The Pronk Pops Show 817, January 13, 2017, Story 1: Digging Up Dirt Democratic Dossier Disinformation — Fake Opposition Research On Trump — Story 2: On The Road To Extinction: The Decline, Fall and Death of Big Lie Media or Mediasaurus Predicted By novelist Michael Crichton in 1993 — “It is basically junk.” — Videos

Posted on January 14, 2017. Filed under: 2016 Presidential Candidates, American History, Blogroll, Breaking News, Communications, Constitutional Law, Countries, Culture, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Donald Trump, Education, Employment, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Federal Government, Fourth Amendment, Freedom of Speech, Government, Government Dependency, Government Spending, History, Human, Human Behavior, Law, Life, Lying, Media, Mike Pence, Movies, News, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, President Barack Obama, Progressives, Radio, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Russia, Second Amendment, Technology, Terror, Terrorism, United States of America, Videos, Wall Street Journal, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 817: January 13, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 816: January 12, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 815: January 11, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 814: January 10, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 813: January 9, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 812: December 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 811: December 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 810: December 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 809: December 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 808: December 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 807: December 5, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 806: December 2, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 805: December 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 804: November 30, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 803: November 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 802: November 28, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 801: November 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 800: November 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 799: November 18, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 798: November 17, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 797: November 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 796: November 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 795: November 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 794: November 10, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 793: November 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 792: November 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 791: November 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 790: November 4, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 789: November 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 788: November 2, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 787: October 31, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 786: October 28, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 785: October 27, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 784: October 26, 2016 

Pronk Pops Show 783: October 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 782: October 24, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 781: October 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 780: October 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 779: October 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 778: October 18, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 777: October 17, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 776: October 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 775: October 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 774: October 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 773: October 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 772: October 10, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 771: October 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 770: October 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 769: October 5, 2016 

Pronk Pops Show 768: October 3, 2016

Story 1: Digging Up Dirt (DUD) Democratic Dossier — Fake Opposition  Research on Trump — Junk Journalism — Fake News — Videos

Image result for cartoon trump dossier dirty Image result for trump dossier Christopher Steele

Image result for trump dossier source Christopher Steele spyImage result for trump dossier Christopher Steele

Reality Check: Buzzfeed/CNN DID Push #Fakenews in “Trump Intelligence Memos”

What really happened in the cheap attacks on Donald Trump?

Who is Christopher Steele?

The Trump dossier

What really happened in the cheap attacks on Donald Trump?

Trump Staff warn CNN Acosta about rude behavior (CNN plays victim)

Chuck Todd Destroys Buzzfeed Editor Over Trump Russia Fake News

How credible are reports that Russia has compromising information about Trump?

The Secret Trump Dossier — What Does It Mean?

Glenn Greenwald on the Trump memo, the CIA and Russia – BBC Newsnight

Trump Dossier: Former British Ambassador to Russia Vouches for MI6 Spy’s Reputation | Rachel Maddow

 Ex MI6 Agent Christopher Steele Author Of Trump Dossier Worked For Free

How a Sensational, Unverified Dossier Became a Crisis for Donald Trump

UK intelligence: Chris Steele was paid to create sensationalist dossier filled with FSB fabrications

Ex MI6 officer Christopher Steele in hiding after Trump dossier

Discussing The Donald Trump Dossier: ‘A Collection Of Rumors’ | Morning Joe | MSNBC

Watch the entire Donald Trump news conference

Donald Trump shuts down CNN reporter: “You’re fake news”

CNN reporter: Spicer threatened to kick me out of Trump’s news coference

British former MI6 spy was so desperate to get his Trump ‘dirty dossier’ out ‘he worked for nothing’

  • Washington-based opposition research firm, FusionGPS, was hired in 2015 
  • One of Trump’s Republican detractors is said to have paid the company
  • Initially FusionGPS was asked to look into Trump’s business dealings
  • But the research angle changed after DNC hacking emerged in June 2016
  • FusionGPS then contracted ex-MI6 officer Chris Steele’s Orbis company
  • Steele had gold-plated contacts in Moscow from years of spying on Russia 
  • Democrats thought to have taken over funding the investigation into Trump
  • But security source says Steele later continued to ‘work for nothing’ 

The British former MI6 spy outed as being behind the outlandish Trump ‘dirty dossier’ was so desperate to get his report out he carried on ‘working for nothing’, a security source has claimed.

Christopher Steele had initially been commissioned in June 2016 to dig into Trump by Washington-based political research firm FusionGPS, for a fee reported by The Sun as being £130,000 ($158,000).

The investigation into Trump’s business dealings with Russia is said to have been financed by one of his opponents in the 2016 Republican primary, before he was named as the party’s presidential candidate.

It’s then thought a Democratic funder took over paying for FusionGPS and Steele’s work in July 2016 after Trump won the party’s nomination.

When Trump won the election in November and the Democrats accepted defeat Steele is said to have continued digging without pay after becoming so worried about alleged ties between Trump and the Kremlin, a security source told The Independent.

British former M16 spy Christopher Steele reportedly continued working on the Trump 'dirty dossier' for free because 'he was so worried by what he had learned'

Trump is seen on January 13

British former M16 spy Christopher Steele reportedly continued working on the Trump ‘dirty dossier’ for free because ‘he was so worried by what he had learned’

It seems what started in September 2015 as a fairly standard political research mission to scrutinize the business dealings of a presidential candidate unexpectedly spiralled into a series of increasingly bizarre and lurid claims, none of which are verified.

The company that was first hired to dig into Trump in September 2015, FusionGPS, is run by a former Wall Street Journal reporter, Glenn Simpson, and advertises itself as providing ‘premium research, strategic intelligence, and due diligence services’.

The Independent claims Simpson also continued to work on the Trump investigation without being paid.

Steele’s dealings with the FBI on Trump, initially with the senior agent who had started the FIFA probe and then moved to a post in Europe, began in July 2016.

That month, Steele handed a memo to the Bureau that claimed Trump’s campaign team had knowledge of the DNC hacking operation.

It also said in return the campaign team had ‘agreed to sideline Russian intervention in Ukraine as a campaign issue and to raise US/Nato defence commitments in the Baltics and Eastern Europe to deflect attention away from Ukraine’.

When asked if he was president if he would recognize Crimea as Russian and lift sanctions on Moscow, Trump said during a press conference a few days later, on July 27: ‘Yes. We would be looking at that.’

FusionGPS worker Glenn Simpson is pictured speaking at UC Berkeley School of Journalism in 2009. In a video of the speech, he said he launched his new company 'to keep investigations going and keep doing things in the public interest'

FusionGPS worker Glenn Simpson is pictured speaking at UC Berkeley School of Journalism in 2009. In a video of the speech, he said he launched his new company ‘to keep investigations going and keep doing things in the public interest’

Outlandish allegations about Trump contained in the discredited document were compiled from memos by Chris Steele - a Russia specialist posted to Moscow in the 1990s

Outlandish allegations about Trump contained in the discredited document were compiled from memos by Chris Steele – a Russia specialist posted to Moscow in the 1990s

As part of his ferocious denials Trump tweeted: 'Intelligence agencies should never have allowed this fake news to 'leak' into the public. One last shot at me. Are we living in Nazi Germany?'

As part of his ferocious denials Trump tweeted: ‘Intelligence agencies should never have allowed this fake news to ‘leak’ into the public. One last shot at me. Are we living in Nazi Germany?’

By late July and early August, Steele is said to have passed on information to MI6 too because he believed it was of the utmost importance.

However, Steele cut off contact with the FBI about a month before the November 8 election because he was frustrated by the bureau’s slow progress.

The Independent reports he was especially frustrated that the FBI were investigating Hillary Clinton’s emails but not his research into Trump.

The FBI opened preliminary investigations into Trump and his entourage’s dealings with Russians that were based in part on Steele’s reports, according to people familiar with the inquiries.

However, they said the bureau shifted into low gear in the weeks before the election to avoid interfering in the vote. They said Steele grew frustrated and stopped dealing with the FBI after concluding it was not seriously investigating the material he had provided.

Steele then turned to the media in October to get his report out, including speaking with news magazine Mother Jones.

He met with David Corn, the Washington bureau chief at Mother Jones, before last year’s Presidential election and told him the allegations warranted a substantial FBI inquiry.

In an article published Friday, Corn revealed that the former spy – whose work has sparked a diplomatic crisis this week – told him: ‘The story has to come out’.

Who is the man behind the ‘dirty dossier’?

Chris Steele's firm Orbis Business Intelligence Ltd was reportedly recruited to help Mr Trump's Republican rivals

Chris Steele’s firm Orbis Business Intelligence Ltd was reportedly recruited to help Mr Trump’s Republican rivals

Christopher Steele was once MI6’s top spy on Russian affairs and lived in the shadows until being unmasked as the alleged author of the ‘dirty dossier’ on Donald Trump.

Mr Steele was born in 1964 in Aden – his father was in the military – and grew up in Surrey before attending Girton College, Cambridge, and becoming president of the Cambridge Union debating society in 1986 – the same year in which Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson was president of the Oxford Union.

The 52-year-old joined MI6 after graduating from Cambridge where he was described as a ‘confirmed socialist’.

As a young intelligence officer in Moscow, he was frequently harassed by the KGB – once even complaining they had stolen his wife Laura’s high-heeled shoes from their flat.

Steele, 52, was described as a 'confirmed socialist' as a Cambridge student, circled in 1985 with, among others, DJ Paul Gambaccini (second from right, front row) and That's Life star Chris Seale (front row, centre left)

Steele, 52, was described as a ‘confirmed socialist’ as a Cambridge student, circled in 1985 with, among others, DJ Paul Gambaccini (second from right, front row) and That’s Life star Chris Seale (front row, centre left)

The couple faced down Russian tanks after the fall of the Soviet Union and ‘highly capable’ Mr Steele went on to become head of MI6’s Russia desk – meaning he was one of the Secret Intelligence Service’s most senior spies.

It was no wonder he was considered hot property when he quit MI6 in 2009 to set up his own spies-for-hire firm, Orbis Business Intelligence.

Co-founded with another former MI6 officer, Christopher Burrows, it has earned £1million over the past two years and was instrumental in exposing corruption at world football body Fifa.

Pictured is the main entrance the offices of Orbis Business Intelligence where the alleged author of the Trump dossier Christopher Steele works from

Pictured is the main entrance the offices of Orbis Business Intelligence where the alleged author of the Trump dossier Christopher Steele works from

Steele also told the journalist, who first published details about the dossier in October last year: ‘My track record as a professional is second to no one.’

Steele’s reports, which claim Russia has tapes of Trump engaging in ‘perverted sexual acts’ while in a Moscow hotel room, circulated for months among major media outlets but neither the news organizations nor U.S. law enforcement and intelligence agencies have been able to corroborate them.

