The Pronk Pops Show 1400, February 21, 2020, Story 1: Send in the Clowns — Mini Mike Bloomberg Busted High Hopes — My Way or The Highway — Videos — Story 2: Roger Stone Sentenced To 40 Months in Prison For Lying To Congress in A Political Prosecution — Jury Foreperson Was Biased Trump Hating Democratic Activist — Miscarriage of Justice — Conviction Should Be Vacated — Videos — Story 3: The Real Threat Is Influenza Viruses Not Novel Coronavirus- Videos –Story 4: President Trump Holds Keep America Great Rally In Las Vegas — 500 Miles of Border Barrier in 2021 — Videos

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Bloomberg Booster StoolSee the source image

See the source imageNinety-nine per cent of cases have been in China, where tens of millions of residents are in lockdown to contain the escalating crisis. The COVID-19 virus has killed at least 1,873 peopleSee the source image

 

Story 1: Send in the Clowns — Mini Mike Bloomberg Busted High Hopes — My Way or The Highway — Videos

See the source imageSee the source imageSee the source imageBloomberg The Farmer

Judy Collins Send in the Clowns

Send in the Clowns

Judy Collins

Isn’t it rich?
Are we a pair?
Me here at last on the ground,
You in mid-air,
Where are the clowns?
Isn’t it bliss?
Don’t you approve?
One who keeps tearing around,
One who can’t move,
Where are the clowns?
There ought to be clowns?
Just when I’d stopped opening doors,
Finally knowing the one that I wanted was yours
Making my entrance again with my usual flair
Sure of my lines
No one is there
Don’t you love farce?
My fault, I fear
I thought that you’d want what I want
Sorry, my dear!
But where are the clowns
Send in the clowns
Don’t bother, they’re here
Isn’t it rich?
Isn’t it queer?
Losing my timing this late in my career
But where are the clowns?
There ought to be clowns
Well, maybe next year
Source: LyricFind
Songwriters: Stephen Sondheim
Send in the Clowns lyrics © Warner Chappell Music, Inc

The Democratic Debate in About a Minute

Tucker: Bloomberg paid to be humiliated

Ingraham: Why Bloomberg is failing

Ari Fleischer gives Bloomberg these debate tips

Everything Mike Bloomberg Said at the Las Vegas Democratic Debate | NBC New York

Bernie Sanders and Michael Bloomberg spar at the open of the Democratic debate

Warren attacks Bloomberg over sexist comments and non-disclosure agreements

Mike Bloomberg at Tonight’s Debate | Mike Bloomberg for President

Frank Sinatra — High Hopes

“High Hopes” Frank Sinatra

Frank Sinatra – My Way (Live At Madison Square Garden, 1974)

And now the end is near
And so I face the final curtain
My friend, I’ll say it clear,
I’ll state my case of which I’m certain.
I’ve lived a life that’s full,
I travelled each and every highway,
And more, much more than this,
I did it My Way.
Regrets, I’ve had a few,
But then again too few to mention
Did what I had to do
And saw it through without exemption
Planned each charted course
Each careful step along the byway
And more, much more than this,
I did it My Way.
Yes there were times, I’m sure you knew
When I bit off more than I could chew
But through it all when there was doubt
I ate it up and spit it out
I faced it all and I stood tall
And did it My Way.
I’ve loved,
I’ve laughed and cried,
I’ve had my fill, my share of losing
And now as tears subside
I find it all so amusing
To think I did all that
And may I say not in a shy way
Oh no, oh no not me
I did it My Way
For what is a man, what has he got?
If not himself, then he has naught.
To say the things he truly feels;
And not the words of one who kneels.
The record shows
I took the blows –
And did it my way!
Source: LyricFind
Songwriters: Claude Francois / Gilles Thibaut / Jacques Revaux / Paul Anka
My Way lyrics © Warner Chappell Music France, Jeune Musique Editions, BMG Rights Management, Concord Music Publishing LLC

Calvin Harris – My Way (Official Video)

My Way

Calvin Harris

Why wait to say
At least I did it my way
Lie awake, two faced
But in my heart I understand
I made my move
And it was all about you
Now I feel so far removed
You were the one thing in my way
You were the one thing in my way
You were the one thing in my way
You were the one thing in my way
You were the one thing in my way
You were the one thing in my way
My way, oh way, oh way, oh way
My way, oh way, oh way, oh way
My way, oh way, oh way, oh way
My way, oh way, oh way, oh way
My way
My way
My way
Why wait to say
At least I did it my way
Lie awake, two faced
But in my heart I understand
I made my move
And it was all about you
Now I feel so far removed
You were the one thing in my way
You were the one thing in my way
You were the one thing in my way
You were the one thing in my way
You were the one thing in my way
You were the one thing in my way
My way, oh way, oh way, oh way
My way, oh way, oh way, oh way
My way, oh way, oh way, oh way
My way, oh way, oh way, oh way
My way
You were the one thing in my way
You were the one thing in my way
You were the one thing in my way
You were the one thing in my way
You were the one thing in my way
You were the one thing in my way
My way, oh way, oh way, oh way
My way, oh way, oh way, oh way
My way, oh way, oh way, oh way
My way, oh way, oh way, oh way
My way
My way, oh way, oh way, oh way
My way, oh way, oh way, oh way
My way, oh way, oh way, oh way
My way, oh way, oh way, oh way
Source: LyricFind
Songwriters: Calvin Harris
My Way lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC

Mike Bloomberg is declared the LOSER of the Democratic debate after his disastrous start and relentless attacks – while Warren and Sanders come away the winners

  • Pundits declared Bloomberg the loser of Wednesday night’s debate in Las Vegas 
  • Senators Warren and Sanders were declared the top two winners of the debate  
  • Warren attacked Bloomberg over the treatment of women at his company 
  • Sanders criticized the former NYC mayor over his past stop and frisk policy 
  • Pete Buttigieg was also declared a winner, while Biden and Klobuchar lost out 

 

Mike Bloomberg has been declared the loser of Democratic debate after Elizabeth Warren and Bernie Sanders relentlessly attacked the former New York mayor over his past ‘racist’ policies and treatment of women.

Six candidates took the stage Wednesday night in Las Vegas to face-off for a 5-to-1 face-off that ended disastrously for Bloomberg.

Pundits chose Bloomberg as the loser after he became the object of scorn, ridicule and contempt within the first five minutes of the debate.

What is becoming an increasingly bitter nomination fight, the Democratic presidential candidates focused their attacks on Bloomberg on the debate stage.

He has spent more than $400 million so far on advertising that in turn has given him strong standing in state and national polls.

Sanders recalled Bloomberg’s support of stop-and-frisk policing targeting minorities while Warren spoke about how Bloomberg had mocked women.

‘I’d like to talk about who we’re running against, a billionaire who calls women fat broads and horse-faced lesbians,’ Warren said.

Pundits chose Bloomberg as the loser of Wednesday night's debate after he became the object of scorn, ridicule and contempt within the first five minutes

Pundits chose Bloomberg as the loser of Wednesday night’s debate after he became the object of scorn, ridicule and contempt within the first five minutes

Six candidates took the stage Wednesday night in Las Vegas to face-off for a 5-to-1 face-off that ended disastrously for Bloomberg

Six candidates took the stage Wednesday night in Las Vegas to face-off for a 5-to-1 face-off that ended disastrously for Bloomberg

‘And no I’m not talking about Donald Trump, I’m talking about Mayor Bloomberg.’

Amy Klobuchar also quipped that, ‘I don’t think you look at Donald Trump and say I think we need someone richer in the White House’.

Former Vice President Joe Biden said Bloomberg condoned racist police practices, and Pete Buttigieg, the former mayor of South Bend, Indiana, said Bloomberg was trying to ‘buy out’ the Democratic Party.

But his biggest struggle came when Warren hammered him over allegations of sexism and mistreatment of women in his company.

Bloomberg attempted to defend his record and deflect the attacks on him by turning them into attacks on President Donald Trump.

And he effectively raised questions about whether Americans would embrace a socialist like Sanders.

CNN's Chris Cillizza compared Bloomberg's performance to that of a pro-wrestling match where 'everyone decided to gang up on a single wrestler in the ring - and that wrestler was totally and completely caught off-guard'

Cillizza also said the 'first hour of the debate was an absolute and total disaster for the former mayor' who was also the third most tweeted about candidate Wednesday night

Cillizza also said the ‘first hour of the debate was an absolute and total disaster for the former mayor’ who was also the third most tweeted about candidate Wednesday night

But the glare was harsh, and the attacks landed with force. Even if you are worth $60billion it is hard to win a 5-on-1 fight.

CNN’s Chris Cillizza said the ‘first hour of the debate was an absolute and total disaster for the former mayor’.

‘He looked lost at times – and those were the best times for him! Warren dunked on him repeatedly. Sanders slammed him. Biden bashed him,’ Cillizza wrote.

Cillizza compared Bloomberg’s performance to that of a pro-wrestling match where ‘everyone decided to gang up on a single wrestler in the ring – and that wrestler was totally and completely caught off-guard’.

ELIZABETH WARREN: RETURN OF THE FIGHTER (WINNER)

Warren rose to prominence in the Democratic field with a fighting spirit that defined the early months of her campaign. But her disappointing showings in Iowa and New Hampshire left her campaign struggling.

But on Wednesday, Warren got back in the fight.

She slammed Bloomberg – which was no surprise as she’s been an antagonist of billionaires playing in politics for years.

But Warren also attacked Klobuchar, saying her health care plan was just a ‘Post-it note’.

She accused Buttigieg of being in debt to his rich campaign supporters and having a healthcare plan that was just a ‘PowerPoint’ designed by his consultants.

Warren rose to prominence in the Democratic field with a fighting spirit that defined the early months of her campaign. But her disappointing showings in Iowa and New Hampshire left her campaign struggling. But on Wednesday, Warren got back in the fight

Warren rose to prominence in the Democratic field with a fighting spirit that defined the early months of her campaign. But her disappointing showings in Iowa and New Hampshire left her campaign struggling. But on Wednesday, Warren got back in the fight

Warren slammed also fellow liberal Sanders, accusing him of letting his supporters trash anyone with a plan. But it was her prosecutorial approach to Bloomberg over his company’s treatment of women that stood out.

She hit the former mayor hard when it came to his refusal to release women from the nondisclosure agreements with his company regarding complaints of a hostile working environment.

Warren was relentless, leaving the former mayor stumbling and fumbling for a response.

‘Anybody that does anything wrong in our company, we investigate it and if it’s appropriate, they’re gone that day,’ Bloomberg said.

‘Let me tell you what I do at my company and my foundation and in city government when I was there. In my foundation, the person that runs it is a woman, 70 per cent of the people there are women,’ he added.

She slammed Bloomberg - which was no surprise as she's been an antagonist of billionaires playing in politics for years. But Warren also attacked Klobuchar, saying her health care plan was just a 'Post-it note'

‘In my company, lots and lots of women have big responsibilities. They get paid exactly the same as men. In city hall, the top person, my deputy mayor was a woman and 40 per cent of our commissioners were women,’ he said.

Warren then hit him harder.

‘I hope you heard what his defense was. I’ve been nice to some women. That just doesn’t cut it. The mayor has to stand on his record. What we need to know is exactly what’s lurking out there,’ she said.

‘He has gotten some number of women, dozens, who knows, who sign nondisclosure agreements both for sexual harassment and for gender discrimination in the workplace.

Van Jones tweeted about Warren shortly after the debate, saying: ‘Elizabeth Warren needs Bloomberg like a “lion needs an antelope.” He is the human embodiment of everything she’s against. If @ewarren is effective at landing those blows, the air could very well come out of the Bloomberg bubble.’

BERNIE SANDERS: LEADING THE PACK (WINNER)

Sanders has continuously tried to cement himself as the Democratic frontrunner, and he may have just pulled that off, according to some pundits.

‘The ganging-up on Bloomberg was just fine for Sanders, who, in case you forgot, is the clear front-runner for the Democratic nomination,’ Cillizza wrote.

Before Wednesday night, Sanders has been hammering Bloomberg for weeks for trying to buy the election, though at a CNN town hall Tuesday night he wouldn’t guarantee he wouldn’t take Bloomberg’s money, which the billionaire candidate promised to the Democratic nominee, should he not be chosen for the job himself.

‘I don’t think we’re going to need that money,’ Sanders eventually said.

Sanders has sprung to the lead for the nomination in the RealClearPolitics polling average on the race with Biden in second and Bloomberg in third.

Sanders has continuously tried to cement himself as the Democratic frontrunner, and he may have just pulled that off, according to some pundits

Sanders has continuously tried to cement himself as the Democratic frontrunner, and he may have just pulled that off, according to some pundits

Sanders and Bloomberg locked horns on political philosophy during the debate, arguing over who’s a communist and who’s a socialist.

Bloomberg was defending his net worth, pointing out he earned it through ‘hard work’ and that he was giving his money away when Sanders argued the workers helped make that money.

‘Mr Bloomberg, it wasn’t you who made all that money. Maybe your workers played some role in that as well,’ Sanders said.

‘And it is important those workers are able to share the benefits also. When we have so many people who go to work every day and they feel not good about their jobs.

‘They feel like cogs in a machine. I want workers to be able to sit on corporate boards as well so they can have some say over what happens to their lives.’

MAYOR PETE BUTTIGIEG: THE GIFTED DEBATER (WINNER)

Some pundits crowned Buttigieg as one of Wednesday night’s winners.

‘Buttigieg is, without question, the most naturally gifted debater in the Democratic field, meaning he is simply not going to turn in a clunker. He was steady if not spectacular in this debate,’ Cillizza said.

According Cillizza, Buttigieg spent parts of the night taking on Sanders, which is a  ‘clear effort to send a signal to voters that he is the most credible alternative to the Vermont senator’.

Buttigieg, who finished in the top two in Iowa and New Hampshire with Sanders, reserved some of his harshest criticism for Sanders.

Some pundits crowned Buttigieg as one of Wednesday night's winners. Buttigieg, who finished in the top two in Iowa and New Hampshire with Sanders, reserved some of his harshest criticism for Sanders

Some pundits crowned Buttigieg as one of Wednesday night’s winners. Buttigieg, who finished in the top two in Iowa and New Hampshire with Sanders, reserved some of his harshest criticism for Sanders

He warned that Democrats could wake up after more than a dozen states vote on Super Tuesday on March 3 and have only Bloomberg and Sanders left on the ballot.

Buttigieg then quipped that the party may want to nominate ‘someone who is actually a Democrat’.

The crowd inside the Las Vegas casino hadn’t yet finished chuckling and hooting when he continued by saying Sanders ‘wants to burn this party down’ and Bloomberg ‘wants to buy this party out’.

Sanders, a senator from Vermont and avowed democratic socialist, responded by saying that Buttigieg’s campaign has been too reliant on ‘billionaire’ big donors, kicking off another intense exchange.

Their back and forth continued through criticism of Sanders supporters who have frequently been accused of bullying behavior online.

Sanders said he personally had denounced such behavior. This prompted Buttigieg to say he believed the senator but, ‘What it is it about your campaign in particular that seems to be motivating this type of behavior?’

On this night, Buttigieg had the most at stake, with Sanders standing in Nevada polls well ahead of the man who has run even with him in the first two contests.

AMY KLOBUCHAR: WHERE’S THE  KLOBENTUM? (LOSER)

The last debate was rocket fuel for Klobuchar. Her strong performance vaulted her to a third-place finish in New Hampshire and onto Nevada.

But it may be hard for lightning to strike twice.

The Minnesota senator was often drowned out in the high-octane bickering Wednesday, or pulled down into the mud.

At one point she pulled from her supply of ready quips, saying of Sanders and Bloomberg as they argued over capitalism that there is ‘a boxing rematch in Vegas on Saturday and these guys should go down there’.

The last debate was rocket fuel for Klobuchar. Her strong performance vaulted her to a third-place finish in New Hampshire and onto Nevada. But it may be hard for lightning to strike twice

The last debate was rocket fuel for Klobuchar. Her strong performance vaulted her to a third-place finish in New Hampshire and onto Nevada. But it may be hard for lightning to strike twice

The most damaging exchange was between Klobuchar and Buttigieg, who have tangled before.

When asked about her embarrassing gaffe in forgetting the name of Mexico’s president, she had to fend off Buttigieg, who claimed it disproved her argument that her work in Washington has prepared her to be president.

She also alternately scrapped with and aligned with Warren.

‘Are you calling me dumb?’ Klobuchar asked Buttigieg incredulously. Later, she added: ‘I wish everyone was as perfect as you, Pete.’

A little over a week ago in New Hampshire, Klobuchar clearly stood out. This time was much harder as everyone battled for survival.

FORMER VP JOE BIDEN: THE BYSTANDER (LOSER)

Another candidate in need of a big night to reverse perceptions that his campaign was struggling was Biden.

For a good portion of the debate, he receded. He joined in the attacks on Bloomberg, but largely avoided some of the more testy exchanges.

Biden called the stop and frisks ‘abhorrent’ and the former mayor admitted that it ‘got out of control’.

‘When we discovered – I discovered – that we were doing many, many – too many – stop and frisks, we cut 95 per cent of it out,’ Bloomberg asserted.

Another candidate in need of a big night to reverse perceptions that his campaign was struggling was Biden. For a good portion of the debate, he receded. He joined in the attacks on Bloomberg, but largely avoided some of the more testy exchanges

Another candidate in need of a big night to reverse perceptions that his campaign was struggling was Biden. For a good portion of the debate, he receded. He joined in the attacks on Bloomberg, but largely avoided some of the more testy exchanges

The former mayor said he is and was trying to ‘learn’ how to change policies to help continuing reduce crime in New York City.

Biden hit back at Bloomberg, claiming he couldn’t apologize it away and said it violated every right people posses.

‘Let’s get something straight. The reason that stop and frisk changed is because Barack Obama sent moderators to see what was going on. When we sent them there to say “this practice has to stop,” the mayor thought it was a terrible idea we send them there – a terrible idea,’ Biden said, invoking the name of one of the most famous Democrats.

‘It’s not whether he apologized or not, it’s the policy. The policy was abhorrent, and it was, in fact, a violation of every right people have,’ he said, claiming Bloomberg pushed back against stopping the policies.

‘He figured out it was a bad idea after we sent in monitors and said it must stop. Even then he continued the policy,’ Biden said on stage.

When Warren said that Biden was ‘in the pocket’ of Republican Mitch McConnell, the Senate majority leader, Biden fought back.

He also tried to return to his ‘Middle Class Joe’ biography about his family’s financial struggles.

Biden did not offer voters any new rationale for voting for him.

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8023581/Mike-Bloomberg-declared-loser-Democratic-debate.html

Story 2: Roger Stone Sentenced To 40 Months in Prison For Lying To Congress in A Political Prosecution — Jury Foreperson Was Biased Trump Hating Democratic Activist — Miscarriage of Justice — Conviction Should Be Vacated — Videos —

Trump: Jury forewoman in Roger Stone case was ‘totally tainted’

Trump speaks in Las Vegas at ceremony for former prisoners, says what happened to Roger Stone was unbelievable.

Gowdy: No one believes Russia prefers Trump over ‘comrade Sanders’

Robert Ray expects it will be months before Roger Stone’s fate is settled

ROGER STONE SENTENCED: Friend of President Trump Gets 3 Years in Prison

Napolitano explains why Roger Stone is ‘absolutely entitled’ to a new trial

‘The Five’ panel gets heated over Roger Stone trial

Roger Stone gets THREE YEARS and four months but will not go straight to prison while he asks for a retrial – as federal judge rejects prosecutors’ demand for nine years but savages Donald Trump for interfering and says Stone ‘covered up for the president’

  • Roger Stone, 67, arrived at Washington’s federal court with his wife Nydia for sentencing hearing Thursday
  • Federal judge Amy Berman Jackson said his punishment for lying to Congress, witness tampering and obstruction will be 40 months in prison
  • But because he is asking for a retrial over claims of bias by the jury foreperson, the sentence will not take effect
  • Berman Jackson, an Obama appointee, said she had rejected prosecutors’ demand  for nine years on her – not because of outside pressure
  • That was a reference to Trump, who had raged about the initial demand – and for whom a 40 month sentence can be portrayed as a win
  • Judge issued a stunning rebuke not just of Stone but of Donald Trump himself for trying to interfere in the case
  • Case has plunged attorney general Bill Barr into crisis as he pleaded with Donald Trump to stop tweeting about it – and president refused
  • Within an hour of his arrival, Trump was tweeting again about the case this time suggesting the prosecution was unfair 
  • He claimed James Comey had lied to Congress but was not prosecuted 
  • Trump called himself the nation’s ‘chief law enforcement officer,’ and Barr was reported to be considering resigning 

Roger Stone swerved a federal prison cell Thursday despite a judge slapping the longtime Donald Trump ally with a 40-month sentence for lying to Congress – and savaging not just him but the president.

Stone was convicted last fall of lying to lawmakers over his efforts to procure stolen Democratic Party emails from WikiLeaks in 2016 to boost Donald Trump’s chances of becoming President.

The self-declared political dirty trickster was spared immediate incarceration Thursday while U.S. District Judge Amy Berman Jackson decides whether or not to grant his request for a retrial.

The sentence was far below the nine years demanded by the prosecution before that was over-ruled in a political tumult and furious tweets by Trump.

ROGER STONE DID A LOT WRONG: WHAT HE WAS CONVICTED OF

Roger Stone was found guilty on all charges of:

1. Obstruction of justice, lying to Congress and witness tampering by trying to get Randy Credico to lie to Congress. Sentenced to 40 months

2. Lying to Congress that he did not have emails or texts about Julian Assange. Sentenced to 12 months concurrent with the first count

3. Lying when he claimed his references to being in touch with Assange were actually about a ‘go-between’ – Randy Credico. Sentenced to 12 months concurrent with the first count

4. Lying that he didn’t ask his ‘go-between’ to communicate with Assange. Sentenced to 12 months concurrent with the first count

5. Lying that he didn’t text or email the ‘go-between’ about WikiLeaks. Sentenced to 12 months concurrent with the first count

6. Lying that he had never discussed conversation with his ‘go-between’ with anyone in the Trump campaign. Sentenced to 12 months concurrent with the first count

Instead she turned his sentencing hearing into a stunning rebuke not just of Stone but of the president himself, saying the prosecution was not brought by ‘political enemies,’ and that there was no ‘anti-Trump cabal’ at the hear of the case.

‘He was not prosecuted, as some have complained, for standing up for the president, he was prosecuted for covering up for the president,’ she said.

‘There was nothing unfair, phony or disgraceful about the investigation or the prosecution.’

Trump tweeted in rage against the prosecution accusing it of lacking ‘FAIRNESS’ as the hearing was under way in federal court in Washington D.C.

”They say Roger Stone lied to Congress.’ OH, I see, but so did Comey (and he also leaked classified information, for which almost everyone, other than Crooked Hillary Clinton, goes to jail for a long time), and so did Andy McCabe, who also lied to the FBI! FAIRNESS?’ the president tweeted.

It was unknown whether Berman Jackson was aware of his latest intervention but it came amid a case roiled by politics and mounting speculation Stone will be pardoned.

Even before she spoke, prosecutors staged their own revolt against the president calling the case ‘righteous’ and demanding a lengthy prison sentence despite their initial call for nine years being over-ruled by Attorney General Bill Barr in one of the main acts of an unfolding constitutional crisis.

Stone, 67, stood in silence as Jackson told a federal courtroom Washington, D.C. that he should spend 40 months -three years and four months – behind bars.

She had savaged him in his sentencing remarks – and rebuked the president himself, possibly for his tweet this morning which was during the first part of her hearing.

‘This case did not arise because Roger Stone was being prosecuted by his political enemies,’ Berman Jackson said.

She said Stone told ‘flat out lies,’ and that his conviction had nothing to do with whether Russia interfered in the 2016 election.

He was guilty of a ‘corrupt, unlawful,’ campaign to stop his lies being exposed when he threatened Randy Credico, who he named as his ‘go-between’ to Julian Assange, to stop Credico revealing the truth, that there was another go-between.

Stone was also guilty of withholding texts and emails from Congress, prompting Berman Jackson to again lash out at the president. 

Off home: Roger Stone left court to return to Florida

Free to go - for now: Roger Stone is escorted from the Washington D.C. federal courthouse after his sentencing. He remains gagged from speaking to the press

Happy outcome: A grinning Roger Stone left the court to get into a waiting car

On his way: Roger Stone steps out of the court and into the crowd after his sentencing

Not over: Roger Stone's case is not at an end because he has applied for a retrial, which the judge is considering. She went ahead with the sentencing and will rule later on his call for a fresh hearing

Crowd: Roger Stone walked through a crowd of waiting photographers and reporters as he left the court

Grinning: Roger Stone had shown no emotion as he was sentenced, and left the court building with a smile on his face

Grinning: Roger Stone had shown no emotion as he was sentenced, and left the court building with a smile on his face

Lightning rod: Federal judge Amy Berman Jackson will sentence Roger Stone in a case which has caused a crisis to engulf Bill Barr who pleaded with Donald Trump to let him do his job and stop the tweeting about his Department of Justice

Lightning rod: Federal judge Amy Berman Jackson will sentence Roger Stone in a case which has caused a crisis to engulf Bill Barr who pleaded with Donald Trump to let him do his job and stop the tweeting about his Department of Justice

Lightning rod: Federal judge Amy Berman Jackson will sentence Roger Stone in a case which has caused a crisis to engulf Bill Barr who pleaded with Donald Trump to let him do his job and stop the tweeting about his Department of Justice

And she pointed out that it was a Republican-led inquiry which he had initially defied.

Then she laced into the president, without naming him, saying it was right for sentencing to be done by a judge, ‘Not someone who has a longstanding friendship with the defendant, not someone whose political career was aided by the defendant.’

Stone was joined by a vast entourage led by his wife Nydia as he walked into the federal court, where his legal team has been bolstered by a Mafia lawyer who helped keep John Gotti Jr., head of the Gambino crime family and son of the ‘Teflon Don,’ out of prison.

Pro-Stone demonstrators brought a ‘pardon Roger stone’ banner which they held behind him when he arrived while counter-protesters tried to hurriedly erect an inflatable effigy of Trump as a rat as Stone arrived.

Hours before he arrived Trump launched another fusillade against Stone’s conviction, tweeting: ‘What has happened to Roger Stone should never happen to anyone in our country again.’

Trump’s tweets have plunged his own attorney general, Bill Barr, into a crisis over the rule of law, with the president declaring himself the ‘chief law enforcement officer,’ and demanding Barr ‘clean house.’

His wife Nydia was behind him in the courtroom as Stone, wearing a dark gray chalk stripe double-breasted suit, blue shirt with cutaway collar and sober gray tie, sat beside his attorneys.

Department of Justice attorneys had originally requested a far harsher punishment of seven to nine years only to see their recommendation ripped up by Attorney General William Barr, who drew praise from Trump for labeling it ‘excessive and unwarranted’.

The intervention sparked accusations of political interference, forcing Barr on the defensive as he denied bowing to White House influence and appealed for Trump to curb his explosive Twitter criticisms of Judge Jackson and the supposedly ‘tainted’ case against Stone.

More than 2,000 former justice department employees have since signed a petition calling on the Attorney General to resign.

The original prosecution foursome of Aaron Zelinsky, Jonathan Kravis, Adam Jed and Michael Marando were replaced for today’s proceedings at Washington, D.C. District Court, having all resigned in protest.

Stone’s sentencing got off to a rocky start when U.S. District Judge Amy Berman Jackson said that anyone in the court who did not have a medical reason to wear sunglasses should remove them. Stone had arrived in round sunglasses.

Jackson took the opportunity to grill prosecutors on why the Department of Justice decided last week to submit a second sentencing memorandum, a nod to Attorney General William Barr’s controversial decision to rip up the original seven to nine year recommendation submitted by his own attorneys.

It fell upon newly-assigned federal prosecutor John Crabb to apologize for the ‘miscommunication’, insisting that the original prosecution team – who resigned last week in protest – had acted in ‘good faith’.

Stone stood in silence as Jackson recalled the seven offences of which he was convicted: five counts of making false statements to Congress, a single count of obstructing a congressional proceeding and single count of witness tampering.

That final charge would be of particular significance as she warned Stone his sentence would likely be higher because it involved specific threats of violence.

Last November’s trial heard how Stone bullied the radio host Randy Credico into pleading the Fifth to avoid contradicting his 2016 testimony before Congress, branding him a ‘rat’ and threatening to take away his therapy dog.

Political point: An anti-Bill Barr protest was being made outside the federal court while Roger Stone was being sentenced - resulting in the advertising van being pulled over by D.C. cops

He's here: Roger Stone was accompanied by his wife Nydia and an almost 20-strong entourage as he arrived at federal court in Washington D.C. to be sentenced

In front of the protest: Roger and Nydia Stone walked past the inflatable Trump rat as they made their way into court

Grin and bear it: Roger Stone kept a fixed smile as he headed into court with his wife Nydia on his arm

Grin and bear it: Roger Stone kept a fixed smile as he headed into court with his wife Nydia on his arm

Raised a smile: Roger Stone's wife Nydia reacted positively to a group of supporters' banner calling for Donald Trump to issue the dirty trickster with a pardon

Raised a smile: Roger Stone’s wife Nydia reacted positively to a group of supporters’ banner calling for Donald Trump to issue the dirty trickster with a pardon

Arm-in-arm: Roger Stone wore a navy blue double-breasted topcoat with contrasting collar, blue cutaway collared shirt and sober gray tie, topped off with a black trilby as he arrived in court with Nydia, his second wife

 

Arm-in-arm: Roger Stone wore a navy blue double-breasted topcoat with contrasting collar, blue cutaway collared shirt and sober gray tie, topped off with a black trilby as he arrived in court with Nydia, his second wife

 

Asked if he had anything to say, Stone, dressed immaculately in a pinstripe suit, grey tie and suspenders, told Washington, D.C. District Court: ‘Your honor I choose not to speak at this time, thank you very much.’

Jackson slammed the 67-year-old defendant as an ‘insecure person who craves and recklessly pursues attention.’

‘This case did not arise because Roger Stone was being pursued by his political enemies,’ she added.

‘It arose because Roger Stone characteristically injected himself smack into the middle of one of the most significant issues of the day.’

Judge Jackson said Stone had interfered with matters of ‘grave national importance’ and repeatedly lied under oath. She characterized his defense as: ‘So what?’

‘Nothing about this case was a joke. It wasn’t funny,’ she cautioned.

‘This was not Roger being Roger. He lied to congress, he lied to elected representatives.’

The no-nonsense judge praised the ‘professionalism’ of the original four prosecutors, saying their recommendation was ‘true to the record’ and in line with Department of Justice guidelines.

However she agreed with Barr’s revision and said she was concerned seven to nine years would be ‘greater than necessary.’

She sentenced Stone to 40 months for obstruction, 12 months each for the counts of lying to Congress and 18 months for witness tampering, all sentences to be served concurrently.

He was also fined $20,000 and will have to serve two years’ probation. Federal rules means he has to give the court his tax returns.

Judge Jackson quizzed Crabb about how she came to receive two competing sentencing memorandums, noting that the original recommendation had never been formally withdrawn.

Crabb agreed and confirmed the prosecution was still asking for a substantial prison term for Stone, insisting the Justice Department had operated ‘without fear, favor or political influence’.

