lu Kang, a spokesperson of China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, said the Ministry had noticed the related reports about Google suspending part of its services to Huawei.

Lu said the Ministry would confirm the claims and keep paying attention to the development of the matter.

He said Beijing supports Chinese companies to safeguard their proper rights using ‘the weapon of law’.

Lu Kang, a spokesperson of China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, said today that Beijing supports Chinese companies to safeguard their proper rights using 'the weapon of law'

Lu Kang, a spokesperson of China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, said today that Beijing supports Chinese companies to safeguard their proper rights using ‘the weapon of law’

A Huawei spokesperson said today: ‘We have made substantial contributions to the development and growth of Android around the world. 

‘Huawei will continue to provide security updates and after-sales services to all existing Huawei and Honor smartphone and tablet products, covering those that have been sold and that are still in stock globally.’

He added: ‘We will continue to build a safe and sustainable software ecosystem, in order to provide the best experience for all users globally’

Google is said to have cut off Huawei´s licence, meaning many customers will not be able to use Google apps

Google is said to have cut off Huawei´s licence, meaning many customers will not be able to use Google apps. The decision comes as the trade war before China and the U.S. is intensified

What does this mean for my Huawei phone?

If you currently have a Huawei phone, you will still be able to use Google apps such as Gmail and Maps.

You can also still download app updates.

However, you will not be able to update to a newer version of the Android operating system if one becomes available.

If you buy a newly manufactured Huawei phone it will not have access to Google’s own apps.

Huawei can still use a version of the Android operating system available through an open source license.  

But popular apps such as YouTube and the Chrome browser require a commercial agreement with Google.

The move from Google deals a major blow to the expansion of Huawei and is likely to cripple its expansion.

The Chinese firm will have to resort to the Android Open Source Project, a version of the operating system which does not include Google apps, on its new phones.

It is the latest flashpoint in an increasingly bitter trade war between Beijing and Washington, after the Trump administration added Huawei Technologies Co Ltd to a trade blacklist last week.

The measure requires Huawei to obtain U.S. government approval on purchases of American technology. 

Trump’s executive order also allows the government to ban the technology and services of ‘foreign adversaries’ deemed to pose ‘unacceptable risks’ to national security. 

Last August Trump signed a bill that barred the US government from using equipment from Huawei and China’s ZTE Corp.

The firm’s lawyers are still studying the effect of Trump’s intervention, a company spokesman said on Friday.

Huawei is the world’s biggest supplier of network gear used by phone and internet companies, and is now Europe’s third-largest smartphone maker behind Samsung and Apple. 

One Huawei executive, chief financial officer Meng Wanzhou (pictured earlier this month), was arrested in Canada last year and faces criminal charges in the United States

Huawei promoters display one of the company's phones at a product launch in Singapore. U.S. and European officials fear the technology could be used for Chinese spying

But it has been seen by officials in Washington as a front for spying by the Chinese military or security services.

The U.S. worries that China could use Huawei to gain access to private, commercial or other information that could compromise Nato and allied intelligence operations.

Huawei denies involvement in Chinese spying and last week unveiled its first 5G-ready smartphone despite the ongoing row.

One Huawei executive, chief financial officer Meng Wanzhou, was arrested in Canada last year and faces criminal charges in the United States.

Beijing detained former Canadian diplomat Michael Kovrig and Canadian entrepreneur Michael Spavor on December 10 in an apparent attempt to pressure Canada to release Meng.

The state news agency that the pair had acted together to steal state secrets.

A Chinese court also sentenced a Canadian to death in a sudden retrial, overturning a 15-year prison term handed down earlier.

Android issued a tweet from their official account stating 'services like like Google Play & security from Google Play Protect will keep functioning on your existing Huawei device'

Android issued a tweet from their official account stating ‘services like like Google Play & security from Google Play Protect will keep functioning on your existing Huawei device’

Google's move comes after President Trump (pictured) banned Huawei from U.S. networks, and the firm said today it was taking 'steps to comply with recent government actions'

Google’s move comes after President Trump (pictured) banned Huawei from U.S. networks, and the firm said today it was taking ‘steps to comply with recent government actions’

U.S. charges against Huawei allege that the company stole trade secrets, misled banks about its business and violated U.S. sanctions.

As well as its smartphone business, Huawei is a market leader in equipment needed to build next-generation 5G mobile data networks.

In Europe, the UK has been embroiled in a row over Huawei’s possible role building such a network.

5G is expected to begin rolling out this year and will offer mobile internet speeds likely to be at least several times that of 4G, it has been claimed.

Last month it was claimed that Prime Minister Theresa May had given the green light to Huawei’s involvement at a meeting of the UK’s National Security Council.

The claims led to the sacking of defense minister Gavin Williamson, who was accused of leaking details of the meeting, although he denied it.

The U.S. worries that China could use Huawei phones (stock photo) to gain access to information that could compromise Nato and allied intelligence operations

Retired brigadier general Robert Spalding, the former senior director for strategy at the National Security Council, wrote in the Daily Telegraph that the UK ‘must recognise’ the strength of U.S. feeling on Huawei.

He wrote: ‘Other nations must not make the mistake of thinking President Trump’s recent executive order banning companies like Huawei from US networks is merely an afterthought of the trade war.

‘The severity of President Trump’s declaration underscores just how seriously the US views this issue, and the UK must recognise this strength of feeling.

‘To miss the significance of his actions would be a grave misjudgment of how seriously we take our security in an ever-more dangerous world.’

In April, the technical director of the UK’s National Cyber Security Centre said some of the firm’s products had ‘shoddy’ security.

Dr Ian Levy warned that Huawei’s ‘poor’ engineering was ‘like it’s back in the year 2000’.

WHY DO BRITISH INTELLIGENCE THINK HUAWEI’S PRODUCTS MAY POSE A SECURITY THREAT?

China’s controversial telecommunications equipment maker Huawei openly supports the ruling Communist Party.

Ren Zhengfei, a former People’s Liberation Army (PLA) engineer, founded the company in 1987 and it has risen to rank among the world’s top manufacturers of network equipment.