BuzzFeed published some of Steele’s reports about Trump on its website on Tuesday, but the President-elect and his aides later said the reports were false. Russian authorities also dismissed them.

Associates of Steele said on Wednesday he was unavailable for comment. Christopher Burrows, a director and co-founder of Orbis with Steele, told The Wall Street Journal, which first published Steele’s name, that he could not confirm or deny that Steele’s company had produced the reports on Trump.

US President-elect Donald Trump on recent allegations

Dossier of unverifiable sleaze

Lurid sex claims

The report states that in 2013 Trump hired prostitutes to urinate on the bed of the Presidential Suite at the Moscow Ritz Carlton, where he knew Barack and Michelle Obama had previously stayed.

It says: ‘Trump’s unorthodox behavior in Russia over the years had provided the authorities there with enough embarrassing material on the now Republican presidential candidate to be able to blackmail him if they so wished.’

Trump ridiculed the idea, pointing out that Russian hotel rooms are known to be rigged with cameras and describing himself as a ‘germophobe’.

Property ‘sweeteners’

The document states that Trump had declined ‘sweetener’ real estate deals in Russia that the Kremlin lined up in order to cultivate him.

The business proposals were said to be ‘in relation to the ongoing 2018 World Cup soccer tournament’.

Russia ‘cultivated’ Trump for five years

The dossier claimed that the Russian regime had been ‘cultivating, supporting and assisting Trump for at least five years’.

According to the document, one source even claimed that ‘the Trump operation was both supported and directed by Russian President Vladimir Putin’ with the aim being to ‘sow discord’. 

A dossier on Hillary Clinton

At one point the memo suggests Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov ‘controlled’ another dossier containing compromising material on Hillary Clinton compiled over ‘many years’.

Elsewhere in the document, it is claimed that Putin was ‘motivated by fear and hatred of Hillary Clinton.’

Peskov poured scorn on the claims today and said they were ‘pulp fiction’.

Clandestine meetings

At one point the memo says there were reports of ‘clandestine meetings’ between Donald Trump’s lawyer Michael Cohen and Kremlin representatives in August last year in Prague.

However, Trump’s counsel Michael Cohen today spoke out against allegations that he secretly met with Kremlin officials – saying that he had never been to Prague.

It has now emerged that the dossier was referring to a different person of the same name.

The Belgravia building where offices of Orbis Business Intelligence Ltd are located, in central London

The Belgravia building where offices of Orbis Business Intelligence Ltd are located, in central London

Pictured: Mr Steele's empty £1.5million home in Farnham, Surrey, bristles with CCTV cameras

Pictured: Mr Steele’s empty £1.5million home in Farnham, Surrey, bristles with CCTV cameras

Timeline: How the Trump ‘dirty dossier’ scandal unfolded

2007: The Ritz-Carlton opens in Moscow in 2007

2009: Barack Obama and his family stay there when they travel to the city

2013: Donald Trump visits Moscow to judge the Miss Universe pageant

June 2015: Trump officially announces he is entering the race to become Republican presidential nominee

2015-16: A Republican rival hires an investigative firm to uncover dirt on Trump. By the time work has begun, Trump has won the primary vote but now a Democrat wants the same service

July 2016: A large amount of material has been gathered on Trump based on sources, which is believed to be of huge consequence, if true. The allegations are passed to the FBI

September 2016: The FBI asks for more information but gets no reply

The extraordinary - and entirely unverified - allegations that Donald Trump ordered prostitutes to commit degrading sex acts in the Ritz-Carlton in Moscow are contained in a dossier drawn up by a former British spy

The extraordinary – and entirely unverified – allegations that Donald Trump ordered prostitutes to commit degrading sex acts in the Ritz-Carlton in Moscow are contained in a dossier drawn up by a former British spy

Inside The Ritz-Carlton Moscow where Trump supposedly stayed

October 28: FBI Director James Comey announces the bureau will be investigating Hillary Clinton over mishandling of confidential emails

October 31: The document on Trump is leaked to David Corn, of the Mother Jones online political magazine who run a piece on the dossier without revealing its details

November 9: Trump is elected President

Later in November: The documents are mentioned in an intelligence report on Russian interference given to Barack Obama and possbily Trump

November 18: John McCain discovers the contents of the document

December 9: McCain hands the dossier directly to Comey

January 11: CNN publishes the story on Trump, followed by an unredacted version by Buzzfeed

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4119814/British-former-MI6-spy-desperate-Trump-dirty-dossier-worked-nothing.html#ixzz4Vl9ocAVk

 

Countdown to a sex and spy scandal: How events leading up to leak of Trump ‘dirty dossier’ unfolded

Former British spy, Christopher Steele, has been named as the man behind the document on the US President-elect

US President-elect Donald Trump (Photo: AFP)

Donald Trump has vehemently denied the allegations he paid Russian prostitutes to perform sex acts.

Former British spy, Christopher Steele, has been named as the man behind the document on the US President-elect .

The 52-year-old is reported to have fled his home after his name was made public.

Here are the events leading up to the revelations in the ;dirty dossier’.

  • 2013: It is at the Moscow Ritz Carlton that it is claimed Trump’s alleged sexual conduct took place and was secretly filmed by FSB spies.
    Christopher Steel
    Christopher Steel has been named as the man behind the ‘dirty dossier’ (Photo: Getty)
  • June 2015 Trump formally announces he will run for President.
  • June 2016: Donald Trump launches his campaign bid but behind the scenes a mystery person starts plotting to undermine his bid by digging for dirt and links between the candidate and the Kremlin.
  • Early June 2016: Enquiries are made by a Christopher Steele – a former western intelligence officer – who starts probing alleged links between Trump and Russia for an “opposition research project – financed by a Republican client.
  • August 27, 2016: US Senator Harry Reid writes to the FBI Director James Comey asking if Trump is an “unwitting agent” of Russia and the Kremlin.
  • September 23, 2016: US intelligence begins probing links between Trump adviser and ex-investment banker Carter Page and the Russian government. Page has extensive business links in Russia.
  • November 18, 2016: Sen. John McCain hears about the documents at a security meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and dispatches a middleman to the UK pick up a copy from a retired British official at an airport.
    U.S. President-elect Donald Trump
    U.S. President-elect Donald Trump (Photo: Barcroft Media)
  • December 9, 2016: McCain gives the documents to Comey and meets Comey “with no aides present,” giving the intelligence boss the documents.
  • January 10 2017: President Obama and Trump given summary of the dossier.
  • January 12 2017 It is revealed that EU British ambassador SIr Tim Barrow – once linked to the dossier and who worked with Steele when he was our man in Russia – has told bosses he had nothing to do with the report.

http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/how-timeline-events-leading-up-9613552

Story 2: On The Road To Extinction: The Decline, Fall and Death of Big Lie Media or Mediasaurus Predicted By novelist Michael Crichton in 1993 — “It is basically junk.” — Videos

Image result for Mediasaurus Michael crichton

Image result for Michael crichton and family and wife

Image result for Michael crichton and family and wife

Image result for Michael crichton

 

“The American media produce a product of very poor quality.”

“Its information is not reliable, it has too much chrome and glitz, its doors rattle, it breaks down almost immediately, and it’s sold without warranty. It’s flashy but it’s basically junk.”

~Michael Crichton

Michael Crichton – Mediasaurus Speech – 1993

Published on Mar 28, 2015

A short clip from Michael Crichton’s speech to The National Press Club in 1993 called “Mediasaurus: The Decline of Conventional Media”.

 

CHARLIE ROSE – An Appreciation of MICHAEL CRICHTON

[FULL HD] Donald Trump interview on Charlie Rose (1992)

Charlie Rose to Trump: “We want you at this table.” (Aug 17, 2016) | Charlie Rose

Bono: Trump has “hijacked the party” (Sept 20, 2016) | Charlie Rose

Michael Crichton : on the future

Reflections on Careers in the Entertainment Industry: Michael Crichton (2005)

Michael Crichton interview on Charlie Rose (1994)

Michael Crichton interview on “The Lost World” on Charlie Rose (1995)

Michael Crichton interview on Charlie Rose (1999)

Michael Crichton interview on Charlie Rose (2002)

Michael Crichton in Charlie Rose (2007)

MEDIASAURUS

Michael Crichton, Vindicated

Michael Crichton. Click to expand image.
Michael Crichton

In 1993, novelist Michael Crichton riled the news business with a Wired magazine essay titled “Mediasaurus,” in which he prophesied the death of the mass media—specifically the New York Times and the commercial networks. “Vanished, without a trace,” he wrote.

The mediasaurs had about a decade to live, he wrote, before technological advances—”artificial intelligence agents roaming the databases, downloading stuff I am interested in, and assembling for me a front page”—swept them under. Shedding no tears, Crichton wrote that the shoddy mass media deserved its deadly fate.

“[T]he American media produce a product of very poor quality,” he lectured. “Its information is not reliable, it has too much chrome and glitz, its doors rattle, it breaks down almost immediately, and it’s sold without warranty. It’s flashy but it’s basically junk.”

Had Crichton’s prediction been on track, by 2002 the New York Times should have been half-fossilized. But the newspaper’s vital signs were so positive that its parent company commissioned a 1,046-foot Modernist tower, which now stands in Midtown Manhattan. Other trends predicted by Crichton in 1993 hadn’t materialized in 2002, either. Customized news turned out to be harder to create than hypothesize; news consumers weren’t switching to unfiltered sources such as C-SPAN; and the mainstream media weren’t on anyone’s endangered species list.

When I interviewed Crichton in 2002 about his failed predictions for Slate, he was anything but defensive.

“I assume that nobody can predict the future well. But in this particular case, I doubt I’m wrong; it’s just too early,” Crichton said via e-mail.

As we pass his prediction’s 15-year anniversary, I’ve got to declare advantage Crichton. Rot afflicts the newspaper industry, which is shedding staff, circulation, and revenues. It’s gotten so bad in newspaperville that some people want Google to buy the Times and run it as a charity! Evening news viewership continues to evaporate, and while the mass media aren’t going extinct tomorrow, Crichton’s original observations about the media future now ring more true than false. Ask any journalist.

So with white flag in hand, I approached Crichton to chat him up once more. Magnanimous in victory, he said he had often thought about our 2002 discussion and was happy to revisit it. (Read the uncut e-mail interview in this sidebar.)

Although Crichton still subscribes to the New York Times and Wall Street Journal, he dropped the Los Angeles Times a year ago—”with no discernable loss.” He skims those two dailies but spends 95 percent of his “information-gathering time” on the Web.

He concedes with a shrug that the personalized infotopia he crystal-balled in 1993 has yet to arrive. When we talked in 2002, Crichton scoffed at the Web. Too slow. Its page metaphor, too limiting. Design, awful. Excessive hypertexting, too distracting. Noise-to-signal ratio, too high.