‘This prosecution was and is righteous,’ he said. ‘This confusion was not caused by the original trial team. There was nothing in bad faith about the prosecution team’s recommendation.’

Quizzed over who had ordered the new memorandum and why, Crabb replied: ‘What I understand is, there was a miscommunication between the Attorney General and the United States Attorney.’

Asked to explain who wrote the second memorandum, he repeatedly declined to say.

‘I cannot engage in discussions on internal deliberations,’ he said, to Judge Jackson’s obvious displeasure.

Ginsberg told the court that Stone had a history of ‘rough, provocative and hyperbolic language’ and that his threats to Credico should not influence his sentence, given that Credico and Stone went back decades and he knew Stone was ‘all bark and no bite.’

Judge Jackson disagreed, saying the sentencing seriousness level jumped from 14 to 27 because of Stone’s threats, witness tampering and efforts to disrupt justice.

‘The defendant refers to this as banter, which it hardly is,’ Jackson added, reeling off a list of insults Stone had directed toward Credico, including ‘rat’ and ‘c**sucker’.

She also slammed Stone over his repeated outbursts during last year’s prosecution, in particular his speaking out via InfoWars host Alex Jones to relay a message to Trump pleading for a pardon the night before he was found guilty.

That was in defiance of a gag order Judge Jackson had earlier slapped on Stone after he posted a mocked up photo of her face in rifle crosshairs online.

Jackson said Stone was deliberately trying to undermine proceedings and was stoking anger towards court officials, risking a scenario in which someone with ‘even less judgment’ could actually do something violent.

‘This is intolerable to the administration of justice. The court should not sit idly by, shrug its shoulders and say, that’s just Roger being Roger,’ she said.

Ratcheting up his sentencing level another two notches, she added: ‘It wasn’t an accident he had a staff that helped him do it. Using the new social media is his sweet spot.

‘He knew exactly what he was doing and in using Twitter and Instagram he deliberately magnified his message.’

Stone’s decades-long career on the shadier  margins of US politics appeared to be over last November after he was found guilty of five counts of making false statements to Congress and single counts of obstructing a congressional proceeding and witness tampering.

Jurors agreed the smooth-talking agent provocateur, who briefly served on Trump’s 2016 Presidential campaign, told a series of ‘whoppers’ when he testified before members of House Intelligence Committee investigating Russian collusion in the 2016 election.

Stone lied to lawmakers when he denied asking Julian Assange for the cache of Democratic Party messages stolen by Russian hackers and further lied about the identity of his go-between to the WikiLeaks founder.

He also concealed numerous texts, emails and telephone conversations in which he discussed WikiLeaks and Assange with then candidate-Trump and senior campaign figures including former White House chief strategist Steve Bannon, ex Campaign Chairman Paul Manafort and former campaign official Rick Gates.

In he goes: Roger Stone took off his trilby to enter court, where he will be sentenced

Acknowledgment: Roger Stone gave a salute to supporters outside court

Acknowledgment: Roger Stone gave a salute to supporters outside court

Tailored: Roger Stone revealed he is wearing a double-breasted dark gray chalk stripe suit under his navy blue double-breasted overcoat as he got out of his car before going into court

Counter-protest: Anti-Trump activists put up an inflatable effigy of the president as a rat in time for Roger Stone's arrival

 

Counter-protest: Anti-Trump activists put up an inflatable effigy of the president as a rat in time for Roger Stone’s arrival

Publicity opportunity: The Stone spectacle has also been a magnet for a local tour company whose placard made a return to the entrance to court for the sentencing

Publicity opportunity: The Stone spectacle has also been a magnet for a local tour company whose placard made a return to the entrance to court for the sentencing

Ready for the walk: Nydia Stone grasped her husband's arm as they prepared to walk into court

Ready for the walk: Nydia Stone grasped her husband’s arm as they prepared to walk into court

Trump praises Bill Bar for ‘taking charge’ of Roger Stone case
The trial heard Stone was trying to procure the emails as a way to win favor with Trump and help him beat Hillary Clinton to the White House.

The net result of him lying ‘over and over and over again’ was that the House Intelligence Committee was impeded in its inquiries and its final report into Russian election inference was inaccurate because it didn’t mention Stone’s true intermediary, prosecutors said.

The tampering charge referred to his effort to bully the comedian and radio host Randy Credico into pleading the Fifth so he would avoid contradicting Stone’s sworn September 26, 2017 testimony.

Stone had told lawmakers that Credico was his ‘back channel’ to WikiLeaks when it was actually the conspiracy theorist and author Jerome Corsi.

When Credico threatened to set the record straight, Stone branded him a ‘c**ksucker’, a ‘rat’ and urged the rattled comic to do a ‘Frank Pentangeli’, referencing a character in Godfather Part II who lies to a congressional committee to help the Corleone family before committing suicide.

He also took aim at Credico’s therapy dog Bianca, a 13-year-old Coton de Tulear, writing in an text message: ‘I’m going to take that dog away from you.’

Prosecutors cited the threats of physical harm and Stone’s repeated media outbursts attacking Judge Jackson as aggravating factors against the former Nixon campaign adviser who has the disgraced former president’s face permanently tattooed on his back.

However Credico was among those who argued against incarceration, saying in a January letter to the judge: ‘I never in any way felt that Stone himself posed a direct physical threat to me or to my dog.’

Tomeka Hart, a former Memphis City Schools Board President, stoked the flames further when she outed herself last Wednesday as the jury forewoman in a Facebook post voicing support for the overruled prosecutors.

‘I have kept my silence for months. Initially, it was for my safety. Then, I decided to remain silent out of fear of politicizing the matter,’ Hart wrote.

Back channels: Stone had fraudulently told lawmakers that Randy Credico, a left-wing radio comedian, was his 'back channel' to WikiLeaks when it was actually the conspiracy theorist and author Jerome Corsi (pictured)

Back channels: Stone had fraudulently told lawmakers that Randy Credico (pictured), a left-wing radio comedian, was his 'back channel' to WikiLeaks when it was actually the conspiracy theorist and author Jerome Corsi

Center of case: Roger Stone  also took aim at Randy Credico's therapy dog Bianca, a 13-year-old Coton de Tulear, writing in an text message: 'I'm going to take that dog away from you.'

‘But I can’t keep quiet any longer. I want to stand up for Aaron Zelinsky, Adam Jed, Michael Marando, and Jonathan Kravis – the prosecutors on the Roger Stone trial.

‘It pains me to see the DOJ now interfere with the hard work of the prosecutors. They acted with the utmost intelligence, integrity, and respect for our system of justice.

‘For that, I wanted to speak up for them and ask you to join me in thanking them for their service.’

Hart, it further emerged, had unsuccessfully ran for Congress as a Democrat in 2012 and had participated in anti-Trump rallies and protests.

She had frequently denounced Trump on social media, calling the President and his supporters racists, and posted emojis of hearts and fist pumps after finding Stone guilty last November.

Hart had also re-tweeted a post by pundit Bakari Sellers dismissing Stone’s claims that the FBI used excessive force when they arrested him at his Fort Lauderdale, Florida home in January 2019.

Sellers had listed black victims of ‘police force’, including Sandra Bland, Walter Scott and Eric Gardner, scoffing: ‘But Roger Stone!!! Think about that.’

Stone’s lawyers have already made one failed attempt to secure a re-trial, arguing that a completely different juror, an IRS employee who worked with the Justice Department on criminal tax cases, should have been struck.

The juror admitted reading news articles about Stone’s arrest but denied having any opinions about Stone when asked about it by Judge Jackson in court.

The defense had failed to demonstrate the ‘sort of inherent bias’ that would prompt a retrial, Judge Jackson ruled.

Stone entered the political arena in 1972 when he ditched his studies at George Washington University, supporting Nixon in his re-election campaign then landing a job on his administration.

In one of his first stunts he contributed $135 to one of Nixon’s Republican rivals in the name of the Young Socialist Alliance – then slipped the receipt to a journalist.

During congressional hearings into the Watergate scandal in 1973 it emerged Stone had recruited a spy to infiltrate the campaigns of several of Nixon’s Democratic rivals.

He was fired from his job with then-Senator Bob Dole but went on to work for several more presidential campaigns: those of Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush and, eventually, his longtime friend Donald Trump, who first hired Stone to lobby for his casino businesses in the 1990s.

The National Enquirer in 1996 revealed that Stone had placed ads on a swingers website seeking sex partners for himself and his second wife Nydia Bertran Stone, 72. Stone later referred to himself in an interview as ‘a libertarian and a libertine’ and a ‘trysexual – I’ve tried everything’.

The six Trump associates to be convicted in Mueller probe

GUILTY: ROGER STONE 

Convicted in November 2019 on seven counts including obstruction of justice, witness tampering, and lying to Congress about his communications with WikiLeaks. Sentenced to 40 months in prison. 

Stone was a person of interest to Mueller’s investigators long before his January 2019 indictment, thanks in part due to his public pronouncements as well as internal emails about his contacts with WikiLeks.

In campaign texts and emails, Stone communicated with associates about WikiLeaks following reports the organization had obtained a cache of Clinton-related emails. 

According to the federal indictment, Stone gave ‘false and misleading’ testimony about his requests for information from WikiLeaks. He then pressured a witness, comedian Randy Credico, to take the Fifth Amendment rather than testify, and pressured him in a series of emails. Following a prolonged dispute over testimony, he called him a ‘rat’ and threatened to ‘take that dog away from you’, in reference to Credico’s therapy dog, Bianca. Stone warned him: ‘Let’s get it on. Prepare to die.’  

GUILTY: MICHAEL FLYNN 

Pleaded guilty to making false statements in December 2017. Awaiting sentence

Flynn was President Trump’s former National Security Advisor and Robert Mueller’s most senior scalp to date. He previously served when he was a three star general as President Obama’s director of the Defense Intelligence Agency but was fired. 

He admitted to lying to special counsel investigators about his conversations with a Russian ambassador in December 2016. He has agreed to cooperate with the special counsel investigation.

GUILTY AND IN JAIL: MICHAEL COHEN

Pleaded guilty to eight counts including fraud and two campaign finance violations in August 2018. Pleaded guilty to further count of lying to Congress in November 2018. Sentenced to three years in prison and $2 million in fines and forfeitures in December 2018

Cohen was investigated by Mueller but the case was handed off to the Southern District of New York,leaving Manhattan’s ferocious and fiercely independent federal prosecutors to run his case. 

Cohen was Trump’s longtime personal attorney, starting working for him and the Trump Organization in 2007. He is the longest-serving member of Trump’s inner circle to be implicated by Mueller. Cohen professed unswerving devotion to Trump – and organized payments to silence two women who alleged they had sex with the-then candidate: porn star Stormy Daniels and Playboy model Karen McDougal. He admitted that payments to both women were felony campaign finance violations – and admitted that he acted at the ‘direction’ of ‘Candidate-1’: Donald Trump. 

He also admitted tax fraud by lying about his income from loans he made, money from  taxi medallions he owned, and other sources of income, at a cost to the Treasury of $1.3 million.

And he admitted lying to Congress in a rare use of the offense. The judge in his case let him report for prison on March 6 and  recommended he serve it in a medium-security facility close to New York City.

Campaign role: Paul Manafort chaired Trump's campaign for four months - which included the Republican National Convention in Cleveland in 2016, where he appeared on stage beside Trump who was preparing  to formally accept the Republican nomination

GUILTY AND IN JAIL: PAUL MANAFORT

Found guilty of eight charges of bank and tax fraud in August 2018. Sentenced to 47 months in March 2019. Pleaded guilty to two further charges – witness tampering and conspiracy against the United States. Jailed for total of seven and a half years in two separate sentences. Additionally indicted for mortgage fraud by Manhattan District Attorney, using evidence previously presented by Mueller. That indictment was dismissed by the DA is appealing

 Manafort worked for Trump’s campaign from March 2016 and chaired it from June to August 2016, overseeing Trump being adopted as Republican candidate at the Republican National Convention in Cleveland. He is the most senior campaign official to be implicated by Mueller. Manafort was one of Washington D.C.’s longest-term and most influential lobbyists but in 2015, his money dried up and the next year he turned to Trump for help, offering to be his campaign chairman for free – in the hope of making more money afterwards. But Mueller unwound his previous finances and discovered years of tax and bank fraud as he coined in cash from pro-Russia political parties and oligarchs in Ukraine.

Manafort pleaded not guilty to 18 charges of tax and bank fraud but was convicted of eight counts in August 2018. The jury was deadlocked on the other 10 charges. A second trial on charges of failing to register as a foreign agent due in September did not happen when he pleaded guilty to conspiracy against the United States and witness tampering in a plea bargain. He was supposed to co-operate with Mueller but failed to. 

Minutes after his second sentencing hearing in March 2019, he was indicted on 16 counts of fraud and conspiracy by the Manhattan District Attorney Cyrus Vance Jr., using evidence which included documents previously presented at his first federal trial. The president has no pardon power over charges by district and state attorneys.

GUILTY: RICK GATES 

Pleaded guilty to conspiracy against the United States and making false statements in February 2018. Awaiting sentence

Gates, a Trump campaign official, was Manafort’s former deputy at political consulting firm DMP International. He admitted to conspiring to defraud the U.S. government on financial activity, and to lying to investigators about a meeting Manafort had with a member of congress in 2013. As a result of his guilty plea and promise of cooperation, prosecutors vacated charges against Gates on bank fraud, bank fraud conspiracy, failure to disclose foreign bank accounts, filing false tax returns, helping prepare false tax filings, and falsely amending tax returns.

GUILTY AND JAILED: GEORGE PAPADOPOLOUS

Pleaded guilty to making false statements in October 2017. Sentenced to 14 days in September 2018, and reported to prison in November. Served 12 days and released on December 7, 2018

 Papadopoulos was a member of Donald Trump’s campaign foreign policy advisory committee. He admitted to lying to special counsel investigators about his contacts with London professor Josef Mifsud and Ivan Timofeev, the director of a Russian government-funded think tank. 

He agreed to cooperate with the special counsel investigation but is now highly critical of it.  

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8025217/Roger-Stone-sentenced-three-years-judge-rebukes-Donald-Trump-tweeted-spoke.html

‘The American people cared. And I care.’ Top lines from Judge Amy Berman Jackson during the Roger Stone sentencing

The Roger Stone Sentencing Fiasco

Some Justice Department personnel handled it questionably, but Trump’s reaction was worse.

The first thing to grasp about the Roger Stone sentencing fiasco is that Stone, even accepting the worst plausible gloss on his crimes, is a 67-year-old nonviolent first offender. If the criminal-justice “reform” fad were authentic, and not a stratagem of social-justice warriors who have taken Washington’s surfeit of useful idiots for a ride, then we could all agree that the original seven-to-nine-year sentence advocated by prosecutors was too draconian — even if it was, as we shall see, a faithful application of the federal sentencing guidelines as written.

But no. Like criminal-justice “reform,” the Stone prosecution is more politics than law enforcement. It was the Mueller probe’s last gasp at pretending there might be something to the Russia-collusion narrative – notwithstanding that, when the “gee, it sure feels like there could be some collusion here” indictment was filed, over a year and a half after special counsel Robert Mueller was appointed, it had long been manifest that there was no Trump–Russia conspiracy.

So, the Left has a quandary here: Do they hate Trump more than they love sentencing “reform”? We could have predicted the decision to go with hating Trump, and thus fomenting outrage over DOJ’s retraction of its original sentencing recommendation of about nine years’ imprisonment, now slashed to a far more reasonable range of four years or less. To be fair, though, Trump critics could not have been expected to resist the combination of DOJ missteps and Trump Twitter taunts that mark Stone’s sentencing, the combination that has managed to turn Mueller’s maulers into media martyrs.

Some background: In a ridiculously overblown, overcharged prosecution, Mueller slammed the ineffable Stone with seven felony counts of obstructing Congress’s Russia investigation. One of these involved tampering with a witness, left-wing radio host Randy Credico (through whom Stone sought a communications channel with WikiLeaks honcho Julian Assange).

At a certain point, Credico let it be known that he intended to cooperate with investigators. A ballistic Stone, when not uttering lunatic references to Watergate and Frank Pentangeli (the Mafioso character goaded into suicide when a plot to take out the Don fails in Godfather II), warned the “stoolie” “rat” Credico to “prepare to die” and vowed to steal his pet dog. Even in context, these seem to be puerile ravings, not real threats. (Stone added that his lawyers were anxious to “rip [Credico] to shreds,” so any murder and dognapping was apparently going to await cross-examination.) And though Stone is patently guilty of witness tampering, Credico himself told the court that he did not take Stone’s threats seriously.

DOJ: We Overstepped By Keeping Tabs On Trump Campaign Adviser For Too Long

Stone being the sort of Einstein who commits his obstructions in writing (the Credico contacts were mostly text messages), the jury convicted him in nothing flat. That meant DOJ would give the court its take on how the sentencing guidelines applied to the case, as it does with every convicted defendant.

In Stone’s case, the guidelines worked a severe result. In tampering cases, a guidelines enhancement calls for a drastic increase in the sentence if the defendant threatened the witness with physical injury. This drove Stone’s “offense level” from 21 to 29 on the guidelines grid, so even though he is a first offender (offense history “Category I” in guidelines-speak), his recommended sentence zoomed to 90 to 108 months — instead of 37 to 46 months, as it would have been at offense level 21 (i.e., without the threats).

With Mueller’s shop closed down, the Stone prosecution was run out of the U.S. attorney’s office for the District of Columbia. But it was still being overseen by two Mueller staffers, Aaron S. J. Zelinsky (on loan from the U.S. attorney’s office in Maryland, where he had worked for Rod Rosenstein, who, as Trump’s deputy attorney general, later appointed Mueller), and Adam C. Jed (an appellate lawyer from the Obama Justice Department who first came to public attention in 2013, arguing that the ban on same-sex marriage was unconstitutional). Also assigned to the case were Jonathan Kravis, a former associate White House counsel to Obama, and Michael Mirando, an experienced assistant U.S. attorney in the D.C. office.

This team of prosecutors filed a sentencing memorandum on Monday, laying out the guidelines and advising Judge Amy Berman Jackson that they called for a prison sentence of about seven to nine years (i.e., the offense-level guidelines range of 90 to 108 months). Like the indictment itself, the memo is gross overkill.

As the Daily Caller’s Chuck Ross notes, the prosecutors tied Stone to “foreign election interference,” breathlessly framed as the “most deadly adversary of republican government,” even though he was never charged with any such crime — underscoring yet again that the deadliest adversary of republican government is actually domestic — viz., the politicized use of executive police powers. Far from offering any theory in mitigation of the 90-to-108-months range, the prosecutors pooh-poohed Credico’s perception that Stone’s threats were not serious, factitiously insisting that the guidelines enhancement is triggered by the threat, not whether the target is actually intimidated. Plus, prosecutors maintained, Stone’s crimes were exacerbated by his flouting of Judge Berman Jackson’s gag orders during the prosecution.

All that said, the prosecutors’ submission was an accurate (if extreme and unyielding) rendition of federal sentencing law. The enhancement that inflates Stone’s sentencing range does literally apply — even if he is not the kind of violent criminal that the guidelines commissioners had in mind when they wrote it. Prosecutors are not required to argue for clemency, though they should do so when the circumstances call for it. The Justice Department’s default position in criminal cases is that the guidelines should be applied as written, and that it is up to the court to decide whether to follow them.

While Stone awaited sentence, the prosecutors were supervised, at least nominally, by Jessie Liu, the U.S. attorney for D.C. I say “nominally” because the Trump Justice Department has always been leery about being seen as interfering in Mueller-based prosecutions. Moreover, the D.C. office was in transition while court submissions pertaining to Stone’s sentencing were being prepared.

In December 2019, President Trump announced his nomination of Liu to become the Treasury Department’s undersecretary overseeing financial sanctions on terrorists. Liu continued running the U.S. attorney’s office, albeit with one foot out the door, until the end of January. With her Treasury confirmation hearing scheduled for February 13 (i.e., tomorrow), Attorney General Bill Barr appointed one of his top advisers, Timothy Shea (a well-regarded longtime prosecutor, litigator, and Capitol Hill staffer), to become acting U.S. attorney for D.C. on January 30. That was eleven days before the Stone team filed its sentencing submission.

How much participation Shea had in the recommendation is unclear. The New York Times reports that both he and Deputy Attorney General Jeffrey A. Rosen opined that the seven-to-nine-year sentencing recommendation was too severe. Yet, it does not appear that they put their foot down and instructed the Stone prosecutors to ameliorate it before the government’s submission was filed on Monday.

As is his wont, the president went bonkers on Twitter upon learning of the recommendation, calling it “horrible and very unfair” and a major “miscarriage of justice” because “the real crimes are on the other side” — i.e., the Russia-probe investigators — yet “nothing happens to them.” While the Justice Department was obviously aware of the president’s tweet, as well as press reporting about the harshness of the prosecutors’ sentencing recommendation, the DOJ and the White House have had no communications about the case, according to both the president and a spokeswoman for the attorney general.

Nevertheless, the DOJ made it known that the sentencing memo would be rescinded and a new one filed. That announcement prompted the recusals of all four prosecutors, some of whom are quitting the DOJ entirely and some apparently just stepping aside from the Stone case.

Late Tuesday, the DOJ filed a revised sentencing memo, which does not recommend a specific sentence but strongly suggests that a term calculated without the eight-point enhancement — i.e., between 37 and 46 months’ imprisonment — would be just. The new memo concedes that the prosecutors’ calculation in the original memo was “arguably” correct, but contends that it would be unreasonable under the circumstances. On that score, the memo relies on (a) Credico’s dismissal of the threat (though it acknowledges that this is not dispositive); (b) the fact that a sentence driven by the guidelines enhancement would be wildly out of proportion with prison terms imposed in cases similar to Stone’s; (c) Stone’s being a first-offender with no organized-crime or gang connections and thus not typical f the offenders the enhancement is meant to cover; and (d) Stone’s advanced age and failing health.

This is an entirely reasonable recommendation, even if the process of arriving at it has been a train wreck.

The Justice Department correctly observes that the sentence to be imposed is entirely up to the court. The DOJ’s recommendations are non-binding and frequently ignored by judges. Judge Berman Jackson has been thoroughly informed about what the non-binding guidelines say, as well as the cases for and against applying the enhancement.

Furthermore, let’s imagine that, instead of orchestrating a fiasco, DOJ had efficiently managed any internal disputes (which are not uncommon) and had filed a single memo recommending a 37-to-46-month sentence — a memo that explained both the enhancement for threatening witnesses and why applying it would be unreasonable under the circumstances. Does anyone doubt that such a recommendation would nevertheless have been panned as excessive by the president?

For now, while Trump has taken to attacking both the resigning prosecutors and Judge Berman Jackson on Twitter, it appears that former U.S. attorney Liu is taking the fall. Within hours of the prosecutors’ trumpeting their departures in grand Sally Yates style, the White House announced that the president had pulled Liu’s appointment to the Treasury Department position — even though her confirmation hearing was just two days away, and Barr had lavished praise on her upon appointing Shea as her replacement.

Liu certainly had a tumultuous tenure. Besides the thankless task of inheriting the Mueller cases against Stone and former national-security adviser Michael Flynn (the implosion of which is a story for another day), her office foolishly pursued a threadbare Mueller-generated prosecution of Greg Craig for false statements based on lobbying for Ukraine. Craig, former White House counsel to President Obama, was speedily acquitted by a jury last year. Meanwhile, there was also a mini-revolt on the Senate Judiciary Committee a few months back when the president floated the idea of elevating Liu to the No. 3 leadership slot at the DOJ — though she was vigorously defended by AG Barr, and suspicions that she lacked conservative bona fides appear overwrought (the fact that Liu may be pro-choice hardly means she would not enforce laws regulating abortion; and a claim that, 15 years ago, she opposed Justice Samuel Alito’s appointment to the Supreme Court appears to be false).

I would not suggest that Liu and others at the DOJ distinguished themselves in the Stone sentencing debacle. But at this point, the main fault lies with the president.

Yes, the Mueller probe was specious. But for his connection to Trump, Stone would never have been pursued in a collusion fever dream that Mueller’s prosecutors knew was bogus when they charged him. Yet his crimes, while exaggerated, were real. He was convicted by a jury and, under federal law, that presumptively warrants incarceration, though he could be spared by the judge (whom the president has picked a strange time to antagonize). If the president thinks that Stone and Flynn (among others) have been given a raw deal, the Constitution empowers him to pardon them, or at least commute their sentences.

If President Trump is afraid, in an election year, to take the political hit that a pardon for Stone would entail, that is understandable. But then he should bite his tongue and click out of Twitter. The Justice Department’s job is to process cases, including Mueller cases, pursuant to law. If the president wants to make those cases disappear, he has to do it himself and be accountable. His provocative running commentary only ensures that the DOJ will be accused of kowtowing to him. It also guarantees that, if the ongoing criminal probe of the Russiagate investigation eventually yields any indictments, they will be assailed as political persecutions rather than good-faith law enforcement.

 

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Worrying about coronavirus? This other virus is the real threat.

Worrying about coronavirus? This other virus is the real threat.

There’s a deadly virus spreading from state to state. It preys on the most vulnerable, striking the sick and the old without mercy. In just the last few months, it has claimed the lives of at least 39 children.

The virus is influenza, and it poses a far greater threat to Americans than the coronavirus from China that has made headlines around the world.

“When we think about the relative danger of this new coronavirus and influenza, there’s just no comparison,” said William Schaffner, a professor of preventive medicine and health policy at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. “Coronavirus will be a blip on the horizon in comparison. The risk is trivial.”

To be sure, the coronavirus outbreak, which originated last month in the Chinese city of Wuhan, should be taken seriously. The virus can cause pneumonia and is blamed for more than 7,000 illnesses and more than 170 deaths.

The World Health Organization on Thursday declared the outbreak a global emergency requiring a coordinated international response after the number of cases spiked sharply over the last few days. But officials warn much remains unknown.

In the United States, at least six cases of the virus have been reported, including the first case of person-to-person infection. Public health workers are monitoring dozens of additional patients.

And yet, Americans aren’t particularly concerned.

Fewer than half of adults got a flu shot last season, according to the CDC. Even among children, who can be especially vulnerable to respiratory illnesses, only 62% received the vaccine.

If Americans aren’t afraid of the flu, perhaps that’s because they are inured to yearly warnings. For them, the flu is old news. Yet viruses named after foreign places — such as Ebola, Zika, and Wuhan — inspire terror.

“Familiarity breeds indifference,” Schaffner said. “Because it’s new, it’s mysterious, and comes from an exotic place, the coronavirus creates anxiety.”

Some doctors joke that the flu needs to be rebranded.

“We should rename influenza; call it XZ-47 virus or something scarier,” said Paul Offit, director of the Vaccine Education Center at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

 

Measles in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has killed 5,000 people in the last year — more than twice as many as Ebola. Yet UNICEF officials have noted that the measles, which many Americans no longer fear, has gotten little attention. Nearly all the measles victims were children under 5.

Because the Wuhan virus is new, humans have no antibodies against it. Doctors haven’t had time to develop treatments or vaccines.

The big question, so far unknown, is just how easily the virus is transmitted from an infected person to others. Officials warn much remains unknown, but each patient with the new coronavirus appears to be infecting about two other people.

By comparison, patients with SARS, or severe acute respiratory syndrome, spread the infection to an average of two to four others. Each patient with measles — one of the most contagious viruses known to science — infects 12 to 18 unvaccinated people.

Health officials worry that the new coronavirus could resemble SARS — which appeared suddenly in China in 2002 and spread to 26 countries, sickening 8,000 people and killing 774, according to the WHO.The U.S. dodged a bullet with SARS, Schaffner said. Only eight Americans became infected and none died, according to the CDC. Yet SARS caused a global panic, leading people to shutter hotels, cancel flights, and close businesses.

Coronaviruses can be unpredictable, said Michael Osterholm, director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota. While some patients never infect anyone else, people who are “super-spreaders” can infect dozens of others.

At Seoul, South Korea’s Samsung Medical Center in 2015, a single emergency-room patient infected 82 people —patients, visitors, and staff — with a coronavirus called MERS, or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. The hospital partly shut down to control the virus.

“This is one of the finest medical centers in the world, on par with the Cleveland Clinic, and they were brought to their knees,” Osterholm said.

Yet MERS has never posed much of a threat to the United States.

Only two patients in this country — health-care providers who had worked in Saudi Arabia — have ever tested positive for the virus, according to the CDC. Both patients survived.

Hotez, who is working to develop vaccines against neglected diseases, said he worries about unvaccinated children. Most kids who die from the flu haven’t been immunized against it, he said. And many were previously healthy.

“If you’re worried about your health, get your flu vaccination,” Hotez said. “It’s not too late.”

https://www.inquirer.com/health/coronavirus-infection-death-risk-influenza-20200129.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deadly coronavirus ‘kills 15 PER CENT of patients over 80’ and the never-before-seen strain is ‘up to 20 TIMES more infectious than SARS’

  • Chinese health officials carried out the biggest ever study on the coronavirus
  • Results showed SARS-CoV-2 virus posed the greatest threat to older patients 
  • It is also dangerous for those with underlying conditions, such as heart disease
  • More than 73,000 cases have been recorded, with up to 99% of them in China 
  • Do you have a study about coronavirus? Email sam.blanchard@mailonline.co.uk 

The deadly coronavirus rapidly sweeping the world kills up to 15 per cent of patients over the age of 80, scientists have revealed.

Chinese health officials carried out the biggest ever study on the never-before-seen strain of the virus, using data from 72,000 cases.

Results showed the SARS-CoV-2 virus posed the greatest threat to older patients and those with underlying conditions, such as cancer and heart disease.

Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention researchers also found 80.9 per cent of infections are mild. Less than five per cent are critical.

More than 73,000 cases have been recorded worldwide, with 99 per cent in China. Almost 1,900 patients have already died.

Residents walk through a disinfection channel set up as a protective measure against the coronavirus at the entrance to their compound in Tongzhou, east of Beijing

Residents walk through a disinfection channel set up as a protective measure against the coronavirus at the entrance to their compound in Tongzhou, east of Beijing

A child wearing a face mask plays near a slide at a commercial and residential complex in a residential complex in Beijing

A child wearing a face mask plays near a slide at a commercial and residential complex in a residential complex in Beijing

A police officer wearing a face mask patrols in front of the Sunwill factory in Foshan, China

A medical worker takes a swab for testing from a Chinese paramilitary police officer in Shenzhen, Guangdong province

 

A medical worker takes a swab for testing from a Chinese paramilitary police officer in Shenzhen, Guangdong province

Cases of a mysterious pneumonia-causing virus first emerged in the now-deserted Chinese city of Wuhan late last year.

Researchers blamed a seafood market in Hubei city that illegally sold wild animals for being the source of the virus.

The virus has no known cure and most patients who are struck down recover within a couple of weeks without needing medical treatment.

Those who develop more serious infections in their lungs, such as pneumonia, need expert medical care to stop their illness turning deadly.

They looked at 72,314 confirmed, suspected, clinically diagnosed, and asymptomatic cases of COVID-19 illness across China as of February 11.

COVID-19 is the name of the disease caused by the virus, which has effectively been named as SARS-2 by the World Health Organization.

Results showed the overall case-fatality ratio – the percentage of patients who die – was just 2.3 per cent.