But his PLA service has led to concerns of close links with the Chinese military and government, which Huawei has consistently denied.

Ren Zhengfei, a former People's Liberation Army (PLA) engineer, founded the company in 1987 and it has risen to rank among the world's top manufacturers of network equipment. But his PLA service has led to concerns of close links with the Chinese military and government, which Huawei has consistently denied

Ren Zhengfei, a former People’s Liberation Army (PLA) engineer, founded the company in 1987 and it has risen to rank among the world’s top manufacturers of network equipment. But his PLA service has led to concerns of close links with the Chinese military and government, which Huawei has consistently denied

Huawei operates in 170 countries and the company says one third of the world’s population communicate using its products in some way.

It is the world’s second largest network equipment supplier behind Sweden’s Ericsson, and has made a large push into consumer products such smartphones in recent years.

Fears around its capabilities to tap into sensitive information stem from rumours of backdoors in in the firm’s software.

Although no such vulnerability has ever been found, allegations for their capabilities range from the ability to tap into encrypted data  to knocking out communications facilities.

The UK’s National Cyber Security Centre, which is part of GCHQ, has not claimed to find evidence of such vulnerabilities.

However, intelligence experts say they can only provide limited assurances that the Chinese company is not a risk to broadband and phone networks in the UK.

Global growth worries slam Wall St. as trade tensions persist

NEW YORK (Reuters) – U.S. stocks slumped on Thursday as investors dumped shares of technology companies as well as businesses in cyclical sectors on fears that the escalating trade war between United States and China would stymie global economic growth.

Further fueling trade fears among investors, Beijing said that Washington needs to correct its “wrong actions” for trade talks to continue after the United States blacklisted Huawei Technology Co Ltd last week.

Among the S&P 500’s major sectors, only utilities and real estate, both considered defensive areas, registered gains as investors moved to safe-haven assets such as Treasuries

A 5% plunge in oil prices in response to a dampened outlook for demand impeded energy shares, while a drop in 10-year Treasury yields, which hit their lowest level since December 2019, held back financial shares.

“We’re going to see a drift lower until there’s a resolution of what’s happening with China,” said Jamie Cox, managing partner at Harris Financial Group in Richmond, Virginia. “If you’re trading, it’s not a bad idea to put yourself on the sidelines and sit it out.”

 

“Investors realize that coming to a deal is going to be more challenging and that is really harmful to the economic environment,” said Luke Tilley, chief economist at Wilmington Trust in Wilmington, Delaware, who described the day’s trading as “a classic risk-off movement.”

The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 418.29 points, or 1.62%, to 25,358.32, the S&P 500 lost 47.77 points, or 1.67%, to 2,808.5 and the Nasdaq Composite dropped 157.90 points, or 2.04%, to 7,592.94.

Stocks have succumbed to selling pressure in May after Washington and Beijing engaged in tit-for-tat tariffs and other retaliatory measures, with the S&P 500 on track to post its first monthly decline since the December sell-off.

Slideshow (9 Images)

Shares of NetApp Inc tumbled 9.0%, the second-biggest percentage drop on the S&P 500, after the data storage equipment maker forecast current-quarter profit and revenue below Wall Street estimates.

L Brands Inc shares jumped 11.8% after the owner of Victoria’s Secret and Bath & Body Works reported better-than-expected quarterly earnings.

Declining issues outnumbered advancing ones on the NYSE by a 4.24-to-1 ratio; on Nasdaq, a 4.64-to-1 ratio favored decliners.

The S&P 500 posted 23 new 52-week highs and 27 new lows; the Nasdaq Composite recorded 19 new highs and 177 new lows.

Reporting by April Joyner; Additional reporting by Shreyashi Sanyal and Sruthi Shankar in Bengaluru; Editing by Sriraj Kalluvila and Nick Zieminski

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-stocks/wall-street-slides-on-fears-of-likely-us-china-tech-cold-war-idUSKCN1ST1AZ

U.S. blacklisting of Huawei prompts European firms to follow suit

May 22 at 6:23 PM

Chinese telecom giant Huawei faced new threats to its business Wednesday as some European firms followed the U.S. tech industry in suspending dealings with the company.

Two British telecom companies, Vodafone and a unit of BT Group, said they would suspend plans to include Huawei telephones in their upcoming high-speed 5G networks. And in a potentially more consequential blow, U.K. chip designer Arm Holdings, an important supplier to Huawei, said it was “complying with the latest restrictions set forth by the U.S. government.”

Vodafone UK

@VodafoneUK

We continue to monitor statements from Google. They’re currently advising that services like Google Play and security from Google Play Protect will keep functioning on your existing phone. https://forum.vodafone.co.uk

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This is Vodafone UK’s online community. Join to get support and advice about products and services, engage in discussion about the latest products and share your knowledge. Register today!

forum.vodafone.co.uk

Vodafone UK

@VodafoneUK

We are pausing pre-orders for the Huawei Mate 20X (5G) in the UK. This is a temporary measure while uncertainty exists regarding new Huawei 5G devices. We will keep this situation under review.https://vodafone.uk/2Elt1RJ

Huawei – 20/05/2019

In response to today’s Huawei news – we’re waiting for a statement from Google. From what we’ve heard so far, everything should work as normal and there’s no need to take any action at this stage….

forum.vodafone.co.uk

The Trump Administration last week ordered companies to stop selling U.S. technology to Huawei, calling the company a potential security threat that could use its telecom equipment to spy on other countries. That prompted Google and other U.S. firms to begin suspending dealings with Huawei, and is now creating knock-on effects for even non-U. S. companies.

Huawei has vigorously denied the spying claims, and the Trump administration allegation that the Chinese government exerts unhealthy influence on Huawei. With about $105 billion in global sales last year, Huawei is the world’s second largest seller of cellphones, and the largest seller of equipment used to build 5G, or 5th generation, wireless networks.

“We value our close relations with our partners, but recognize the pressure some of them are under, as a result of politically motivated decisions,” Huawei said in a statement Wednesday. “We are confident this regrettable situation can be resolved and our priority remains to continue to deliver world-class technology and products to our customers around the world.”