Today he’s more positive about the medium. He notes with satisfaction that the Web has made it far easier for the inquisitive to find unmediated information, such as congressional hearings. It’s much faster than it used to be, and more of its pages are professionally assembled. His general bitch is advertisements in the middle of stories, and he’s irritated by animation and sounds in ads. “That, at least, can often be blocked by your browser,” he says.

In 1993, Crichton predicted that future consumers would crave high-quality information instead of the junk they were being fed and that they’d be willing to pay for it. He’s perplexed about that part of his prediction not panning out, but he has a few theories about why it hasn’t.

“Senior scientists running labs don’t read journals; they say the younger people will tell them about anything important that gets published—if they haven’t heard about it beforehand anyway,” he says. “So there may be other networks to transmit information, and it may be that ‘media’ was never as important as we who work in it imagine it was. That’s an argument that says maybe nobody really needs a high-end service.”

It will take a media visionary, he believes—somebody like Ted Turner—to create the high-quality information service he foresaw in his 1993 essay. In addition to building the service, the visionary will also have to convince news consumers that they need it.

Sounding like a press critic, Crichton criticizes much of the news fed to consumers as “repetitive, simplistic, and insulting” and produced on the cheap. Cable TV news is mostly “talking heads and food fights” and newspaper reporting mostly “rewritten press releases,” he says.

Crichton suggests that readers and viewers could more objectively measure the quality of the news they consume by pulling themselves “out of the narcotizing flow of what passes for daily news.” Look at a newspaper from last month or a news broadcast.

“Look at how many stories are unsourced or have unnamed sources. Look at how many stories are about what ‘may’ or ‘might’ or ‘could’ happen,” he says. “Might and could means the story is speculation. Framing as I described means the story is opinion. And opinion is not factual content.”

“The biggest change is that contemporary media has shifted from fact to opinion and speculation. You can watch cable news all day and never hear anything except questions like, ‘How much will the Rev. Wright hurt Obama’s chances?’ ‘Is Hillary now looking toward 2012?’ ‘How will McCain overcome the age argument?’ These are questions for which there are endless answers. Contentious hosts on cable shows keep the arguments rolling,” he says.

Crichton believes that we live in an age of conformity much more confining than the 1950s in which he grew up. Instead of showing news consumers how to approach controversy coolly and intelligently, the media partake of the zealotry and intolerance of many of the advocates they cover. He attributes the public’s interest in Mike Huckabee, Ron Paul, and the Rev. Jeremiah Wright to its hunger for a wider range of viewpoints than the mass media provide.

He tosses out a basket of questions he’d like to see the press tackle, some of which I’ve seen covered. “What happened at Bear Stearns?” got major play this week, after Crichton answered my questions, in a Wall Street Journalseries. And I know I’ve seen “How much of the current price of gas can be attributed to the weak dollar?” answered a couple of times but can’t remember where. (Answer: a lot.) But such Crichton questions as “Why have hedge funds evaded government regulation?” and what specific lifestyle changes will every American have to make “to reduce CO2 emissions by 60 percent?” would be great assignments for news desks.

“I want a news service that tells me what no one knows but is true nonetheless,” he says.

******

Me, too. What do you want? Send your requests to slate.pressbox@gmail.com. (E-mail may be quoted by name in “The Fray,” Slate‘s readers’ forum, in a future article, or elsewhere unless the writer stipulates otherwise. Permanent disclosure: Slate is owned by the Washington Post Co.) Track my errors: This hand-built RSS feed will ring every time Slate runs a “Press Box” correction. For e-mail notification of errors in this specific column, type the word mediasaurus in the subject head of an e-mail message and send it to

http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/press_box/2008/05/michael_crichton_vindicated.html

Michael Crichton

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Michael Crichton
MichaelCrichton 2.jpg

Crichton at Harvard University in 2002
Born John Michael Crichton
October 23, 1942
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Died November 4, 2008 (aged 66)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Pen name John Lange
Jeffery Hudson
Michael Douglas
Occupation Author, screenwriter, film director, film producer, television producer, physician
Language English
Nationality American
Education Harvard University B.S.
Harvard Medical School M.D.
Period 1966–2008
Genre Action, adventure, science fiction, techno-thriller
Notable awards 1969 Edgar Award
Spouse Joan Radam (1965–1970)
Kathy St. Johns (1978–1980)
Suzanne Childs (1981–1983)
Anne-Marie Martin (1987–2003)
Sherri Alexander (2005–2008; his death)
Children 2

Signature "Michael Crichton"
Website
www.crichton-official.com

John Michael Crichton (/ˈkrtən/; October 23, 1942 – November 4, 2008) was an American best-selling author, screenwriter, film director, producer, and former physician best known for his work in the science fiction, medical fiction and thriller genres. His books have sold over 200 million copies worldwide, and many have been adapted into films. In 1994, Crichton became the only creative artist ever to have works simultaneously charting at No. 1 in US television (ER), film (Jurassic Park), and book sales (Disclosure).[2]

His literary works are usually within the action genre and heavily feature technology. His novels epitomize the techno-thriller genre of literature, often exploring technology and failures of human interaction with it, especially resulting in catastrophes with biotechnology. Many of his future history novels have medical or scientific underpinnings, reflecting his medical training and science background. He wrote, among other works, The Andromeda Strain (1969), Congo (1980), Sphere (1987), Travels (1988), Jurassic Park (1990), Rising Sun (1992), Disclosure (1994), The Lost World (1995), Airframe (1996), Timeline (1999), Prey (2002), State of Fear (2004), Next (2006; the final book published before his death), Pirate Latitudes (2009), an unfinished techno-thriller, Micro, which was published in November 2011, and Dragon Teeth, a historical novel set during the “Bone Wars“, which will be published worldwide in May 2017.[3]

Early life and education

John Michael Crichton[4] was born on October 23, 1942, in Chicago, Illinois,[5][6][7][8] to John Henderson Crichton, a journalist, and Zula Miller Crichton. He was raised on Long Island, in Roslyn, New York,[4] and showed a keen interest in writing from a young age; at 14, he had a column related to travel published in The New York Times.[2] Crichton had always planned on becoming a writer and began his studies at Harvard College in 1960.[2] During his undergraduate study in literature, he conducted an experiment to expose a professor who he believed was giving him abnormally low marks and criticizing his literary style.[9]:4 Informing another professor of his suspicions,[10]Crichton submitted an essay by George Orwell under his own name. The paper was returned by his unwitting professor with a mark of “B−”.[11][12] His issues with the English department led Crichton to switch his undergraduate concentration; he obtained his bachelor’s degree in biological anthropology summa cum laude in 1964[13] and was initiated into the Phi Beta Kappa Society.[13] He received a Henry Russell Shaw Traveling Fellowship from 1964 to 1965 and was a visiting lecturer in Anthropology at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom in 1965.[13]

Crichton later enrolled at Harvard Medical School, when he began publishing work.[9][page needed] By this time he had become exceptionally tall; by his own account he was approximately 6 feet 9 inches (2.06 m) tall in 1997.[14][15]In reference to his height, while in medical school, he began writing novels under the pen names “John Lange”[16] and “Jeffrey Hudson”[17] (“Lange” is a surname in Germany, meaning “long”, and Sir Jeffrey Hudson was a famous 17th-century dwarf in the court of Queen consort Henrietta Maria of England).

He later described his Lange books in the following way: “My feeling about the Lange books is that my competition is in-flight movies. One can read the books in an hour and a half, and be more satisfactorily amused than watching Doris Day. I write them fast and the reader reads them fast and I get things off my back.”[18][19]

In Travels he recalls overhearing doctors, who were unaware that he was the author, discussing the flaws in his book The Andromeda Strain.[9][page needed]

A Case of Need, written under the Hudson pseudonym, won him his first Edgar Award for Best Novel in 1969.[20]

He also co-wrote Dealing: or the Berkeley-to-Boston Forty-Brick Lost-Bag Blues (1970) with his younger brother Douglas, under the shared pen name “Michael Douglas”. The back cover of that book carried a picture, taken by their mother, of Michael and Douglas when very young.[citation needed]

During his clinical rotations at the Boston City Hospital, Crichton grew disenchanted with the culture there, which appeared to emphasize the interests and reputations of doctors over the interests of patients.[9][page needed] He graduated from Harvard, obtaining an MD in 1969,[21] and undertook a post-doctoral fellowship study at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, from 1969 to 1970.[citation needed] He never obtained a license to practice medicine, devoting himself to his writing career instead.[22]

Reflecting on his career in medicine years later, Crichton concluded that patients too often shunned responsibility for their own health, relying on doctors as miracle workers rather than advisors. He experimented with astral projection, aura viewing, and clairvoyance, coming to believe that these included real phenomena that scientists had too eagerly dismissed as paranormal.[9][page needed]

In 1988, Crichton was a visiting writer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[23]

Writing career

Fiction

Odds On was Michael Crichton’s first published novel. It was published in 1966, under the pseudonym of John Lange. It is a 215-page paperback novel which describes an attempted robbery in an isolated hotel on Costa Brava. The robbery is planned scientifically with the help of a critical path analysis computer program, but unforeseen events get in the way.

The following year, he published Scratch One. The novel relates the story of Roger Carr, a handsome, charming and privileged man who practices law, more as a means to support his playboy lifestyle than a career. Carr is sent to Nice, France, where he has notable political connections, but is mistaken for an assassin and finds his life in jeopardy, implicated in the world of terrorism.

In 1968, he published two novels, Easy Go and A Case of Need, the second of which was re-published in 1993, under his real name. Easy Go relates the story of Harold Barnaby, a brilliant Egyptologist, who discovers a concealed message while translating hieroglyphics, informing him of an unnamed Pharaoh whose tomb is yet to be discovered. A Case of Need, on the other hand, was a medical thriller in which a Boston pathologist, Dr. John Berry, investigates an apparent illegal abortion conducted by an obstetrician friend, which caused the early demise of a young woman. The novel would prove a turning point in Crichton’s future novels, in which technology is important in the subject matter, although this novel was as much about medical practice. The novel earned him an Edgar Award in 1969.