Ninety-nine per cent of cases have been in China, where tens of millions of residents are in lockdown to contain the escalating crisis. The COVID-19 virus has killed at least 1,873 people

And more than 73,000 patients have been struck down with the deadly SARS-CoV-2 infection, including nearly 1,000 outside of China

And more than 73,000 patients have been struck down with the deadly SARS-CoV-2 infection, including nearly 1,000 outside of China

Almost 1,900 people have now died from the killer coronavirus rapidly sweeping the world

Almost 1,900 people have now died from the killer coronavirus rapidly sweeping the world

In comparison, SARS – which only infected a fraction of patients during the 2002/03 epidemic – killed around 10 per cent.

While the death rate for MERS, another type of coronavirus that was first reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012, is even higher (34 per cent).

One of the world’s deadliest diseases, Ebola, kills around half of all patients it strikes. Ebola is not caused by any type of coronavirus.

When data for the SARS-CoV-2 infection was broken down, researchers found over-80s had the highest fatality ratio at 14.8 per cent.

The likelihood of death was just eight per cent of patients aged between 70 and 79, and 3.6 per cent for those in their sixties.

The case-fatality ratio was less than 1.5 per cent for patients in their fifties, and less than 0.5 per cent for everyone else – meaning roughly one in 200 will die.

There were no deaths among children aged up to nine, despite at least two cases of newborn babies infected through their mothers.

In contrast, the death rate for flu is around 0.1 per cent, according to the US Centres for Disease Control (CDC).

Older adults have weaker immune systems, meaning it is harder for the body to fight off a virus such as SARS-CoV-2 or flu.

Patients with heart disease were most likely to die from the virus, followed by those with diabetes, chronic respiratory disease and hypertension.

CCDC academics also found 80.9 percent of infections were classified as mild, 13.8 percent as severe and only 4.7 percent as critical.

And men are more likely to die (2.8 per cent) than women (1.7 per cent). But experts have yet to work out why men are more vulnerable.

Nearly 86 percent of those who have contracted the illness either lived in or travelled to Wuhan.

British cruise ship passenger David Abel and his wife Sally (pictured in their cabin on the Diamond Princess) have tested positive for coronavirus in Japan

David Abel believes he is going to test negative for coronavirus

Steve Abel (pictured today) said his parents David and Sally Abel were 'not getting any communication' from Whitehall and were 'feeling very unloved'

The Diamond Princess (pictured today) remains in lockdown and hundreds face a longer spell in quarantine even after the official incubation period ends tomorrow

American passenger details life on Diamond Princess ahead of evacuation

SON OF BRIT COUPLE WITH CORONAVIRUS ON CRUISE SHIP BEGS GOVERNMENT TO RESCUE THEM

The son of a British couple who caught coronavirus on a cruise ship in Japan has today savaged the government’s ‘appalling’ handling of the case.

Steve Abel said his parents David and Sally were ‘not getting any communication’ from Whitehall and were ‘feeling very unloved’ despite repeated pleas for help.

The British couple were among 88 people who tested positive for the virus in Japan today, taking the number of infections on board the ship to 542.

They are now being taken into a further quarantine on the mainland just a day before their stay on board the Diamond Princess was due to end.

The Abels will also be unable to join an evacuation flight which the British embassy is preparing today amid growing pressure after the US evacuated 340 of its citizens.

And 3,019 health workers have been diagnosed and five had died as of February 11, the report said.

The epidemic, which has seen cases in almost 30 countries, reached its ‘first peak’ between January 24 and 26, the report said.

It suggests there is has been a ‘downward trend’ in the overall epidemic curve since February 11 – meaning the spread of the disease was slowing.

A separate group of scientists published their findings about the virus on bioRxiv – an archive of papers before they have been peer-reviewed.

Scientists at the University of Texas at Austin found SARS-CoV-2 was 20 times more likely to bind to human cells than its original predecessor.

South China Morning Post reports the team said the virus shares the same host-cell receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), with SARS.

The researchers wrote: ‘Compared with SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV appears to be more readily transmitted from human to human.

‘The high affinity of 2019-nCoV for human ACE2 may contribute to the apparent ease with which 2019-nCoV can spread from human to human.’

WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE DEADLY CORONAVIRUS IN CHINA?

Someone who is infected with the coronavirus can spread it with just a simple cough or a sneeze, scientists say.

Over 2,000 people with the virus are now confirmed to have died and more than 75,000 have been infected. But experts predict the true number of people with the disease could be as high as 350,000 in Wuhan alone, as they warn it may kill as many as two in 100 cases.  Here’s what we know so far:

What is the coronavirus?

A coronavirus is a type of virus which can cause illness in animals and people. Viruses break into cells inside their host and use them to reproduce itself and disrupt the body’s normal functions. Coronaviruses are named after the Latin word ‘corona’, which means crown, because they are encased by a spiked shell which resembles a royal crown.

The coronavirus from Wuhan is one which has never been seen before this outbreak. It has been named SARS-CoV-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The name stands for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2.

Experts say the bug, which has killed around one in 50 patients since the outbreak began in December, is a ‘sister’ of the SARS illness which hit China in 2002, so has been named after it.

The disease that the virus causes has been named COVID-19, which stands for coronavirus disease 2019. The virus itself is called SARS-CoV-2.

Dr Helena Maier, from the Pirbright Institute, said: ‘Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that infect a wide range of different species including humans, cattle, pigs, chickens, dogs, cats and wild animals.

‘Until this new coronavirus was identified, there were only six different coronaviruses known to infect humans. Four of these cause a mild common cold-type illness, but since 2002 there has been the emergence of two new coronaviruses that can infect humans and result in more severe disease (Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses).

‘Coronaviruses are known to be able to occasionally jump from one species to another and that is what happened in the case of SARS, MERS and the new coronavirus. The animal origin of the new coronavirus is not yet known.’

The first human cases were publicly reported from the Chinese city of Wuhan, where approximately 11million people live, after medics first started publicly reporting infections on December 31.

By January 8, 59 suspected cases had been reported and seven people were in critical condition. Tests were developed for the new virus and recorded cases started to surge.

The first person died that week and, by January 16, two were dead and 41 cases were confirmed. The next day, scientists predicted that 1,700 people had become infected, possibly up to 7,000.

Just a week after that, there had been more than 800 confirmed cases and those same scientists estimated that some 4,000 – possibly 9,700 – were infected in Wuhan alone. By that point, 26 people had died. 

By January 27, more than 2,800 people were confirmed to have been infected, 81 had died, and estimates of the total number of cases ranged from 100,000 to 350,000 in Wuhan alone.

By January 29, the number of deaths had risen to 132 and cases were in excess of 6,000.  

By February 5, there were more than 24,000 cases and 492 deaths.

By February 11, this had risen to more than 43,000 cases and 1,000 deaths. 

A change in the way cases are confirmed on February 13 – doctors decided to start using lung scans as a formal diagnosis, as well as laboratory tests – caused a spike in the number of cases, to more than 60,000 and to 1,369 deaths. 

Where does the virus come from?

According to scientists, the virus has almost certainly come from bats. Coronaviruses in general tend to originate in animals – the similar SARS and MERS viruses are believed to have originated in civet cats and camels, respectively.

The first cases of COVID-19 came from people visiting or working in a live animal market in the city, which has since been closed down for investigation.

Although the market is officially a seafood market, other dead and living animals were being sold there, including wolf cubs, salamanders, snakes, peacocks, porcupines and camel meat.

A study by the Wuhan Institute of Virology, published in February 2020 in the scientific journal Nature, found that the genetic make-up virus samples found in patients in China is 96 per cent similar to a coronavirus they found in bats.

However, there were not many bats at the market so scientists say it was likely there was an animal which acted as a middle-man, contracting it from a bat before then transmitting it to a human. It has not yet been confirmed what type of animal this was.

Dr Michael Skinner, a virologist at Imperial College London, was not involved with the research but said: ‘The discovery definitely places the origin of nCoV in bats in China.

‘We still do not know whether another species served as an intermediate host to amplify the virus, and possibly even to bring it to the market, nor what species that host might have been.’

So far the fatalities are quite low. Why are health experts so worried about it? 

Experts say the international community is concerned about the virus because so little is known about it and it appears to be spreading quickly.

It is similar to SARS, which infected 8,000 people and killed nearly 800 in an outbreak in Asia in 2003, in that it is a type of coronavirus which infects humans’ lungs.

Another reason for concern is that nobody has any immunity to the virus because they’ve never encountered it before. This means it may be able to cause more damage than viruses we come across often, like the flu or common cold.

Speaking at a briefing in January, Oxford University professor, Dr Peter Horby, said: ‘Novel viruses can spread much faster through the population than viruses which circulate all the time because we have no immunity to them.

‘Most seasonal flu viruses have a case fatality rate of less than one in 1,000 people. Here we’re talking about a virus where we don’t understand fully the severity spectrum but it’s possible the case fatality rate could be as high as two per cent.’

If the death rate is truly two per cent, that means two out of every 100 patients who get it will die.

‘My feeling is it’s lower,’ Dr Horby added. ‘We’re probably missing this iceberg of milder cases. But that’s the current circumstance we’re in.

‘Two per cent case fatality rate is comparable to the Spanish Flu pandemic in 1918 so it is a significant concern globally.’

How does the virus spread?

The illness can spread between people just through coughs and sneezes, making it an extremely contagious infection. And it may also spread even before someone has symptoms.

It is believed to travel in the saliva and even through water in the eyes, therefore close contact, kissing, and sharing cutlery or utensils are all risky.

Originally, people were thought to be catching it from a live animal market in Wuhan city. But cases soon began to emerge in people who had never been there, which forced medics to realise it was spreading from person to person.

There is now evidence that it can spread third hand – to someone from a person who caught it from another person.

What does the virus do to you? What are the symptoms?

Once someone has caught the COVID-19 virus it may take between two and 14 days, or even longer, for them to show any symptoms – but they may still be contagious during this time.

If and when they do become ill, typical signs include a runny nose, a cough, sore throat and a fever (high temperature). The vast majority of patients – at least 97 per cent, based on available data – will recover from these without any issues or medical help.

In a small group of patients, who seem mainly to be the elderly or those with long-term illnesses, it can lead to pneumonia. Pneumonia is an infection in which the insides of the lungs swell up and fill with fluid. It makes it increasingly difficult to breathe and, if left untreated, can be fatal and suffocate people. 

What have genetic tests revealed about the virus? 

Scientists in China have recorded the genetic sequences of around 19 strains of the virus and released them to experts working around the world.

This allows others to study them, develop tests and potentially look into treating the illness they cause.

Examinations have revealed the coronavirus did not change much – changing is known as mutating – much during the early stages of its spread.

However, the director-general of China’s Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Gao Fu, said the virus was mutating and adapting as it spread through people.

This means efforts to study the virus and to potentially control it may be made extra difficult because the virus might look different every time scientists analyse it.

More study may be able to reveal whether the virus first infected a small number of people then change and spread from them, or whether there were various versions of the virus coming from animals which have developed separately.

How dangerous is the virus?  

The virus has a death rate of around two per cent. This is a similar death rate to the Spanish Flu outbreak which, in 1918, went on to kill around 50million people.

However, experts say the true number of patients is likely considerably higher and therefore the death rate considerably lower. Imperial College London researchers estimate that there were 4,000 (up to 9,700) cases in Wuhan city alone up to January 18 – officially there were only 444 there to that date. If cases are in fact 100 times more common than the official figures, the virus may be far less dangerous than currently believed, but also far more widespread.

Experts say it is likely only the most seriously ill patients are seeking help and are therefore recorded – the vast majority will have only mild, cold-like symptoms. For those whose conditions do become more severe, there is a risk of developing pneumonia which can destroy the lungs and kill you.

Can the virus be cured?

The COVID-19 virus cannot currently be cured and it is proving difficult to contain.

Antibiotics do not work against viruses, so they are out of the question. Antiviral drugs can work, but the process of understanding a virus then developing and producing drugs to treat it would take years and huge amounts of money.

No vaccine exists for the coronavirus yet and it’s not likely one will be developed in time to be of any use in this outbreak, for similar reasons to the above.

The National Institutes of Health in the US, and Baylor University in Waco, Texas, say they are working on a vaccine based on what they know about coronaviruses in general, using information from the SARS outbreak. But this may take a year or more to develop, according to Pharmaceutical Technology.

Currently, governments and health authorities are working to contain the virus and to care for patients who are sick and stop them infecting other people.

People who catch the illness are being quarantined in hospitals, where their symptoms can be treated and they will be away from the uninfected public.

And airports around the world are putting in place screening measures such as having doctors on-site, taking people’s temperatures to check for fevers and using thermal screening to spot those who might be ill (infection causes a raised temperature).

However, it can take weeks for symptoms to appear, so there is only a small likelihood that patients will be spotted up in an airport.

Is this outbreak an epidemic or a pandemic?

The outbreak is an epidemic, which is when a disease takes hold of one community such as a country or region.

Although it has spread to dozens of countries, the outbreak is not yet classed as a pandemic, which is defined by the World Health Organization as the ‘worldwide spread of a new disease’.

The head of WHO’s global infectious hazard preparedness, Dr Sylvie Briand, said: ‘Currently we are not in a pandemic. We are at the phase where it is an epidemic with multiple foci, and we try to extinguish the transmission in each of these foci,’ the Guardian reported.

She said that most cases outside of Hubei had been ‘spillover’ from the epicentre, so the disease wasn’t actually spreading actively around the world.

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-8015951/Most-coronavirus-infections-mild-says-Chinese-study.html

 

Virus cases balloon in S. Korea as outbreak shifts, spreads

 Schools were shuttered, churches told worshipers to stay away and some mass gatherings were banned as cases of a new virus swelled Friday in South Korea, the newest front in a widening global outbreak.

The country said two people have died and 204 have been infected with the virus, quadruple the number of cases it had two days earlier, as a crisis centered in China has begun strongly reverberating elsewhere.

The multiplying caseload in South Korea showed the ease with which the illness can spread. Though initial infections were linked to China, new ones have not involved international travel.

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The Pronk Pops Show 1225, March 19, 2019, Story 1: Send in The Clowns — Theme Song of Radical Extremist Democrat Socialists Running For President in 2020 or Lying Lunatic Leftist Losers — There Already Here — Maybe Next Year –Videos

Posted on March 20, 2019. Filed under: 2020 Democrat Candidates, 2020 President Candidates, 2020 Republican Candidates, Addiction, American History, Amy Klobuchar, Bernie Sander, Blogroll, Breaking News, College, Communications, Congress, Constitutional Law, Corey Booker, Corruption, Countries, Culture, Deep State, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Donald Trump, Eating, Education, Elizabeth Warren, Empires, Environment, Eugenics, European History, Federal Government, Food, Free Trade, Freedom of Speech, Government, Government Spending, Hate Speech, Health, History, House of Representatives, Human, Human Behavior, Illegal Immigration, Immigration, Independence, Investments, Kamala Harris, Kirsten Gillibrand, Law, Life, Lying, Media, Movies, Music, Networking, News, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, Privacy, Radio, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Senate, United States of America, Videos, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

 

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Story 1: Send in The Clowns — Theme Song of Radical Extremist Democrat Socialists (REDS with Red Old Deal aka Green New Deal –Running For President in 2020 or Lying Lunatic Leftist Losers — There Already Here — Maybe Next Year –Videos

Judy Collins Send in the Clowns

Send in the Clowns

Isn’t it rich?
Are we a pair?
Me here at last on the ground,
You in mid-air,
Where are the clowns?
Isn’t it bliss?
Don’t you approve?
One who keeps tearing around,
One who can’t move,
Where are the clowns?
There ought to be clowns?
Just when I’d stopped opening doors,
Finally knowing the one that I wanted was yours
Making my entrance again with my usual flair
Sure of my lines
No one is there
Don’t you love farce?
My fault, I fear
I thought that you’d want what I want
Sorry, my dear!
But where are the clowns
Send in the clowns
Don’t bother, they’re here
Isn’t it rich?
Isn’t it queer?
Losing my timing this late in my career
But where are the clowns?
There ought to be clowns
Well, maybe next year
Songwriters: Stephen Sondheim
Send in the Clowns lyrics © Warner/Chappell Music, Inc

Alysia – Send in the clowns (with movie)

Dame Judi Dench sings “Send in the Clowns” – BBC Proms 2010

Send in the Clowns

Jerry Lewis – Send In The Clowns Skit With Donny & Marie Osmond

Thelma & Louise” – Ending Scene HD

Critics mock Ocasio-Cortez’s Green New Deal rollout

Judy Collins

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Judy Collins
Judy Collins by Bryan Ledgard 2 (cropped).jpg

Collins at the Cambridge Folk Festival, 2008
Background information
Birth name Judith Marjorie Collins
Born May 1, 1939 (age 79)
Seattle, Washington, U.S.
Origin DenverColorado, U.S.
Genres
Occupation(s)
  • Singer
  • songwriter
  • musician
  • actress
Instruments
Years active 1959–present
Labels
Associated acts
Website judycollins.com

Collins during a 1963 appearance on Hootenanny

Judith Marjorie Collins (born May 1, 1939) is an American singer and songwriter known for her eclectic tastes in the material she records (which has included folk musicshow tunespop musicrock and roll and standards) and for her social activism.

Collins’ debut album A Maid of Constant Sorrow was released in 1961, but it was the lead single from her 1967 album Wildflowers, “Both Sides, Now” — written by Joni Mitchell — that gave Collins international prominence. The single hit the Top 10 on the Billboard Pop Singles chart[2] and won Collins her first Grammy Award for Best Folk Performance.[3] She enjoyed further success with her recordings of “Someday Soon“, “Chelsea Morning“, “Amazing Grace“, and “Cook with Honey”.

Collins experienced the biggest success of her career with her recording of Stephen Sondheim‘s “Send in the Clowns” from her best-selling 1975 album Judith. The single charted on the Billboard Pop Singles chart in 1975 and then again in 1977, spending 27 non-consecutive weeks on the chart and earning Collins a Grammy Award nomination for Best Pop Vocal Performance, Female, as well as a Grammy Award for Sondheim for Song of the Year.

 

Musical career

Collins was born the eldest of five siblings in Seattle, Washington, where she spent the first ten years of her life. Her father, a blind singer, pianist and radio show host, took a job in Denver, Colorado, in 1949, and the family moved there. Collins studied classical piano with Antonia Brico, making her public debut at age 13, performing Mozart’s Concerto for Two Pianos. Brico took a dim view, both then and later, of Collins’ developing interest in folk music, which led her to the difficult decision to discontinue her piano lessons. Years later, after she became known internationally, she invited Brico to one of her concerts in Denver. When they met after the performance, Brico took both of Collins’ hands into hers, looked wistfully at her fingers and said, “Little Judy—you really could have gone places.” Still later, Collins discovered that Brico herself had made a living when she was younger playing jazz and ragtime piano (Singing Lessons, pp. 71–72). In her early life, Collins had the good fortune of meeting many professional musicians through her father.[4]

It was the music of Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger and the traditional songs of the folk revival of the early 1960s, however, that kindled Collins’ interest and awoke in her a love of lyrics. Three years after her debut as a piano prodigy, she was playing guitar. Her first public appearances as a folk artist after her graduation from Denver’s East High School were at Michael’s Pub in Boulder, Colorado, and the folk club Exodus in Denver. Her music became popular at the University of Connecticut, where her husband taught. She performed at parties and for the campus radio station along with David Grisman and Tom Azarian.[5] She eventually made her way to Greenwich Village, New York City, where she played in clubs like Gerde’s Folk City until she signed with Elektra Records, a label she was associated with for 35 years. In 1961, Collins released her first album, A Maid of Constant Sorrow, at age 22.[6]

At first she sang traditional folk songs or songs written by others – in particular the protest songwriters of the time, such as Tom PaxtonPhil Ochs, and Bob Dylan. She recorded her own versions of important songs from the period, such as Dylan’s “Mr. Tambourine Man” and Pete Seeger‘s “Turn, Turn, Turn“. Collins was also instrumental in bringing little-known musicians to a wider public. For example, she recorded songs by Canadian poet Leonard Cohen, who became a close friend over the years. She also recorded songs by singer-songwriters such as Eric AndersenFred NeilIan TysonJoni MitchellRandy NewmanRobin Williamson and Richard Fariña long before they gained national acclaim.[7][8]

While Collins’ first few albums consisted of straightforward guitar-based folk songs, with 1966’s In My Life, she began branching out and including work from such diverse sources as the BeatlesLeonard CohenJacques Brel, and Kurt Weill.[8] Mark Abramson produced and Joshua Rifkin arranged the album, adding lush orchestration to many of the numbers. The album was a major departure for a folk artist and set the course for Collins’ subsequent work over the next decade.[9]

With her 1967 album Wildflowers, also produced by Abramson and arranged by Rifkin, Collins began to record her own compositions, beginning with “Since You’ve Asked”. The album also provided Collins with a major hit and a Grammy award in Mitchell’s “Both Sides, Now“, which reached Number 8 on the Billboard Hot 100.[10] Two songs (“Who Knows Where The Time Goes” and “Albatross”) were featured in the 1968 film “The Subject Was Roses“).

Collins performing on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, 1968

Collins’ 1968 album Who Knows Where the Time Goes was produced by David Anderle, and featured back-up guitar by Stephen Stills (of Crosby, Stills & Nash), with whom she was romantically involved at the time. (She was the inspiration for Stills’s CSN classic “Suite: Judy Blue Eyes“.) Time Goes had a mellow country sound and included Ian Tyson‘s “Someday Soon” and the title track, written by the UK singer-songwriter Sandy Denny. The album also featured Collins’ composition “My Father” and one of the first covers of Leonard Cohen’s “Bird on the Wire“.[11]

By the 1970s Collins had a solid reputation as an art song singer and folksinger and had begun to stand out for her own compositions. She was also known for her broad range of material: her songs from this period include the traditional Christian hymn “Amazing Grace“, the Stephen Sondheim Broadway ballad “Send in the Clowns” (both of which were top 20 hits as singles), a recording of Joan Baez‘s “A Song for David“, and her own compositions, such as “Born to the Breed”.[12]

Collins guest starred on The Muppet Show in an episode broadcast in January 1978,[13] singing “Leather-Winged Bat”, “I Know An Old Lady who Swallowed a Fly”, “Do Re Mi”, and “Send in the Clowns”. She also appeared several times on Sesame Street, where she performed “Fishermen’s Song” with a chorus of Anything Muppet fishermen, sang a trio with Biff and Sully using the word “yes”, and even starred in a modern musical fairy tale skit called “The Sad Princess”.[14] She sang the music for the 1983 animated special The Magic of Herself the Elf, as well as the theme song of the Rankin-Bass TV movie The Wind in the Willows.[15] Collins’ 1979 album Hard Times for Lovers gained some extra publicity with the cover sleeve photograph of Collins in the nude.

In 1990, Collins released the album Fires of Eden under Columbia Records. The album spawned one single – “Fires of Eden”, written by Kit Hain and Mark Goldenberg. The single peaked at #31 on Billboard‘s Adult Contemporary chart. At the time of its release, Collins performed the song live on several occasions, including on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and The Joan Rivers Show. A music video promoting the song and featuring Collins was also released.[16]Later, Cher recorded “Fires of Eden” for her 1991 album Love Hurts. Other memorable songs from Collins’ Fires of Eden include “The Blizzard”, “Home Before Dark” and a cover of The Hollies song – “The Air That I Breathe“.

Collins at a book signing in 1995

Collins first memoir, Trust Your Heart, was published in 1987 and a novel, Shameless, followed in 1995. A second memoir, Sanity and Grace (2003), recounts the death of her son Clark in January 1992. With help from her manager Katherine DePaul she founded Wildflower Records. Though her record sales are not what they once were, she still records and tours in the U.S., Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. She performed at President Bill Clinton‘s first inauguration in 1993, singing “Amazing Grace” and “Chelsea Morning“. (The Clintons have stated that they named their daughter, Chelsea, after Collins’ recording of the song.) In 2006, she sang “This Little Light of Mine” in a commercial for Eliot Spitzer.[17]

Various artists including Shawn ColvinRufus Wainwright and Chrissie Hynde covered her compositions for the tribute album Born to the Breed in 2008.[18] In the same year, Collins released her own covers collection of Beatles songs, and she received an honorary doctorate from Pratt Institute on May 18. In 2010, Collins sang “The Weight of the World” at the Newport Folk Festival, a song by Amy Speace.[19]

Collins joined the judging panel for The 7th, 9th, 10th,[20][21] 11th,[22] 12th, 13th and 14th Annual Independent Music Awards, and in doing so, greatly assisted independent musicians’ careers.

In July 2012, Collins appeared as a guest artist on the Australian SBS television programme RocKwiz.[23]

Activism

Like many other folk singers of her generation, Collins was drawn to social activism. Her political idealism also led her to compose a ballad entitled “Che” in honor of the 1960s Marxist icon Che Guevara.[24]

Collins sympathized with the Yippie movement and was friendly with its leaders, Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin. On March 17, 1968, she attended Hoffman’s press conference at the Americana Hotel in New York to announce the party’s formation. In 1969, she testified in Chicago in support of the Chicago Seven; during her testimony, she began singing Pete Seeger’s “Where Have All the Flowers Gone?” and was admonished by prosecutor Tom Foran and judge Julius Hoffman.[25]

Collins wrote the anti-gun song “Shoot First” which she released in 1984.[26]

In the late 1990s, she was a representative for UNICEF and campaigns on behalf of the abolition of landmines.[27]

Later songs include “River of Gold” about the environment and “My Name Is Maria” about dreamers.[28]

Personal life

Collins contracted polio at the age of eleven and spent two months in isolation in a hospital.[29]

Collins has been married twice. Her first marriage in 1958 to Peter Taylor produced her only child, Clark C. Taylor, born the same year. The marriage ended in divorce in 1965.[30]

In 1962, shortly after her debut at Carnegie Hall, Collins was diagnosed with tuberculosis and spent six months recuperating in a sanatorium.[31]

Collins is the subject of the Stephen Stills composition “Suite: Judy Blue Eyes“, which appeared on the 1969 eponymous debut album of Crosby, Stills & Nash.

Collins later admitted having suffered from bulimia after she quit smoking in the 1970s. “I went straight from the cigarettes into an eating disorder“, she told People magazine in 1992. “I started throwing up. I didn’t know anything about bulimia, certainly not that it is an addiction or that it would get worse. My feelings about myself, even though I had been able to give up smoking and lose 20 lbs., were of increasing despair.” She has written at length of her years of addiction to alcohol, the damage it did to her personal and musical life and how it contributed to her feelings of depression.[32] Collins admits that although she tried other drugs in the 1960s, alcohol had always been her drug of first choice, just as it had been for her father. She entered a rehabilitation program in Pennsylvania in 1978 and has maintained her sobriety ever since, even through such traumatic events as the death of her only child, Clark, who committed suicide in 1992 at age 33 after a long bout with clinical depression and substance abuse. Since his death, she has also become an activist for suicide prevention.[33]

In April 1996, she married designer Louis Nelson, whom she had been seeing since April 1978. They live in Manhattan in New York City.[34]

Awards and recognition

Collins has received four Grammy Award nominations for Best Folk Performance or Folk Recording, one for Best Folk Album and one for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance.

Stephen Sondheim won the 1976 Grammy Award for Song of the Year based on the popularity of Collins’ performance of “Send In The Clowns” on her album Judith. (The song was named “Song of the Year”.[41])

Other awards

Discography

Charted singles

Year Song US US AC AUS Album
1967 “Hard Lovin’ Loser” 97 In My Life
1968 Both Sides, Now 8 3 37 Wildflowers
1969 Someday Soon 55 37 Who Knows Where the Time Goes
Chelsea Morning 78 25 (single only)
Turn! Turn! Turn!/To Everything There Is A Season 69 28 Recollections
1970 “Amazing Grace” 15 5 10 Whales & Nightingales
1971 “Open The Door (Song For Judith)” 90 23 Living
1973 “Cook With Honey” 32 10 True Stories and Other Dreams
“Secret Gardens” 122 True Stories and Other Dreams
1975 “Send in the Clowns” 36 8 13 Judith
1977 “Send in the Clowns” (re-release) 19 15 Judith
1979 “Hard Times For Lovers” 66 16 Hard Times for Lovers
1984 “Home Again” (duet with T. G. Sheppard) 42 Home Again
1990 “Fires of Eden” 31 Fires of Eden

Filmography

  • Baby’s Bedtime (1992)
  • Baby’s Morningtime (1992)
  • Junior (1994), as the operator of a spa for pregnant women
  • Christmas at the Biltmore Estate (1998)
  • A Town Has Turned to Dust (1998; a telefilm based on a Rod Serling science-fiction story)
  • The Best of Judy Collins (1999)
  • Intimate Portrait: Judy Collins (2000)
  • Judy Collins Live at Wolf Trap (2003)
  • Wildflower Festival (2003) (DVD with guest artists Eric AndersenArlo Guthrie, and Tom Rush)
  • Girls (TV, 2013), series 2, episode 8: “It’s Back”
  • Danny Says (2016)

Bibliography

  • Trust Your Heart (1987)
  • Amazing Grace (1991)
  • Shameless (1995)
  • Singing Lessons (1998)
  • Sanity and Grace: A Journey of Suicide, Survival and Strength (2003)
  • The Seven T’s: Finding Hope and Healing in the Wake of Tragedy (2007)
  • Sweet Judy Blue Eyes: My Life in Music (2011) ISBN 0-307-71734-8 OCLC 699763852

RIAA certifications

Album title Certification[46]
In My Life Gold
Wildflowers Gold
Who Knows Where the Time Goes Gold
Whales & Nightingales Gold
Colors of the Day Platinum
Judith Platinum

See also

References

  1. ^ William Ruhlmann “Judy Collins – Discography”“AllMusic.com” Retrieved Oct. 30, 2017.
  2. ^ “Judy Collins – Chart history”. Billboard. Retrieved 2015-07-30.
  3. ^ “Bio Synopsis”. Biograsphy.com. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  4. ^ Malkoski, Paul A. (2012). The Denver Folk Music Tradition: An Unplugged History, from Harry Tuft to Swallow Hill and Beyond. The History Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-1609495329.
  5. ^ Time “Striking a Chord” Accessed April 12, 2008
  6. ^ “Reviews of new albums”. Billboard. November 27, 1961. p. 28.
  7. ^ Simmons, Sylvie (2012). I’m Your Man: The Life of Leonard Cohen. McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 978-0771080401.
  8. Jump up to:a b Courrier, Kevin (2005). Randy Newman: American Dreams. ECW Press. pp. 65–66. ISBN 978-1550226904.
  9. ^ In My Life review at AllMusic. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
  10. ^ “Judy Collins”Billboard. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
  11. ^ “Judy Collins Concert: Has Fans Gentle on Her Mind”. Billboard. May 24, 1969. p. 22.
  12. ^ Santosuosso, Ernie (May 11, 1975). “Judy Collins’ flight of fancy”. Boston Globe.
  13. ^ Garlen, Jennifer C.; Graham, Anissa M. (2009). Kermit Culture: Critical Perspectives on Jim Henson’s Muppets. McFarland & Company. p. 218. ISBN 978-0786442591.
  14. ^ Ann, Lolordo (August 13, 1977). “Judy Collins changing styles”. Lodi News-Sentinel.
  15. ^ Woolery, George W. (1989). Animated TV Specials. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810821989.
  16. ^ Judy Collins – Fires of Eden (music video) on Dailymotion: http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x6c2f5
  17. ^ Clark, Eric (October 12, 2008). “After spinning others’ songs into gold, Judy Collins gets tribute album of her own works”. Gazette, The (Cedar Rapids-Iowa City, IA).
  18. ^ “Basking in the Afterglow of a Tribute Album” by John Soeder, Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 24, 2009.
  19. ^ “Amy Speace on Mountain Stage”. NPR Music. August 12, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-26Judy Collins, who chose Speace as the first artist on her Wildflower label, has been singing her song “The Weight of the World” at prominent venues of late, including the 50th anniversary of the Newport Folk Festival and the Isle of Wight.
  20. ^ “Independent Music Awards”. Independent Music Awards. September 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
  21. ^ “Top40-Charts.com”. Top40-Charts.com. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
  22. ^ “11th Annual IMA Judges. Independent Music Awards. Retrieved on September 4, 2013.
  23. ^ Blundell, Graeme. “Bang a gong as Rockwiz turns 10”. The Australian. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
  24. ^ Collins doesn’t rest on laurels but looks for songs’ surprisesArchived June 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine by John Soeder, Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 26, 2009
  25. ^ “Testimony of Judy Collins in the Chicago Seven Trial”. Law.umkc.edu. August 19, 1968. Archived from the original on June 19, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  26. ^ “Shoot First”.
  27. ^ Brozan, Nadine (July 9, 1996). “Chronicle”The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-01.Roos, John (January 26, 1996). “Taking a Novel Approach; A Grieving Judy Collins Finds Writing a Book Helps the Healing Process”Los Angeles Times. p. 30. Retrieved 2008-08-01.
  28. ^ “Stills & Collins bring decades of activism to Revolution Hall”.
  29. ^ Interview by Wendy Schuman (February 17, 2011). “Judy Collins tells Beliefnet how she used meditation and prayer to cope with illness and her son’s suicide”. Beliefnet.com. Retrieved 2012-10-16.
  30. ^ “Biography for Judy Collins”. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2009-02-24.
  31. ^ Judy Collins (October 1998). Singing lessons: a memoir of love, loss, hope, and healing. Simon and Schuster. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-671-00397-5. Retrieved November 16, 2010.
  32. ^ Judy Collins (October 1998). Singing lessons: a memoir of love, loss, hope, and healing. Simon and Schuster. pp. 172–190, 238–240. ISBN 978-0-671-00397-5. Retrieved November 16,2010.
  33. ^ Hellmich, Nanci (June 18, 2007). “Son’s suicide prodded Collins to write”. USA Today. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
  34. ^ Brady, Louis Smith (April 21, 1996). “Weddings: Vows; Judy Collins, Louis Nelson”The New York Times. Retrieved February 24, 2009.
  35. ^ “Grammy Award Nominees 1964 – Grammy Award Winners 1964”. Awardsandshows.com. May 12, 1964. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  36. ^ “Grammy Award Nominees 1968 – Grammy Award Winners 1968”. Awardsandshows.com. February 29, 1968. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  37. ^ “Grammy Awards Nominees 1969 – Grammy Award Winners 1969”. Awardsandshows.com. March 12, 1969. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  38. ^ “Grammy Award Ceremony 1970 – Grammy Award Winners 1970”. Awardsandshows.com. March 11, 1979. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  39. ^ “Grammy Award Nominees 1976 – Grammy Award Winners 1976”. Awardsandshows.com. February 28, 1976. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  40. ^ Barker, Andrew (February 8, 2017). “Judy Collins Talks Her First Grammy Nomination in 40 Years: ‘I’ve Been Working All This TimeVariety.com. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  41. ^ “Send in the Collins”. Times Press Recorder. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
  42. ^ “Judy Collins : Awards”. IMDb.com. Retrieved July 31, 2015.
  43. ^ “BBC – Press Office – 10th Radio 2 Folk Awards”.
  44. ^ “National Recording Registry Picks Are “Over the RainbowLibrary of Congress. March 29, 2016. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
  45. ^ “Collins Archives – Colorado Women’s Hall of Fame”Colorado Women’s Hall of Fame. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  46. ^ “American album certifications – Judy Collins”Recording Industry Association of America. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH. 