The conflict is putting companies and governments around the world in a tough spot, forcing them to choose between alienating the United States or China.

Arm Holdings issued its statement after the BBC reported the firm had told staff to suspend dealings with Huawei.

An Arm spokesman said some of the company’s intellectual property is designed in the United States and is therefore “subject to U.S. export controls.”

Losing Arm as a supplier would be a major blow, as it would “cripple key Huawei chips,” said Dave Burstein, a telecom analyst at STL Partners and publisher of Huawei Report. Burstein discloses two conflicts of interest on his site, saying Huawei has paid his expenses to attend conferences and provided contracting work to STL Partners.

BT Group’s EE division, which is preparing to launch 5G service in six British cities later this month, said Wednesday it would no longer offer a new Huawei smartphone as part of that service. Vodafone also said it would drop a Huawei smartphone from its lineup. Both companies appeared to tie that decision to Google ‘s move to withhold licenses for its Android operating software from future Huawei phones.

Europe is far from abandoning Huawei, however. Despite relentless pressure from the Trump administration, European governments have declined to issue outright bans on Huawei equipment as they erect the cellphone towers and other parts needed for 5G networks.

In both Britain and Germany — traditionally two of Washington’s closest European allies — officials have said they are setting high security standards and are well aware of the potential pitfalls of using the Chinese company to supply vital digital infrastructure.

“The companies that supply 5G will have huge power in their hands. And we know that Huawei is a de facto state company of China,” said Jürgen Hardt, foreign policy spokesman for Germany’s governing Christian Democratic Union. “I don’t think anyone is unaware of the risks. This isn’t like buying and selling chewing gum.”

5G

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5G
5th generation mobile network (5G) logo.jpg

3GPP’s 5G logo
Introduced April 2019

5G is generally seen as the fifth generation cellular network technology that provides broadband access. The industry association 3GPP defines any system using “5G NR” (5G New Radio) software as “5G”, a definition that came into general use by late 2018. Others may reserve the term for systems that meet the requirements of the ITU IMT-2020, which represents more nations. 3GPP will submit their 5G NR to the ITU. [1] It follows 2G3G and 4G and their respective associated technologies (such as GSMUMTSLTELTE Advanced Pro, etc.).

The first fairly substantial deployments were in April 2019. In South Korea, SK Telecom claimed 38,000 base stations, KT Corporation 30,000 and LG U Plus 18,000; of which 85% are in six major cities.[2] They are using 3.5 GHz (sub-6) spectrum in non-standalone (NSA) mode and tested speeds were from 193 to 430 Mbit/s down.[3] 260,000 signed up in the first month and the goal is 10% of phones on 5G by the end of 2019.[4]

Verizon opened service on a very limited number of base stations in the US cities of Chicago and Minneapolis using 400 MHz of 28 GHz millimeter wave spectrum in NSA mode. Download speeds in Chicago were from 80 to 900 Mbit/s. Upload speeds were from 12 to 57 Mbit/s. The round-trip delay time was 25 milliseconds.[5] It was reported in May 2019 that Verizon’s 5G service would regularly hit 1 Gbit/s in some locations. [6][7]

Five companies sell 5G radio hardware and 5G systems for carriers: HuaweiZTENokiaSamsung, and Ericsson.[8][9][10][11][12][13]

Contents

Overview

5G networks are digital cellular networks, in which the service area covered by providers is divided into a mosaic of small geographical areas called cellsAnalog signals representing sounds and images are digitized in the phone, converted by an analog to digital converter and transmitted as a stream of bits. All the 5G wireless devices in a cell communicate by radio waves with a local antenna array and low power automated transceiver(transmitter and receiver) in the cell, over frequency channels assigned by the transceiver from a common pool of frequencies, which are reused in geographically separated cells. The local antennas are connected with the telephone network and the Internet by a high bandwidth optical fiber or wireless backhaul connection. Like existing cellphones, when a user crosses from one cell to another, their mobile device is automatically “handed off” seamlessly to the antenna in the new cell.

There are plans to use millimeter waves for 5G.[14] Millimeter waves have shorter range than microwaves, therefore the cells are limited to smaller size; The waves also have trouble passing through building walls.[15] Millimeter wave antennas are smaller than the large antennas used in previous cellular networks. They are only a few inches (several centimeters) long. Another technique used for increasing the data rate is massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output).[15] Each cell will have multiple antennas communicating with the wireless device, received by multiple antennas in the device, thus multiple bitstreams of data will be transmitted simultaneously, in parallel. In a technique called beamforming the base station computer will continuously calculate the best route for radio waves to reach each wireless device, and will organize multiple antennas to work together as phased arrays to create beams of millimeter waves to reach the device.[15][16]

The new 5G wireless devices also have 4G LTE capability, as the new networks use 4G for initially establishing the connection with the cell, as well as in locations where 5G access is not available.[17]

5G can support up to a million devices per square kilometer, while 4G supports only 4000 devices per square kilometer.[18]

Usage scenario

The ITU-R has defined three main uses for 5G. They are Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC), and Massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC).[19] Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) uses 5G as a progression from 4G LTE mobile broadband services, with faster connections, higher throughput, and more capacity. Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications (URLLC) refer to using the network for mission critical applications that requires uninterrupted and robust data exchange. Massive Machine-Type Communications (mMTC) would be used to connect to a large number of low power, low cost devices, which have high scalability and increased battery lifetime, in a wide area. Neither URLLC nor mMTC are expected to be deployed widely before 2021.

Performance

Speed

5G NR speed in sub-6 GHz bands can be slightly higher than the 4G with a similar amount of spectrum and antennas,[20][21] though some 3GPP 5G networks will be slower than some advanced 4G networks, such as T-Mobile’s LTE/LAA network, which achieves 500+ Mbit/s in Manhattan.[22] The 5G specification allows LAA (License Assisted Access) as well but LAA in 5G has not yet been demonstrated. Adding LAA to an existing 4G configuration can add hundreds of megabits per second to the speed, but this is an extension of 4G, not a new part of the 5G standard.[22]

Speeds in the less common millimeter wave spectrum can be substantially higher.