In 1969, Crichton published three novels. The first, Zero Cool, dealt with an American radiologist on vacation in Spain who is caught in a murderous crossfire between rival gangs seeking a precious artifact. The second, The Andromeda Strain, would prove to be the most important novel of his career and establish him as a best-selling author. The novel documented the efforts of a team of scientists investigating a deadly extraterrestrialmicroorganism that fatally clots human blood, causing death within two minutes. The novel became an instant success, and it was turned into a 1971 film. Crichton’s third novel of 1969, The Venom Business relates the story of a smuggler who uses his exceptional skill as a snake handler to his advantage by importing snakes to be used by drug companies and universities for medical research. The snakes are simply a ruse to hide the presence of rare Mexican artifacts. In 1969, Crichton also wrote a review for The New Republic (as J. Michael Crichton), critiquing Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut.[24]

In 1970, Crichton again published three novels: Drug of Choice, Grave Descend and Dealing: or the Berkeley-to-Boston Forty-Brick Lost-Bag Blues with his younger brother Douglas Crichton. Dealing, was written under the pen name ‘Michael Douglas’, using their first names. This novel was adapted to the big screen and set a wave for his brother Douglas as well as himself. Grave Descend earned him an Edgar Award nomination the following year.[25]

In 1972, Crichton published two novels. The first, Binary, relates the story of a villainous middle-class businessman, who attempts to assassinate the President of the United States by stealing an army shipment of the two precursor chemicals that form a deadly nerve agent. The second, The Terminal Man, is about a psychomotor epileptic sufferer, Harry Benson, who in regularly suffering seizures followed by blackouts, conducts himself inappropriately during seizures, waking up hours later with no knowledge of what he has done. Believed to be psychotic, he is investigated; electrodes are implanted in his brain, continuing the preoccupation in Crichton’s novels with machine-human interaction and technology. The novel was adapted into a film directed by Mike Hodges and starring George Segal, Joan Hackett, Richard A. Dysart and Donald Moffat, released in June 1974. However, neither the novel nor the film was well received by critics.[citation needed]

In 1975, Crichton ventured into the nineteenth century with his historical novel The Great Train Robbery, which would become a bestseller. The novel is a recreation of the Great Gold Robbery of 1855, a massive gold heist, which takes place on a train traveling through Victorian era England. A considerable portion of the book was set in London. The novel was later made into a 1979 film directed by Crichton himself, starring Sean Connery and Donald Sutherland. The film would go on to be nominated for Best Cinematography Award by the British Society of Cinematographers, also garnering an Edgar Allan Poe Award for Best Motion Picture by the Mystery Writers Association of America.

In 1976, Crichton published Eaters of the Dead, a novel about a tenth-century Muslim who travels with a group of Vikings to their settlement. Eaters of the Dead is narrated as a scientific commentary on an old manuscript and was inspired by two sources. The first three chapters retell Ahmad ibn Fadlan‘s personal account of his journey north and his experiences in encountering the Rus’, the early Russian peoples, whilst the remainder is based upon the story of Beowulf, culminating in battles with the ‘mist-monsters’, or ‘wendol’, a relict group of Neanderthals. The novel was adapted into film as The 13th Warrior, initially directed by John McTiernan, who was later fired with Crichton himself taking over direction.

In 1980, Crichton published the novel Congo, which centers on an expedition searching for diamonds in the tropical rain forest of Congo. The novel was loosely adapted into a 1995 film, starring Laura Linney, Tim Curry, and Ernie Hudson.

Seven years later, Crichton published Sphere, a novel which relates the story of psychologist Norman Johnson, who is required by the U.S. Navy to join a team of scientists assembled by the U.S. Government to examine an enormous alien spacecraft discovered on the bed of the Pacific Ocean, and believed to have been there for over 300 years. The novel begins as a science fiction story, but rapidly changes into a psychological thriller, ultimately exploring the nature of the human imagination. The novel was adapted into the film Sphere in 1998, directed by Barry Levinson, with a cast including Dustin Hoffman as Norman Johnson, (renamed Norman Goodman), Samuel L. Jackson, Liev Schreiber and Sharon Stone.

Crichton’s novel Jurassic Park, and its sequels, were made into films that became a part of popular culture, with related parks established in places as far afield as Kletno, Poland.

In 1990, Crichton published the novel Jurassic Park. Crichton utilized the presentation of “fiction as fact“, used in his previous novels, Eaters of the Dead and The Andromeda Strain. In addition, chaos theory and its philosophical implications are used to explain the collapse of an amusement park in a “biological preserve” on Isla Nublar, an island west of Costa Rica. Paleontologist Alan Grant and his paleobotanist graduate student, Ellie Sattler, are brought in by billionaire John Hammond to investigate. The park is revealed to contain genetically recreated dinosaur species, including Dilophosaurus, Velociraptor, Triceratops, Stegosaurus, and Tyrannosaurus rex, among others. They have been recreated using damaged dinosaur DNA, found in mosquitoes that sucked saurian blood and were then trapped and preserved in amber.

Crichton had originally conceived a screenplay about a graduate student who recreates a dinosaur, but decided to explore his fascination with dinosaurs and cloning until he began writing the novel.[26] Spielberg learned of the novel in October 1989, while he and Crichton were discussing a screenplay that would become the television series ER. Before the book was published, Crichton demanded a non-negotiable fee of $1.5 million as well as a substantial percentage of the gross. Warner Bros. and Tim Burton, Sony Pictures Entertainment and Richard Donner, and 20th Century Fox and Joe Dante bid for the rights,[27] but Universal eventually acquired them in May 1990, for Spielberg.[28] Universal paid Crichton a further $500,000 to adapt his own novel,[29] which he had completed by the time Spielberg was filming Hook. Crichton noted that because the book was “fairly long”, his script only had about 10–20 percent of the novel’s content.[30] The film, directed by Spielberg, was eventually released in 1993, starring Sam Neill as Dr. Alan Grant, Laura Dern as Dr. Ellie Sattler, Jeff Goldblum as Dr. Ian Malcolm (the chaos theorist), and Richard Attenborough, as John Hammond, the billionaire CEO, of InGen. The film would go on to become extremely successful.

A mosquito preserved in amber. A specimen of this sort was the source of dinosaur DNA in Jurassic Park.

In 1992, Crichton published the novel Rising Sun, an international best-selling crime thriller about a murder in the Los Angeles headquarters of Nakamoto, a fictional Japanese corporation. The book was instantly adapted into a film, released the same year of the movie adaption of Jurassic Park in 1993, and starring Sean Connery, Wesley Snipes, Tia Carrere and Harvey Keitel.

His next novel, Disclosure, published in 1994, addresses the theme of sexual harassment previously explored in his 1972 Binary. Unlike that novel however, Crichton centers on sexual politics in the workplace, emphasizing an array of paradoxes in traditional gender functions, by featuring a male protagonist who is being sexually harassed by a female executive. As a result, the book has been harshly criticized by feminist commentators and accused of anti-feminism. Crichton, anticipating this response, offered a rebuttal at the close of the novel which states that a “role-reversal” story uncovers aspects of the subject that would not be as easily seen with a female protagonist. The novel was made into a film the same year by Barry Levinson, and starring Michael Douglas, Demi Moore and Donald Sutherland.

Crichton then published The Lost World in 1995, as the sequel to Jurassic Park. It was made into a film sequel two years later in 1997, again directed by Spielberg and starring Jeff Goldblum, Julianne Moore, Vince Vaughn and Pete Postlethwaite.

Then, in 1996, Crichton published Airframe, an aero-techno-thriller which relates the story of a quality assurance vice-president at the fictional aerospace manufacturer Norton Aircraft, as she investigates an in-flight accident aboard a Norton-manufactured airliner that leaves three passengers dead and fifty-six injured. Again, Crichton uses the false document literary device, presenting numerous technical documents to create a sense of authenticity. In the novel, Crichton draws from real life accidents to increase its sensation of realism, including American Airlines Flight 191 and Aeroflot Flight 593; the latter flew from Moscow’s Sheremetyevo International Airport and crashed on its way to Hong Kong’s Kai Tak Airport in 1994. Crichton challenges the public perception of air safety and the consequences of exaggerated media reports to sell the story. The book also continues Crichton’s overall theme of the failure of humans in human-machine interaction, given that the plane itself worked perfectly and the accident would not have occurred had the pilot reacted properly.

In 1999, Crichton published Timeline, a science fiction novel which tells the story of a team of historians and archaeologists studying a site in the Dordogne region of France, where the medieval towns of Castelgard and La Roque stood. They time travel back to 1357 to uncover some startling truths. The novel, which continues Crichton’s long history of combining technical details and action in his books, addresses quantum physics and time travel directly and received a warm welcome from medieval scholars, who praised his depiction of the challenges in studying the Middle Ages.[31]

The novel quickly spawned Timeline Computer Entertainment, a computer game developer that created the Timeline PC game published by Eidos Interactive in 2000. A film based on the book was released in 2003, by Paramount Pictures, with a screen adaptation by Jeff Maguire and George Nolfi, under the direction of Richard Donner. The film stars Paul Walker, Gerard Butler and Frances O’Connor.

In 2002, Crichton published Prey, a cautionary tale about developments in science and technology; specifically nanotechnology. The novel explores relatively recent phenomena engendered by the work of the scientific community, such as artificial life, emergence (and by extension, complexity), genetic algorithms, and agent-based computing. Reiterating components in many of his other novels, Crichton once again devises fictional companies, this time Xymos, a nanorobotics company which is claimed to be on the verge of perfecting a revolutionary new medical imaging technology based on nanotechnology and a rival company, MediaTronics.

In 2004, Crichton published State of Fear, a novel concerning eco-terrorists who attempt mass murder to support their views. Global warming serves as a central theme to the novel, although a review in Nature found it “likely to mislead the unwary”.[32] The novel had an initial print run of 1.5 million copies and reached the No. 1 bestseller position at Amazon.com and No. 2 on The New York Times Best Seller list for one week in January 2005.[33][34]

The last novel published while he was still living was Next, in 2006. The novel follows many characters, including transgenic animals, in the quest to survive in a world dominated by genetic research, corporate greed, and legal interventions, wherein government and private investors spend billions of dollars every year on genetic research.

Pirate Latitudes was found as a manuscript on one of his computers after his death and was published in November 2009.[3] Additionally, Crichton had completed the outline for and was roughly a third of the way through a novel titled Micro.[3][35] Micro was completed by Richard Preston and was published in November 2011.[35]

On July 28, 2016, Michael Crichton’s website and HarperCollins published a press release saying that a new Michael Crichton novel will be published in May 2017 called Dragon Teeth.[36][37]

Non-fiction

Crichton’s first published book of non-fiction, Five Patients, recounts his experiences of practices in the late 1960s at Massachusetts General Hospital and the issues of costs and politics within American health care.

Aside from fiction, Crichton wrote several other books based on medical or scientific themes, often based upon his own observations in his field of expertise. In 1970, he published Five Patients, a book which recounts his experiences of hospital practices in the late 1960s at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. The book follows each of five patients through their hospital experience and the context of their treatment, revealing inadequacies in the hospital institution at the time. The book relates the experiences of Ralph Orlando, a construction worker seriously injured in a scaffold collapse; John O’Connor, a middle-aged dispatcher suffering from fever that has reduced him to a delirious wreck; Peter Luchesi, a young man who severs his hand in an accident; Sylvia Thompson, an airline passenger who suffers chest pains; and Edith Murphy, a mother of three who is diagnosed with a life-threatening disease. In Five Patients, Crichton examines a brief history of medicine up to 1969, to help place hospital culture and practice into context, and addresses the costs and politics of American health care.