External links

Beto O’Rourke has become problematic.

O’Rourke was 2018’s progressive golden boy, with record breaking small-dollar fundraising, a viral defense of kneeling NFL players, and the love of Richard Linklater. His merch littered the enclaves of liberal America. From Coachella to Crown Heights, you were more likely to see a Beto tee or yard sign than you were many of the local pols. He wowed Ellen and Oprah and was every Gen X lefty magazine writer’s favorite subject.

The grassroots enthusiasm that resulted from this national fame and an opponent the left found nothing short of vampiric jolted his campaigns well past what most political prognosticators thought possible in Texas. But of course didn’t get him enough votes to actually win. So as the calendar turned to 2019, without a Cruzian foil, the prog-cognoscenti began to turn on their toe-headed boy.

As Jonathan Chait observed, if America was going to get its first socialist president, the Bernie bros were going to have to crush Beto.

The aspirational socialists and the intersectional liberals suddenly found themselves in league against a common enemy: a white male capitalist who once took a road-trip with a . . . Republican. So when Beto formally announced his campaign last week, what he may not have realized is that he was firing the first presidential shot in the left’s internecine Woke Wars. And in this battle he is on the wrong side of some of the very people who were his base in 2018: center-left journalists and power twitter users.


Not only have these social media influencers cooled to Betomania 2.0, but many turned out to be actively hostile, treating him more along the line of how they handle conservatives.

The first salvo was fired by a CNN reporter back in January who knocked him for using his “white male privilege” in spending a few weeks traveling through rural America while attempting to have actual conversations with voters. The premise of her article was that a woman with kids would never be given the latitude to take a similar listening vision quest. The New York Times echoed this take arguing that a fictional “Betsy O’Rourke’s” road trip would have not gotten the same gauzy treatment. The Daily Beast wrote on the “unbearable male privilege” of Beto’s road-trip, citing the “collective eye roll” a woman would receive for such a stunt. These arguments were corrected by a progressive podcast host, who said the authors misidentified the privilege as male when it was, in reality, “dripping with ruling class privilege.”

What was weird about these criticisms is that just about everyone did pretty much roll their eyes at Beto’s Excellent Adventure. It’s not clear that Beto’s listening tour was any better received than Hillary Clinton’s great “Scooby van” road trip of 2015, and I’d argue the reviews were markedly worse. And it wasn’t just the media reaction. Democratic primary voters seemed either turned off by Brooding Beto, or more excited by the launches of other candidates. Beto’s road trip coincided with a noticeable drop in polls of both activists and all Democratic voters— from about 13 percent to 5 percent on average. So the special status that the left was so worked up about didn’t really seem to exist in the first place.

Which gets to the core of one of Beto’s political problem in the primary: If he rises in the polls, it’s evidence of his privilege. Yet since his privilege is already baked in, a drop in the polls doesn’t dispel the critique. For Beto, the privilege attack is non-falsifiable.

Notice how the privilege war drums continued to bang against Mr. 5 Percent when he announced his campaign last week with a Vanity Fair cover shot that, by the by, certainly didn’t help dispel the critique. (Note to candidates: I can tell you from experience, skip the Liebovitz photo shoot, it’s a trap.)

The New York Times wrote a story—not an opinion piece, but a news article about the fact that Beto’s wife Amy didn’t speak in the campaign’s announcement video, a degrading critique that was similar to the one Donald Trump leveled against Ghazala Khan following her husband’s convention speech. The reporter wrote that Beto was “appearing to revel in his advantages as a white male” and pegged this claim to five tweets by left-wing twitter users, including one who explained that her view was that Beto “sucks shit.” (Incidentally, Amy was a frequent surrogate in Beto’s 2018 campaign and did give an interview to the Vanity Fair reporter, pushing back against these attacks.)

A Huffington Post reporter and MSNBC host tweeted that Beto’s claim that he’s “born to be in it”—which was either a brutal troll by the Vanity Fair cover artist or the most unaware part of their mash note—was something that Hillary Clinton couldn’t say. The Atlantic—also citing Beto’s privilege—said that he “launched his campaign like Trump.” It’s unclear how this analogy could possibly hold: Trump announced his campaign in front of a crowd of actors paid to show up to create the illusion of support and then delivered a bigoted stream-of-consciousness speech memorable mostly for its incoherence and claim that Mexico was sending rapists to America.

Politico summed up the Beto launch with an article citing the backlash to the Vanity Fair article and arguing that Elizabeth Warren wouldn’t get such treatment.

I can hear all the Republican flaks laughing over a drink at Bobby Van’s now: Welcome to the club, fella!


The same members of the media and the liberal twitter elite who did not find Beto’s privilege to be particularly problematic when he was trying to defeat a Hispanic Republican have suddenly discovered it now that he is challenging their ideological or identitarian preferences. And it’s hard to see a way out.

As his campaign progressed in Iowa over the weekend, Beto chose to kneel before the social(ist) justice warriors demands. First he slightly walked back his endorsement of capitalism, saying that while he is still a capitalist, he recognizes that it is a racist system.

And then he apologized for a joke that was offensive mostly in how hackneyed it was about how his wife has been raising their three kids, “sometimes with his help.”

“Not only will I not say that again, but I’ll be more thoughtful going forward in the way that I talk about our marriage, and also the way in which I acknowledge the truth of the criticism that I have enjoyed white privilege,” he said.

Beto’s political problem is that these apologias to the social justice left, earnest or not, will only reinforce the fact that there are intersectional candidates who offer the same message he does without the non-sectional baggage.

The question is, does this segment of the left and the media, which carries outsized influence in “The Narrative” have that much influence in elections? The best thing Beto has going for him is that there’s some evidence that they don’t. And that rank and file Democrats don’t actually care that much about the policing being done by the Very Online Left.

In 2018, for example, it seemed the only Democrat on Twitter who supported Andrew Cuomo was his feisty spokesperson—and my former sparring partner—Lis Smith. And yet Cuomo beat Cynthia Nixon by 30 points. Heck, he even carried Brooklyn by 24. Just yesterday, Beto announced that he brought in $6.1 million in the first 24 hours of his campaign—edging out Bernie for the out-of-the-gate fundraising lead. So at least 100,000 Democrats decided they didn’t care that much about lefty Twitter outrage.

At the end of the day, what matters in high-stakes political races is so simple and elemental that it’s amazing anyone ever loses sight of it: Does the candidate have the magic? Are they offering what voters are looking for in a given moment?

This is a question that is answered, at scale, in the real world. Not on Twitter, or the Mary Sue, or even in the pages of the Huffington Post. If a broad cross-section of Democrats like Beto, then he will be a tough out. If they don’t, his campaign will flame out.

Whatever the result of the Battle of Beto, the last few months have been an indication that the left’s woke wars are deeply pernicious and are in some ways undermining the progress being made in addressing the real structural advantages that white male candidates have enjoyed. That the social justice left will instead level these sorts of mindless, identitarian attacks even against an unequivocal ideological ally is discouraging because of what it signifies about what may be to come. For those attacks to be echoed so readily by mainstream news outlets is even more discouraging.

Because if the progressive hive mind can turn on Beto, then conservatives who appreciate the life-affirming parts of identity politics, want to champion diverse voices, and hope to find common ground with sensible liberals against the nationalist, white-grievance right are unlikely to be treated any better.

 

https://thebulwark.com/the-beto-woke-wars/

 

People want higher taxes on rich, better welfare – 21-country OECD survey

by Reuters
Tuesday, 19 March 2019 11:39 GMT

ABOUT OUR HUMANITARIAN COVERAGE

From major disaster, conflicts and under-reported stories, we shine a light on the world’s humanitarian hotspots

* More than half of people want higher taxes on the rich

* Survey finds discontent with welfare policies

* Majorities in favour of more government action

* Graphic: https://tmsnrt.rs/2OenwYL

By Leigh Thomas

PARIS, March 19 (Reuters) – A strong majority of people in wealthy countries want to tax the rich more and there is broad support for building up the welfare state in most countries, a survey conducted for the OECD showed on Tuesday.

In all of the 21 countries surveyed, more than half of those people polled said they were in favour when asked: “Should the government tax the rich more than they currently do in order to support the poor?” The OECD gave no definition of rich.

Higher taxation of the rich has emerged as a political lightning rod in many wealthy countries, with U.S Democrats proposing hikes and “yellow vest” protesters in France demanding the wealthy bear a bigger tax burden.

Support was highest in Portugal and Greece, both emerging from years of economic crisis, at nearly 80 percent compared with an average of 68 percent, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development said.

The Paris-based forum’s survey of 22,000 people about perceived social and economic risks also found deep discontent with governments’ social welfare polices, which many people said were insufficient, the OECD said.

On average, only 20 percent said they could easily receive public benefits if needed while 56 percent thought it would be difficult to get benefits, the survey found.

People were on average particularly concerned about access to good quality, affordable long-term care for the elderly, housing and health services.

Not only did people say they were not getting their fair share given what they paid into the system, people in all countries except Canada, Denmark, Norway and the Netherlands did not think that their governments were heeding their views.

“These feelings spread across most social groups, and are not limited just to those deemed ‘left behind’,” the OECD said in an analysis of the survey’s results.

The feeling of injustice was even higher among the highly educated and high-income households, it added.

In light of the high level of discontent, a majority of people wanted their government to do more in all countries except France and Denmark, whose welfare systems are among the most generous in the world.

Most people said the top priority should be better pensions with 54 percent saying that would make them feel more economically secure.

Healthcare followed in second place at 48 percent while nearly 37 percent were in favour of a guaranteed basic income benefit, which has attracted international interest from policymakers but has yet to be tried at the national level.

(Reporting by Leigh Thomas; Editing by Richard Lough and Janet Lawrence)

http://news.trust.org/item/20190319112743-3136f

Green New Deal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Green New Deal (GND) is a set of proposed economic stimulus programs in the United States that aims to address climate change[1][2] and economic inequality.[3] The name refers to the New Deal, a set of social and economic reforms and public works projects undertaken by then-President Franklin D. Roosevelt in response to the Great Depression.[4] The Green New Deal combines Roosevelt’s economic approach with modern ideas such as renewable energy and resource efficiency.[5][6]

In the 116th Congress, it is a pair of resolutions, H. Res. 109/ S. Res. 59, sponsored by Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-NY) and Sen. Ed Markey (D-MA).

History

Sustainable agriculture combined with renewable energy generation

An early use of the term “Green New Deal” was by journalist Thomas Friedman.[7] He argued in favor of the idea in two pieces that appeared in The New York Times and The New York Times Magazine.[8][9] In January 2007, Friedman wrote:

If you have put a windmill in your yard or some solar panels on your roof, bless your heart. But we will only green the world when we change the very nature of the electricity grid – moving it away from dirty coal or oil to clean coal and renewables. And that is a huge industrial project – much bigger than anyone has told you. Finally, like the New Deal, if we undertake the green version, it has the potential to create a whole new clean power industry to spur our economy into the 21st century.[9]

This approach was subsequently taken up by the Green New Deal Group,[10] which published its eponymous report on July 21, 2008.[11] The concept was further popularized and put on a wider footing when the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) began to promote it.

In the spring of 2008, author Jeff Biggers launched a series of challenges for a Green New Deal from the perspective of his writings from coal country in Appalachia and the heartland. Biggers wrote, “Obama should shatter these artificial racial boundaries by proposing a New “Green” Deal to revamp the region and bridge a growing chasm between bitterly divided Democrats, and call for an end to mountaintop removal policies that have led to impoverishment and ruin in the coal fields.”[12] Biggers followed up with other Green New Deal proposals on various media venues for the next four years.[13]

On October 22, 2008 UNEP’s Executive Director Achim Steiner unveiled the Global Green New Deal initiative that aims to create jobs in “green” industries, thus boosting the world economy and curbing climate change at the same time.[14] It was then turned into an extensive plan by the Green Party of the United States. It was a key part of the platform of Green Party presidential candidate Jill Stein in 2012,[15] and 2016, as well as Howie Hawkins, who helped to write it, in his campaign for governor of New York.[16] The Green Party continued to suggest a Green New Deal in their rebuttal to the 2018 State of the Union speech.[17] The Green New Deal remains officially part of the platform of the Green Party of the United States.[18]

In the United States

Early efforts

A “Green New Deal” wing began to emerge in the Democratic Party after the November 2018 elections.[19][20]

A possible program in 2018 for a “Green New Deal” assembled by the think tank Data for Progress was described as “pairing labor programs with measures to combat the climate crisis.”[21][22]

A November 2018 article in Vogue stated, “There isn’t just one Green New Deal yet. For now, it’s a platform position that some candidates are taking to indicate that they want the American government to devote the country to preparing for climate change as fully as Franklin Delano Roosevelt once did to reinvigorating the economy after the Great Depression.”[23]

A week after the 2018 midterm elections, climate justice group Sunrise Movement organized a protest in Nancy Pelosi‘s office calling on Nancy Pelosi to support a Green New Deal. On the same day, freshman congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez launched a resolution to create a committee on the Green New Deal.[24] Following this, several candidates came out supporting a “Green New Deal”, including Deb HaalandRashida TlaibIlhan Omar, and Antonio Delgado.[25] They were joined in the following weeks by Reps. John LewisEarl BlumenauerCarolyn Maloney, and José Serrano.[26]

By the end of November, eighteen Democratic members of Congress were co-sponsoring a proposed House Select Committee on a Green New Deal, and incoming representatives Ayanna Pressley and Joe Neguse had announced their support.[27][28] Draft text would task this committee with a “’detailed national, industrial, economic mobilization plan’ capable of making the U.S. economy ‘carbon neutral’ while promoting ‘economic and environmental justice and equality,'” to be released in early 2020, with draft legislation for implementation within 90 days.[29][30]

Organizations supporting a Green New Deal initiative included 350.orgGreenpeaceSierra ClubExtinction Rebellion and Friends of the Earth.[31][32]

Sunrise Movement protest on behalf of a Green New Deal at the Capitol Hill offices of Nancy Pelosi and Steny Hoyer on December 10, 2018 featured Lennox Yearwood and speakers as young as age 7, resulting in 143 arrests.[33] Euronews, the pan-European news organization, displayed video of youth with signs saying “Green New Deal,” “No excuses”, and “Do your job” in its “No Comment” section.[34]

On December 14, 2018, a group of over 300 local elected officials from 40 states issued a letter endorsing a Green New Deal approach.[35][36]

That same day, a poll released by Yale Program on Climate Change Communication indicated that although 82% of registered voters had not heard of the “Green New Deal,” it had strong bi-partisan support among voters. A non-partisan description of the general concepts behind a Green New Deal resulted in 40% of respondents saying they “strongly support”, and 41% saying they “somewhat support” the idea.[37]

On January 10, 2019 over 600 organizations submitted a letter to Congress declaring support for policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This includes ending fossil fuel extraction and subsidies, transitioning to 100% clean renewable energy by 2035, expanding public transportation, and strict emission reductions rather than reliance on carbon emission trading.[38]

Green New Deal Resolution

Ed Markey speaks on a Green New Deal in front of the Capitol Building in February 2019

Ocasio-Cortez’s first piece of sponsored legislation: H.Res.109 – 116th Congress (2019–2020) Recognizing the duty of the Federal Government to create a Green New Deal

Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Senator Ed Markey released a fourteen-page resolution[39] for their Green New Deal on February 7, 2019. According to The Washington Post (February 11, 2019), the resolution calls for a “10-year national mobilization” whose primary goals would be:[40]

“Guaranteeing a job with a family-sustaining wage, adequate family and medical leave, paid vacations, and retirement security to all people of the United States.”
“Providing all people of the United States with — (i) high-quality health care; (ii) affordable, safe, and adequate housing; (iii) economic security; and (iv) access to clean water, clean air, healthy and affordable food, and nature.”
“Providing resources, training, and high-quality education, including higher education, to all people of the United States.”
“Meeting 100 percent of the power demand in the United States through clean, renewable, and zero-emission energy sources.”
“Repairing and upgrading the infrastructure in the United States, including . . . by eliminating pollution and greenhouse gas emissions as much as technologically feasible.”
“Building or upgrading to energy-efficient, distributed, and ‘smart’ power grids, and working to ensure affordable access to electricity.”
“Upgrading all existing buildings in the United States and building new buildings to achieve maximal energy efficiency, water efficiency, safety, affordability, comfort, and durability, including through electrification.”
“Overhauling transportation systems in the United States to eliminate pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector as much as is technologically feasible, including through investment in — (i) zero-emission vehicle infrastructure and manufacturing; (ii) clean, affordable, and accessible public transportation; and (iii) high-speed rail.”
“Spurring massive growth in clean manufacturing in the United States and removing pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from manufacturing and industry as much as is technologically feasible.”
“Working collaboratively with farmers and ranchers in the United States to eliminate pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector as much as is technologically feasible.”

The approach pushes for transitioning the United States to use 100% renewable, zero-emission energy sources, including investment into electric cars and high-speed rail systems, and implementing the “social cost of carbon” that has been part of Obama administration’s plans for addressing climate change within 10 years. Besides providing new jobs, this Green New Deal is also aimed to address poverty by aiming much of the improvements in the “frontline and vulnerable communities” which include the poor and disadvantaged people. To gain additional support, the resolution includes calls for universal health care, increased minimum wages, and preventing monopolies.[41]

House Select Committee on the Climate Crisis

Various perspectives emerged in late 2018 as to whether to form a committee dedicated to climate, what powers such a committee might be granted, and whether the committee would be specifically tasked with developing a Green New Deal.

Incoming House committee chairs Frank Pallone and Peter DeFazio indicated a preference for handling these matters in the House Energy and Commerce Committee and the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee.[31][42] (Writing in Gentleman’s Quarterly, Jay Willis responded that despite the best efforts of Pallone and De Fazio over many years, “the planet’s prognosis has failed to improve,” providing “pretty compelling evidence that it is time for legislators to consider taking a different approach.”[30])

In contrast, Representative Ro Khanna thought that creating a Select Committee specifically dedicated to a Green New Deal would be a “very commonsense idea”, based on the recent example of the Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming (2007-2011), which had proven effective in developing a 2009 bill for cap-and-trade legislation.[31][42]

Proposals for the House Select Committee on the Climate Crisis did not contain “Green New Deal” language and lacked the powers desired by Green New Deal proponents, such as the ability to subpoena documents or deposewitnesses.[43][44][45]

Rep. Kathy Castor of Florida was appointed to chair the committee.[45][46]

January 2019 letter to Congress from environmental groups

On January 10, 2019, a letter signed by 626 organizations in support of a Green New Deal was sent to all members of Congress. It called for measures such as “an expansion of the Clean Air Act; a ban on crude oil exports; an end to fossil fuel subsidies and fossil fuel leasing; and a phase-out of all gasoline-powered vehicles by 2040.”[47][48]

The letter also indicated that signatories would “vigorously oppose” … “market-based mechanisms and technology options such as carbon and emissions trading and offsetscarbon capture and storagenuclear powerwaste-to-energy and biomass energy.”[47]

Six major environmental groups did not sign on to the letter: the Sierra Club, the Natural Resources Defense Council, the Environmental Defense Fund, Mom’s Clean Air Force, Environment America, and the Audubon Society.[49]

An article in The Atlantic quoted Greg Carlock, who prepared “a different Green New Deal plan for the left-wing think tank Data for Progress” as responding, “There is no scenario produced by the IPCC or the UN where we hit mid-century decarbonization without some kind of carbon capture.”[47]

The MIT Technology Review responded to the letter with an article titled, “Let’s Keep the Green New Deal Grounded in Science.” The MIT article states that, although the letter refers to the “rapid and aggressive action” needed to prevent the 1.5 ˚C of warming specified in the UN climate panel’s latest report, simply acknowledging the report’s recommendation is not sufficient. If the letter’s signatories start from a position where the options of carbon pricing, carbon capture for fossil plants, hydropower, and nuclear power, are not even on the table for consideration, there may be no feasible technical means to reach the necessary 1.5 ˚C climate goal.[50]

A report in Axios suggested that the letter’s omission of a carbon tax, which has been supported by moderate Republicans, did not mean that signatories would oppose carbon pricing.[51][48]

The Director of the Center for Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy at George Mason University was quoted as saying, “As long as organizations hold onto a rigid set of ideas about what the solution is, it’s going to be hard to make progress … And that’s what worries me.”[50]

Models for implementation

As of January 2019, models for structuring a Green New Deal remain in the initial stages of discussion.

Although Chuck Schumer has indicated that measures to address climate change and renewable energy must be included in a 2019 infrastructure package, as of December 2018, articles describing his position referred to it as “green infrastructure” rather than as a Green New Deal.[52][53]

On January 17, 2019, prospective presidential candidate Jay Inslee called for Green New Deal goals of “net-zero carbon pollution by midcentury” and creating “good-paying jobs building a future run on clean energy” in a Washington Post op-ed. However, he framed these efforts in terms of national mobilization, saying “Confronting climate change will require a full-scale mobilization — a national mission that must be led from the White House.”[54]

Economic policy and planning for environment and climate

An article in The Intercept characterizes a Green New Deal more broadly, as economic planning and industrial policy measures which would enable mobilization for the environment, similar to the economic mobilization for World War II, and similar to the internal planning of large corporations.[55]

Economist Stephanie Kelton (a proponent of Modern Monetary Policy) and others [56] argue that natural resources, including a stable, livable climate, are limited resources, whereas money -following the abandonment of the gold standard- is really just a legal and social tool that should be marshaled to provide for sustainable public policies. To this end, a mix of policies and programs could be adopted, including tax incentives and targeted taxes, reformed construction and zoning standards, transportation fleet electrification, coastal shoreline hardening, Farm Bill subsidies linked to carbon capture and renewables generation, and much more. Practically, Kelton argues that the key to implementation is garnering enough political support, rather than becoming fixated on specific “pay-fors.” Many proposed Green New Deal programs would generate significant numbers of new jobs.[56]

One proposed model for funding says that “funding would come primarily from certain public agencies, including the U.S. Federal Reserve and ‘a new public bank or system of regional and specialized public banks.'” This model, which has been endorsed by over 40 House members, has been compared to the work of the Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW, or “Reconstruction Credit Institute,” a large German public sector development bank), the China Development Bank, and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.[57]

Employment programs coupled with business investment for environment and climate

New Deal improvisation as a model

Although the non-specific nature of current GND proposals has become a concern for some Greens,[58] one writer from the Columbia University Earth Institute views the lack of specificity as a strength, noting that: “FDR’s New Deal was a series of improvisations in response to specific problems that were stalling economic development. There was no master plan, many ideas failed, and some were ended after a period of experimentation. But some, like social security and the Security and Exchange Commission’s regulation of the stock market, became permanent American institutions.”[59]

Green skills worker training programs

Existing programs training workers in green skills include a program called Roots of Success, founded in 2008 to bring low-income people into living wage professions. Funding for Roots of Success came from the $90 billion in green initiatives incorporated in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.[60]

Green stimulus under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

About 12% of ARRA funding went to green investment,[61] and some of these initiatives were successful. A Jan. 2019 article in Politico stated that, “U.S. wind capacity has more than tripled since 2008, while solar capacity is up more than sixfold. LEDs were 1 percent of the lighting market in 2008; now they’re more than half the market. There were almost no plug-in electric vehicles in 2008; now there are more than 1 million on U.S. roads.”[62]

Although ARRA’s green stimulus projects are of interest for developing proposals for a Green New Deal, its mixed results included both “boosting innovative firms” such as Tesla, and the $535 million failure of the Solyndra solar company.”[62][63] These initial efforts at green stimulus are described as a “cautionary tale.” It remains necessary to develop mechanisms for promoting large-scale green business development, as it is unclear whether focusing on job creation programs alone will result in optimizing the climate impact of new jobs.[62]

Criticism

Many who support some goals of the Green New Deal express doubt about feasibility of one or more parts of it. John P. Holdren, former science advisor to Obama, thinks the 2030 goal is too optimistic, saying that 2045 or 2050 would be more realistic.[64]

Paul Bledsoe of the Progressive Policy Institute, the think tank affiliated with the conservative Democratic Leadership Council, expressed concern that setting unrealistic “aspirational” goals of 100% renewable energy could undermine “the credibility of the effort” against climate change.[31]

Economist Edward Barbier, who developed the “Global Green New Deal” proposal for the United Nations Environment Programme in 2009, opposes “a massive federal jobs program,” saying “The government would end up doing more and more of what the private sector and industry should be doing.” Barbier prefers carbon pricing, such as a carbon tax or cap-and-trade system, in order to “address distortions in the economy that are holding back private sector innovation and investments in clean energy.”[61]

When Senator Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) was confronted by youth associated with the Sunrise Movement on why she doesn’t support the Green New Deal, she told them “there’s no way to pay for it” and that it could not pass a Republican controlled Senate. In a tweet following the confrontation, Feinstein said that she remains committed “to enact real, meaningful climate change legislation.”[65]

In February 2019, the centre-right American Action Forum, estimated that the plan could cost between $51–$93 trillion over the next decade.[66] They estimate its potential cost at $600,000 per household.[67] The organization estimated the cost for eliminating carbon emissions from the transportation system at $1.3–$2.7 trillion; guaranteeing a job to every American $6.8–$44.6 trillion; universal health care estimated close to $36 trillion.[68] According to Bloomberg Businessweek, Wall Street is willing to invest significant resources toward GND programs, but not unless Congress commits to moving it forward.[69]

The AFL-CIO, in a letter to Ocasio-Cortez, expressed strong reservations about the GND, saying, “We welcome the call for labor rights and dialogue with labor, but the Green New Deal resolution is far too short on specific solutions that speak to the jobs of our members and the critical sections of our economy.” [70]

Criticism of FAQ document

Republican politicians have criticized a “Frequently Asked Questions” document once posted to Rep. Ocasio-Cortez’s website (later removed but still viewable on the Wayback Machine.)[71] Many criticisms centred on a line promising economic security to those “unwilling to work”. (Green New Deal advisor Robert C. Hockett stated that this line was present only in “doctored” versions of the FAQ, but later said he had been mistaken.[72])

Supporters

Individuals

Organizations

Detractors

Individuals

  • On February 9, 2019, United States President Donald Trump voiced his opposition using sarcasm via Twitter as follows: “I think it is very important for the Democrats to press forward with their Green New Deal. It would be great for the so-called “Carbon Footprint” to permanently eliminate all Planes, Cars, Cows, Oil, Gas & the Military – even if no other country would do the same. Brilliant!”[101]
  • Democratic Senator Diane Feinstein objected to the plan saying “there’s no way to pay for it” and is drafting her own narrowed down version. Democratic Senator Joe Manchin criticized the plan as a “dream” adding that ‘it would hurt regions dependent on reliable, affordable energy.”[102]
  • Republican White House aide Sebastian Gorka has referred to the deal as “what Stalin dreamed about but never achieved” and that “they [proponents of the deal] want to take your pickup truck. They want to rebuild your home. They want to take away your hamburgers.” The comments about hamburgers are a common criticism of the deal by conservatives, who have gone on to criticize Representative Ocasio-Cortez for allowing her Chief of Staff to eat a hamburger with her at a Washington restaurant.[103]
  • On February 13, 2019, Rep. Mark Walker (R-NC) released a parody video on his verified Twitter account comparing the Green New Deal to the failed Fyre Festival, using the hashtag #GNDisFyre.[104][105][106]
  • On March 14, 2019, Rep. Rob Bishop, a Republican representing Utah’s 1st congressional district, said that the legislation was “tantamount to genocide,” adding shortly afterward that his comment was “maybe an overstatement, but not by a lot.”[107]