Latency

In 5G, the “air latency” target is 1-4 milliseconds, although the equipment shipping in 2019 has tested air latency of 8-12 milliseconds.[23][24] The latency to the server must be added to the “air latency.” Verizon reports the latency on its 5G early deployment is 30 ms.[25]

Standards

Initially, the term was associated with the International Telecommunication Union‘s IMT-2020 standard, which required a theoretical peak download capacity of 20 gigabits, along with other requirements.[26] Then, the industry standards group 3GPP chose the 5G NR (New Radio) standard together with LTE as their proposal for submission to the IMT-2020 standard.[27][28]

The first phase of 3GPP 5G specifications in Release-15 is scheduled to complete in 2019. The second phase in Release-16 is due to be completed in 2020.[29]

5G NR can include lower frequencies (FR1), below 6 GHz, and higher frequencies (FR2), above 24 GHz. However, the speed and latency in early FR1 deployments, using 5G NR software on 4G hardware (non-standalone), are only slightly better than new 4G systems, estimated at 15 to 50% better.[30][31][32]

IEEE covers several areas of 5G with a core focus in wireline sections between the Remote Radio Head (RRH) and Base Band Unit (BBU). The 1914.1 standards focus on network architecture and dividing the connection between the RRU and BBU into two key sections. Radio Unit (RU) to the Distributor Unit (DU) being the NGFI-I (Next Generation Fronthaul Interface) and the DU to the Central Unit (CU) being the NGFI-II interface allowing a more diverse and cost-effective network. NGFI-I and NGFI-II have defined performance values which should be compiled to ensure different traffic types defined by the ITU are capable of being carried. 1914.3 standard is creating a new Ethernet frame format capable of carrying IQ data in a much more efficient way depending on the functional split utilized. This is based on the 3GPP definition of functional splits. Multiple network synchronization standards within the IEEE groups are being updated to ensure network timing accuracy at the RU is maintained to a level required for the traffic carried over it.

5G NR

5G NR (New Radio) is a new air interface developed for the 5G network.[33] It is supposed to be the global standard for the air interface of 3GPP 5G networks.[34]

Pre-standard implementations

  • 5GTF: The 5G network implemented by American carrier Verizon for Fixed Wireless Access in late 2010s uses a pre-standard specification known as 5GTF (Verizon 5G Technical Forum). The 5G service provided to customers in this standard is incompatible with 5G NR. There are plans to upgrade 5GTF to 5G NR “Once [it] meets our strict specifications for our customers,” according to Verizon.[35]
  • 5G-SIG: Pre-standard specification of 5G developed by KT Corporation. Deployed at Pyeongchang 2018 Winter Olympics.[36]

Internet of Things

In the Internet of Things (IoT), 3GPP is going to submit evolution of NB-IoT and eMTC(LTE-M) as the 5G technology for the LPWA (Low Power Wide Area) use case.[37]

Deployment

Beyond mobile operator networks, 5G is also expected to be widely utilized for private networks with applications in industrial IoT, enterprise networking, and critical communications.

Initial 5G NR launches will depend on existing LTE (4G) infrastructure in non-standalone (NSA) mode (5G NR software on LTE radio hardware), before maturation of the standalone (SA) mode (5G NR software on 5G NR radio hardware) with the 5G core network.

The Samsung Galaxy S10 5G, the first commercially available smartphone able to connect to a 5G network.[38][39][40]

As of April 2019, the Global Mobile Suppliers Association had identified 224 operators in 88 countries that are actively investing in 5G (i.e. that have demonstrated, are testing or trialling, or have been licensed to conduct field trials of 5G technologies, are deploying 5G networks or have announced service launches).[41] The equivalent numbers in November 2018 were 192 operators in 81 countries.[42] The first country to adopt 5G on a large scale was South Korea, in April 2019.

When South Korea launched its 5G network, all carriers used Samsung, Ericsson and Nokia base stations and equipment, except for LG U Plus, who also used Huawei equipment.[43][44] Samsung was the largest supplier for 5G base stations in South Korea at launch, having shipped 53,000 base stations at the time, out of 86,000 base stations installed across the country at the time.[45]

Spectrum

Large quantities of new spectrum (5G NR frequency bands) have been allocated to 5G[46] in order to support its increased throughput requirements. For example, in July 2016, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of the United States freed up vast amounts of bandwidth in underused high-band spectrum for 5G. The Spectrum Frontiers Proposal (SFP) doubled the amount of millimeter-wave unlicensed spectrum to 14 GHz and created four times the amount of flexible, mobile-use spectrum the FCC had licensed to date.[47] In March 2018, European Union lawmakers agreed to open up the 3.6 and 26 GHz bands by 2020.[48]

As of March 2019, there are reportedly 52 countries, territories, special administrative regions, disputed territories and dependencies that are formally considering introducing certain spectrum bands for terrestrial 5G services, are holding consultations regarding suitable spectrum allocations for 5G, have reserved spectrum for 5G, have announced plans to auction frequencies or have already allocated spectrum for 5G use.[49]

5G devices

In March 2019, the Global Mobile Suppliers Association released the industry’s first database tracking worldwide 5G device launches.[50] In it, the GSA identified 23 vendors who have confirmed the availability of forthcoming 5G devices with 33 different devices including regional variants. There were seven announced 5G device form factors: (phones (x12 devices), hotspots (x4), indoor and outdoor customer-premises equipment (x8), modules (x5), Snap-On dongles and adapters (x2), and USB terminals (x1).[51]

In the 5G IoT chipset arena, as of April 2019 there were four commercial 5G modem chipsets and one commercial processor/platform, with more launched expected in the near future.[52]

Technology

New radio frequencies

The air interface defined by 3GPP for 5G is known as New Radio (NR), and the specification is subdivided into two frequency bands, FR1 (below 6 GHz) and FR2 (mmWave),[53] each with different capabilities.