As a personal friend of the artist Jasper Johns, Crichton compiled many of his works in a coffee table book, published as Jasper Johns. It was originally published in 1970, by Harry N. Abrams, Inc. in association with the Whitney Museum of American Art, and again in January 1977, with a second revised edition published in 1994.

In 1983, Crichton wrote Electronic Life, a book that introduces BASIC programming to its readers. The book, written like a glossary, with entries such as “Afraid of Computers (everybody is)”, “Buying a Computer”, and “Computer Crime”, was intended to introduce the idea of personal computers to a reader who might be faced with the hardship of using them at work or at home for the first time. It defined basic computer jargon and assured readers that they could master the machine when it inevitably arrived. In his words, being able to program a computer is liberation; “In my experience, you assert control over a computer—show it who’s the boss—by making it do something unique. That means programming it….If you devote a couple of hours to programming a new machine, you’ll feel better about it ever afterwards”.[38] In the book, Crichton predicts a number of events in the history of computer development, that computer networks would increase in importance as a matter of convenience, including the sharing of information and pictures that we see online today which the telephone never could. He also makes predictions for computer games, dismissing them as “the hula hoops of the ’80s”, and saying “already there are indications that the mania for twitch games may be fading.” In a section of the book called “Microprocessors, or how I flunked biostatistics at Harvard”, Crichton again seeks his revenge on the medical school teacher who had given him abnormally low grades in college. Within the book, Crichton included many self-written demonstrative Applesoft (for Apple II) and BASICA (for IBM PC compatibles) programs.

In 1988, he published Travels, which also contains autobiographical episodes covered in a similar fashion to his 1970 book Five Patients.

Literary techniques

Crichton’s novels, including Jurassic Park, have been described by The Guardian as “harking back to the fantasy adventure fiction of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Jules Verne, Edgar Rice Burroughs, and Edgar Wallace, but with a contemporary spin, assisted by cutting-edge technology references made accessible for the general reader”.[39] According to The Guardian, “Michael Crichton wasn’t really interested in characters, but his innate talent for storytelling enabled him to breathe new life into the science fiction thriller”.[39] Like The Guardian, The New York Times has also noted the boys’ adventure quality to his novels interfused with modern technology and science. According to The New York Times,

All the Crichton books depend to a certain extent on a little frisson of fear and suspense: that’s what kept you turning the pages. But a deeper source of their appeal was the author’s extravagant care in working out the clockwork mechanics of his experiments—the DNA replication in Jurassic Park, the time travel in Timeline, the submarine technology in Sphere. The novels have embedded in them little lectures or mini-seminars on, say, the Bernoulli principle, voice-recognition software or medieval jousting etiquette … The best of the Crichton novels have about them a boys’ adventure quality. They owe something to the Saturday-afternoon movie serials that Mr. Crichton watched as a boy and to the adventure novels of Arthur Conan Doyle (from whom Mr. Crichton borrowed the title The Lost World and whose example showed that a novel could never have too many dinosaurs). These books thrive on yarn spinning, but they also take immense delight in the inner workings of things (as opposed to people, women especially), and they make the world—or the made-up world, anyway—seem boundlessly interesting. Readers come away entertained and also with the belief, not entirely illusory, that they have actually learned something”

— The New York Times on the works of Michael Crichton[40]

Crichton’s works were frequently cautionary; his plots often portrayed scientific advancements going awry, commonly resulting in worst-case scenarios. A notable recurring theme in Crichton’s plots is the pathological failure of complex systems and their safeguards, whether biological (Jurassic Park), military/organizational (The Andromeda Strain), technical (Airframe), or cybernetic (Westworld). This theme of the inevitable breakdown of “perfect” systems and the failure of “fail-safe measures” can be seen strongly in the poster for Westworld, whose slogan was, “Where nothing can possibly go worng [sic]”, and in the discussion of chaos theory in Jurassic Park. His 1973 movie Westworld contains one of the earliest references to a computer virus, and the first mention of the concept of a computer virus in a movie.[41] Crichton believed, however, that his view of technology had been misunderstood as

being out there, doing bad things to us people, like we’re inside the circle of covered wagons and technology is out there firing arrows at us. We’re making the technology and it is a manifestation of how we think. To the extent that we think egotistically and irrationally and paranoically and foolishly, then we have technology that will give us nuclear winters or cars that won’t brake. But that’s because people didn’t design them right.[42]

The use of author surrogate was a feature of Crichton’s writings from the beginning of his career. In A Case of Need, one of his pseudonymous whodunit stories, Crichton used first-person narrative to portray the hero, a Bostonian pathologist, who is running against the clock to clear a friend’s name from medical malpractice in a girl’s death from a hack-job abortion.

Some of Crichton’s fiction used a literary technique called false document. For example, Eaters of the Dead is a fabricated recreation of the Old English epic Beowulf in the form of a scholarly translation of Ahmad ibn Fadlan‘s 10th-century manuscript. Other novels, such as The Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park, incorporated fictionalized scientific documents in the form of diagrams, computer output, DNA sequences, footnotes and bibliography. Some of his novels, such as The Terminal Man and State of Fear, included authentic published scientific works to illustrate his point.

Crichton sometimes used a premise in which a diverse group of “experts” or specialists are assembled to tackle a unique problem requiring their individual talents and knowledge. This was done in Andromeda Strain as well as Sphere, Jurassic Park, and to a far lesser extent Timeline. Sometimes the individual characters in this dynamic work in the private sector and are suddenly called upon by the government to form an immediate response team once some incident or discovery triggers their mobilization. This premise or plot device has been imitated and used by other authors and screenwriters in several books, movies and television shows since.

At the prose level, one of Crichton’s trademarks was the single-word paragraph: a dramatic question answered by a single word on its own as a paragraph.

Works

Novels]

Year Title Notes Ref.
1966 Odds On as John Lange [43]
1967 Scratch One as John Lange [44]
1968 Easy Go as John Lange (also titled as The Last Tomb) [45]
1968 A Case of Need as Jeffery Hudson (re-released as Crichton in 1993) [46]
1969 Zero Cool as John Lange [47]
1969 The Andromeda Strain [48]
1969 The Venom Business as John Lange [49]
1970 Drug of Choice as John Lange (also titled Overkill) [50]
1970 Dealing as Michael Douglas (with brother Douglas Crichton) [51]
1970 Grave Descend as John Lange [52]
1972 Binary as John Lange (re-released as by Crichton in 1993) [16]
1972 The Terminal Man [53]
1975 The Great Train Robbery [54]
1976 Eaters of the Dead also titled The 13th Warrior [55]
1980 Congo [56]
1987 Sphere [57]
1990 Jurassic Park [58]
1992 Rising Sun [59]
1994 Disclosure [60]
1995 The Lost World [61]
1996 Airframe [62]
1999 Timeline [63]
2002 Prey [64]
2004 State of Fear [65]
2006 Next [66]
2009 Pirate Latitudes posthumous publication [67]
2011 Micro posthumous publication (completed by Richard Preston) [68]
2017 Dragon Teeth posthumous publication [69]

Non-fiction[edit]

Year Title
1970 Five Patients
1977 Jasper Johns
1983 Electronic Life
1988 Travels

Short stories

Year Title Originally published Notes
1957 “Johnny at 8:30” First Words (1993) poem
1960 “[Untitled]” First Words (1993) fan titled Well, Nothing.
1961 “Life Goes to a Party” First Words (1993)
1961 “The Most Important Part of the Lab” First Words (1993)
1968 “Villa of Assassins” Stag Annual (1968) as John Lange; excerpted from Scratch One (1967)
1968 “How Does That Make You Feel?” Playboy (November 1968) as Jeffrey Hudson
1970 “The Death Divers” Man’s World (December 1970) as John Lange; excerpted from Grave Descend (1970)
1971 “The Most Powerful Tailor in the World” Playboy (September 1971)
1984 “Mousetrap: A Tale of Computer Crime” Life (January 1984)
2003 “Blood Doesn’t Come Out” McSweeney’s Mammoth Treasury of Thrilling Tales (2003)

As a film director and screenwriter

The first film based on one of his works was The Andromeda Strain (1971), based on his first professionally published novel of the same name, released in 1969. Crichton then wrote three episodes for the television series Insight in the early 1970s. He made his directing debut with Pursuit (1972), a TV movie based on his novel Binary.

Crichton wrote and directed the 1973 science fiction western-thriller film Westworld, which was his feature film directorial debut. It was the first feature film using 2D computer-generated imagery (CGI).

He wrote and directed the suspense film Coma, adapted from a Robin Cook novel. There are other similarities in terms of genre and the fact that both Cook and Crichton had medical degrees, were of similar age, and wrote about similar subjects.

Other films written and directed by Crichton were The Great Train Robbery (1979), Looker (1981), Runaway (1984) and Physical Evidence (1989). The middle two films were science fiction, set in the very near future at the time, and included particularly flashy styles of filmmaking, for their time.

He wrote the screenplay for the films Extreme Close-Up (1973) and Twister (1996), the latter co-written with Anne-Marie Martin, his wife at the time. While Jurassic Park and The Lost World were both based on Crichton’s novels, Jurassic Park III was not (though scenes from the Jurassic Park novel were incorporated into the third film, such as the aviary).

Crichton was also the creator and executive producer of the television drama ER. He had written what became the pilot script “24 Hours” in 1974. Twenty years later Steven Spielberg helped develop the show, serving as a producer on season one and offering advice (he insisted on Julianna Margulies becoming a regular, for example). It was also through Spielberg’s Amblin Entertainment that John Wells was contacted to be the show’s executive producer. In 1994, Crichton achieved the unique distinction of having a No. 1 movie, Jurassic Park,[citation needed] a No. 1 TV show, ER,[citation needed] and a No. 1 book, Disclosure.[70][71]

Crichton started a company selling a computer program he had originally written to help him create budgets for his movies.[72]

Video games

Amazon is a graphical adventure game created by Crichton and produced by John Wells. Trillium released it in the United States in 1984, and the game runs on Apple II, Atari 8-bit, Atari ST, Commodore 64, and DOS. Amazon sold more than 100,000 copies, making it a significant commercial success at the time. It featured plot elements similar to those previously used in Congo.[73]

In 1999, Crichton founded Timeline Computer Entertainment with David Smith. Despite signing a multi-title publishing deal with Eidos Interactive, only one game was ever published, Timeline. Released on November 10, 2000, for the PC, the game received negative reviews.