See also

References

  1. ^ Meyer, Robinson. “The Green New Deal Hits Its First Major Snag”The Atlantic. Retrieved January 31, 2019There’s not a single, official Green New Deal. Much like “Medicare for All,” “Green New Deal” refers more to a few shared goals than to a completed legislative package. (The original New Deal basically worked the same way.) Now a number of environmental groups are trying to make those goals more specific. But they’re running into a snag: The bogeymen that haunted old progressive climate policies are suddenly back again. And the fights aren’t just about nuclear power.
  2. Jump up to:a b Harder, Amy (December 13, 2019). “Why Al Gore is on board with the Green New Deal”AxiosArchived from the original on December 14, 2018. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  3. ^ Whyte, Chelsea (February 12, 2019). “Green New Deal proposal includes free higher education and fair pay”NewScientist. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  4. ^ Jeremy Lovell (July 21, 2008) “Climate report calls for green ‘New Deal'”, Reuters.
  5. ^ A Green New Deal: Discursive Review and Appraisal. Social Science Research Network (SSRN). Notes on the 21st Century. Accessed March 14, 2019.
  6. ^ Hilary French, Michael Renner and Gary Gardner: Toward a Transatlantic Green New Deal Archived March 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine The authors state: “Support is growing around the world for an integrated response to the current economic and environmental crises, increasingly referred to as the “Green New Deal”. The term is a modern-day variation of the U.S. New Deal, an ambitious effort launched by President Franklin Roosevelt to lift the United States out of the Great Depression. The New Deal of that era entailed a strong government role in economic planning and a series of stimulus packages launched between 1933 and 1938 that created jobs through ambitious governmental programs, including the construction of roads, trails, dams, and schools. Today’s Green New Deal proposals are also premised on the importance of decisive governmental action, but incorporate policies to respond to pressing environmental challenges through a new paradigm of sustainable economic progress.”
  7. ^ Kaufman, Alexander C (June 30, 2018). “What’s the ‘Green New Deal’? The surprising origins behind a progressive rallying cry”GristArchived from the original on November 13, 2018. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  8. ^ Thomas L. Friedman, The Power of Green ArchivedJanuary 17, 2017, at the Wayback MachineThe New York Times Magazine, April 15, 2007
  9. Jump up to:a b Friedman, Thomas L. (January 19, 2007). “Opinion – A Warning From the Garden”The New York Times.
  10. ^ Mark Lynas: A Green New Deal Archived April 19, 2016, at the Wayback MachineNew Statesman, July 17, 2008
  11. ^ Larry Elliott, Colin Hines, Tony Juniper, Jeremy Leggett, Caroline Lucas, Richard Murphy, Ann Pettifor, Charles Secrett & Andrew Simms, A Green New Deal: Joined-up policies to solve the triple crunch of the credit crisis, climate change and high oil prices. new economics foundation, July 2008
  12. ^ Huffington Post[when?]
  13. ^ See for example: CNN, Al Jazeera
  14. ^ Paul Eccleston, UN announces green “New Deal” plan to rescue world economies Archived September 22, 2012, at the Wayback MachineThe Daily Telegraph, October 22, 2008
  15. ^ Friedersdorf, Conor (May 21, 2012). “The 3 Green Party Candidates and Their Disappointing Platforms”The AtlanticArchived from the original on November 15, 2018. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
  16. ^ “Green New Deal”http://www.gp.org.
  17. ^ “Green Party Rebuttal to President Trump’s 2018 State of the Union Address”Common DreamsArchived from the original on November 13, 2018. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  18. ^ “Green New Deal”GPUSArchived from the original on November 17, 2018. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
  19. ^ Kaufman, Alexander C. (November 7, 2018). “Democrats’ Green New Deal Wing Takes Shape Amid Wave Of Progressive Climate Hawk Wins”Huffington PostArchived from the original on November 13, 2018. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  20. ^ Carlock, Greg; McElwee, Sean. “Why the Best New Deal Is a Green New Deal”The NationISSN 0027-8378Archivedfrom the original on November 13, 2018. Retrieved November 13,2018.
  21. ^ Kahn, Brian. “Most Americans Think We Can Save the Planet and Create Jobs at the Same Time”EartherArchived from the original on November 13, 2018. Retrieved November 13,2018.
  22. ^ “Green New Deal Report”Data For Progress. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  23. Jump up to:a b Read, Bridget (November 2, 2018). “Watch Bria Vinaite Explain the Green New Deal”VogueArchived from the original on November 13, 2018. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  24. ^ Roberts, David (November 15, 2018). “Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez is already pressuring Nancy Pelosi on climate change”VoxArchived from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  25. ^ Corbett, Jessica (November 7, 2018). “Saving Planet With ‘Green New Deal’ Proves Popular as Climate Hawks Celebrate Midterm Victories”Common DreamsArchived from the original on November 13, 2018. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  26. ^ Burke, Michael (November 18, 2018). “John Lewis joins Ocasio-Cortez on climate change push”TheHillArchived from the original on November 21, 2018. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  27. ^ Germanos, Andrea (November 30, 2018). “As Number of Dems Backing Green New Deal Swells to 18, Campaigners Demand All of Party ‘Stand Up to Fossil Fuel BillionairesCommon DreamsArchived from the original on December 2, 2018. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  28. ^ Gamboa, Suzanne (November 30, 2018). “Ocasio-Cortez, diverse lawmakers prioritize climate change with ‘Green New DealNBC NewsArchived from the original on December 2, 2018. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  29. ^ Klein, Naomi (November 27, 2018). “The Game-Changing Promise of a Green New Deal”The InterceptArchived from the original on November 27, 2018. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  30. Jump up to:a b Willis, Jay (December 6, 2018). “How Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez’s “Green New Deal” Might Help Save the Planet”GQArchived from the original on December 7, 2018. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  31. Jump up to:a b c d Homan, Timothy R. (November 24, 2018). “Five things to know about Ocasio-Cortez’s ‘Green New DealTheHillArchived from the original on November 26, 2018. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  32. Jump up to:a b Golden, Hannah. “The Green New Deal Is Challenging This Old Myth About Fighting Climate Change”Elite DailyArchived from the original on December 8, 2018. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  33. ^ Colón, Christina (December 10, 2018). “Nearly 150 Climate Activists Arrested in Mass Demonstration for Green New Deal”SojournersArchived from the original on December 17, 2018. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
  34. ^ “Climate protest at Pelosi’s office spurs arrests”Euronews. December 11, 2018. Archived from the original on December 17, 2018. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
  35. ^ Keck, Catie. “Earther – Hundreds of Local and State Officials Just Endorsed Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez’s Green New Deal”GizmodoArchived from the original on December 16, 2018. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
  36. ^ “At COP24 Climate Talks in Katowice, 300+ Elected Officials from 40 States Call for Phasing Out Fossil Fuels, Green New Deal Approach”Elected Officials to Protect America. December 14, 2018. Archived from the original on December 17, 2018. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
  37. ^ Gustafson, Abel (December 14, 2018). “The Green New Deal has Strong Bipartisan Support”Yale Program on Climate Change CommunicationArchived from the original on December 18, 2018. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
  38. ^ “Progressive Green New Deal Letter to Congress” (PDF).
  39. ^ https://ocasio-cortez.house.gov/sites/ocasio-cortez.house.gov/files/Resolution%20on%20a%20Green%20New%20Deal.pdf
  40. ^ Rizzo, Salvador (February 11, 2019). “Fact Checker: What’s actually in the ‘Green New Deal’ from Democrats?”Washington Post. Retrieved March 2, 2019As a reader service, we’re going to summarize what’s actually in the Green New Deal from Democrats, and how we ended up with all this confusion.
  41. ^ “Resolution: Recognizing the duty of the Federal Government to create a Green New Deal” (PDF)United States House of Representatives. February 7, 2019. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  42. Jump up to:a b Cama, Timothy (November 30, 2018). “Dems rally for Green New Deal”TheHillArchived from the original on December 1, 2018. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  43. ^ Cama, Timothy (January 2, 2019). “House Dems formalize climate committee plans without Green New Deal language”TheHill. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  44. ^ Meyer, Robinson (December 28, 2018). “Democrats Establish a New House ‘Climate Crisis’ Committee”The Atlantic. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  45. Jump up to:a b “Climate change: Meet the Florida congresswoman leading the House charge”USA TODAY. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  46. ^ Gonyea, Don (December 30, 2018). “House Democrats Form New ‘Climate Crisis’ Committee”National Public Radio. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  47. Jump up to:a b c Meyer, Robinson (January 18, 2019). “The Green New Deal Hits Its First Major Snag”The Atlantic. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  48. Jump up to:a b Kahn, Brian. “More Than 600 Environmental Groups Just Backed Ocasio-Cortez’s Green New Deal”Earther. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  49. ^ Atkin, Emily (January 15, 2019). “Some of the Biggest Green Groups Have Cold Feet Over the “Green New DealThe New RepublicISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  50. Jump up to:a b Temple, James. “Let’s keep the Green New Deal grounded in science”MIT Technology Review. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  51. ^ Geman, Ben (January 10, 2019). “Environmental groups pressure House for “visionary” measures to support the Green New Deal”Axios. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  52. ^ Mali, Meghashyam (December 7, 2018). “Overnight Energy: Schumer demands climate measures in infrastructure bill | OPEC, Russia to cut oil output | EPA looks to ease Obama water rule”The HillArchived from the original on December 8, 2018. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  53. ^ Levitz, Eric. “Schumer to Trump: Give Us Green Infrastructure, or We’ll Give You None”New York Magazine – IntellegencerArchived from the original on December 9, 2018.
  54. ^ Inslee, Jay (January 17, 2019). “The next president must make climate change the top priority”Washington Post. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  55. ^ Aronoff, Kate (December 5, 2018). “With a Green New Deal, Here’s What the World Could Look Like for the Next Generation”The InterceptArchived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  56. Jump up to:a b Kelton, Stephanie; Bernal, Andres; Carlock, Greg (November 30, 2018). “We Can Pay For A Green New Deal” – via Huff Post.
  57. ^ Brown, Ellen (January 25, 2019). “The Financial Secret Behind Germany’s Green Energy Revolution”Common Dreams. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  58. ^ Siegel, Josh (January 24, 2019). “Greens want 2020 Democrats to go beyond vague ‘Green New Deal’ support”Washington Examiner. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  59. ^ Cohen, Steve (January 14, 2019). “The Politics of a Green New Deal”State of the Planet. The Earth Institute, Columbia University. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  60. ^ Dembicki, Geoff; Cheadle, Harry (December 7, 2018). “The Left Thinks a ‘Green New Deal’ Could Save Earth and Destroy the GOP”ViceArchived from the original on December 8, 2018. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  61. Jump up to:a b Lavelle, Marianne (January 3, 2019). “New Congress Members See Climate Solutions and Jobs in a Green New Deal”InsideClimate News. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  62. Jump up to:a b c Grunwald, Michael. “The Trouble With the ‘Green New DealPOLITICO Magazine. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  63. ^ Schallhorn, Kaitlyn (January 11, 2019). “What is the Green New Deal? A look at the economic and climate concept pushed by progressives”Fox News. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  64. ^ Friedman, Lisa; Gabriel, Trip (February 21, 2019). “A New Deal at Once Possible and Problematic”The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved March 11, 2019Holdren, who is now a professor of environmental policy at Harvard University, said the Green New Deal’s timeline of achieving that goal around 2030 is not feasible. “As a technologist studying this problem for 50 years, I don’t think we can do it,” he said. “There’s hope we could do it by 2045 or 2050 if we get going now,” he added.
  65. ^ Beckett, Lois (February 23, 2019). You didn’t vote for me’: Senator Dianne Feinstein responds to young green activists”The Guardian. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  66. ^ Natter, Ari (February 25, 2019). “Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez’s Green New Deal Could Cost $93 Trillion, Group Says”Bloomberg. Retrieved March 2, 2019The so-called Green New Deal may tally between $51 trillion and $93 trillion over 10-years, concludes American Action Forum, which is run by Douglas Holtz-Eakin, who directed the non-partisan CBO from 2003 to 2005. That includes between $8.3 trillion and $12.3 trillion to meet the plan’s call to eliminate carbon emissions from the power and transportation sectors and between $42.8 trillion and $80.6 trillion for its economic agenda including providing jobs and health care for all.
  67. ^ Henney, Megan (February 26, 2019). “Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez’s Green New Deal could cost $93 trillion, group says”FOXBusiness. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  68. ^ “The Green New Deal: Scope, Scale, and Implications”AAF. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  69. ^ Dmietrieva, Katia (February 14, 2019). “Wall Street Is More Than Willing to Fund the Green New Deal”Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 11, 2019The plan’s greatest flaw, critics say, is that it would be too costly. Ocasio-Cortez advocates deficit spending, and she’s floated a 70 percent marginal tax rate for high earners that would generate some of the necessary revenue. But those worried about where the rest of the money will come from are forgetting one major, surprisingly enthusiastic player: Wall Street.
  70. ^ “AFL-CIO criticizes Green New Deal, calling it ‘not achievable or realisticWashington Post. 2019-03-12. Retrieved 2019-03-12.
  71. ^ “Green New Deal FAQ | Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez”archive.org. February 7, 2019. Retrieved February 14,2019.
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External links

Past projects referred to as “Green New Deal

Green New Deal proposal in 116th Congress

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The Pronk Pops Show 754, September 13, 2016, Story 1: Name That Malady — Parkinson’s Disease? Multiple sclerosis (MS)? A.L.S. ( Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) or sometimes called Lou Gehrig’s disease? Power Palpitations? — Clue: Blue Sung Glasses! — Videos — Story 2: Clinton Will Power Through — Big Lie Media Lying and Spinning Away For Hillary–Send In The Clowns — There Here — Videos

Posted on September 13, 2016. Filed under: 2016 Presidential Campaign, 2016 Presidential Candidates, Addiction, American History, Blogroll, Breaking News, Bribery, Cartoons, College, Communications, Congress, Constitutional Law, Corruption, Countries, Crime, Culture, Diet, Disasters, Diseases, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Donald Trump, Drugs, Education, Elections, Empires, Employment, Exercise, Food, Foreign Policy, Government, Government Spending, Health, Health Care, High Crimes, Hillary Clinton, Hillary Clinton, Hillary Clinton, History, Homicide, House of Representatives, Human, Human Behavior, Illegal Immigration, Illegal Immigration, Immigration, Impeachment, Iran Nuclear Weapons Deal, Law, Legal Immigration, Life, Lying, Media, Medicare, Movies, Music, News, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, Progressives, Radio, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Resources, Scandals, Security, Senate, Unemployment, United States Constitution, United States of America, Videos, Violence, War, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Project_1

The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 754: September 13, 2016 

Pronk Pops Show 753: September 12, 2016 

Pronk Pops Show 752: September 9, 2016 

Pronk Pops Show 751: September 8, 2016 

Pronk Pops Show 750: September 7, 2016 

Pronk Pops Show 749: September 2, 2016 

Pronk Pops Show 748: September 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 747: August 31, 2016 

Pronk Pops Show 746: August 30, 2016 

Pronk Pops Show 745: August 29, 2016 

Pronk Pops Show 744: August 26, 2016 

Pronk Pops Show 743: August 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 742: August 24, 2016 

Pronk Pops Show 741: August 23, 2016 

Pronk Pops Show 740: August 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 739: August 18, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 738: August 17, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 737: August 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 736: August 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 735: August 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 734: August 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 733: August 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 732: August 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 731: August 4, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 729: August 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 728: July 29, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 718: July 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 717: July 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 716: July 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 715: July 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 714: July 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 713: July 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 712: July 5, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 711: July 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 710: June 30, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 709: June 29, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 707: June 27, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 704: June 22, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 702: June 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 701: June 17, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 700: June 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 699: June 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 698: June 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 697: June 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 696: June 10, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 695: June 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 694: June 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 693: June 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 692: June 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 691: June 2, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 690: June 1, 2016

Story 1: Name That Malady —  Parkinson’s Disease? Multiple sclerosis (MS)? A.L.S. ( Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) or sometimes called Lou Gehrig’s disease? Power Palpitations? — Clue: Blue Sung Glasses! — Videos 

mal·a·dy
ˈmalədē/
noun
  1. a disease or ailment.
    “an incurable malady”
    synonyms: illness, sickness, disease, infection, ailment, disorder, complaint, indisposition, affliction,infirmity, syndrome;

    informalbug, virus
    “every time we visit Jerry, he has a new malady”

“Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. .”

~John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton

Image result for cartoons hillary clinton health problems medical condition~

Hillary's dramatic collapse in New York on Sunday  is prompting new examination of her health ¿ as well as how her aides have closely guarded information

Image result for cartoons hillary clinton health problems medical condition

 

Image result for cartoons hillary clinton falling down

Image result for cartoons hillary clinton falling down

 

Image result for cartoons hillary clinton health problems medical condition

Image result for cartoons hillary clinton health problems medical condition

Image result for Hillary for President CartoonsImage result for cartoons hillary clinton health problems medical condition

 

Kids Singing About Disease

Name That Tune – Best ever

Hillary Clinton Pneumonia Diagnosis: 3 Facts

Irrefutable Proof: Hillary Clinton Has a Seizure Disorder!

Pneumonia diagnosis fuels questions about Clinton’s health

What is Parkinson’s disease?

Hillary Clinton’s Health Crisis | Mike Cernovich and Stefan Molyneux

A Field Guide to spotting Hillary Clinton’s Parkinson’s Disease Signs

Hillary’s fall: Which official excuse is the truth?

Z1 F133 protective prism blue Seizure filter lens Vox Day Theodore Beale Drew Pinsky Ted Noel

What to Do for Someone Having a Seizure | Epilepsy

Sunglasses Reveal Hillary’s Shady Health Lies

Multiple Sclerosis

The Connection Between Multiple Sclerosis and Vision

ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease) – Health Matters

What is A.L.S. or Lou Gehrig’s Disease ?

Bill Clinton weighs in on Hillary’s health

Dr. Drew: Hillary Has “Brain Damage”

Judy Collins Send in the Clowns

Isn’t it rich?
Are we a pair?
Me here at last on the ground,
You in mid-air..
Where are the clowns?

Isn’t it bliss?
Don’t you approve?
One who keeps tearing around,
One who can’t move…
Where are the clowns?
Send in the clowns.

Just when I’d stopped opening doors,
Finally knowing the one that I wanted was yours.
Making my entrance again with my usual flair
Sure of my lines…
No one is there.

Don’t you love farce?
My fault, I fear.
I thought that you’d want what I want…
Sorry, my dear!
And where are the clowns
Send in the clowns
Don’t bother, they’re here.

Isn’t it rich?
Isn’t it queer?
Losing my timing this late in my career.
And where are the clowns?
There ought to be clowns…
Well, maybe next year.

 

Three blood clots, a concussion, deep vein thrombosis: Hillary’s shielded medical history is no longer just for conspiracy theorists as her ‘penchant for privacy’ gets serious scrutiny

  • Clinton suffered her first blood clot in 1998 while she was First Lady and experienced a second incident in 2009
  • She suffered a concussion after falling in her home in 2013 near the end of her tenure as secretary of state
  • Her doctors say she has deep vein thrombosis, which can lead to clotting in leg veins
  • She suffered a blood clot in her brain in December 2011 and takes blood thinners to treat her condition
  • She has been diagnosed with hypothyroidism
  • Broke her elbow, as spokesman warned it would crimp her texting 
  • Clinton collapsed when she left a 9/11 ceremony early on Sunday. Her office finally revealed she has pneumonia
  • Campaign spokesman Brian Fallon says Clinton plans to release more medical records this week as criticism mounts

Hillary Clinton’s medical history – and her tendency to keep personal and medical information far from view – is coming in for new scrutiny following revelations that the candidate got diagnosed with pneumonia Friday in advance of her stumble in New York.

Clinton’s stumble, caught on camera Sunday after she had to leave Sept. 11th anniversary memorial services after about an hour and a half, was the latest in a line of health spats that have made it into the news during her career.

‘Antibiotics can take care of pneumonia. What’s the cure for an unhealthy penchant for privacy that repeatedly creates unnecessary problems?’ asked President Obama’s former message guru David Axelrod in a tweet Monday – a message promptly retweeted by Trump‘s campaign manager Kellyanne Conway.

Below is a compilation of Clinton’s ailments and health incidents that have entered the public record:

Clinton’s medical history – and her tendency to keep personal and medical information far from view – is coming in for new scrutiny following revelations that the candidate got diagnosed with pneumonia Friday

Hillary's dramatic collapse in New York on Sunday  is prompting new examination of her health ¿ as well as how her aides have closely guarded information

Hillary’s dramatic collapse in New York on Sunday  is prompting new examination of her health – as well as how her aides have closely guarded information

1998 Blood Clot

Clinton’s first known blood clot occurred in 1998, while she was still first lady.

Clinton experienced symptoms while attending a fundraiser for Sen. Charles Schumer of New York, who would soon become her Senate home-state colleague. Her right foot swelled up to the point where she couldn’t put on her shoe.

Clinton got quietly taken to the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda for treatment at the time. She was found to have ‘a big clot’ blood clot behind her knee, Clinton wrote in her memoir, ‘Living History.’

She called it ‘the most significant health scare I’ve ever had,’ the Washington Post noted.

According to her physician, Mt. Kisco physician, Lisa Bardack, Clinton was advised at the time to take Lovenox, described as a short-acting blood thinner, when she took flights. The meds were discontinued when she went on Coumadin.

 

2009 Blood Clot 

 Clinton had a second blood clot incident in 2009. The episode was described by her doctor in a 2015 letter.

The doctor didn’t provide a detailed description of the event. Rather, she wrote that Clinton’s ‘past medical history is notable for a deep vein thrombosis in 1998, 2009 and a concussion in 2012.

Clinton takes a daily blood thinning medication for her deep vein thrombosis.

Clinton, a frequent flier whose staff catalogued her pursuit of the overall mileage record as secretary of state, may have exacerbated the problem through her extensive air travel.

Frequent jet travel can exacerbate blood clots, which is why some people make sure to walk around the cabin on long flights

Frequent jet travel can exacerbate blood clots, which is why some people make sure to walk around the cabin on long flights

2009 Elbow Fracture 

 Clinton had to work from home for a while after she fractured her elbow during a fall in 2009, CNN recounted. She fell at the State Department on the way to the White House, and went to George Washington University hospital for treatment.

She underwent a two-hour surgical procedure.

‘She is working from home. She is already taking some calls, and I’m sure starting to learn the limits of movement – how well you can text with one arm in a sling,’ quipped then spokesman P.J. Crowley at the time, in an early reference to Clinton’s communications habits.

Clinton was pictured wearing a sling emblazoned with the seal of the State Department when she returned to work. She also was photographed providing left-handed hand shake with a visiting Palestinian dignitary owing to her condition. She has showed no visible signs of lingering problems related to the injury.

HARD KNOCKS: Clinton got a fractured elbow in 2009, but still managed to negotiate with Hondouran leaders, and, according to her spokesman, text with one hand

HARD KNOCKS: Clinton got a fractured elbow in 2009, but still managed to negotiate with Hondouran leaders, and, according to her spokesman, text with one hand

2012 Blood Clot and Concussion 

Clinton got a bad stomach bug and fainted at her home in Washington in 2012, an event that led her to get a concussion. Information about what exactly had happened emerged only slowly over time.

As her doctor put it, ‘In December 2012, Mrs. Clinton suffered a stomach virus after traveling, became dehydrated, fainted and sustained a concussion.’

The then-secretary of state wasn’t seen in public between Dec. 7th and when she left the hospital in New York January 2, 2013.

Clinton experienced ‘double vision for a period of time and benefited from wearing glasses with a Fresnel Prism,’ a special corrective lens, her doctor wrote in a letter voluntarily released to the media in 2015 as part of Clinton’s presidential campaign. Her concussion ‘resolved within two months,’ Bardack wrote.

In 2014, Bill Clinton revealed that the injury ‘required six months of very serious work to get over.’ The former president called it a ‘terrible concussion’

Clinton was diagnosed with a blood clot in the brain, transverse sinus venous thrombosis, and began anticoagulation therapy, her doctor wrote.

Clinton had to work from home and postpone planned testimony before a House Benghazi committee.

Clinton leaves New York Presbyterian Hospital with husband Bill and daughter Chelsea on January 2, 2013. The secretary of state, had not been seen in public since Dec. 7

Clinton leaves New York Presbyterian Hospital with husband Bill and daughter Chelsea on January 2, 2013. The secretary of state, had not been seen in public since Dec. 7

Hypothyroidism

Clinton also suffers from Hypothyroidismrefers to an under-active thyroid gland, resulting in a lack of important hormones.

Clinton’s doctor identified the condition in her 2015 letter, but did not state for how long Clinton has suffered from the condition. She takes a medication called Armour Thyroid.

Allergies

Clinton suffers from ‘seasonal allergies,’ according to her physician. It isn’t known for how long she has suffered from allergies, although Clinton herself has cited her allergies when she has developed a cough – including on-stage during public events.

Her doctor states that Clinton is taking antihistamines, which treat the effects of allergies.

2016 Collapse and Pneumonia Diagnosis

Clinton had to leave a Sept. 11th service in New York early after spending 90 minutes at the ceremony. Her staff first cited heat and exhaustion, then ultimately revealed that Clinton had been diagnosed in pneumonia on Friday.

Clinton campaign spokesman Brian Fallon did not reveal what type of pneumonia Clinton has during a Monday interview on MSNBC, but said Clinton would be putting out more medical information.

‘She was put on antibiotics and advised to rest and modify her schedule,’ said Bardack in a statement released at the end of the day. While attending the event, ‘she became overheated and dehydrated. I have just examined her and she is now re-hydrated and recovering nicely.’

Hours after Clinton was taken away from the Sept. 11th ceremony, her office released a doctor’s statement. ‘Secretary Clinton has been experiencing a cough related to allergies. On Friday, during follow-up evaluation of her prolonged cough, she was diagnosed with pneumonia. She was put on antibiotics, and advised to rest and modify her schedule. While at this morning’s event, she became overheated and dehydrated. I have just examined her and she is now rehydrated and recovering nicely,’ Clinton’s doctor, Lisa Bardack, said in a written statement Sunday.’

‘There’s no other undisclosed condition. The pneumonia is the extent of it,’ Clinton campaign spokesman Brian Fallon told MSNBC.

Fallon also acknowledged: ‘I think in retrospect we could have handled it better in terms of providing more information more quickly.’

Campaign manager Robby Mook, speaking of the 90 minute delay before the press was told Clinton’s status after she left the New York event, said Monday: ‘We wish that that had been a lot shorter and that’s on us.’

Clinton herself tweeted Monday: ‘Thanks to everyone who’s reached out with well wishes! I’m feeling fine and getting better,’ signing the missive with the letter ‘H.’

Clinton had to shake with her left hand following her 2009 injury. She is pictured here with Palestinian Authority Salam Fayyad 

Clinton had to shake with her left hand following her 2009 injury. She is pictured here with Palestinian Authority Salam Fayyad

Clinton campaigned in New York in June along with aide Huma Abedin. She was diagnosed with pneumonia Friday, according to her office

Clinton campaigned in New York in June along with aide Huma Abedin. She was diagnosed with pneumonia Friday, according to her office

Clinton is 68 and would be 69 when she assumed office, second to Ronald Reagan in age taking office. Donald Trump is 70, and has released few details about his medical background.

‘She participates in a healthy lifestyle and has had a full medical evaluation, which reveals no evidence of additional medical issues or cardiovascular disease. Her cancer screening evaluations are all negative. She is in excellent physical condition and fit to serve as President of the United States,’ her doctor wrote.

The letter released by Clinton's physician details her 2012 concussion and double vision

The letter released by Clinton’s physician details her 2012 concussion and double vision

Clinton was a 'healthy-appearing female' during her last examination, according to Dr. Lisa Bardack

Clinton was a ‘healthy-appearing female’ during her last examination, according to Dr. Lisa Bardack

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3786187/Three-blood-clots-concussion-deep-vein-thrombosis-Hillary-Clinton-s-shielded-medical-history-isn-t-just-conspiracy-theorists-penchant-privacy-gets-scrutiny.html#ixzz4KAAhLLNB

 

Parkinson’s disease

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“Parkinson’s” redirects here. For other uses, see Parkinson’s (disambiguation).
Parkinson’s disease
idiopathic or primary parkinsonism, hypokinetic rigid syndrome, paralysis agitans
Two sketches (one from the front and one from the right side) of a man, with an expressionless face. He is stooped forward and is presumably having difficulty walking.

Illustration of Parkinson’s disease by William Richard Gowers, which was first published in A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System (1886)
Classification and external resources
Specialty Neurology
ICD10 G20, F02.3
ICD9-CM 332
OMIM 168600556500
DiseasesDB 9651
MedlinePlus 000755
eMedicine neuro/304neuro/635 in young
pmr/99 rehab
MeSH D010300
GeneReviews

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a long term disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.[1] The symptoms generally come on slowly over time. Early in the disease, the most obvious are shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking.[1]Thinking and behavioral problems may also occur.Dementia becomes common in the advanced stages of the disease. Depression and anxiety are also common occurring in more than a third of people with PD.[2] Other symptoms include sensory, sleep, and emotional problems.[1][2] The main motor symptoms are collectively called “parkinsonism“, or a “parkinsonian syndrome”.[3][4]

The cause of Parkinson’s disease is generally unknown, but believed to involve both genetic and environmental factors. Those with a family member affected are more likely to get the disease themselves[4] There is also an increased risk in people exposed to certain pesticides and among those who have had prior head injuries while there is a reduced risk in tobacco smokers and those who drink coffee or tea.[4][5] The motor symptoms of the disease result from the death of cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain. This results in not enough dopamine in these areas.[1] The reason for this cell death is poorly understood but involves the build-up ofproteins into Lewy bodies in the neurons.[4] Diagnosis of typical cases is mainly based on symptoms, with tests such as neuroimaging being used to rule out other diseases.[1]

There is no cure for Parkinson’s disease.[1] Initial treatments is typically with the antiparkinson medicationlevodopa, with dopamine agonists being used once levodopa becomes less effective. As the disease progresses and neurons continue to be lost, these medications become less effective while at the same time they produce acomplication marked by involuntary writhing movements.[2] Diet and some forms of rehabilitation have shown some effectiveness at improving symptoms.[6][7]Surgery to place the microelectrodes for deep brain stimulation has been used to reduce motor symptoms in severe cases where drugs are ineffective.[1] Evidence for treatments for the non-movement-related symptoms of PD, such as sleep disturbances and emotional problems, is less strong.[4]

In 2013 PD was present in 53 million people and resulted in about 103,000 deaths globally.[8][9] Parkinson’s disease typically occurs in people over the age of 60, of which about one percent are affected.[1][10] Males are more often affected than females.[4] When it is seen in people before the age of 40 or 50, it is called young onset PD.[11] The average life expectancy following diagnosis is between 7 and 14 years.[2] The disease is named after the English doctor James Parkinson, who published the first detailed description in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, in 1817.[12][13] Public awareness campaigns include World Parkinson’s Day (on the birthday of James Parkinson, 11 April) and the use of a red tulip as the symbol of the disease.[14] People with parkinsonism who have increased the public’s awareness of the condition include actor Michael J. Fox, Olympic cyclist Davis Phinney, and late professional boxer Muhammad Ali.[15][16][17]

Classification

The term parkinsonism is used for a motor syndrome whose main symptoms are tremor at rest, stiffness, slowing of movement and postural instability. Parkinsonian syndromes can be divided into four subtypes, according to their origin:

  1. primary or idiopathic
  2. secondary or acquired
  3. hereditary parkinsonism, and
  4. Parkinson plus syndromes or multiple system degeneration.[18]

Parkinson’s disease is the most common form of parkinsonism and is usually defined as “primary” parkinsonism, meaning parkinsonism with no external identifiable cause.[19][20] In recent years several genes that are directly related to some cases of Parkinson’s disease have been discovered. As much as this conflicts with the definition of Parkinson’s disease as an idiopathic illness, genetic parkinsonism disorders with a similar clinical course to PD are generally included under the Parkinson’s disease label. The terms “familial Parkinson’s disease” and “sporadic Parkinson’s disease” can be used to differentiate genetic from truly idiopathic forms of the disease.[21]

Usually classified as a movement disorder, PD also gives rise to several non-motor types of symptoms such as sensory deficits,[22] cognitive difficulties, and sleep problems. Parkinson plus diseases are primary parkinsonisms which present additional features.[19] They include multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies.[19][23]

In terms of pathophysiology, PD is considered a synucleiopathy due to an abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein protein in the brain in the form of Lewy bodies, as opposed to other diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease where the brain accumulates tau protein in the form of neurofibrillary tangles.[24] Nevertheless, there is clinical and pathological overlap between tauopathies and synucleinopathies. The most typical symptom of Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, occurs in advanced stages of PD, while it is common to find neurofibrillary tangles in brains affected by PD.[24]

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is another synucleinopathy that has similarities with PD, and especially with the subset of PD cases with dementia. However, the relationship between PD and DLB is complex and still has to be clarified.[25] They may represent parts of a continuum or they may be separate diseases.[25]

Signs and symptoms

Black and white picture of a male with PD stooping forward as he walks. He is viewed from the left side and there is a chair behind him.