Frequency range 1 (< 6 GHz)

The maximum channel bandwidth defined for FR1 is 100 MHz, due to the scarcity of continuous spectrum in this crowded frequency range. The band most widely being used for 5G in this range is around 3.5 GHz. The Korean carriers are using 3.5 GHz although some millimeter wave spectrum has also been allocated.

Frequency range 2 (> 24 GHz)[edit]

The minimum channel bandwidth defined for FR2 is the 50 MHz and the maximum is 400 MHz, with two-channel aggregation supported in 3GPP Release 15. In the U.S., Verizon is using 28 GHz and AT&T is using 39 GHz. 5G can use frequencies of up to 300 GHz. [54]The higher the frequency, the greater the ability to support high data transfer speeds without interfering with other wireless signals or becoming overly cluttered. Due to this, 5G can support approximately 1,000 more devices per meter than 4G.[55]

FR2 Network coverage

5G can use higher frequencies than 4G, and as a result, some 5G signals are not capable of traveling large distances (over a few hundred meters), unlike 4G or lower frequency 5G signals. This requires placing 5G base stations every few hundred meters in order to utilize higher frequency bands. Also, these higher frequency 5G signals cannot easily penetrate solid objects, like cars, trees and walls, because of the nature of these higher frequency electromagnetic waves.[56]

 
5G on FR2 base station types
(cell types)
Deployment environment Max. number
of users
Output power
(mW)
Max. distance from
base station
Femto cell Homes, businesses Home: 4−8
Businesses: 16−32
indoors: 10−100
outdoors: 200−1000
10s of meters
Pico cell Public areas like shopping malls,
airports, train stations, skyscrapers
64 to 128 indoors: 100−250
outdoors: 1000−5000
10s of meters
Micro cell Urban areas to fill coverage gaps 128 to 256 outdoors: 5000−10000 few 100s of meters
Metro cell Urban areas to provide additional capacity more than 250 outdoors: 10000−20000 100s of meters
Wi-Fi
(for comparison)
Homes, businesses less than 50 indoors: 20−100
outdoors: 200−1000
few 10s of meters

Massive MIMO

Massive MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) antennas increases sector throughput and capacity density using large numbers of antennas and Multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO). Each antenna is individually-controlled and may embed radio transceiver components. Nokia claimed a five-fold increase in the capacity increase for a 64-Tx/64-Rx antenna system. The term “massive MIMO” was coined by Nokia Bell Labs researcher Dr. Thomas L. Marzetta in 2010, and has been launched in 4G networks, such as Softbank in Japan.[57]

Of over 562 separate 5G demonstrations, tests or trials globally of 5G technologies, at least 94 of them have involved testing Massive MIMO in the context of 5G.[58]

Edge computing

Edge computing is delivered by cloud computing servers closer to the ultimate user. It reduces latency and data traffic congestion.[59][60]

Small cell

Small cells are low-powered cellular radio access nodes that operate in licensed and unlicensed spectrum that have a range of 10 meters to a few kilometers. Small cells are critical to 5G networks, as 5G’s radio waves can’t travel long distances, because of 5G’s higher frequencies.

Beamforming

Beamforming, as the name suggests, is used to direct radio waves to a target. This is achieved by combining elements in an antenna array in such a way that signals at particular angles experience constructive interference while others experience destructive interference. This improves signal quality and data transfer speeds. Because of the improved signal quality 5G uses beamforming.

Wifi-cellular convergence

One expected benefit of the transition to 5G is the convergence of multiple networking functions to achieve cost, power and complexity reductions. LTE has targeted convergence with Wi-Fi band/technology via various efforts, such as License Assisted Access (LAA; 5G signal in unlicensed frequency bands that are also used by Wi-Fi) and LTE-WLAN Aggregation (LWA; convergence with Wi-Fi Radio), but the differing capabilities of cellular and Wi-Fi have limited the scope of convergence. However, significant improvement in cellular performance specifications in 5G, combined with migration from Distributed Radio Access Network (D-RAN) to Cloud- or Centralized-RAN (C-RAN) and rollout of cellular small cells can potentially narrow the gap between Wi-Fi and cellular networks in dense and indoor deployments. Radio convergence could result in sharing ranging from the aggregation of cellular and Wi-Fi channels to the use of a single silicon device for multiple radio access technologies.

NOMA (non-orthogonal multiple access)

NOMA (non-orthogonal multiple access) is a proposed multiple-access technique for future cellular systems. In this, same time, frequency, and spreading-code resources are shared by the multiple users via allocation of power. The entire bandwidth can be exploited by each user in NOMA for entire communication time due to which latency has been reduced and users’ data rates can be increased. For multiple access, the power domain has been used by NOMA in which different power levels are used to serve different users. 3GPP also included NOMA in LTE-A due to its spectral efficiency and is known as multiuser superposition transmission (MUST) which is two user special case of NOMA.[61]

SDN/NFV

Initially, cellular mobile communications technologies were designed in the context of providing voice services and Internet access. Today a new era of innovative tools and technologies is inclined towards developing a new pool of applications. This pool of applications consists of different domains such as the Internet of Things (IoT), web of connected autonomous vehicles, remotely controlled robots, and heterogeneous sensors connected to serve versatile applications.[62] [63][64]

Operation in unlicensed spectrum

Like LTE in unlicensed spectrum, 5G NR will also support operation in unlicensed spectrum (NR-U).[65] In addition to License Assisted Access (LAA) from LTE that enable carriers to use those unlicensed spectrum to boost their operational performance for users, in 5G NR it will support standalone NR-U unlicensed operation which will allow new 5G NR networks to be established in different environments without acquiring operational license in licensed spectrum, for instance for localized private network or lower the entry barrier for providing 5G internet services to the public.[65]

Concerns

Interference problems

Spectrum used by various 5G proposals will be very near that of passive remote sensing such as by weather and Earth observation satellites, particularly for water vapor monitoring. Interference will occur and will potentially be significant without effective controls. An increase in interference already occurred with some prior band usages.[66][67] Interference to satellite operations impairs numerical weather prediction performance with substantially deleterious economic and public safety impacts.[68][69] The concerns prompted US Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross and NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine in February 2019 to urge the FCC to withdraw some spectrum auction proposals, which was rejected.[70]

Espionage concerns

Because of espionage fears on foreign users by Chinese equipment vendors, several countries have taken actions to restrict or eliminate the use of Chinese equipment in their respective 5G networks. Chinese vendors and the Chinese government have denied these claims.