Speeches

Crichton delivered a number of notable speeches in his lifetime.

Intelligence Squared “Global Warming is Not a Crisis” debate

On March 14, 2007, Intelligence Squared held a debate in New York City titled Global Warming is Not a Crisis, moderated by Brian Lehrer. Crichton was on the for the motion side along with Richard Lindzen and Philip Stott against Gavin Schmidt, Richard Somerville, and Brenda Ekwurzel. Before the debate, the audience was largely on the against the motion side (57% vs. 30%, with 13% undecided).[74] At the end of the debate, there was a notable shift in the audience vote to prefer for the motion side (46% vs. 42%, with 12% undecided), leaving the debate with the conclusion that Crichton’s group won.[74] Schmidt later described the debate in a RealClimate blog posting, “Crichton went with the crowd-pleasing condemnation of private jet-flying liberals (very popular, even among the private jet-flying Eastsiders present) and the apparent hypocrisy of people who think that global warming is a problem using any energy at all.” While those against the motion had presented the agreed scientific consensus of IPCC reports, the audience was “apparently more convinced by the entertaining narratives from Crichton and Stott (not so sure about Lindzen) than they were by our drier fare. Entertainment-wise it’s hard to blame them. Crichton is extremely polished and Stott has a touch of the revivalist preacher about him. Comparatively, we were pretty dull.” Even though Crichton inspired a lot of blog responses and it was considered one of his best rhetorical performances, reception to his message was mixed.[74][75]

In the debate, although he admitted that man must have at some point contributed to global warming but not necessarily caused it, Crichton argued that most of the media and attention of the general public are being dedicated to the uncertain anthropogenic global warming scares instead of the more urgent issues like poverty. He also suggested that private jets be banned as they add more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere for the benefit of the few who could afford them.

Other speeches

Mediasaurus: The Decline of Conventional Media

A 1993 speech which predicted the decline of mainstream media delivered at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. on April 7, 1993.[76]

Ritual Abuse, Hot Air, and Missed Opportunities: Science Views Media

The AAAS invited Crichton to address scientists’ concerns about how they are portrayed in the media, delivered to the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Anaheim, California on January 25, 1999.[citation needed]

Environmentalism as Religion

This was not the first discussion of environmentalism as a religion, but it caught on and was widely quoted. Crichton explains his view that religious approaches to the environment are inappropriate and cause damage to the natural world they intend to protect.[77] The speech was delivered to the Commonwealth Club in San Francisco, California on September 15, 2003.

Science Policy in the 21st century

Crichton outlined several issues before a joint meeting of liberal and conservative think tanks. The speech was delivered at AEIBrookings Institution in Washington, D.C. on January 25, 2005.[citation needed]

The Case for Skepticism on Global Warming

On January 25, 2005 at the National Press Club Washington, D.C., Crichton delivered a detailed explanation of why he criticized the consensus view on global warming. Using published UN data, he argued that claims for catastrophic warming arouse doubt; that reducing CO2 is vastly more difficult than is commonly presumed; and why societies are morally unjustified in spending vast sums on a speculative issue when people around the world are dying of starvation and disease.[77]

Caltech Michelin Lecture

“Aliens Cause Global Warming” January 17, 2003. In the spirit of his science fiction writing Crichton details research on nuclear winter and SETI Drake equations relative to global warming science.[citation needed]

Testimony before the United States Senate

Together with climate scientists, Crichton was invited to testify before the Senate in September 2005, as an expert witness on global warming.[78] The speech was delivered to the Committee on Environment and Public Works in Washington, D.C.

Complexity theory and environmental management

In previous speeches, Crichton criticized environmental groups for failing to incorporate complexity theory. Here he explains in detail why complexity theory is essential to environmental management, using the history of Yellowstone Park as an example of what not to do. The speech was delivered to the Washington Center for Complexity and Public Policy in Washington, D.C. on November 6, 2005.[79][80]

Genetic research and legislative needs

While writing Next, Crichton concluded that laws covering genetic research desperately needed to be revised, and spoke to Congressional staff members about problems ahead. The speech was delivered to a group of legislative staffers in Washington, D.C. on September 14, 2006.[81]

Reception

Crichton’s science novels

Most of Crichton’s novels address issues emerging in scientific research fields. In fact, his fiction provides an encyclopedic panorama of contemporary research areas, and his novels can be read as literary laboratories for probing and exploring future implications of cutting-edge, high-tech research endeavors. In quite a few of his novels (Jurassic Park, The Lost World, Next, Congo, Sphere), genomics plays an important role. Usually, the drama revolves around the sudden eruption of a scientific crisis, revealing the disruptive impacts new forms of knowledge and technology may have,[82] as is already stated in The Andromeda Strain, Crichton’s first science novel: “This book recounts the five-day history of a major American scientific crisis” (1969, p. 3). As such, his science novels and techno-thrillers have had an enormous impact on public debates on technology and science.

Criticism of Crichton’s environmental views

Many of Crichton’s publicly expressed views, particularly on subjects like the global warming controversy, have been contested by a number of scientists and commentators.[83] An example is meteorologist Jeffrey Masters‘s review of State of Fear:

Flawed or misleading presentations of global warming science exist in the book, including those on Arctic sea ice thinning, correction of land-based temperature measurements for the urban heat island effect, and satellite vs. ground-based measurements of Earth’s warming. I will spare the reader additional details. On the positive side, Crichton does emphasize the little-appreciated fact that while most of the world has been warming the past few decades, most of Antarctica has seen a cooling trend. The Antarctic ice sheet is actually expected to increase in mass over the next 100 years due to increased precipitation, according to the IPCC.”[84]

Peter Doran, author of the paper in the January 2002 issue of Nature, which reported the finding referred to above that some areas of Antarctica had cooled between 1986 and 2000, wrote an opinion piece in the July 27, 2006, The New York Times in which he stated “Our results have been misused as ‘evidence’ against global warming by Michael Crichton in his novel State of Fear.”[33]

Al Gore said on March 21, 2007, before a U.S. House committee: “The planet has a fever. If your baby has a fever, you go to the doctor […] if your doctor tells you you need to intervene here, you don’t say ‘Well, I read a science fiction novel that tells me it’s not a problem’.” This has been interpreted by several commentators as a reference to State of Fear.[85][86][87][88]

Michael Crowley

In 2006, Crichton clashed with journalist Michael Crowley, a senior editor of the magazine The New Republic. In March 2006, Crowley wrote a strongly critical review of State of Fear, focusing on Crichton’s stance on global warming.[89] In the same year, Crichton published the novel Next, which contains a minor character named “Mick Crowley”, who is a Yale graduate and a Washington, D.C.-based political columnist. The character was portrayed as a child molester with a small penis.[90] The character does not appear elsewhere in the book.[90] The real Crowley, also a Yale graduate, alleged that by including a similarly named character Crichton had libeled him.[91]

Awards

Associations

‹See Tfd›

Personal life

As an adolescent Crichton felt isolated because of his height (6′ 9″). As an adult he was acutely aware of his intellect, which often left him feeling alienated from the people around him.[citation needed] During the 1970s and 1980s he consulted psychics and enlightenment gurus to make him feel more socially acceptable and to improve his karma. As a result of these experiences, Crichton practiced meditation throughout much of his life. He was a deist.[96]

Crichton was a workaholic. When drafting a novel, which would typically take him six or seven weeks, Crichton withdrew completely to follow what he called “a structured approach” of ritualistic self-denial. As he neared writing the end of each book, he would rise increasingly early each day, meaning that he would sleep for less than four hours by going to bed at 10 pm and waking at 2 am.[2]

In 1992, Crichton was ranked among People magazine’s 50 most beautiful people.[93]

Marriages and children

‹See Tfd›

He married five times. Four of the marriages ended in divorce: with Joan Radam (1965–1970), Kathleen St. Johns (1978–1980), Suzanna Childs (1981–1983), and actress Anne-Marie Martin (1987–2003), the mother of his daughter Taylor Anne (born 1989).[citation needed] At the time of his death, Crichton was married to Sherri Alexander (2005–2008), who was six months pregnant with their son; John Michael Todd Crichton was born on February 12, 2009.[citation needed]

Intellectual property cases

In November 2006, at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C., Crichton joked that he considered himself an expert in intellectual property law. He had been involved in several lawsuits with others claiming credit for his work.[97]

In 1985, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals heard Berkic v. Crichton, 761 F.2d 1289 (1985). Plaintiff Ted Berkic wrote a screenplay called Reincarnation Inc., which he claims Crichton plagiarized for the movie Coma. The court ruled in Crichton’s favor, stating the works were not substantially similar.[98] In the 1996 case, Williams v. Crichton, 84 F.3d 581 (2d Cir. 1996), Geoffrey Williams claimed that Jurassic Park violated his copyright covering his dinosaur-themed children’s stories published in the late 1980s. The court granted summary judgment in favor of Crichton.[99] In 1998, A United States District Court in Missouri heard the case of Kessler v. Crichton that actually went all the way to a jury trial, unlike the other cases. Plaintiff Stephen Kessler claimed the movie Twister was based on his work Catch the Wind. It took the jury about 45 minutes to reach a verdict in favor of Crichton. After the verdict, Crichton refused to shake Kessler’s hand.[100] At the National Press Club in 2006, Crichton summarized his intellectual property legal problems by stating, “I always win.”[97]

Illness and death

According to Crichton’s brother Douglas, Crichton was diagnosed with lymphoma in early 2008.[101] In accordance with the private way in which Crichton lived, his cancer was not made public until his death. He was undergoing chemotherapy treatment at the time of his death, and Crichton’s physicians and relatives had been expecting him to recover. He died at age 66 on November 4, 2008.[102][103][104]

Michael’s talent outscaled even his own dinosaurs of Jurassic Park. He was the greatest at blending science with big theatrical concepts, which is what gave credibility to dinosaurs walking the earth again. In the early days, Michael had just sold The Andromeda Strain to Robert Wise at Universal and I had recently signed on as a contract TV director there. My first assignment was to show Michael Crichton around the Universal lot. We became friends and professionally Jurassic Park, ER, and Twister followed. Michael was a gentle soul who reserved his flamboyant side for his novels. There is no one in the wings that will ever take his place.[105]

— Steven Spielberg on Michael Crichton’s death

As a pop novelist, he was divine. A Crichton book was a headlong experience driven by a man who was both a natural storyteller and fiendishly clever when it came to verisimilitude; he made you believe that cloning dinosaurs wasn’t just over the horizon but possible tomorrow. Maybe today.[106]

— Stephen King on Crichton, 2008

Crichton had an extensive collection of 20th-century American art, which Christie’s auctioned in May 2010.[107]

Unfinished novels

On April 6, 2009, Crichton’s publisher, HarperCollins, announced the posthumous publication of two of his novels. The first was Pirate Latitudes (published posthumously on November 26, 2009), found completed on his computer by his assistant after he died. This was the second of a two-novel deal that started with Next.