A man with Parkinson’s disease displaying a flexed walking posture pictured in 1892.[26]

French signature reads "Catherine Metzger 13 Octobre 1869"

Handwriting of a person affected by PD[27]

Parkinson’s disease affects movement, producing motor symptoms.[18] Non-motor symptoms, which include autonomic dysfunction, neuropsychiatric problems (mood, cognition, behavior or thought alterations), and sensory and sleep difficulties, are also common. Some of these non-motor symptoms are often present at the time of diagnosis and can precede motor symptoms.[18]

Motor

Further information: Parkinsonian gait

Four motor symptoms are considered cardinal in PD: tremor, rigidity, slowness of movement, and postural instability.[18]

Tremor is the most apparent and well-known symptom.[18] It is the most common; though around 30% of individuals with PD do not have tremor at disease onset, most develop it as the disease progresses.[18] It is usually a rest tremor: maximal when the limb is at rest and disappearing with voluntary movement and sleep.[18] It affects to a greater extent the most distal part of the limb and at onset typically appears in only a single arm or leg, becoming bilateral later.[18] Frequency of PD tremor is between 4 and 6 hertz (cycles per second). A feature of tremor is pill-rolling, the tendency of the index finger of the hand to get into contact with the thumb and perform together a circular movement.[18][28]The term derives from the similarity between the movement of people with PD and the earlier pharmaceutical technique of manually making pills.[28]

Hypokinesia (slowness of movement) is another characteristic feature of PD, and is associated with difficulties along the whole course of the movement process, from planning to initiation and finally execution of a movement.[18] Performance of sequential and simultaneous movement is hindered.[18] Bradykinesia is commonly a very disabling symptom in the early stages of the disease.[19] Initial manifestations are problems when performing daily tasks which require fine motor control such as writing, sewing or getting dressed.[18] Clinical evaluation is based on similar tasks such as alternating movements between both hands or both feet.[19] Bradykinesia is not equal for all movements or times. It is modified by the activity or emotional state of the subject, to the point that some people are barely able to walk yet can still ride a bicycle.[18] Generally people with PD have less difficulty when some sort of external cue is provided.[18][29]

Rigidity is stiffness and resistance to limb movement caused by increased muscle tone, an excessive and continuous contraction of muscles.[18] In parkinsonism the rigidity can be uniform (lead-pipe rigidity) or ratchety (cogwheel rigidity).[18][19][30][31] The combination of tremor and increased tone is considered to be at the origin of cogwheel rigidity.[32]Rigidity may be associated with joint pain; such pain being a frequent initial manifestation of the disease.[18] In early stages of Parkinson’s disease, rigidity is often asymmetrical and it tends to affect the neck and shoulder muscles prior to the muscles of the face and extremities.[33] With the progression of the disease, rigidity typically affects the whole body and reduces the ability to move.

Postural instability is typical in the late stages of the disease, leading to impaired balance and frequent falls,[34] and secondarily to bone fractures.[18] Instability is often absent in the initial stages, especially in younger people.[19] Up to 40% may experience falls and around 10% may have falls weekly, with the number of falls being related to the severity of PD.[18]

Other recognized motor signs and symptoms include gait and posture disturbances such as festination (rapid shuffling steps and a forward-flexed posture when walking),[18] speech and swallowing disturbances including voice disorders,[35]mask-like face expression or small handwriting, although the range of possible motor problems that can appear is large.[18]

Neuropsychiatric

Parkinson’s disease can cause neuropsychiatric disturbances which can range from mild to severe. This includes disorders of speech, cognition, mood, behaviour, and thought.[18]

Cognitive disturbances can occur in the early stages of the disease and sometimes prior to diagnosis, and increase in prevalence with duration of the disease.[18][36] The most common cognitive deficit in affected individuals is executive dysfunction, which can include problems with planning, cognitive flexibility, abstract thinking, rule acquisition, initiating appropriate actions and inhibiting inappropriate actions, working memory, and selecting relevant sensory information.[36][37] Fluctuations in attention, impaired perception and estimation of time, slowed cognitive processing speed are among other cognitive difficulties.[36][37] Memory is affected, specifically in recalling learned information.[36] Nevertheless, improvement appears when recall is aided by cues.[36] Visuospatial difficulties are also part of the disease, seen for example when the individual is asked to perform tests of facial recognition and perception of the orientation of drawn lines.[36][37]

A person with PD has two to six times the risk of dementia compared to the general population.[18][36] The prevalence of dementia increases with duration of the disease.[36] Dementia is associated with a reducedquality of life in people with PD and their caregivers, increased mortality, and a higher probability of needing nursing home care.[36]

Behavior and mood alterations are more common in PD without cognitive impairment than in the general population, and are usually present in PD with dementia. The most frequent mood difficulties are depression,apathy and anxiety.[18] Establishing the diagnosis of depression is complicated by symptoms that often occur in Parkinson’s including dementia, decreased facial expression, decreased movement, a state of indifference, and quiet speech.[38]Impulse control behaviors such as medication overuse and craving, binge eating, hypersexuality, or pathological gambling can appear in PD and have been related to the medications used to manage the disease.[18][39]Psychotic symptoms—hallucinations or delusions—occur in 4% of people with PD, and it is assumed that the main precipitant of psychotic phenomena in Parkinson’s disease is dopaminergic excess secondary to treatment; it therefore becomes more common with increasing age and levodopa intake.[40][41]

Other

In addition to cognitive and motor symptoms, PD can impair other body functions.

Sleep problems are a feature of the disease and can be worsened by medications.[18] Symptoms can manifest as daytime drowsiness, disturbances in REM sleep, or insomnia.[18] A systematic review shows that sleep attacks occur in 13.0% of patients with Parkinson’s disease on dopaminergic medications.[42]

Alterations in the autonomic nervous system can lead to orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure upon standing), oily skin and excessive sweating, urinary incontinence and altered sexual function.[18]Constipationand gastric dysmotility can be severe enough to cause discomfort and even endanger health.[6] PD is related to several eye and vision abnormalities such as decreased blink rate, dry eyes, deficient ocular pursuit(eye tracking) and saccadic movements (fast automatic movements of both eyes in the same direction), difficulties in directing gaze upward, and blurred or double vision.[18][43] Changes in perception may include an impaired sense of smell, sensation of pain and paresthesia (skin tingling and numbness).[18] All of these symptoms can occur years before diagnosis of the disease.[18]

Causes

Parkinson’s disease in most people is idiopathic (having no specific known cause). However, a small proportion of cases can be attributed to known genetic factors. Other factors have been associated with the risk of developing PD, but no causal relationships have been proven.

Environmental factors

U.S. Army helicopter spraying Agent Orange over Vietnamese agricultural land during the Vietnam war

A number of environmental factors have been associated with an increased risk of Parkinson’s including: pesticide exposure, head injuries, and living in the country or farming.[44][45] Rural environments and the drinking of well water may be risks as they are indirect measures of exposure to pesticides.[46][47]

Implicated agents include insecticides, primarily chlorpyrifos and organochlorines[48] and pesticides, such as rotenone or paraquat, and herbicides, such as Agent Orange andziram.[46][47][49][50]Heavy metals exposure has been proposed to be a risk factor, through possible accumulation in the substantia nigra; however, studies on the issue have been inconclusive.[46]

Genetics

Parkin crystal structure

PD traditionally has been considered a non-genetic disorder; however, around 15% of individuals with PD have a first-degree relative who has the disease.[19] At least 5% of people are now known to have forms of the disease that occur because of a mutation of one of several specific genes.[51]

Mutations in specific genes have been conclusively shown to cause PD. These genes code for alpha-synuclein (SNCA), parkin (PRKN), leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 or dardarin), PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), DJ-1 and ATP13A2.[21][51] In most cases, people with these mutations will develop PD. With the exception of LRRK2, however, they account for only a small minority of cases of PD.[21] The most extensively studied PD-related genes are SNCA and LRRK2. Mutations in genes including SNCA, LRRK2 and glucocerebrosidase (GBA) have been found to be risk factors for sporadic PD. Mutations in GBA are known to cause Gaucher’s disease.[51]Genome-wide association studies, which search for mutated alleles with low penetrance in sporadic cases, have now yielded many positive results.[52]

The role of the SNCA gene is important in PD because the alpha-synuclein protein is the main component of Lewy bodies.[51]Missense mutations of the gene (in which a singlenucleotide is changed), and duplications and triplications of the locus containing it have been found in different groups with familial PD.[51] Missense mutations are rare.[51] On the other hand, multiplications of the SNCA locus account for around 2% of familial cases.[51] Multiplications have been found in asymptomatic carriers, which indicate that penetrance is incomplete or age-dependent.[51]

The LRRK2 gene (PARK8) encodes a protein called dardarin. The name dardarin was taken from a Basque word for tremor, because this gene was first identified in families from England and the north of Spain.[21]Mutations in LRRK2 are the most common known cause of familial and sporadic PD, accounting for approximately 5% of individuals with a family history of the disease and 3% of sporadic cases.[21][51] There are many mutations described in LRRK2, however unequivocal proof of causation only exists for a few.[51]

Several Parkinson-related genes are involved in the function of lysosomes, organelles that digest cellular waste products. It has been suggested that some forms of Parkinson may be caused by lysosome dysfunctions that reduce the ability of cells to break down alpha-synuclein.[53]

Pathology

Several brain cells stained in blue. The largest one, a neurone, with an approximately circular form, has a brown circular body inside it. The brown body is about 40% the diameter of the cell in which it appears.

A Lewy body (stained brown) in a brain cell of the substantia nigra in Parkinson’s disease. The brown colour is positive immunohistochemistrystaining for alpha-synuclein.

Anatomical

The basal ganglia, a group of brain structures innervated by the dopaminergic system, are the most seriously affected brain areas in PD.[54] The main pathologicalcharacteristic of PD is cell death in the substantia nigra and, more specifically, the ventral (front) part of the pars compacta, affecting up to 70% of the cells by the time death occurs.[21]

Macroscopic alterations can be noticed on cut surfaces of the brainstem, where neuronal loss can be inferred from a reduction of neuromelanin pigmentation in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus.[55] The histopathology (microscopic anatomy) of the substantia nigra and several other brain regions shows neuronal loss and Lewy bodies in many of the remaining nerve cells. Neuronal loss is accompanied by death of astrocytes (star-shaped glial cells) and activation of the microglia (another type of glial cell). Lewy bodies are a key pathological feature of PD.[55]

Pathophysiology

Composite of three images, one in top row (referred to in caption as A), two in second row (referred to as B). Top shows a mid-line sagittal plane of the brainstem and cerebellum. There are three circles superimposed along the brainstem and an arrow linking them from bottom to top and continuing upward and forward towards the frontal lobes of the brain. A line of text accompanies each circle: lower is "1. Dorsal Motor X Nucleus", middle is "2. Gain Setting Nuclei" and upper is "3. Substantia Nigra/Amygdala". The fourth line of text above the others says "4. ...". The two images at the bottom of the composite are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, one sagittal and the other transverse, centred at the same brain coordinates (x=-1, y=-36, z=-49). A colored blob marking volume reduction covers most of the brainstem.

A. Schematic initial progression of Lewy body deposits in the first stages of Parkinson’s disease, as proposed by Braak and colleagues
B. Localization of the area of significant brain volume reduction in initial PD compared with a group of participants without the disease in a neuroimaging study, which concluded that brain stemdamage may be the first identifiable stage of PD neuropathology[56]

The primary symptoms of Parkinson’s disease result from greatly reduced activity of dopamine-secreting cells caused by cell death in the pars compacta region of thesubstantia nigra.[54]

There are five major pathways in the brain connecting other brain areas with the basal ganglia. These are known as the motor, oculo-motor, associative, limbic and orbitofrontalcircuits, with names indicating the main projection area of each circuit.[54] All of them are affected in PD, and their disruption explains many of the symptoms of the disease since these circuits are involved in a wide variety of functions including movement, attention and learning.[54] Scientifically, the motor circuit has been examined the most intensively.[54]

A particular conceptual model of the motor circuit and its alteration with PD has been of great influence since 1980, although some limitations have been pointed out which have led to modifications.[54] In this model, the basal ganglia normally exert a constant inhibitory influence on a wide range of motor systems, preventing them from becoming active at inappropriate times. When a decision is made to perform a particular action, inhibition is reduced for the required motor system, thereby releasing it for activation. Dopamine acts to facilitate this release of inhibition, so high levels of dopamine function tend to promote motor activity, while low levels of dopamine function, such as occur in PD, demand greater exertions of effort for any given movement. Thus, the net effect of dopamine depletion is to produce hypokinesia, an overall reduction in motor output.[54] Drugs that are used to treat PD, conversely, may produce excessive dopamine activity, allowing motor systems to be activated at inappropriate times and thereby producing dyskinesias.[54]

Brain cell death

There is speculation of several mechanisms by which the brain cells could be lost.[57] One mechanism consists of an abnormal accumulation of the protein alpha-synucleinbound to ubiquitin in the damaged cells. This insoluble protein accumulates inside neurones forming inclusions called Lewy bodies.[21][58] According to the Braak staging, a classification of the disease based on pathological findings, Lewy bodies first appear in the olfactory bulb, medulla oblongata and pontine tegmentum, with individuals at this stage being asymptomatic. As the disease progresses, Lewy bodies later develop in the substantia nigra, areas of the midbrain and basal forebrain, and in a last step theneocortex.[21] These brain sites are the main places of neuronal degeneration in PD; however, Lewy bodies may not cause cell death and they may be protective.[57][58] In people with dementia, a generalized presence of Lewy bodies is common in cortical areas. Neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques, characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease, are not common unless the person is demented.[55]

Other cell-death mechanisms include proteosomal and lysosomal system dysfunction and reduced mitochondrial activity.[57] Iron accumulation in the substantia nigra is typically observed in conjunction with the protein inclusions. It may be related to oxidative stress, protein aggregation and neuronal death, but the mechanisms are not fully understood.[59]

Diagnosis

Sagittal PET scan at the level of the striatum. Hottest areas are the cortical grey matter and the striatum.

Fludeoxyglucose (18F) (FDG) PET scan of a healthy brain. Hotter areas reflect higher glucose uptake. A decreased activity in the basal ganglia can aid in diagnosing Parkinson’s disease.

A physician will diagnose Parkinson’s disease from the medical history and a neurological examination.[18] There is no lab test that will clearly identify the disease, but brain scans are sometimes used to rule out disorders that could give rise to similar symptoms. People may be given levodopa and resulting relief of motor impairment tends to confirm the diagnosis. The finding of Lewy bodies in the midbrain on autopsy is usually considered proof that the person had Parkinson’s disease. The progress of the illness over time may reveal it is not Parkinson’s disease, and some authorities recommend that the diagnosis should be periodically reviewed.[18][60]

Other causes that can secondarily produce a parkinsonian syndrome are Alzheimer’s disease, multiple cerebral infarction and drug-induced parkinsonism.[60]Parkinson plus syndromessuch as progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy must be ruled out.[18] Anti-Parkinson’s medications are typically less effective at controlling symptoms in Parkinson plus syndromes.[18] Faster progression rates, early cognitive dysfunction or postural instability, minimal tremor or symmetry at onset may indicate a Parkinson plus disease rather than PD itself.[61] Genetic forms are usually classified as PD, although the terms familial Parkinson’s disease and familial parkinsonism are used for disease entities with an autosomal dominant or recessive pattern of inheritance.[19]

Medical organizations have created diagnostic criteria to ease and standardize the diagnostic process, especially in the early stages of the disease. The most widely known criteria come from the UK Parkinson’s Disease Society Brain Bank and the U.S. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.[18] The PD Society Brain Bank criteria require slowness of movement (bradykinesia) plus either rigidity, resting tremor, or postural instability. Other possible causes of these symptoms need to be ruled out. Finally, three or more of the following features are required during onset or evolution: unilateral onset, tremor at rest, progression in time, asymmetry of motor symptoms, response to levodopa for at least five years, clinical course of at least ten years and appearance of dyskinesias induced by the intake of excessive levodopa.[18]Accuracy of diagnostic criteria evaluated at autopsy is 75–90%, with specialists such as neurologists having the highest rates.[18]

Computed tomography (CT) and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans of people with PD usually appear normal.[62] These techniques are nevertheless useful to rule out other diseases that can be secondary causes of parkinsonism, such as basal ganglia tumors, vascular pathology and hydrocephalus.[62] A specific technique of MRI, diffusion MRI, has been reported to be useful at discriminating between typical and atypical parkinsonism, although its exact diagnostic value is still under investigation.[62] Dopaminergic function in the basal ganglia can be measured with different PET and SPECTradiotracers. Examples are ioflupane (123I) (trade name DaTSCAN) and iometopane (Dopascan) for SPECT or fluorodeoxyglucose (18F)[62] and DTBZ[63] for PET. A pattern of reduced dopaminergic activity in the basal ganglia can aid in diagnosing PD.[62]

Prevention

Exercise in middle age reduces the risk of Parkinson’s disease later in life.[7]Caffeine also appears protective with a greater decrease in risk occurring with a larger intake of caffeinated beverages such as coffee.[64]Although tobacco smoke causes adverse health effects, decreases life expectancy and quality of life, it may reduce the risk of PD by a third when compared to non-smokers.[46] The basis for this effect is not known, but possibilities include an effect of nicotine as a dopamine stimulant.[46][65] Tobacco smoke contains compounds that act as MAO inhibitors that also might contribute to this effect.[66]

Antioxidants, such as vitamins C and D, have been proposed to protect against the disease but results of studies have been contradictory and no positive effect has been proven.[46] The results regarding fat and fatty acids have been contradictory, with various studies reporting protective effects, risk-increasing effects or no effects.[46] Also, there have been preliminary indications of a possible protective role of estrogens and anti-inflammatory drugs.[46]

Management

Pharmacological treatment of Parkinson’s disease

There is no cure for Parkinson’s disease, but medications, surgery, and multidisciplinary management can provide relief from the symptoms. The main families of drugs useful for treating motor symptoms are levodopa (usually combined with a dopa decarboxylase inhibitor or COMT inhibitor which does not cross the blood–brain barrier), dopamine agonists and MAO-B inhibitors.[67] The stage of the disease determines which group is most useful. Two stages are usually distinguished: an initial stage in which the individual with PD has already developed some disability for which he needs pharmacological treatment, then a second stage in which an individual develops motor complications related to levodopa usage.[67] Treatment in the initial stage aims for an optimal tradeoff between good symptom control and side-effects resulting from improvement of dopaminergic function. The start of levodopa (or L-DOPA) treatment may be delayed by using other medications such as MAO-B inhibitors and dopamine agonists, in the hope of delaying the onset of dyskinesias.[67] In the second stage the aim is to reduce symptoms while controlling fluctuations of the response to medication. Sudden withdrawals from medication or overuse have to be managed.[67] When medications are not enough to control symptoms, surgery, and deep brain stimulation can be of use.[68] In the final stages of the disease, palliative care is provided to improve quality of life.[69]

Levodopa

Levodopa has been the most widely used treatment for over 30 years.[67] L-DOPA is converted into dopamine in the dopaminergic neurons by dopa decarboxylase.[67] Since motor symptoms are produced by a lack of dopamine in the substantia nigra, the administration of L-DOPA temporarily diminishes the motor symptoms.[67]

Only 5–10% of L-DOPA crosses the blood–brain barrier. The remainder is often metabolized to dopamine elsewhere, causing a variety of side effects including nausea, dyskinesias and joint stiffness.[67]Carbidopaand benserazide are peripheral dopa decarboxylase inhibitors,[67] which help to prevent the metabolism of L-DOPA before it reaches the dopaminergic neurons, therefore reducing side effects and increasingbioavailability. They are generally given as combination preparations with levodopa.[67] Existing preparations are carbidopa/levodopa (co-careldopa) and benserazide/levodopa (co-beneldopa). Levodopa has been related to dopamine dysregulation syndrome, which is a compulsive overuse of the medication, and punding.[39] There are controlled release versions of levodopa in the form intravenous and intestinal infusions that spread out the effect of the medication. These slow-release levodopa preparations have not shown an increased control of motor symptoms or motor complications when compared to immediate release preparations.[67][70]

Tolcapone inhibits the COMT enzyme, which degrades dopamine, thereby prolonging the effects of levodopa.[67] It has been used to complement levodopa; however, its usefulness is limited by possible side effects such as liver damage.[67] A similarly effective drug, entacapone, has not been shown to cause significant alterations of liver function.[67] Licensed preparations of entacapone contain entacapone alone or in combination with carbidopa and levodopa.[67]

Levodopa preparations lead in the long term to the development of motor complications characterized by involuntary movements called dyskinesias and fluctuations in the response to medication.[67] When this occurs a person with PD can change from phases with good response to medication and few symptoms (“on” state), to phases with no response to medication and significant motor symptoms (“off” state).[67] For this reason, levodopa doses are kept as low as possible while maintaining functionality.[67] Delaying the initiation of therapy with levodopa by using alternatives (dopamine agonists and MAO-B inhibitors) is common practice.[67] A former strategy to reduce motor complications was to withdraw L-DOPA medication for some time. This is discouraged now since it can bring dangerous side effects such as neuroleptic malignant syndrome.[67] Most people with PD will eventually need levodopa and later develop motor side effects.[67]

Dopamine agonists

Several dopamine agonists that bind to dopaminergic post-synaptic receptors in the brain have similar effects to levodopa.[67] These were initially used for individuals experiencing on-off fluctuations and dyskinesias as a complementary therapy to levodopa; they are now mainly used on their own as an initial therapy for motor symptoms with the aim of delaying motor complications.[67][71] When used in late PD they are useful at reducing the off periods.[67] Dopamine agonists include bromocriptine, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, piribedil, cabergoline, apomorphine and lisuride.

Dopamine agonists produce significant, although usually mild, side effects including drowsiness, hallucinations, insomnia, nausea, and constipation.[67] Sometimes side effects appear even at a minimal clinically effective dose, leading the physician to search for a different drug.[67] Compared with levodopa, dopamine agonists may delay motor complications of medication use but are less effective at controlling symptoms.[67]Nevertheless, they are usually effective enough to manage symptoms in the initial years.[19] They tend to be more expensive than levodopa.[19] Dyskinesias due to dopamine agonists are rare in younger people who have PD, but along with other side effects, become more common with age at onset.[19] Thus dopamine agonists are the preferred initial treatment for earlier onset, as opposed to levodopa in later onset.[19] Agonists have been related to impulse control disorders (such as compulsive sexual activity and eating, and pathological gambling and shopping) even more strongly than levodopa.[39]

Apomorphine, a non-orally administered dopamine agonist, may be used to reduce off periods and dyskinesia in late PD.[67] It is administered by intermittent injections or continuous subcutaneous infusions.[67] Since secondary effects such as confusion and hallucinations are common, individuals receiving apomorphine treatment should be closely monitored.[67] Two dopamine agonists that are administered through skin patches (lisuride and rotigotine) and are useful for people in the initial stages and possibly to control off states in those in the advanced state.[70]

MAO-B inhibitors

MAO-B inhibitors (safinamide, selegiline and rasagiline) increase the level of dopamine in the basal ganglia by blocking its metabolism. They inhibit monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) which breaks down dopamine secreted by the dopaminergic neurons. The reduction in MAO-B activity results in increased L-DOPA in the striatum.[67] Like dopamine agonists, MAO-B inhibitors used as monotherapy improve motor symptoms and delay the need for levodopa in early disease, but produce more adverse effects and are less effective than levodopa. There are few studies of their effectiveness in the advanced stage, although results suggest that they are useful to reduce fluctuations between on and off periods.[67] An initial study indicated that selegiline in combination with levodopa increased the risk of death, but this was later disproven.[67]

Other drugs

Other drugs such as amantadine and anticholinergics may be useful as treatment of motor symptoms. However, the evidence supporting them lacks quality, so they are not first choice treatments.[67] In addition to motor symptoms, PD is accompanied by a diverse range of symptoms. A number of drugs have been used to treat some of these problems.[72] Examples are the use of quetiapine for psychosis, cholinesterase inhibitors for dementia, and modafinil for daytime sleepiness.[72][73] A 2010 meta-analysis found that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (apart from aspirin), have been associated with at least a 15 percent (higher in long-term and regular users) reduction of incidence of the development of Parkinson’s disease.[74]

Surgery

Placement of an electrode into the brain. The head is stabilised in a frame forstereotactic surgery.

Treating motor symptoms with surgery was once a common practice, but since the discovery of levodopa, the number of operations declined.[75] Studies in the past few decades have led to great improvements in surgical techniques, so that surgery is again being used in people with advanced PD for whom drug therapy is no longer sufficient.[75] Surgery for PD can be divided in two main groups: lesional and deep brain stimulation (DBS). Target areas for DBS or lesions include the thalamus, the globus pallidus or the subthalamic nucleus.[75]Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the most commonly used surgical treatment, developed in the 1980s by Alim-Louis Benabid and others. It involves the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator which sends electrical impulses to specific parts of the brain. DBS is recommended for people who have PD with motor fluctuations and tremor inadequately controlled by medication, or to those who are intolerant to medication, as long as they do not have severe neuropsychiatric problems.[68] Other, less common, surgical therapies involve intentional formation of lesions to suppress overactivity of specific subcortical areas. For example, pallidotomy involves surgical destruction of the globus pallidus to control dyskinesia.[75]

Rehabilitation

Exercise programs are recommended in people with Parkinson’s disease.[7] There is some evidence that speech or mobility problems can improve with rehabilitation, although studies are scarce and of low quality.[76][77] Regular physical exercise with or without physiotherapy can be beneficial to maintain and improve mobility, flexibility, strength, gait speed, and quality of life.[77] When an exercise program is performed under the supervision of a physiotherapist, there are more improvements in motor symptoms, mental and emotional functions, daily living activities, and quality of life compared to a self-supervised exercise program at home.[78] In terms of improving flexibility and range of motion for people experiencing rigidity, generalized relaxation techniques such as gentle rocking have been found to decrease excessive muscle tension. Other effective techniques to promote relaxation include slow rotational movements of the extremities and trunk, rhythmic initiation, diaphragmatic breathing, and meditation techniques.[79] As for gait and addressing the challenges associated with the disease such as hypokinesia (slowness of movement), shuffling and decreased arm swing; physiotherapists have a variety of strategies to improve functional mobility and safety. Areas of interest with respect to gait during rehabilitation programs focus on but are not limited to improving gait speed, the base of support, stride length, trunk and arm swing movement. Strategies include utilizing assistive equipment (pole walking and treadmill walking), verbal cueing (manual, visual and auditory), exercises (marching and PNF patterns) and altering environments (surfaces, inputs, open vs. closed).[80] Strengthening exercises have shown improvements in strength and motor function for people with primary muscular weakness and weakness related to inactivity with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease. However, reports show a significant interaction between strength and the time the medications was taken. Therefore, it is recommended that people with PD should perform exercises 45 minutes to one hour after medications when they are at their best.[81] Also, due to the forward flexed posture, and respiratory dysfunctions in advanced Parkinson’s disease, deep diaphragmatic breathing exercises are beneficial in improving chest wall mobility and vital capacity.[82] Exercise may improve constipation.[6]

One of the most widely practiced treatments for speech disorders associated with Parkinson’s disease is the Lee Silverman voice treatment (LSVT).[76][83] Speech therapy and specifically LSVT may improve speech.[76]Occupational therapy (OT) aims to promote health and quality of life by helping people with the disease to participate in as many of their daily living activities as possible.[76] There have been few studies on the effectiveness of OT and their quality is poor, although there is some indication that it may improve motor skills and quality of life for the duration of the therapy.[76][84]

Palliative care

Palliative care is specialized medical care for people with serious illnesses, including Parkinson’s. The goal of this speciality is to improve quality of life for both the person suffering from Parkinson’s and the family by providing relief from the symptoms, pain, and stress of illnesses.[85] As Parkinson’s is not a curable disease, all treatments are focused on slowing decline and improving quality of life, and are therefore palliative in nature.[86]

Palliative care should be involved earlier, rather than later in the disease course.[87][88] Palliative care specialists can help with physical symptoms, emotional factors such as loss of function and jobs, depression, fear, and existential concerns.[87][88][89]

Along with offering emotional support to both the patient and family, palliative care serves an important role in addressing goals of care. People with Parkinson’s may have many difficult decisions to make as the disease progresses such as wishes for feeding tube, non-invasive ventilator, and tracheostomy; wishes for or against cardiopulmonary resuscitation; and when to use hospice care.[86] Palliative care team members can help answer questions and guide people with Parkinson’s on these complex and emotional topics to help them make the best decision based on their own values.[88][90]

Other treatments

Muscles and nerves that control the digestive process may be affected by PD, resulting in constipation and gastroparesis (food remaining in the stomach for a longer period than normal).[6] A balanced diet, based on periodical nutritional assessments, is recommended and should be designed to avoid weight loss or gain and minimize consequences of gastrointestinal dysfunction.[6] As the disease advances, swallowing difficulties (dysphagia) may appear. In such cases it may be helpful to use thickening agents for liquid intake and an upright posture when eating, both measures reducing the risk of choking. Gastrostomy to deliver food directly into the stomach is possible in severe cases.[6]

Levodopa and proteins use the same transportation system in the intestine and the blood–brain barrier, thereby competing for access.[6] When they are taken together, this results in a reduced effectiveness of the drug.[6] Therefore, when levodopa is introduced, excessive protein consumption is discouraged and well balanced Mediterranean diet is recommended. In advanced stages, additional intake of low-protein products such as bread or pasta is recommended for similar reasons.[6] To minimize interaction with proteins, levodopa should be taken 30 minutes before meals.[6] At the same time, regimens for PD restrict proteins during breakfast and lunch, allowing protein intake in the evening.[6]

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation temporarily improves levodopa-induced dyskinesias.[91] Its usefulness in PD is an open research topic,[92] although recent studies have shown no effect by rTMS.[93]Several nutrients have been proposed as possible treatments; however there is no evidence that vitamins or food additives improve symptoms.[94] There is no evidence to substantiate that acupuncture and practice of Qigong, or T’ai chi, have any effect on the course of the disease or symptoms. Further research on the viability of Tai chi for balance or motor skills are necessary.[95][96][97]Fava beans and velvet beans are natural sources of levodopa and are eaten by many people with PD. While they have shown some effectiveness in clinical trials,[98] their intake is not free of risks. Life-threatening adverse reactions have been described, such as the neuroleptic malignant syndrome.[99][100]

Prognosis

Global burden of Parkinson’s disease, measured in disability-adjusted life years per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004

  no data
  < 5
  5–12.5
  12.5–20
  20–27.5
  27.5–35
  35–42.5
  42.5–50
  50–57.5
  57.5–65
  65–72.5
  72.5–80
  > 80

PD invariably progresses with time. A severity rating method known as the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) is the most commonly used metric for clinical study. A modified version known as the MDS-UPDRS is also sometimes used. An older scaling method known as the Hoehn and Yahr scale (originally published in 1967), and a similar scale known as the Modified Hoehn and Yahr scale, have also been commonly used. The Hoehn and Yahr scale defines five basic stages of progression.