Radiation fears

The development of 5G has stoked fear that radiation effects could cause health risks.[71] In April 2019, the city of Brussels in Belgium blocked a 5G trial because of radiation fears.[72] In GenevaSwitzerland, a planned upgrade to 5G was stopped for the same reason.[73]The Swiss Telecommunications Association (ASUT) has said that studies have been unable to show that 5G frequencies have any health impact.[74]

RT America, a propaganda outlet for the Russian government, has aired programming linking 5G to harmful health effects without scientific support. Several RT stories have warned of health impacts such as “brain cancer, infertility, autism, heart tumors and Alzheimer’s disease” and have spread to hundreds of blogs and websites.[75] Meanwhile, Russian president Vladimir Putin ordered the launch of Russian 5G network in February 2019. Ryan Fox, an executive of a technology firm that tracks disinformation, said, “Russia doesn’t have a good 5G play, so it tries to undermine and discredit ours.” Molly McKew, the head a U.S.-based firm that seeks to counter Russian disinformation, said the Russian government “would really enjoy getting democratic governments tied up in fights over 5G’s environmental and health hazards.”[75][76]

History

  • In April 2008, NASA partnered with Geoff Brown and Machine-to-Machine Intelligence (M2Mi) Corp to develop 5G communications technology.[77]
  • In 2008, the South Korean IT R&D program of “5G mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple access and relays with group cooperation” was formed.[78]
  • In August 2012, New York University founded NYU WIRELESS, a multi-disciplinary academic research centre that has conducted pioneering work in 5G wireless communications.[79][80][81]
  • On 8 October 2012, the UK’s University of Surrey secured £35M for a new 5G research centre, jointly funded by the British government’s UK Research Partnership Investment Fund (UKRPIF) and a consortium of key international mobile operators and infrastructure providers, including HuaweiSamsungTelefonica Europe, Fujitsu Laboratories Europe, Rohde & Schwarz, and Aircom International. It will offer testing facilities to mobile operators keen to develop a mobile standard that uses less energy and less radio spectrum while delivering speeds faster than current 4G with aspirations for the new technology to be ready within a decade.[82][83][84][85]
  • On 1 November 2012, the EU project “Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for the Twenty-twenty Information Society” (METIS) starts its activity towards the definition of 5G. METIS achieved an early global consensus on these systems. In this sense, METIS played an important role of building consensus among other external major stakeholders prior to global standardization activities. This was done by initiating and addressing work in relevant global fora (e.g. ITU-R), as well as in national and regional regulatory bodies.[86]
  • Also in November 2012, the iJOIN EU project was launched, focusing on “small cell” technology, which is of key importance for taking advantage of limited and strategic resources, such as the radio wave spectrum. According to Günther Oettinger, the European Commissioner for Digital Economy and Society (2014–2019), “an innovative utilization of spectrum” is one of the key factors at the heart of 5G success. Oettinger further described it as “the essential resource for the wireless connectivity of which 5G will be the main driver”.[87] iJOIN was selected by the European Commission as one of the pioneering 5G research projects to showcase early results on this technology at the Mobile World Congress 2015 (Barcelona, Spain).
  • In February 2013, ITU-R Working Party 5D (WP 5D) started two study items: (1) Study on IMT Vision for 2020 and beyond, and; (2) Study on future technology trends for terrestrial IMT systems. Both aiming at having a better understanding of future technical aspects of mobile communications towards the definition of the next generation mobile.[88]
  • On 12 May 2013, Samsung Electronics stated that they had developed a “5G” system. The core technology has a maximum speed of tens of Gbit/s (gigabits per second). In testing, the transfer speeds for the “5G” network sent data at 1.056 Gbit/s to a distance of up to 2 kilometers with the use of an 8*8 MIMO.[89][90]
  • In July 2013, India and Israel agreed to work jointly on development of fifth generation (5G) telecom technologies.[91]
  • On 1 October 2013, NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone), the same company to launch world’s first 5G network in Japan, wins Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications Award at CEATEC for 5G R&D efforts[92]
  • On 6 November 2013, Huawei announced plans to invest a minimum of $600 million into R&D for next generation 5G networks capable of speeds 100 times faster than modern LTE networks.[93]
  • In April 2019, South Korea became the first country to adopt 5G.[94] Just hours later, Verizon launched its 5G services, and disputed South Korea’s claim of becoming the world’s first country with a 5G network, because allegedly, South Korea’s 5G service was initially launched for just 6 South Korean celebrities so that South Korea could claim the title of having the world’s first 5G network.[95] In fact, the three main Korean telecommunication companies (SK Telecom, KT and LG Uplus) added more than 40,000 users to their 5G network on the launch day.[96]

Other applications

Automobiles

5G Automotive Association have been promoting the C-V2X communication technology that will first be deployed in 4G. It provides for communication between vehicles and communication between vehicles and infrastructures.[97]

Automation (factory and process)

5G Alliance for Connected Industries and Automation – 5G-ACIA promotes 5G for factory automation and process industry.[98]

Public safety

Mission-critical push-to-talk (MCPTT) and mission-critical video and data are expected to be furthered in 5G.[99]

Fixed wireless

Fixed wireless connections intended to replace fixed line broadband (ADSL, Fiber optic, and DOCSIS connections) with 5G connections. [100][101][102]

See also

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5G

 

 