The other novel, titled Micro (published posthumously in 2011), is a techno-thriller that explores the outer edges of new science and technology.[108] The novel is based on Crichton’s notes and files, and was roughly a third of the way finished when he died. HarperCollins publisher Jonathan Burnham and Crichton’s agent Lynn Nesbit looked for a co-writer to finish the novel;[3] ultimately, Richard Preston was chosen to complete the book.[35]

Film and television

Novels adapted into films

Year Title Filmmaker/Director
1971 The Andromeda Strain Robert Wise
1972 Dealing: Or the Berkeley-to-Boston Forty-Brick Lost-Bag Blues Paul Williams
The Carey Treatment (A Case of Need) Blake Edwards
1974 The Terminal Man Mike Hodges
1979 The First Great Train Robbery Michael Crichton
1993 Jurassic Park Steven Spielberg
Rising Sun Philip Kaufman
1994 Disclosure Barry Levinson
1995 Congo Frank Marshall
1997 The Lost World: Jurassic Park Steven Spielberg
1998 Sphere Barry Levinson
1999 The 13th Warrior (Eaters of the Dead) John McTiernan
2003 Timeline Richard Donner
2008 The Andromeda Strain (TV miniseries) Mikael Salomon

As a screenwriter or director

Year Title Notes
1972 Pursuit (TV film) Novel author/director
1973 Extreme Close-Up also titled Sex Through A Window Writer
Westworld Writer/director
1978 Coma Screenwriter/director
1979 The Great Train Robbery Novel author/screenwriter/director
1981 Looker Writer/director
1984 Runaway Writer/director
1989 Physical Evidence Director
1993 Jurassic Park Co-writer
Rising Sun Novel author/co-screenwriter
1996 Twister Co-writer/producer
2001 Jurassic Park III Based on characters created by Crichton
2015 Jurassic World Based on characters created by Crichton

As a television series creator or writer

Year Title Notes
1980 Beyond Westworld Based on his film Westworld
1994–2009 ER Creator/writer/executive producer
2016 Westworld Based on his film Westworld

See also

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Crichton

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The Pronk Pops Show 800, November 21, 2016, Story 1: General James Mattis (Ret.) served in the United States Marine Corps from 1969 to 2013 — The Next Secretary of Defense? Very Impressive Choice — Videos — Story 2: Trump Greets and Meets Media At Trump Tower — Big Lie Media Ride The Golden Elevator Up To Trump — Press Reset Button Before Going Down — Videos

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ARC Identifier 2569675 / Local Identifier 111-TV-408. The story of General George C. Marshall, told on Army’s “THE BIG PICTURE” — This is a personal history film of General George C. Marshall who resigned from the Defense Department and settled in Leesburg, Virginia, in 1951. It is a pictorial record of his role as a public servant, spanning a critical half century, which ultimately placed him in the ranks of great American patriots. It is rare in history when a man who has distinguished his name in war goes on to greatness in peace. But for George Catlett Marshall it was a short step from a brilliant military career to his role as statesman, diplomat, and peacemaker winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace. Narrated by Walter Cronkite, and introduced by Master Sergeant Stuart Queen, “The General Marshall Story” will appeal to old and young for it has been skillfully written and produced. It approaches General Marshall’s life story from an objective viewpoint with a beguilingly fresh format, used on THE BIG PICTURE this past season in relating the General Bradley story. The same excellence that applied in the Bradley story has been carried into “The General Marshall Story.” Visually, and as a professional motion picture exploration for television into the lives of five-star Army generals, THE BIG PICTURE production staff has created a new list of subjects for forthcoming episodes in the weekly TV series. Department of Defense. Department of the Army. Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations. U.S. Army Audiovisual Center. (ca. 1974 – 05/15/1984)

Donald Trump Considering Retired General James Mattis for Defense Chief

Retired Marine general has long voiced concerns about the security threat posed by Iran

Marine Gen. James Mattis, commander, U.S. Central Command at a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing in March 2013. He is said to be a possible pick to be secretary of defense, along with a handful of other retired generals.
Marine Gen. James Mattis, commander, U.S. Central Command at a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing in March 2013. He is said to be a possible pick to be secretary of defense, along with a handful of other retired generals. PHOTO: EVAN VUCCI/ASSOCIATED PRESS

WASHINGTON—President-elect Donald Trump is considering several retired military generals as possible picks to be secretary of defense, people knowledgeable about the transition process said.

Retired Marine Gen. James Mattis, a former war commander who has long voiced concerns about the security threat posed by Iran, is among those being considered. Gen. Mattis is expected to visit with Mr. Trump in New Jersey, transition officials said Friday.

Gen. Mattis didn’t respond to attempts to reach him for comment.

Sen. Jeff Sessions (R., Ala.) and Rep. Mike Pompeo of Kansas are among the cabinet picks announced by President-elect Donald Trump on Friday. WSJ’s Jerry Seib discusses the significance of their appointments on Lunch Break with Tanya Rivero. Photo: EPA

Also under consideration is retired Army Gen.David Petraeus, a former commander of troops in Iraq and Afghanistan. Army Gen. Jack Keane, who has been advising the campaign, also has been in discussions and met with the president-elect on Thursday, transition officials said.

The Trump campaign also is still considering at least three Washington hands for defense secretary, officials have said, including Jim Talent, a retired Republican senator from Missouri; Stephen Hadley, former national-security adviser under President George W. Bush; and Sen. Tom Cotton (R., Ark.), a one-time Army captain from Arkansas who has served in the Senate since last year.

The transition office, based at Trump Tower in New York, named individuals for key posts, including GOP Sen. Jeff Sessions of Alabama for attorney general, Rep. Mike Pompeo of Kansas to lead the CIA, and retired Lt. Gen. Mike Flynn, close Trump confidant on national security matters, as national security adviser.

U.S. law requires the Defense Department chief to come from civilian life, and retired generals are considered civilians for such purposes only after they have been out of active duty for at least seven years. Gens. Mattis and Petraeus, who both played significant roles in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, would require a congressional waiver to serve as defense secretary, since both retired within the last seven years.

Gen. Mattis, who eventually was in charge of U.S. Central Command, which oversees U.S. forces in the Middle East, has found himself at odds with the Obama administration over Iran and U.S. troop withdrawals from his area of responsibility.

Gen. Mattis, who led a task force into southern Afghanistan in 2001 and a division of Marines during the invasion of Iraq in 2003, is also known as “Mad Dog Mattis,” a colorful general known for his intellect, a penchant for speaking plainly and his vast library.

http://www.wsj.com/articles/donald-trump-considering-retired-general-james-mattis-for-defense-chief-1479502633

Leadership Lessons from Gen. James Mattis (Ret.)

Published on Oct 13, 2016

General James Mattis (Ret.) served in the United States Marine Corps from 1969 to 2013. During this time he was the 11th Commander of United States Central Command. We sat down with him and asked him your questions.

0:08 – What is the toughest decision you had to make while in the Marine Corps and did you ever regret your decision?

2:25 — How did you stay motivated throughout your Marine Corps career?

3:27 — How do you keep improving as a leader to meet the demand of each role in your career?

5:53 — There was a cold night in Afghanistan when you were walking the perimeter by yourself, greeting a bunch of young Marines. What were you thinking about?

7:16 — What is the one leadership lesson that you learned as a General grade officer that you wish you had known your whole career?

10:18 — What leadership books do you recommend?

11:55 — What did you look for in your NCO’s and how should the relationship between an NCO and an officer compliment each other?

13:58 — What in your opinion is the most important leadership trait and why?

15:33 — What is the kill-casualty radius of the knife-hand?

Gen. Jack Keane talks Trump Tower national security meeting

 

Trump: ‘Mad Dog’ Mattis is a ‘very impressive’ candidate for defense secretary

James N. Mattis (born September 8, 1950)[3] is a retired United States Marine Corpsgeneral who last served as the 11th commander of United States Central Command from August 11, 2010 to March 22, 2013.

Mattis is known for implementing the COIN strategy. Before President Obama appointed him to replace General Petraeus on August 11, 2010, he previously commandedUnited States Joint Forces Command from November 9, 2007 to August 2010 and served concurrently as NATO’sSupreme Allied Commander Transformation from November 9, 2007 to September 8, 2009. Prior to that, he commanded I Marine Expeditionary Force, United States Marine Forces Central Command, and 1st Marine Division during theIraq War.[4]

As of November 2016, General Mattis is being considered for the position of Secretary of Defense in the new administration of President-electDonald Trump.[5]

Early life and education

Mattis was born on September 8, 1950 in Pullman, Washington.[3] His mother’s name is Lucille (Proulx) Mattis.[6] He graduated from Columbia High School, Richland, Washington, in 1968.

Military career

He initially enlisted in the United States Marine Corps in 1969.[7] He later earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in history from Central Washington University[8] and was commissioned a second lieutenant through ROTC on January 1, 1972.[9] During his service years, Mattis was considered to be an intellectual among the upper ranks, with his personal library numbering more than seven thousand volumes. Major General Robert H. Scales, Retired, PhD, described him as “….one of the most urbane and polished men I have known.” Reinforcing this intellectual persona was the fact he carried his own personal copy of the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius throughout his deployments.[10]

As a lieutenant, Mattis served as a rifle and weapons platoon commander in the 3rd Marine Division. As a captain, he was assigned as the Naval Academy Preparatory School’s Battalion Officer (composed of Enlisted Midshipman Candidates and its Company Officers and Enlisted Staff), commanded Rifle and Weapons Companies in the 1st Marine Regiment, then Recruiting StationPortland, Oregon, as a major.

Persian Gulf War

Upon promotion to the rank of lieutenant colonel, Mattis commanded 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, which was one of Task Force Ripper‘s assault battalions during the Persian Gulf War.

Afghanistan War

As a colonel, Mattis commanded the 7th Marine Regiment. He led the 1st Marine Expeditionary Brigade as its commanding officer upon promotion to brigadier general.

During the initial planning for the War in Afghanistan, Mattis led Task Force 58 in operations in the southern part of the country, becoming the first Marine Corps officer to ever command a Naval Task Force in combat.[9]

While serving in Afghanistan as a brigadier general, he was known as an officer who engaged his men with “real leadership”. A young Marine officer named Nathaniel Fick cited an example of that leadership when he witnessed Mattis in a fighting hole talking with a sergeant and a lance corporal: “No one would have questioned Mattis if he’d slept eight hours each night in a private room, to be woken each morning by an aide who ironed his uniforms and heated his MREs. But there he was, in the middle of a freezing night, out on the lines with his Marines.”[11]

Iraq War

Letter written by Mattis on the eve of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, addressed to members of the 1st Marine Division.