Motor symptoms, if not treated, advance aggressively in the early stages of the disease and more slowly later. Untreated, individuals are expected to lose independent ambulation after an average of eight years and be bedridden after ten years.[101] However, it is uncommon to find untreated people nowadays. Medication has improved the prognosis of motor symptoms, while at the same time it is a new source of disability because of the undesired effects of levodopa after years of use.[101] In people taking levodopa, the progression time of symptoms to a stage of high dependency from caregivers may be over 15 years.[101] However, it is hard to predict what course the disease will take for a given individual.[101] Age is the best predictor of disease progression.[57] The rate of motor decline is greater in those with less impairment at the time of diagnosis, while cognitive impairment is more frequent in those who are over 70 years of age at symptom onset.[57]

Since current therapies improve motor symptoms, disability at present is mainly related to non-motor features of the disease.[57] Nevertheless, the relationship between disease progression and disability is not linear. Disability is initially related to motor symptoms.[101] As the disease advances, disability is more related to motor symptoms that do not respond adequately to medication, such as swallowing/speech difficulties, and gait/balance problems; and also to motor complications, which appear in up to 50% of individuals after 5 years of levodopa usage.[101] Finally, after ten years most people with the disease have autonomic disturbances, sleep problems, mood alterations and cognitive decline.[101] All of these symptoms, especially cognitive decline, greatly increase disability.[57][101]

The life expectancy of people with PD is reduced.[101]Mortality ratios are around twice those of unaffected people.[101] Cognitive decline and dementia, old age at onset, a more advanced disease state and presence of swallowing problems are all mortality risk factors. On the other hand, a disease pattern mainly characterized by tremor as opposed to rigidity predicts an improved survival.[101] Death from aspiration pneumonia is twice as common in individuals with PD as in the healthy population.[101]

In 2013 PD resulted in about 103,000 deaths globally, up from 44,000 deaths in 1990.[8] The death rate increased from an average of 1.5 to 1.8 per 100,000 during that time.[8]

Epidemiology

Deaths from Parkinson disease per million persons in 2012

  0-1
  2-4
  5-6
  7-8
  9-10
  11-12
  13-17
  18-36
  37-62
  63-109

PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s disease and affects approximately seven million people globally and one million people in the United States.[34][46] The proportion in a population at a given time is about 0.3% in industrialized countries. PD is more common in the elderly and rates rises from 1% in those over 60 years of age to 4% of the population over 80.[46] The mean age of onset is around 60 years, although 5–10% of cases, classified as young onset PD, begin between the ages of 20 and 50.[19] PD may be less prevalent in those of African and Asian ancestry, although this finding is disputed.[46] Some studies have proposed that it is more common in men than women, but others failed to detect any differences between the two sexes.[46] The number of new cases per year of PD is between 8 and 18 per 100,000 person–years.[46]

Many risk factors and protective factors have been proposed, sometimes in relation to theories concerning possible mechanisms of the disease, however, none have been conclusively related to PD by empirical evidence. When epidemiological studies have been carried out in order to test the relationship between a given factor and PD, they have often been flawed and their results have in some cases been contradictory.[46] The most frequently replicated relationships are an increased risk of PD in those exposed to pesticides, and a reduced risk in smokers.[46]

History

Jean-Martin Charcot, who made important contributions to the understanding of the disease and proposed its current name honoring James Parkinson

Several early sources, including an Egyptianpapyrus, an Ayurvedic medical treatise, the Bible, and Galen‘s writings, describe symptoms resembling those of PD.[102] After Galen there are no references unambiguously related to PD until the 17th century.[102] In the 17th and 18th centuries, several authors wrote about elements of the disease, including Sylvius,Gaubius, Hunter and Chomel.[102][103][104]

In 1817 an English doctor, James Parkinson, published his essay reporting six cases of paralysis agitans.[14]An Essay on the Shaking Palsy described the characteristic resting tremor, abnormal posture and gait, paralysis and diminished muscle strength, and the way that the disease progresses over time.[12][105] Early neurologists who made further additions to the knowledge of the disease include Trousseau, Gowers, Kinnier Wilson and Erb, and most notably Jean-Martin Charcot, whose studies between 1868 and 1881 were a landmark in the understanding of the disease.[14] Among other advances, he made the distinction between rigidity, weakness and bradykinesia.[14] He also championed the renaming of the disease in honor of James Parkinson.[14]

In 1912 Frederic Lewy described microscopic particles in affected brains, later named “Lewy bodies“.[14] In 1919 Konstantin Tretiakoff reported that the substantia nigra was the main cerebral structure affected, but this finding was not widely accepted until it was confirmed by further studies published by Rolf Hassler in 1938.[14] The underlying biochemical changes in the brain were identified in the 1950s, due largely to the work of Arvid Carlsson on the neurotransmitter dopamine and Oleh Hornykiewicz on its role on PD.[106] In 1997, alpha-synuclein was found to be the main component of Lewy bodies by Spillantini, Trojanowski, Goedert and others.[58]

Anticholinergics and surgery (lesioning of the corticospinal pathway or some of the basal ganglia structures) were the only treatments until the arrival of levodopa, which reduced their use dramatically.[103][107]Levodopa was first synthesized in 1911 by Casimir Funk, but it received little attention until the mid 20th century.[106] It entered clinical practice in 1967 and brought about a revolution in the management of PD.[106][108] By the late 1980s deep brain stimulation introduced by Alim-Louis Benabid and colleagues at Grenoble, France, emerged as a possible treatment.[109]

Society and culture

Cost

“Parkinson’s awareness” logo with red tulip symbol.

The costs of PD to society are high, but precise calculations are difficult due to methodological issues in research and differences between countries.[110] The annual cost in the UK is estimated to be between 449 million and 3.3 billion pounds, while the cost per patient per year in the U.S. is probably around $10,000 and the total burden around 23 billion dollars.[110] The largest share of direct cost comes from inpatient care and nursing homes, while the share coming from medication is substantially lower.[110] Indirect costs are high, due to reduced productivity and the burden on caregivers.[110] In addition to economic costs, PD reduces quality of life of those with the disease and their caregivers.[110]

Advocacy

11 April, the birthday of James Parkinson, has been designated as World Parkinson’s Day.[14] A red tulip was chosen by international organizations as the symbol of the disease in 2005: it represents the James Parkinson Tulip cultivar, registered in 1981 by a Dutch horticulturalist.[111] Advocacy organizations include the National Parkinson Foundation, which has provided more than $180 million in care, research and support services since 1982,[112]Parkinson’s Disease Foundation, which has distributed more than $115 million for research and nearly $50 million for education and advocacy programs since its founding in 1957 by William Black;[113][114] the American Parkinson Disease Association, founded in 1961;[115] and the European Parkinson’s Disease Association, founded in 1992.[116]

Notable cases

Muhammad Ali at theWorld Economic Forum inDavos, at the age of 64. He had shown signs of parkinsonism from the age of 38 until his death.

Actor Michael J. Fox has PD and has greatly increased the public awareness of the disease.[15] After diagnosis, Fox embraced his Parkinson’s in television roles, sometimes acting without medication, in order to further illustrate the effects of the condition. He has written two autobiographies in which his fight against the disease plays a major role,[117] and appeared before the United States Congress without medication to illustrate the effects of the disease.[117]The Michael J. Fox Foundation aims to develop a cure for Parkinson’s disease.[117] Fox received an honorary doctorate in medicine from Karolinska Institutet for his contributions to research in Parkinson’s disease.[118]

Professional cyclist and Olympic medalist Davis Phinney, who was diagnosed with young onset Parkinson’s at age 40, started the Davis Phinney Foundation in 2004 to support Parkinson’s research, focusing on quality of life for people with the disease.[16][119][120]

Muhammad Ali showed signs of Parkinson’s when he was 38, but was not diagnosed until he was 42, and has been called the “world’s most famous Parkinson’s patient”.[17] Whether he had PD or a parkinsonismrelated to boxing is unresolved.[121][122]

Research

There is little prospect of significant new PD treatments in the near future.[123] Currently active research directions include the search for new animal models of the disease and studies of the potential usefulness of gene therapy, stem cell transplants and neuroprotective agents.[57]

Animal models

PD is not known to occur naturally in any species other than humans, although animal models which show some features of the disease are used in research. The appearance of parkinsonian symptoms in a group of drug addicts in the early 1980s who consumed a contaminated batch of the synthetic opiateMPPP led to the discovery of the chemical MPTP as an agent that causes a parkinsonian syndrome in non-human primates as well as in humans.[124] Other predominant toxin-based models employ the insecticide rotenone, the herbicideparaquat and the fungicide maneb.[125] Models based on toxins are most commonly used in primates. Transgenic rodent models that replicate various aspects of PD have been developed.[126] Using the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine, also known as 6-OHDA, it creates a model of Parkinson’s disease in rats by targeting and destroying dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway when injected into the substantia nigra.[127]

Gene therapy

Gene therapy typically involves the use of a non-infectious virus (i.e., a viral vector such as the adeno-associated virus) to shuttle genetic material into a part of the brain. The gene used leads to the production of anenzyme that helps to manage PD symptoms or protects the brain from further damage.[57][128] In 2010 there were four clinical trials using gene therapy in PD.[57] There have not been important adverse effects in these trials although the clinical usefulness of gene therapy is still unknown.[57] One of these reported positive results in 2011,[129] but the company filed for bankruptcy in March 2012.[130]

Neuroprotective treatments

Several chemical compounds such as GDNF (chemical structure pictured) have been proposed as neuroprotectors in PD, but their effectiveness has not been proven.

Investigations on neuroprotection are at the forefront of PD research. Several molecules have been proposed as potential treatments.[57] However, none of them have been conclusively demonstrated to reduce degeneration.[57] Agents currently under investigation include anti-apoptotics (omigapil, CEP-1347), antiglutamatergics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (selegiline, rasagiline), promitochondrials (coenzyme Q10, creatine), calcium channel blockers (isradipine) and growth factors (GDNF).[57] Preclinical research also targets alpha-synuclein.[123] A vaccine that primes the human immune system to destroy alpha-synuclein, PD01A (developed by Austrian company, Affiris), has entered clinical trials in humans.[131]

Neural transplantation

Since early in the 1980s, fetal, porcine, carotid or retinal tissues have been used in cell transplants, in which dissociated cells are injected into the substantia nigra in the hope that they will incorporate themselves into the brain in a way that replaces the dopamine-producing cells that have been lost.[57] Although there was initial evidence ofmesencephalic dopamine-producing cell transplants being beneficial, double-blind trials to date indicate that cell transplants produce no long-term benefit.[57] An additional significant problem was the excess release of dopamine by the transplanted tissue, leading to dystonias.[132]Stem cell transplants are a recent research target, because stem cells are easy to manipulate and stem cells transplanted into the brains of rodents and monkeys have been found to survive and reduce behavioral abnormalities.[57][133]Nevertheless, use of fetal stem cells is controversial.[57] It has been proposed that effective treatments may be developed in a less controversial way by use of induced pluripotent stem cells taken from adults.[57]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parkinson%27s_disease

Multiple sclerosis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Multiple sclerosis
disseminated sclerosis, encephalomyelitis disseminata
MS Demyelinisation CD68 10xv2.jpg

Demyelination by MS. The CD68 colored tissue shows several macrophages in the area of the lesion. Original scale 1:100
Classification and external resources
Specialty Neurology
ICD10 G35
ICD9-CM 340
OMIM 126200
DiseasesDB 8412
MedlinePlus 000737
eMedicine neuro/228oph/179emerg/321pmr/82radio/461
Patient UK Multiple sclerosis
MeSH D009103
GeneReviews

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.[1] This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to communicate, resulting in a range of signs and symptoms, including physical, mental, and sometimes psychiatric problems.[2][3][4] Specific symptoms can include double vision, blindness in one eye, muscle weakness, trouble with sensation, or trouble with coordination.[1] MS takes several forms, with new symptoms either occurring in isolated attacks (relapsing forms) or building up over time (progressive forms).[5] Between attacks, symptoms may disappear completely; however, permanent neurological problems often remain, especially as the disease advances.[5]

While the cause is not clear, the underlying mechanism is thought to be either destruction by the immune system or failure of the myelin-producing cells.[6] Proposed causes for this include genetics and environmental factors such as being triggered by a viral infection.[3][7] MS is usually diagnosed based on the presenting signs and symptoms and the results of supporting medical tests.[8]

There is no known cure for multiple sclerosis.[1] Treatments attempt to improve function after an attack and prevent new attacks.[3] Medications used to treat MS, while modestly effective, can have side effects and be poorly tolerated. Physical therapy can help with people’s ability to function.[1] Many people pursue alternative treatments, despite a lack of evidence.[9] The long-term outcome is difficult to predict, with good outcomes more often seen in women, those who develop the disease early in life, those with a relapsing course, and those who initially experienced few attacks.[10]Life expectancy is on average 5 to 10 years lower than that of an unaffected population.[2]

Multiple sclerosis is the most common autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system.[11] In 2013, about 2.3 million people were affected globally with rates varying widely in different regions and among different populations.[12][13] That year about 20,000 people died from MS, up from 12,000 in 1990.[14] The disease usually begins between the ages of 20 and 50 and is twice as common in women as in men.[15] MS was first described in 1868 by Jean-Martin Charcot.[16] The name multiple sclerosis refers to the numerous scars (sclerae—better known as plaques or lesions) that develop on the white matter of the brain and spinal cord.[16] A number of new treatments and diagnostic methods are under development.[17]

Signs and symptoms

Main symptoms of multiple sclerosis

A person with MS can have almost any neurological symptom or sign, with autonomic, visual, motor, and sensory problems being the most common.[2] The specific symptoms are determined by the locations of the lesions within the nervous system, and may include loss of sensitivity or changes in sensation such as tingling, pins and needles or numbness, muscle weakness, very pronounced reflexes, muscle spasms, or difficulty in moving; difficulties with coordination and balance (ataxia);problems with speech or swallowing, visual problems (nystagmus, optic neuritis or double vision), feeling tired, acute or chronic pain, and bladder and bowel difficulties, among others.[2] Difficulties thinking and emotional problems such as depression or unstable mood are also common.[2]Uhthoff’s phenomenon, a worsening of symptoms due to exposure to higher than usual temperatures, and Lhermitte’s sign, an electrical sensation that runs down the back when bending the neck, are particularly characteristic of MS.[2] The main measure of disability and severity is the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), with other measures such as the multiple sclerosis functional composite being increasingly used in research.[18][19][20]

The condition begins in 85% of cases as a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) over a number of days with 45% having motor or sensory problems, 20% having optic neuritis, and 10% having symptoms related to brainstem dysfunction, while the remaining 25% have more than one of the previous difficulties.[8] The course of symptoms occurs in two main patterns initially: either as episodes of sudden worsening that last a few days to months (called relapses, exacerbations, bouts, attacks, or flare-ups) followed by improvement (85% of cases) or as a gradual worsening over time without periods of recovery (10-15% of cases).[15] A combination of these two patterns may also occur[5] or people may start in a relapsing and remitting course that then becomes progressive later on.[15] Relapses are usually not predictable, occurring without warning.[2] Exacerbations rarely occur more frequently than twice per year.[2] Some relapses, however, are preceded by common triggers and they occur more frequently during spring and summer.[21] Similarly, viral infections such as the common cold, influenza, or gastroenteritis increase their risk.[2]Stress may also trigger an attack.[22] Women with MS who become pregnant experience fewer relapses; however, during the first months after delivery the risk increases.[2] Overall, pregnancy does not seem to influence long-term disability.[2] Many events have been found not to affect relapse rates including vaccination, breast feeding,[2] physical trauma,[23] and Uhthoff’s phenomenon.[21]

Causes

The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is believed to occur as a result of some combination of genetic and environmental factors such as infectious agents.[2]Theories try to combine the data into likely explanations, but none has proved definitive. While there are a number of environmental risk factors and although some are partly modifiable, further research is needed to determine whether their elimination can prevent MS.[24]

Geography

MS is more common in people who live farther from the equator, although exceptions exist.[2][25] These exceptions include ethnic groups that are at low risk far from the equator such as the Samis, Amerindians, Canadian Hutterites, New Zealand Māori,[26] and Canada’s Inuit,[15] as well as groups that have a relatively high risk close to the equator such as Sardinians,[15] inland Sicilians,[27]Palestinians and Parsis.[26] The cause of this geographical pattern is not clear.[15] While the north-south gradient of incidence is decreasing,[25] as of 2010 it is still present.[15]

MS is more common in regions with northern European populations[2] and the geographic variation may simply reflect the global distribution of these high-risk populations.[15] Decreased sunlight exposure resulting in decreased vitamin D production has also been put forward as an explanation.[28][29][30] A relationship between season of birth and MS lends support to this idea, with fewer people born in the northern hemisphere in November as compared to May being affected later in life.[31] Environmental factors may play a role during childhood, with several studies finding that people who move to a different region of the world before the age of 15 acquire the new region’s risk to MS. If migration takes place after age 15, however, the person retains the risk of his home country.[2][24] There is some evidence that the effect of moving may still apply to people older than 15.[2]

Genetics

HLA region of Chromosome 6. Changes in this area increase the probability of getting MS.

MS is not considered a hereditary disease; however, a number of genetic variations have been shown to increase the risk.[32] Some of these genes appear to have higher levels of expression in microglial cells than expected by chance.[33] The probability of developing the disease is higher in relatives of an affected person, with a greater risk among those more closely related.[3] In identical twins both are affected about 30% of the time, while around 5% for non-identical twins and 2.5% of siblings are affected with a lower percentage of half-siblings.[2][3][34] If both parents are affected the risk in their children is 10 times that of the general population.[15] MS is also more common in some ethnic groups than others.[35]

Specific genes that have been linked with MS include differences in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system—a group of genes on chromosome6 that serves as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).[2] That changes in the HLA region are related to susceptibility has been known since the 1980s,[36] and additionally this same region has been implicated in the development of other autoimmune diseases such as diabetes type I and systemic lupus erythematosus.[36] The most consistent finding is the association between multiple sclerosis and alleles of the MHC defined as DR15 and DQ6.[2] Other loci have shown a protective effect, such as HLA-C554 and HLA-DRB1*11.[2] Overall, it has been estimated that HLA changes account for between 20 and 60% of the genetic predisposition.[36] Modern genetic methods (genome-wide association studies) have discovered at least twelve other genes outside the HLA locus that modestly increase the probability of MS.[36]

Infectious agents

Many microbes have been proposed as triggers of MS, but none have been confirmed.[3] Moving at an early age from one location in the world to another alters a person’s subsequent risk of MS.[7] An explanation for this could be that some kind of infection, produced by a widespread microbe rather than a rare one, is related to the disease.[7]Proposed mechanisms include the hygiene hypothesis and the prevalence hypothesis. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that exposure to certain infectious agents early in life is protective, the disease being a response to a late encounter with such agents.[2] The prevalence hypothesis proposes that the disease is due to an infectious agent more common in regions where MS is common and where in most individuals it causes an ongoing infection without symptoms. Only in a few cases and after many years does it cause demyelination.[7][37] The hygiene hypothesis has received more support than the prevalence hypothesis.[7]

Evidence for a virus as a cause include: the presence of oligoclonal bands in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of most people with MS, the association of several viruses with human demyelination encephalomyelitis, and the occurrence of demyelination in animals caused by some viral infection.[38]Human herpes viruses are a candidate group of viruses. Individuals having never been infected by the Epstein–Barr virus are at a reduced risk of getting MS, whereas those infected as young adults are at a greater risk than those having had it at a younger age.[2][7] Although some consider that this goes against the hygiene hypothesis, since the non-infected have probably experienced a more hygienic upbringing,[7] others believe that there is no contradiction, since it is a first encounter with the causative virus relatively late in life that is the trigger for the disease.[2] Other diseases that may be related include measles, mumps and rubella.[2]

Other

Smoking has been shown to be an independent risk factor for MS.[28]Stress may be a risk factor although the evidence to support this is weak.[24] Association with occupational exposures and toxins—mainly solvents—has been evaluated, but no clear conclusions have been reached.[24]Vaccinations were studied as causal factors; however, most studies show no association.[24] Several other possible risk factors, such as diet andhormone intake, have been looked at; however, evidence on their relation with the disease is “sparse and unpersuasive”.[28]Gout occurs less than would be expected and lower levels of uric acid have been found in people with MS. This has led to the theory that uric acid is protective, although its exact importance remains unknown.[39]

Pathophysiology

Multiple sclerosis

The three main characteristics of MS are the formation of lesions in the central nervous system (also called plaques), inflammation, and the destruction of myelin sheaths of neurons. These features interact in a complex and not yet fully understood manner to produce the breakdown of nerve tissue and in turn the signs and symptoms of the disease.[2] Additionally, MS is believed to be an immune-mediated disorder that develops from an interaction of the individual’s genetics and as yet unidentified environmental causes.[3] Damage is believed to be caused, at least in part, by attack on the nervous system by a person’s own immune system.[2]

Lesions

Demyelination in MS. On Klüver-Barrera myelin staining, decoloration in the area of the lesion can be appreciated (Original scale 1:100)

The name multiple sclerosis refers to the scars (sclerae – better known as plaques or lesions) that form in the nervous system. These lesions most commonly affect the white matter in the optic nerve, brain stem, basal ganglia, and spinal cord, or white matter tracts close to the lateral ventricles.[2] The function of white matter cells is to carry signals between grey matter areas, where the processing is done, and the rest of the body. The peripheral nervous system is rarely involved.[3]

To be specific, MS involves the loss of oligodendrocytes, the cells responsible for creating and maintaining a fatty layer—known as the myelin sheath—which helps the neurons carry electrical signals (action potentials).[2] This results in a thinning or complete loss of myelin and, as the disease advances, the breakdown of the axons of neurons. When the myelin is lost, a neuron can no longer effectively conduct electrical signals.[3] A repair process, called remyelination, takes place in early phases of the disease, but the oligodendrocytes are unable to completely rebuild the cell’s myelin sheath.[40] Repeated attacks lead to successively less effective remyelinations, until a scar-like plaque is built up around the damaged axons.[40] These scars are the origin of the symptoms and during an attack magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often shows more than ten new plaques.[2] This could indicate that there are a number of lesions below which the brain is capable of repairing itself without producing noticeable consequences.[2] Another process involved in the creation of lesions is an abnormal increase in the number of astrocytes due to the destruction of nearby neurons.[2] A number of lesion patterns have been described.[41]

Inflammation

Apart from demyelination, the other sign of the disease is inflammation. Fitting with an immunological explanation, the inflammatory process is caused by T cells, a kind oflymphocyte that plays an important role in the body’s defenses.[3] T cells gain entry into the brain via disruptions in the blood–brain barrier. The T cells recognize myelin as foreign and attack it, explaining why these cells are also called “autoreactive lymphocytes”.[2]

The attack of myelin starts inflammatory processes, which triggers other immune cells and the release of soluble factors like cytokines and antibodies. Further breakdown of the blood–brain barrier in turn causes a number of other damaging effects such as swelling, activation of macrophages, and more activation of cytokines and other destructive proteins.[3] Inflammation can potentially reduce transmission of information between neurons in at least three ways.[2] The soluble factors released might stop neurotransmission by intact neurons. These factors could lead to or enhance the loss of myelin, or they may cause the axon to break down completely.[2]

Blood–brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier is a part of the capillary system that prevents the entry of T cells into the central nervous system. It may become permeable to these types of cells secondary to an infection by a virus or bacteria. After it repairs itself, typically once the infection has cleared, T cells may remain trapped inside the brain.[3]Gadolinium cannot cross a normal BBB and, therefore, Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is used to show BBB breakdowns.[42]

Diagnosis

Animation showing dissemination of brain lesions in time and space as demonstrated by monthly MRI studies along a year

Multiple sclerosis as seen on MRI

Multiple sclerosis is typically diagnosed based on the presenting signs and symptoms, in combination with supporting medical imaging and laboratory testing.[8] It can be difficult to confirm, especially early on, since the signs and symptoms may be similar to those of other medical problems.[2][43] The McDonald criteria, which focus on clinical, laboratory, and radiologic evidence of lesions at different times and in different areas, is the most commonly used method of diagnosis[13] with the Schumacher and Poser criteria being of mostly historical significance.[44] While the above criteria allow for a non-invasive diagnosis, some state that the only definitive proof is an autopsy or biopsy where lesions typical of MS are detected.[2][45][46]

Clinical data alone may be sufficient for a diagnosis of MS if an individual has had separate episodes of neurological symptoms characteristic of the disease.[45] In those who seek medical attention after only one attack, other testing is needed for the diagnosis. The most commonly used diagnostic tools are neuroimaging, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid and evoked potentials. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine may show areas of demyelination (lesions or plaques). Gadolinium can be administeredintravenously as a contrast agent to highlight active plaques and, by elimination, demonstrate the existence of historical lesions not associated with symptoms at the moment of the evaluation.[45][47] Testing of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from a lumbar puncture can provide evidence of chronic inflammation in the central nervous system. The cerebrospinal fluid is tested for oligoclonal bands of IgG on electrophoresis, which are inflammation markers found in 75–85% of people with MS.[45][48] The nervous system in MS may respond less actively to stimulation of the optic nerve and sensory nerves due to demyelination of such pathways. These brain responses can be examined usingvisual– and sensory-evoked potentials.[49]

Clinical course

Progression of MS subtypes

Several phenotypes (commonly named types), or patterns of progression, have been described. Phenotypes use the past course of the disease in an attempt to predict the future course. They are important not only for prognosis but also for treatment decisions. In 1996, the United States National Multiple Sclerosis Society described four clinical courses.[5] This set of courses was later reviewed by an international panel in 2013, adding clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) as phenotypes, but leaving the main structure untouched.[50]

  1. relapsing-remitting (RRMS)
  2. secondary progressive (SPMS)
  3. primary progressive (PPMS)
  4. progressive relapsing (PRMS). This entity was removed in the 2013 review.[50]

The relapsing-remitting subtype is characterized by unpredictable relapses followed by periods of months to years of relative quiet (remission) with no new signs of disease activity. Deficits that occur during attacks may either resolve or leave problems, the latter in about 40% of attacks and being more common the longer a person has had the disease.[2][8] This describes the initial course of 80% of individuals with MS.[2] When deficits always resolve between attacks, this is sometimes referred to as benign MS,[51]although people will still build up some degree of disability in the long term.[2] On the other hand, the term malignant multiple sclerosis is used to describe people with MS having reached significant level of disability in a short period.[52] The relapsing-remitting subtype usually begins with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). In CIS, a person has an attack suggestive of demyelination, but does not fulfill the criteria for multiple sclerosis.[2][53] 30 to 70% of persons experiencing CIS later develop MS.[53]

Nerve axon with myelin sheath

Secondary progressive MS occurs in around 65% of those with initial relapsing-remitting MS, who eventually have progressive neurologic decline between acute attacks without any definite periods of remission.[2][5] Occasional relapses and minor remissions may appear.[5] The most common length of time between disease onset and conversion from relapsing-remitting to secondary progressive MS is 19 years.[54]

The primary progressive subtype occurs in approximately 10–20% of individuals, with no remission after the initial symptoms.[8][55] It is characterized by progression of disability from onset, with no, or only occasional and minor, remissions and improvements.[5] The usual age of onset for the primary progressive subtype is later than of the relapsing-remitting subtype. It is similar to the age that secondary progressive usually begins in relapsing-remitting MS, around 40 years of age.[2]

Progressive relapsing MS describes those individuals who, from onset, have a steady neurologic decline but also have clear superimposed attacks. This is the least common of all subtypes.[5]

Unusual types of MS have been described; these include Devic’s disease, Balo concentric sclerosis, Schilder’s diffuse sclerosis, and Marburg multiple sclerosis. There is debate on whether they are MS variants or different diseases.[56] Multiple sclerosis behaves differently in children, taking more time to reach the progressive stage.[2] Nevertheless, they still reach it at a lower average age than adults usually do.[2]

Management

Although there is no known cure for multiple sclerosis, several therapies have proven helpful. The primary aims of therapy are returning function after an attack, preventing new attacks, and preventing disability. As with any medical treatment, medications used in the management of MS have several adverse effects. Alternative treatments are pursued by some people, despite the shortage of supporting evidence.

Acute attacks

During symptomatic attacks, administration of high doses of intravenouscorticosteroids, such as methylprednisolone, is the usual therapy,[2] with oral corticosteroids seeming to have a similar efficacy and safety profile.[57] Although, in general, effective in the short term for relieving symptoms, corticosteroid treatments do not appear to have a significant impact on long-term recovery.[58] The consequences of severe attacks that do not respond to corticosteroids might be treatable by plasmapheresis.[2]

Disease-modifying treatments

Relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis

As of 2016, nine disease-modifying treatments have been approved by regulatory agencies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) including: interferon beta-1a, interferon beta-1b, glatiramer acetate,mitoxantrone, natalizumab, fingolimod,[59]teriflunomide,[60]dimethyl fumarate[61] and alemtuzumab.[62] Their cost effectiveness as of 2012 is unclear.[63] In May 2016 the FDA approved daclizumab for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis in adults, with requirements for postmarketing studies and submission of a formal risk evaluation and mitigation strategy.[64][65]

In RRMS they are modestly effective at decreasing the number of attacks.[59] The interferons and glatiramer acetate are first-line treatments[8] and are roughly equivalent, reducing relapses by approximately 30%.[66]Early-initiated long-term therapy is safe and improves outcomes.[67][68] Natalizumab reduces the relapse rate more than first-line agents; however, due to issues of adverse effects is a second-line agent reserved for those who do not respond to other treatments[8] or with severe disease.[66] Mitoxantrone, whose use is limited by severe adverse effects, is a third-line option for those who do not respond to other medications.[8]Treatment of clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) with interferons decreases the chance of progressing to clinical MS.[2][69] Efficacy of interferons and glatiramer acetate in children has been estimated to be roughly equivalent to that of adults.[70] The role of some newer agents such as fingolimod, teriflunomide, and dimethyl fumarate, as of 2011, is not yet entirely clear.[71]

Progressive multiple sclerosis

No treatment has been shown to change the course of primary progressive MS[8] and as of 2011 only one medication, mitoxantrone, has been approved for secondary progressive MS.[72] In this population tentative evidence supports mitoxantrone moderately slowing the progression of the disease and decreasing rates of relapses over two years.[73][74]

Adverse effects

Irritation zone after injection of glatiramer acetate.