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Recently on Pronk Pops…

The Pronk Pops Show 1262, May 22, 2019, Story 1: Pelosi vs. Trump — Nancy Pelosi: “We believe that Trump is engaged in a cover-up” — President Trump: “I Don’t Do Coverups” —  American People: “No Collusion, No Obstruction, No Cover-up, No Crime, No Sense! — Videos — Story 2: Obama Administration Officials Blaming Each Other — Videos — Story 3: Human Fence, Vehicle Fence, Replacement Fence and New Wall or Border Barrier To Stop Illegal Smuggling of Drugs and Illegal Alien Invasion — Show Us The Drone Videos of The New Completed 500 Mile Big Beautiful Border Barrier In October 2020! — Videos — Story 4: Secretary of Treasury Mnuchin — “Unlawful” to Give Congress Tax Returns

Posted on May 23, 2019. Filed under: 2020 President Candidates, 2020 Republican Candidates, American History, Blogroll, Breaking News, Cartoons, Communications, Congress, Corruption, Countries, Crime, Culture, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Empires, Employment, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Foreign Policy, Freedom of Speech, Government Dependency, Government Spending, Hillary Clinton, History, House of Representatives, Human, Human Behavior, Independence, Life, Lying, Public Corruption, Senate, Unemployment, United States of America, Videos, Violence, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

The Pronk Pops Show 1261, May 21, 2019, Story 1: Do Not Believe The Poll That 43% of Americans Believe That Socialism Would Be A Good Thing — More Capitalism and Less Socialism Would Be Excellent –Videos — Story 2: Progressive Socialist Democrats Want To Impeach Trump — Please Do and Lose — From Collusion Delusion To Obstruction Delusion To Democrats Destruction — Game Set Match — Videos

Posted on May 22, 2019. Filed under: 2020 Democrat Candidates, 2020 Republican Candidates, American History, Amy Klobuchar, Bernie Sanders, Breaking News, Budgetary Policy, Business, Cartoons, China, Communications, Congress, Corey Booker, Corruption, Countries, Crime, Cuba, Culture, Deep State, Defense Spending, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Economics, Education, Elections, Elizabeth Warren, Empires, Employment, Fiscal Policy, Free Trade, Government Dependency, Government Spending, History, House of Representatives, Human, Independence, Joe Biden, Kamala Harris, Kirsten Gillibrand, Labor Economics, Life, Media, Monetary Policy, News, People, Pete Buttigieg, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, President Trump, Progressives, Public Corruption, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Rule of Law, Russia, Scandals, Senate, Social Networking, Social Security, Subversion, Success, Tax Policy, Unemployment, United States of America, Videos, War, Wealth, Welfare Spending, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

The Pronk Pops Show 1260, May 20, 2019, Story 1: Breaking News — Islamic Republic of Iran Don’t Mess With United States or Your Toast — Videos — Story 2: President Trump Still Sounding Like A Non-interventionist Foreign Policy? — Videos — Story 3: President Trump on Immigration Proposal and Using E-Verify — Videos

Posted on May 22, 2019. Filed under: 2020 President Candidates, 2020 Republican Candidates, Addiction, Afghanistan, American History, Blogroll, Breaking News, Budgetary Policy, Communications, Congress, Corruption, Countries, Crime, Culture, Defense Spending, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Education, Elections, Empires, Employment, Federal Government, First Amendment, Fiscal Policy, Freedom of Speech, Government, Government Dependency, Government Spending, History, House of Representatives, Human, Human Behavior, Iraq, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Life, Lying, Media, Monetary Policy, National Interest, News, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, President Trump, Progressives, Public Corruption, Radio, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Rule of Law, Saudi Arabia, Scandals, Security, Senate, Spying, Subversion, Success, Surveillance and Spying On American People, Tax Policy, Terror, Terrorism, Trade Policy, Unemployment, United States Constitution, United States of America, Videos, Violence, War, Wealth, Weapons, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

The Pronk Pops Show 1259, May 16, 2019, Story 1: President Trump’s New Immigration Proposal — What Happened To Border Security First With A 1,000 Mile Wall? — Build Big Beautiful Border Barrier — Additional 1500 Miles! — What Happened To Deporting and Removing All The Illegal Aliens (The 30-60 Million) Living and Working in United States? — Then and Only Then Talk About Common Sense Comprehensive Immigration Reform — No Sale Mr. President! — Videos

Posted on May 20, 2019. Filed under: 2020 President Candidates, 2020 Republican Candidates, American History, Blogroll, Breaking News, Budgetary Policy, Cartoons, Communications, Congress, Constitutional Law, Corruption, Countries, Crime, Culture, Deep State, Defense Spending, Diet, Disasters, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Drones, Economics, Education, Elections, Empires, Employment, Exercise, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), First Amendment, Fiscal Policy, Food, Foreign Policy, Gangs, Government, Government Dependency, Government Spending, Health, History, Homicide, House of Representatives, Human, Human Behavior, Illegal Drugs, Illegal Immigration, Immigration, Impeachment, Independence, Insurance, Investments, Labor Economics, Law, Legal Immigration, Life, Lying, Media, Mental Illness, Military Spending, National Security Agency, Networking, News, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, President Trump, Progressives, Public Corruption, Public Relations, Radio, Rape, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Senate, Social Networking, South America, Subversion, Success, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP_, Surveillance/Spying, Tax Policy, Taxation, Taxes, Technology, Terror, Terrorism, Trade Policy, Trump Surveillance/Spying, Unemployment, United States of America, Videos, Violence, Wall Street Journal, War, Wealth, Welfare Spending, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

The Pronk Pops Show 1258, May 15, 2019, Story 1: Let The People of Each State Decide Whether To Protect Babies In The Womb or Allow Doctors and Women The Choice of Killing Their Babies — Babies In The Womb Have A Moral Right To Life and Due Process — Alabama Bans Abortions — Videos —

Posted on May 18, 2019. Filed under: 2020 Republican Candidates, Abortion, American History, Blogroll, Books, Breaking News, College, Communications, Congress, Constitutional Law, Corruption, Countries, Crime, Culture, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Economics, Education, Elections, Empires, Employment, Eugenics, European History, Freedom of Speech, Government, Government Spending, Health Care, History, House of Representatives, Human, Human Behavior, Killing, Law, Life, Lying, Media, News, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, Progressives, Public Corruption, Radio, Rape, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Regulation, Senate, Success, Surveillance and Spying On American People, United States of America | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