The disease-modifying treatments have several adverse effects. One of the most common is irritation at the injection site for glatiramer acetate and the interferons (up to 90% with subcutaneous injections and 33% with intramuscular injections).[75] Over time, a visible dent at the injection site, due to the local destruction of fat tissue, known aslipoatrophy, may develop.[75] Interferons may produce flu-like symptoms;[76] some people taking glatiramer experience a post-injection reaction with flushing, chest tightness, heart palpitations, and anxiety, which usually lasts less than thirty minutes.[77] More dangerous but much less common are liver damage from interferons,[78]systolic dysfunction(12%), infertility, and acute myeloid leukemia (0.8%) from mitoxantrone,[73][79] and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy occurring with natalizumab (occurring in 1 in 600 people treated).[8][80]

Fingolimod may give rise to hypertension and slowed heart rate, macular edema, elevated liver enzymes or a reduction in lymphocyte levels.[71] Tentative evidence supports the short-term safety of teriflunomide, with common side effects including: headaches, fatigue, nausea, hair loss, and limb pain.[59] There have also been reports of liver failure and PML with its use and it is dangerous for fetal development.[71] Most common side effects of dimethyl fumarate are flushing and gastrointestinal problems.[61][71] While dimethyl fumarate may lead to a reduction in the white blood cell count there were no reported cases of opportunistic infections during trials.[81][82]

Associated symptoms

Both medications and neurorehabilitation have been shown to improve some symptoms, though neither changes the course of the disease.[83] Some symptoms have a good response to medication, such as an unstable bladder and spasticity, while others are little changed.[2] For neurologic problems, a multidisciplinary approach is important for improving quality of life; however, it is difficult to specify a ‘core team’ as many health services may be needed at different points in time.[2] Multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs increase activity and participation of people with MS but do not influence impairment level.[84] There is limited evidence for the overall efficacy of individual therapeutic disciplines,[85][86] though there is good evidence that specific approaches, such as exercise,[87][88] and psychology therapies, in particular cognitive behavioral approaches are effective.[89]

Alternative treatments

Over 50% of people with MS may use complementary and alternative medicine, although percentages vary depending on how alternative medicine is defined.[9] The evidence for the effectiveness for such treatments in most cases is weak or absent.[9][90] Treatments of unproven benefit used by people with MS include dietary supplementation and regimens,[9][91][92] vitamin D,[93]relaxation techniques such as yoga,[9]herbal medicine (including medical cannabis),[9][94]hyperbaric oxygen therapy,[95]self-infection with hookworms, reflexology, and acupuncture.[9][96] Regarding the characteristics of users, they are more frequently women, have had MS for a longer time, tend to be more disabled and have lower levels of satisfaction with conventional healthcare.[9]

Prognosis

Disability-adjusted life year for multiple sclerosis per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004

  no data
  <13
  13–16
  16–19
  19–22
  22–25
  25–28
  28–31
  31–34
  34–37
  37–40
  40–43
  >43

The expected future course of the disease depends on the subtype of the disease; the individual’s sex, age, and initial symptoms; and the degree of disability the person has.[10] Female sex, relapsing-remitting subtype, optic neuritis or sensory symptoms at onset, few attacks in the initial years and especially early age at onset, are associated with a better course.[10][97]

The average life expectancy is 30 years from the start of the disease, which is 5 to 10 years less than that of unaffected people.[2] Almost 40% of people with MS reach the seventh decade of life.[97] Nevertheless, two-thirds of the deaths are directly related to the consequences of the disease.[2]Suicide is more common, while infections and other complications are especially dangerous for the more disabled.[2] Although most people lose the ability to walk before death, 90% are capable of independent walking at 10 years from onset, and 75% at 15 years.[98][needs update?]

Epidemiology

Deaths from multiple sclerosis per million persons in 2012

  0-0
  1-1
  2-2
  3-5
  6-12
  13-25

MS is the most common autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system.[11] As of 2010, the number of people with MS was 2–2.5 million (approximately 30 per 100,000) globally, with rates varying widely in different regions.[13][15] It is estimated to have resulted in 18,000 deaths that year.[99] In Africa rates are less than 0.5 per 100,000, while they are 2.8 per 100,000 in South East Asia, 8.3 per 100,000 in the Americas, and 80 per 100,000 in Europe.[13] Rates surpass 200 per 100,000 in certain populations of Northern European descent.[15] The number of new cases that develop per year is about 2.5 per 100,000.[13]

Rates of MS appear to be increasing; this, however, may be explained simply by better diagnosis.[15] Studies on populational and geographical patterns have been common[37] and have led to a number of theories about the cause.[7][24][28]

MS usually appears in adults in their late twenties or early thirties but it can rarely start in childhood and after 50 years of age.[13][15] The primary progressive subtype is more common in people in their fifties.[55] Similar to many autoimmune disorders, the disease is more common in women, and the trend may be increasing.[2][25] As of 2008, globally it is about two times more common in women than in men.[13] In children, it is even more common in females than males,[2] while in people over fifty, it affects males and females almost equally.[55]

History

Medical discovery

Detail of Carswell’s drawing of MS lesions in the brain stem and spinal cord (1838)

Robert Carswell (1793–1857), a British professor of pathology, and Jean Cruveilhier (1791–1873), a French professor of pathologic anatomy, described and illustrated many of the disease’s clinical details, but did not identify it as a separate disease.[100] Specifically, Carswell described the injuries he found as “a remarkable lesion of the spinal cord accompanied with atrophy”.[2] Under the microscope, Swiss pathologist Georg Eduard Rindfleisch (1836–1908) noted in 1863 that the inflammation-associated lesions were distributed around blood vessels.[101][102]

The French neurologistJean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893) was the first person to recognize multiple sclerosis as a distinct disease in 1868.[100] Summarizing previous reports and adding his own clinical and pathological observations, Charcot called the disease sclerose en plaques.

Diagnosis

The first attempt to establish a set of diagnostic criteria was also due to Charcot in 1868. He published what now is known as the “Charcot Triad”, consisting in nystagmus,intention tremor, and telegraphic speech (scanning speech)[103] Charcot also observed cognition changes, describing his patients as having a “marked enfeeblement of the memory” and “conceptions that formed slowly”.[16]

Diagnosis was based in Charcot triad and clinical observation until Schumacher made the first attempt to standardize criteria in 1965 by introducing some fundamental requirements: Dissemination of the lesions in time (DIT) and space (DIS), and that “signs and symptoms cannot be explained better by another disease process”.[103] Both requirements were later inherited by Poser criteria and McDonald criteria, whose 2010 version is currently in use.

During the 20th century theories about the cause and pathogenesis were developed and effective treatments began to appear in the 1990s.[2]

Historical cases

Photographic study of locomotion of a MS female patient with walking difficulties created in 1887 byMuybridge

There are several historical accounts of people who probably had MS and lived before or shortly after the disease was described by Charcot.

A young woman called Halldora who lived in Iceland around 1200 suddenly lost her vision and mobility but, after praying to the saints, recovered them seven days after. Saint Lidwina of Schiedam (1380–1433), a Dutchnun, may be one of the first clearly identifiable people with MS. From the age of 16 until her death at 53, she had intermittent pain, weakness of the legs, and vision loss—symptoms typical of MS.[104] Both cases have led to the proposal of a “Viking gene” hypothesis for the dissemination of the disease.[105]

Augustus Frederick d’Este (1794–1848), son of Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex and Lady Augusta Murray and the grandson of George III of the United Kingdom, almost certainly had MS. D’Este left a detailed diary describing his 22 years living with the disease. His diary began in 1822 and ended in 1846, although it remained unknown until 1948. His symptoms began at age 28 with a sudden transient visual loss (amaurosis fugax) after the funeral of a friend. During his disease, he developed weakness of the legs, clumsiness of the hands, numbness, dizziness, bladder disturbances, and erectile dysfunction. In 1844, he began to use a wheelchair. Despite his illness, he kept an optimistic view of life.[106][107] Another early account of MS was kept by the British diarist W. N. P. Barbellion, nom-de-plume of Bruce Frederick Cummings (1889–1919), who maintained a detailed log of his diagnosis and struggle.[107] His diary was published in 1919 as The Journal of a Disappointed Man.[108]

Research

For the journal formerly known as Multiple Sclerosis, see Multiple Sclerosis Journal.

Medications

Chemical structure of alemtuzumab

There is ongoing research looking for more effective, convenient, and tolerable treatments for relapsing-remitting MS; creation of therapies for the progressive subtypes;neuroprotection strategies; and effective symptomatic treatments.[17]

During the 2000s and 2010s, there has been approval of several oral drugs that are expected to gain in popularity and frequency of use.[109] Several more oral drugs are under investigation, including ozanimod and laquinimod. Laquinimod was announced in August 2012 and is in a third phase III trial after mixed results in the previous ones.[110]Similarly, studies aimed to improve the efficacy and ease of use of already existing therapies are occurring. This includes the use of new preparations such as the PEGylatedversion of interferon-β-1a, which it is hoped may be given at less frequent doses with similar effects.[111][112] Request for approval of peginterferon beta-1a is expected during 2013.[112]

Monoclonal antibodies have also raised high levels of interest. Alemtuzumab, daclizumab, and CD20 monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab, ocrelizumab and ofatumumabhave all shown some benefit and are under study as potential treatments.[82] Their use has also been accompanied by the appearance of potentially dangerous adverse effects, the most important of which being opportunistic infections.[109] Related to these investigations is the development of a test for JC virus antibodies, which might help to determine who is at greater risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy when taking natalizumab.[109] While monoclonal antibodies will probably have some role in the treatment of the disease in the future, it is believed that it will be small due to the risks associated with them.[109]

Another research strategy is to evaluate the combined effectiveness of two or more drugs.[113] The main rationale for using a number of medications in MS is that the involved treatments target different mechanisms and, therefore, their use is not necessarily exclusive.[113]Synergies, in which one drug improves the effect of another are also possible, but there can also be drawbacks such as the blocking of the action of the other or worsened side-effects.[113] There have been several trials of combined therapy, yet none have shown positive enough results to be considered as a useful treatment for MS.[113]

Research on neuroprotection and regenerative treatments, such as stem cell therapy, while of high importance, are in the early stages.[114] Likewise, there are not any effective treatments for the progressive variants of the disease. Many of the newest drugs as well as those under development are probably going to be evaluated as therapies for PPMS or SPMS.[109]

Disease biomarkers

MRI brain scan produced using aGradient-echo phase sequenceshowing an iron deposit in a white matter lesion (inside green box in the middle of the image; enhanced and marked by red arrow top-left corner)[115]

While diagnostic criteria are not expected to change in the near future, work to develop biomarkers that help with diagnosis and prediction of disease progression is ongoing.[109] New diagnostic methods that are being investigated include work with anti-myelin antibodies, and studies with serum and cerebrospinal fluid, but none of them has yielded reliably positive results.[116]

At the current time, there are no laboratory investigations that can predict prognosis. Several promising approaches have been proposed including: interleukin-6, nitric oxideand nitric oxide synthase, osteopontin, and fetuin-A.[116] Since disease progression is the result of degeneration of neurons, the roles of proteins showing loss of nerve tissue such as neurofilaments, tau, and N-acetylaspartate are under investigation.[116] Other effects include looking for biomarkers that distinguish between those who will and will not respond to medications.[116]

Improvement in neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) carry a promise for better diagnosis and prognosis predictions, although the effect of such improvements in daily medical practice may take several decades.[109] Regarding MRI, there are several techniques that have already shown some usefulness in research settings and could be introduced into clinical practice, such as double-inversion recovery sequences, magnetization transfer, diffusion tensor, and functional magnetic resonance imaging.[117] These techniques are more specific for the disease than existing ones, but still lack some standardization of acquisition protocols and the creation of normative values.[117] There are other techniques under development that include contrast agents capable of measuring levels of peripheralmacrophages, inflammation, or neuronal dysfunction,[117] and techniques that measure iron deposition that could serve to determine the role of this feature in MS, or that of cerebral perfusion.[117] Similarly, new PET radiotracers might serve as markers of altered processes such as brain inflammation, cortical pathology, apoptosis, or remylienation.[118] Antibiodies against the Kir4.1 potassium channel may be related to MS.[119]

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

In 2008, vascular surgeon Paolo Zamboni suggested that MS involves narrowing of the veins draining the brain, which he referred to as chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). He found CCSVI in all patients with MS in his study, performed a surgical procedure, later called in the media the “liberation procedure” to correct it, and claimed that 73% of participants improved.[120] This theory received significant attention in the media and among those with MS, especially in Canada.[121] Concerns have been raised with Zamboni’s research as it was neither blinded nor controlled, and its assumptions about the underlying cause of the disease are not backed by known data.[122] Also, further studies have either not found a similar relationship or found one that is much less strong,[123] raising serious objections to the hypothesis.[124] The “liberation procedure” has been criticized for resulting in serious complications and deaths with unproven benefits.[122] It is, thus, as of 2013 not recommended for the treatment of MS.[125] Additional research investigating the CCSVI hypothesis are under way.[126]

See also

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Lou Gehrig Disease)
“ALS” redirects here. For other uses, see ALS (disambiguation).
“Motor neurone disease” redirects here. For the broader group of diseases, see Motor neuron disease.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Lou Gehrig’s disease, Charcot disease
ALS Coronal.jpg

An MRI with increased signal in the posterior part of the internal capsule which can be tracked to themotor cortex consistent with the diagnosis of ALS.
Classification and external resources
Specialty Neurology
ICD10 G12.2
ICD9-CM 335.20
OMIM 105400
DiseasesDB 29148
MedlinePlus 000688
eMedicine neuro/14emerg/24pmr/10
Patient UK Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
MeSH D000690
GeneReviews
Orphanet 803

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease and motor neurone disease (MND), is a specific disorder that involves the death of neurons that control voluntary muscles.[1][2][3][4] Some also use motor neuron disease for a group of five conditions of which ALS is the most common.[5] ALS is characterized by stiff muscles, muscle twitching, and gradually worsening weakness due to muscles decreasing in size.[6] This results in difficulty in speaking,swallowing, and eventually breathing.[3][6]

The cause is not known in 90% to 95% of cases.[1] About 5–10% of cases are inherited from a person’s parents.[7] About half of these genetic cases are due to one of two specific genes. The diagnosis is based on a person’s signs and symptoms with testing done to rule out other potential causes.[1]

No cure for ALS is known.[1] A medication called riluzole may extend life by about two to three months.[8]Non-invasive ventilation may result in both improved quality and length of life.[9] The disease usually starts around the age of 60 and in inherited cases around the age of 50.[7] The average survival from onset to death is three to four years.[10] About 10% survive longer than 10 years.[1] Most die from respiratory failure. In much of the world, rates of ALS are unknown.[7] In Europe and the United States the disease affects about two people per 100,000 per year.[7][11]

Descriptions of the disease date back to at least 1824 by Charles Bell.[12] In 1869, the connection between the symptoms and the underlying neurological problems was first described by Jean-Martin Charcot, who in 1874 began using the term amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.[12] It became well known in the United States in the 20th century when in 1939 it affected the baseball player Lou Gehrig,[2] and later worldwide when physicist Stephen Hawking, diagnosed in 1963 and expected to die within two years, became famous.[13] In 2014 videos of the ice bucket challenge went viral on the Internet and increased public awareness.[14]

Signs and symptoms

The disorder causes muscle weakness and atrophy throughout the body due to the degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons. Individuals affected by the disorder may ultimately lose the ability to initiate and control all voluntary movement, although bladder and bowel function and the muscles responsible for eye movement are usually spared until the final stages of the disorder.[15]

Cognitive function is generally spared for most people, although some (about 5%) also develop frontotemporal dementia.[16] A higher proportion of people (30–50%) also have more subtle cognitive changes which may go unnoticed, but are revealed by detailed neuropsychological testing. Sometimes, ALS coexists in individuals who also experience dementia, degenerative muscle disorder, and degenerative bone disorder as part of a syndrome called multisystem proteinopathy.[17]Sensory nerves and the autonomic nervous system are generally unaffected, meaning the majority of people with ALS maintain hearing, sight, touch, smell, andtaste.[18]

Initial symptoms

The start of ALS may be so subtle that the symptoms are overlooked.[19] The earliest symptoms of ALS are muscle weakness and/or muscle atrophy. Other presenting symptoms include trouble swallowing or breathing, cramping, or stiffness of affected muscles; muscle weakness affecting an arm or a leg; and/or slurred and nasal speech. The parts of the body affected by early symptoms of ALS depend on which motor neurons in the body are damaged first.[citation needed]

About 75% of people contracting the disorder first experience weakness or atrophy in an arm or leg and this is known as “limb-onset” ALS. Awkwardness when walking or running or even tripping over or stumbling may be experienced and often this is marked by walking with a “dropped foot” which drags gently on the ground. Or if arm-onset, difficulty with tasks requiring manual dexterity such as buttoning a shirt, writing, or turning a key in a lock may be experienced. Occasionally, the symptoms remain confined to one limb for a long period of time or for the duration of the illness; this is known as monomelic amyotrophy.[citation needed]

About 25% of cases begin as progressive bulbar palsy termed “bulbar-onset” ALS. Initial symptoms will mainly be of difficulty speaking clearly or swallowing. Speech may become slurred, nasal in character, or quieter. There may be difficulty in swallowing and loss of tongue mobility. A smaller proportion of people experience “respiratory-onset” ALS, where the intercostal muscles that support breathing are affected first. A small proportion of people may also present with what appears to be frontotemporal dementia, but later progresses to include more typical ALS symptoms.[citation needed]

Over time, people experience increasing difficulty moving, swallowing (dysphagia), and speaking or forming words (dysarthria). Symptoms of upper motor neuron involvement include tight and stiff muscles (spasticity) and exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia) including an overactive gag reflex. An abnormal reflex commonly called Babinski’s sign also indicates upper motor neuron damage. Symptoms of lower motor neuron degeneration include muscle weakness and atrophy, muscle cramps, and fleeting twitches of muscles that can be seen under the skin (fasciculations) although twitching is not a diagnostic symptom and more of a side effect so twitching would either occur after or accompany weakness and atrophy. Around 15–45% of people experience pseudobulbar affect, a neurological disorder also known as “emotional lability”, which consists of uncontrollable laughter, crying, or smiling, attributable to degeneration of bulbar upper motor neurons, resulting in exaggeration of motor expressions of emotion.[citation needed] For ALS to be diagnosed, symptoms of both upper and lower motor neuron damage that cannot be attributed to other causes must be present.[citation needed]

Progression

Although the order and rate of symptoms varies from person to person, most people eventually are not able to walk or use their hands and arms. They also lose the ability to speak and swallow food, while most end up on a portable ventilator, called bilevel positive airway pressure. The rate of progression can be measured using an outcome measure called the “ALS Functional Rating Scale Revised (ALSFRS-R)”, a 12-item instrument administered as a clinical interview or patient-reported questionnaire that produces a score between 48 (normal function) and 0 (severe disability). Though the degree of variability is high and a small percentage of people have a much slower disorder, on average, patients lose about 0.9 FRS points per month. A survey-based study amongst clinicians showed that they rated a 20% change in the slope of the ALSFRS-R as being clinically meaningful.[20] Regardless of the part of the body first affected by the disorder, muscle weakness and atrophy spread to other parts of the body as the disorder progresses. In limb-onset ALS, symptoms usually spread from the affected limb to the opposite limb before affecting a new body region, whereas in bulbar-onset ALS, symptoms typically spread to the arms before the legs.[citation needed]

Disorder progression tends to be slower in patients who are younger than 40 at onset,[21][22] are mildly obese,[23] have disorder restricted primarily to one limb, and those with primarily upper motor neuron symptoms.[24] Conversely, progression is faster and prognosis poorer in people with bulbar-onset disorder, respiratory-onset disorder, and frontotemporal dementia.[24]

The CX3CR1allelic variants have also been shown to have an effect on the disorder’s progression and life expectancy.[25]

Late stages

Although respiratory support can ease problems with breathing and prolong survival, it does not affect the progression of ALS. Most people with ALS die within three to five years from the onset of symptoms. In one study, the median survival time from onset to death was around 39 months, and only 4% survived longer than 10 years.[26] Newer data point to around 10% of people surviving beyond 10 years.[1] Guitarist Jason Becker has lived since 1989 with the disorder, while physicist Stephen Hawking has survived for more than 50 years, but they are considered unusual cases.[27]

Difficulty in chewing and swallowing makes eating very difficult and increases the risk of choking or of aspirating food into the lungs. In later stages of the disorder, aspiration pneumonia can develop, and maintaining a healthy weight can become a significant problem that may require the insertion of a feeding tube. As the diaphragm and intercostal muscles of the rib cage that support breathing weaken, measures of lung functionsuch as vital capacity and inspiratory pressure diminish. In respiratory-onset ALS, this may occur before significant limb weakness is apparent. Most people with ALS die of respiratory failure or pneumonia.[7]

In late stages, the oculomotor nerve that controls the movements of the eye can be affected as can the extraocular muscles (EOMs). The eye movements remain unaffected largely until the later stages due to differences in the extraocular muscles compared to the skeletal muscles that are initially and readily affected. In the disease’s final stages, a person’s condition may resemble locked-in syndrome.[28]

Causes

Genetics

About 5–10% of cases are directly inherited from a person’s parents.[7] Overall, first-degree relatives of an individual with ALS have a 1% risk of developing ALS.[29][30]

A defect on chromosome 21, which codes for superoxide dismutase, is associated with about 20% of familial cases of ALS, or about 2% of ALS cases overall.[31][32][33] This mutation is believed to be transmitted in anautosomal dominant manner, and has over a hundred different forms of mutation. The most common ALS-causing mutation is a mutant SOD1 gene, seen in North America; this is characterized by an exceptionally rapid progression from onset to death. The most common mutation found in Scandinavian countries, D90A-SOD1, is more slowly progressive than typical ALS, and people with this form of the disorder survive for an average of 11 years.[34]

In 2011, a genetic abnormality known as a hexanucleotide repeat was found in a region called C9orf72, which is associated with ALS combined with frontotemporal dementia ALS-FTD,[35] and accounts for some 6% of cases of ALS among white Europeans.[36]

The UBQLN2 gene encodes production of the protein ubiquilin 2 in the cell, which is a member of the ubiquilin family and controls the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. Mutations in UBQLN2 interfere with protein degradation, leading to neurodegeneration and causing dominantly inherited, chromosome X-linked ALS and ALS/dementia.[37]

To date, a number of genetic mutations have been associated with various types of ALS. The currently known associations are:

Type OMIM Gene Locus Inheritance Remarks
ALS1 105400 SOD1 21q22.1 autosomal dominant (?),autosomal recessive (?) The most common form of familial ALS
ALS2 205100 ALS2 2q33.1 autosomal recessive (?) Juvenile-onset
ALS3 606640 (?) 18q21 (?)
ALS4 602433 SETX 9q34.13 autosomal dominant (?)
ALS5 602099 SPG11 15q21.1 autosomal recessive (?) Juvenile onset
ALS6 608030 FUS 16p11.2 (?)
ALS7 608031 (?) 20p13 (?)
ALS8 608627 VAPB 20q13.3 autosomal dominant (?)
ALS9 611895 ANG 14q11.2 (?)
ALS10 612069 TARDBP 1p36.2 autosomal dominant (?) ALS with or without frontotemporal dementia
ALS11 612577 FIG4 6q21 (?)
ALS12 613435 OPTN 10p13 (?)
ALS13 183090 ATXN2 12q24.12 autosomal dominant (?) Spinocerebellar ataxia 2
ALS14 613954 VCP 9p13.3 (?) Recent new study shows strong link in ALS mechanism[38][39]
ALS15 300857 UBQLN2 Xp11.21 X-linked dominant (?) Described in one family[37]
ALS16 614373 SIGMAR1 9p13.3 autosomal recessive (?) Juvenile onset, very rare, described only in one family[40]
ALS17 614696 CHMP2B 3p11.2 autosomal dominant (?) Very rare, reported only in a handful of people
ALS18 614808 PFN1 17p13.2 (?) Very rare, described only in a handful of Chinese families[41]
ALS19 615515 ERBB4 2q34 autosomal dominant (?) Very rare, as of late 2013 described only in four people[42]
ALS20 615426 HNRNPA1 12q13.13 (?) Very rare, as of late 2013 described only in two people[43]
ALS21 606070 MATR3 5q31.2 autosomal dominant (?) Very rare. Formerly known as “distal myopathy type 2” (MPD2) and “vocal cord and pharyngeal dysfunction with distal myopathy” (VCPDM)
ALS22 616208 TUBA4A 2q35 autosomal dominant (?) “Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 22 with or without frontotemporal dementia”
FTDALS1 105550 C9orf72 9p21.2 autosomal dominant (?) “Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1”. Accounts for around 6% of ALS cases among white Europeans[citation needed]
FTDALS2 615911 CHCHD10 22q11.23 autosomal dominant (?) “Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 2”
FTDALS3 616437 SQSTM1 5q35.3 autosomal dominant (?) “Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 3”
FTDALS4 616439 TBK1 12q14.2 autosomal dominant (?) “Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 4”

SOD1

In 1993, scientists discovered that mutations in the gene (SOD1) that produces the CuZnsuperoxide dismutase (SOD1) enzyme were associated with around 20% of familial ALS. This enzyme is a powerfulantioxidant that protects the body from damage caused by superoxide, a toxic free radical generated in the mitochondria. Free radicals are highly reactive molecules produced by cells during normal metabolism. Free radicals can accumulate and cause damage to DNA and proteins within cells. To date, over 110 different mutations in SOD1 have been linked with the disorder, some of which (such as H46R) have a very long clinical course, while others, such as A4V, are exceptionally aggressive. When the defenses against oxidative stress fail, programmed cell death (apoptosis) is upregulated.

A defect in SOD1 could be a loss or gain of function. A loss of SOD1 function could lead to an accumulation of free radicals. A gain of SOD1 function could be toxic in other ways.[44][45]

Aggregate accumulation of mutant SOD1 is suspected to play a role in disrupting cellular functions by damaging mitochondria, proteasomes, protein folding chaperones, or other proteins.[46] Any such disruption, if proven, would lend significant credibility to the theory that aggregates are involved in mutant SOD1 toxicity. Critics have noted that in humans, SOD1 mutations cause only 2% or so of overall cases and the etiological mechanisms may be distinct from those responsible for the sporadic form of the disease. To date, the ALS-SOD1 mice remain the best model of the disease for preclinical studies, but it is hoped that more useful models will be developed.

Head injury

While moderate to severe traumatic brain injury is a risk for ALS, it is unclear if mild traumatic brain injury increases rates.[47][48]

In 1994 the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reported a nonsignificant increase in nervous system disorders due to four cases of ALS among NFL football players. It was unclear if this was due to chance or not.[49] Another study from 2012 also found a possible increase in ALS in NFL football players.[50] An older study did not find an increased risk among high school football players.[47] A 2007 review found an increased risk among soccer players.[48] ALS may also occur more often among the US military veterans however the reason is unknown.[51] This may be due to head injury.[52]

Other factors

Where no family history of the disease is present – i.e., in around 90% of cases – no cause is known for ALS. Possible associations for which evidence is inconclusive include military service, frequent drug use, and participation in contact sports.[medical citation needed]

Studies also have focused on the role of glutamate in motor neuron degeneration. Glutamate is one of the neurotransmitters in the brain. Scientists have found, compared with healthy people, people with ALS have higher levels of glutamate in their serum and spinal fluid.[32]Riluzole is currently the only FDA-approved drug for ALS and targets glutamate transporters. It only has a modest effect on survival, however, suggesting that excess glutamate is not the sole cause of the disease.

Certain studies suggested a link between sporadic ALS, specifically in athletes, and a diet enriched with branched-chain amino acids, a common dietary supplement among athletes, which cause cell hyperexcitability resembling that usually observed in people with ALS. The proposed underlying mechanism is that cell hyperexcitability results in increased calcium absorption by the cell, and thus brings about cell death of neuronal cells, which have particularly low calcium buffering capabilities.[53]

Some evidence supports superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) protein misfolding propagates between molecules in a similar fashion to prions.[54] Similarly, it has been proposed that incorporation of the cyanobacterial toxin β-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) leads to another prion-like protein misfolding propagation.[55][56]

Another very common factor associated with ALS is a lesion to the motor system in areas such as the frontotemporal lobes.[57] Lesions in these areas often show signs of early deficit, which can be used to predict the loss of motor function, and result in the spread of ALS.[57] The mechanisms of ALS are present long before any signs or symptoms become apparent.[58] Before any muscular atrophy becomes apparent during ALS, roughly one-third of the motor neurons must be destroyed.[58]

Other potential risk factors including chemical exposure, electromagnetic field exposure, occupation, physical trauma, and electric shock, have been investigated, but are without consistent findings.[59][60] There is a tentative association with exposure to a number of pesticides including the organochlorine insecticidesaldrin, dieldrin, DDT, and toxaphene.[61][62][63]

Pathophysiology

The defining feature of ALS is the death of both upper and lower motor neurons in the motor cortex of the brain, the brain stem, and the spinal cord. Prior to their destruction, motor neurons develop protein-richinclusions in their cell bodies and axons. This may be partly due to defects in protein degradation.[37] These inclusions often contain ubiquitin, and generally incorporate one of the ALS-associated proteins: SOD1,TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43, or TARDBP), and/or FUS.[64]

Diagnosis

MRI (axial FLAIR) demonstrates increased T2 signal within the posterior part of the internal capsule, consistent with the diagnosis of ALS.

No test can provide a definite diagnosis of ALS, although the presence of upper and lower motor neuron signs in a single limb is strongly suggestive.[1] Instead, the diagnosis of ALS is primarily based on the symptoms and signs the physician observes in the person and a series of tests to rule out other diseases.[1] Physicians obtain the person’s fullmedical history and usually conduct a neurologic examination at regular intervals to assess whether symptoms such as muscle weakness, atrophy of muscles, hyperreflexia, and spasticity are worsening.[1]

Differential diagnosis

Because symptoms of ALS can be similar to those of a wide variety of other, more treatable diseases or disorders, appropriate tests must be conducted to exclude the possibility of other conditions.[1] One of these tests is electromyography (EMG), a special recording technique that detects electrical activity in muscles.[1] Certain EMG findings can support the diagnosis of ALS.[1] Another common test measures