The Pronk Pops Show 1257, May 14, 2019, Breaking News — Story 1: Attorney General Barr Names U.S. Attorney John Durham To Investigate The Clinton Obama Democrat Criminal Conspiracy — Deep State in Deep Do Do — Brilliant Choice — Durham Is Man of Experience and Integrity — Investigating Unauthorized Surveillance and Political Surveillance of Trump Campaign —  All Criminal Felonies — Indictments and Prosecutions Coming — We Are Coming To Take You Away — Videos

Posted on May 16, 2019. Filed under: 2020 Republican Candidates, Blogroll, Breaking News, Bribery, Bribes, Cartoons, Communications, Congress, Corruption, Countries, Crime, Culture, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Economics, Education, Empires, Employment, High Crimes, House of Representatives, Public Corruption, Senate, United States of America | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

The Pronk Pops Show 1256, May 13, 2019, Story 1: Communist China Retaliates By Imposing Tariffs on $60 Billion of U.S. Exports — Never Trust Communists Especially Chinese, Korean and Russian — Videos — Story 2: United States Farmers Who Sell Crops To China Impacted By The Chinese Tariff — Videos — Story 3: Doris Day Dies At 97 — Rest In Peace — Videos

Posted on May 15, 2019. Filed under: 2020 Republican Candidates, American History, Blogroll, Breaking News, Bribery, Bribes, Budgetary Policy, Cartoons, China, Comedy, Communications, Computers, Congress, Countries, Crime, Culture, Defense Spending, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Economics, Education, Elections, Empires, Employment, Energy, Environment, Federal Government, First Amendment, Fiscal Policy, Food, Former President Barack Obama, Free Trade, Freedom of Speech, Government, Government Dependency, Government Spending, Health, History, House of Representatives, Human, Independence, Labor Economics, Life, Media, Military Spending, Monetary Policy, Movies, News, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, President Trump, Public Corruption, Radio, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Senate, Social Networking, Tax Policy, Taxation, Taxes, Trade Policy, Unemployment, United States Constitution, United States of America, Videos, Wealth, Welfare Spending, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

The Pronk Pops Show 1255, May 10, 2019, Story 1: No Deal — United States Imposes 25% Tariff on $200 Billion in Chinese Exports To U.S. — Talks Break Up — Videos — Story 2: North Korean Short Range Missile Based on Russian Missile Can Hit U.S. Forces in South Korea — Videos — Story 3: Defense Department Shifts $1.5 Billion to Build Border Barrier — Videos — Story 4: Invasion of Illegal Aliens Continues with April Record of  109,000 Apprehensions — Build Border Barrier of 1,500 Additional Miles — Videos

Posted on May 14, 2019. Filed under: 2020 Democrat Candidates, 2020 President Candidates, 2020 Republican Candidates, Addiction, Addiction, Addiction, American History, Blogroll, Breaking News, Bribery, Bribes, Budgetary Policy, Business, Cartoons, China, Communications, Congress, Corruption, Crime, Cruise Missiles, Culture, Deep State, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Donald Trump, Drugs, Economics, Education, Elections, Empires, Employment, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Fiscal Policy, Free Trade, Freedom of Speech, Government Dependency, Hillary Clinton, History, House of Representatives, Human, Human Behavior, Illegal Drugs, Illegal Immigration, Immigration, Independence, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Killing, Language, Law, Legal Drugs, Legal Immigration, Life, Media, Mental Illness, Mexico, Middle East, National Interest, News, Nuclear, Nuclear Weapons, Obama, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Public Corruption, Radio, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Senate, Spying on American People, Surveillance and Spying On American People, Surveillance/Spying, Tax Policy, Taxation, Taxes, Terror, Terrorism, Trade Policy, Trump Surveillance/Spying, Unemployment, United States of America, Venezuela, Videos, Violence, Wealth, Weapons, Weapons of Mass Destruction, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

The Pronk Pops Show 1254, May 9, 2019, Story 1: North Korea Launches Short-Range Missile — Linkages — Trump Imposes 25% Tariff on All Communist China Exports to United States — Videos — Story 2: Islamic Republic of Iran Terrorist Attack on U.S. Bases — CIA Meeting — Videos — Story 3: President Trump Says Former Secretary of State John Kerry Should Be Prosecuted Under The Logan Act — Long Overdue — Videos — Story 4: No Constitutional Crisis — A Failure To Prosecute In Timely Manner The Clinton Obama Democratic Criminal Conspiracy — Videos

Posted on May 11, 2019. Filed under: 2020 President Candidates, 2020 Republican Candidates, Addiction, Addiction, American History, Barack H. Obama, Bill Clinton, Blogroll, Breaking News, Budgetary Policy, Cartoons, Central Intelligence Agency, China, Clinton Obama Democrat Criminal Conspiracy, Coal, Congress, Countries, Crime, Culture, Deep State, Defense Spending, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Eating, Economics, Education, Elections, Empires, Energy, Environment, European History, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Federal Government, First Amendment, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, Former President Barack Obama, Free Trade, Freedom of Speech, Government, Government Dependency, Government Spending, Health, Hillary Clinton, History, House of Representatives, Human, Human Behavior, Independence, Islamic Republic of Iran, James Comey, Killing, Life, Lying, Media, Mental Illness, Middle East, Mike Pompeo, Military Spending, MIssiles, Monetary Policy, National Interest, National Security Agency, Natural Gas, News, North Korea, Nuclear, Oil, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, President Trump, Progressives, Public Corruption, Qatar, Radio, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Regulation, Robert S. Mueller III, Russia, Scandals, Second Amendment, Security, Senate, Tax Policy, Taxation, Taxes, Technology, Terrorism, Trade Policy, U.S. Negotiations with Islamic Republic of Iran, United States Constitution, United States of America, United States Supreme Court, Videos, Violence, War, Weapons, Weapons of Mass Destruction, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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