As a major general, Mattis commanded the 1st Marine Division during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent stability operations during the Iraq War.[12]

Mattis played key roles in combat operations in Fallujah, including negotiation with the insurgent command inside the city during Operation Vigilant Resolve in April 2004, as well as participation in planning of the subsequent Operation Phantom Fury in November. In May 2004, Mattis ordered the 3 a.m. bombing of a suspected enemy safe house near the Syrian border, which later came to be known as the Mukaradeeb wedding party massacre, and which resulted in the locally-reported deaths of 42 civilian men, women and children who were attending a wedding celebration. Mattis stated that it had taken him 30 seconds to deliberate on bombing the location.[13]

Following a U.S. Department of Defense survey that showed only 55% of American soldiers and 40% of U.S. Marines would report a colleague for abusing civilians, Mattis told U.S. Marines in May 2007 that “Whenever you show anger or disgust toward civilians, it’s a victory for al-Qaeda and other insurgents.” Reflecting an understanding of the need for restraint in war as key to defeating an insurgency, he added that “Every time you wave at an Iraqi civilian, al-Qaeda rolls over in its grave.”[14]

Mattis popularized the 1st Marine Division’s motto “no better friend, no worse enemy”, a paraphrase of the famous self-made epitaph for the Roman dictatorSulla,[15] in his open letter to all men within the division for their return to Iraq. This phrase later became widely publicized during the investigation into the conduct of Lieutenant Ilario Pantano, a platoon commander serving under Mattis.[16][17][18][19][20][21]

As his division prepared to ship out, Mattis called in experts in Arab culture to lead cultural sensitivity classes. He constantly toured the battlefield to tell stories of Marines who were able to show discretion and cultural sensitivity in moments of high pressure.[22] He encouraged his men to grow mustaches to look more like the people they were working with.[22]

He also was noted for a willingness to remove senior leaders under his command at a time when the U.S. military seemed unable or unwilling to relieve under-performing or incompetent officers. During the division’s push to Baghdad, Mattis relieved Colonel Joe D. Dowdy, regimental commander of Regimental Combat Team-1, and it was such a rare occurrence in the modern military that it made the front page of newspapers. Despite this, Mattis declined to comment on the matter publicly other than to say that the practice of officer relief remains alive, or at least “We are doing it in the Marines.”[11] Later interviews of Dowdy’s officers and men revealed that “the colonel was doomed partly by an age-old wartime tension: Men versus mission—in which he favored his men” while Mattis insisted on execution of the mission to seize Baghdad swiftly.[23]

Combat Development Command

After being promoted to lieutenant general, Mattis took command of Marine Corps Combat Development Command. On February 1, 2005, speaking ad libitum at a forum in San Diego, he said “You go into Afghanistan, you got guys who slap women around for five years because they didn’t wear a veil. You know, guys like that ain’t got no manhood left anyway. So it’s a hell of a lot of fun to shoot them. Actually, it’s a lot of fun to fight. You know, it’s a hell of a hoot. It’s fun to shoot some people. I’ll be right upfront with you, I like brawling.” Mattis’s remarks sparked controversy and General Michael Hagee, Commandant of the Marine Corps, issued a statement suggesting that Mattis should have chosen his words more carefully, but would not be disciplined.[24]

U.S. Joint Forces Command

The Pentagon announced on May 31, 2006 that Lieutenant General Mattis was chosen to take command of I Marine Expeditionary Force, based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton.[25] On September 11, 2007, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates announced that President George W. Bush had nominated Mattis for appointment to the rank of general to command U.S. Joint Forces Command in Norfolk, Virginia. NATO agreed to appoint Mattis as Supreme Allied Commander Transformation. On September 28, 2007, the United States Senate confirmed Mattis’s nomination, and he relinquished command of I MEF on November 5, 2007 to Lieutenant General Samuel Helland.

Mattis was promoted to four-star general and took control of JFCOM/SACT on November 9, 2007. He transferred the job of SACT to French General Stéphane Abrial on September 9, 2009, but continued in command of JFCOM.[26]

U.S. Central Command

In early 2010, Mattis was reported to be on the list of U.S. Marine generals being considered for selection to replace James T. Conway as the Commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps.[27] In July, he was recommended by Defense SecretaryRobert Gates for nomination to replace David Petraeus as commander of United States Central Command,[3][28] and formally nominated by PresidentBarack Obama on July 21.[29]

His confirmation by the Senate Armed Services Committee marked the first time Marines had held billets as commander and deputy commander of a Unified Combatant Command.[30] He took command at a ceremony at MacDill Air Force Base on August 11.[31][32][33]

As head of Central Command, Mattis oversaw the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and was responsible for a region that includes Syria, Iran, Yemen.[34] The Obama administration did not place much trust in Mattis, because he was perceived to be too eager for a military confrontation with Iran.[35]

He retired from the Marine Corps on May 22, 2013.

Civilian career

Since retirement from the military, Mattis has worked for FWA Consultants[36] and is an Annenberg Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Hoover Institution.[37] He also serves as a Member of the General Dynamics Board of Directors.[36]

In mid-2012, a Department of Defense official evaluating Theranos’s blood-testing technology for military initiated a formal inquiry with the Food and Drug Administration about the company’s intent to distribute its tests without FDA clearance. In August 2012, via email, Elizabeth Holmes, the CEO of Theranos asked Mattis, who had expressed interest in testing Theranos’s technology in combat areas, to help. Within hours, Mattis forwarded his email exchange with Holmes to military officials, asking “how do we overcome this new obstacle.”[38]

Since 2013, Mattis has been a board member of Theranos, a controversial Silicon Valley biotech company with criticized corporate governance practices.[39] In a July 2013 letter from the Department of Defense approving his possible employment by Theranos, Mattis was given permission with conditions. He was cautioned to do so only if he did not represent Theranos with regards to the blood testing device and its potential acquisition by the Departments of the Navy or Defense.[38]

On November 20, 2016, President-elect Donald Trump said that he was considering Mattis for Secretary of Defense. Trump met with Mattis for a little over one hour in Bedminster, New Jersey.[40] He later stated on Twitter, “General James “Mad Dog” Mattis, who is being considered for Secretary of Defense, was very impressive yesterday. A true General’s General!”[41]

Political views

Israeli-Palestinian peace process

Mattis supports a two-state solution model for Israel-Palestinian peace. He says the current situation in Israel is “unsustainable” and argues that the settlements harm prospects for peace and are leading to apartheid. In particular, he believes the lack of a two-state solution is upsetting to the Arab allies of America, which weakens US esteem amongst its Arab allies. Mattis strongly supports John Kerry on the Middle East peace process, praising Kerry for being wisely focused like a laser-beam towards a two-state solution[42]

Iran and Arab allies

Mattis believes that Iran is the principal threat to the stability of the Middle East, ahead of Al-Qaeda and ISIS. Mattis says: “I consider ISIS nothing more than an excuse for Iran to continue its mischief. Iran is not an enemy of ISIS. They have a lot to gain from the turmoil in the region that ISIS creates.” On the Iran nuclear deal, although he sees it as a poor agreement, he believes there is now no way to tear it up, saying: “We are just going to have to recognize that we have an imperfect arms control agreement. Second, that what we achieved is a nuclear pause, not a nuclear halt”.[43] Additionally, he criticizes President Barack Obama for being naive about Iranian intentions and Congress for being “pretty much absent” on last year’s nuclear deal.[44]

Mattis praises the friendship of regional US allies such as Jordan and the United Arab Emirates.[45] He has criticized Obama and Donald Trump for their view of seeing allies as ‘free-loading’, saying: “For a sitting U.S. president to see our allies as freeloaders is nuts.”[45] He has cited the importance of the United Arab Emirates and Jordan as countries that wanted to help, for example, in filling in the gaps in Afghanistan.[46] He has criticized current defense strategy as giving “the perception we’re pulling back” from US allies.[46] He stresses the need for the US to bolster its ties with allied intelligence agencies, particularly the intelligence agencies of Jordan, Egypt and Saudi Arabia.[47] In 2012, Mattis had been supportive of providing weapons to Syrian rebels, as a way to fight back against Iranian proxies in Syria.[48]

Personal life

Mattis is a graduate of the U.S. Marine Corps Amphibious Warfare School, U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, and the National War College. Mattis is also noted for his intellectualism and interest in military history,[12] with a personal library that once included over 7,000 volumes,[1] and a penchant for publishing required reading lists for Marines under his command.[49][50] Mattis is a life-long bachelor,[51] who has never been married and has no children.[1] He is nicknamed “The Warrior Monk” because of his bachelor life, and the fact he devoted his life to studying and fighting war.[52] He is known for the intellectual rigor he puts on his Marines and his belief in risk-management, and in the need for troops under his command to read widely about the cultural norms and history of the area they are sent to, as he himself does. Before deploying to Iraq, Mattis ensured his troops were given courses on Arab culture and cultural sensitivity classes.[22]

Military awards

Mattis’s decorations, awards, and badges include:

Bronze oak leaf cluster

ribbonribbon

Office of the Secretary of Defense Identification Badge.png
ribbon
V

Gold star
Gold star

ribbon
ribbon ribbon ribbon
ribbon ribbon
Bronze star
Bronze star

Bronze star
Bronze star

Bronze star

Bronze star

Bronze star

ribbon
ribbon
Bronze star
Silver star
Bronze star

Bronze star

ribbon
ribbon ribbon
USMC Rifle Expert badge.pngUSMC Pistol Expert badge.png
1st row Defense Distinguished Service Medal w/ one oak leaf cluster Navy Distinguished Service Medal Defense Superior Service Medal Office of the Secretary of Defense Identification Badge
2nd row Legion of Merit Bronze Star Medal w/ Combat “V” Meritorious Service Medal w/ two 516” Gold Stars Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal
3rd row Combat Action Ribbon Navy Presidential Unit Citation Joint Meritorious Unit Award Navy Unit Commendation
4th row Navy and Marine Corps Meritorious Unit Commendation Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal National Defense Service Medal w/ two 316” bronze stars Southwest Asia Service Medal w/ two316” bronze stars
5th row Afghanistan Campaign Medal w/ one316” bronze star Iraq Campaign Medal w/ one 316” bronze star Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal w/ one 316” bronze star Global War on Terrorism Service Medal
6th row Humanitarian Service Medal Sea Service Ribbon w/ one 316” silver star and two 316” bronze stars Marine Corps Recruiting Service Ribbon w/ one316” bronze star Polish Army Medal in gold
7th row NATO Meritorious Service Medal[26] NATO Medal for Service with ISAF[26] Kuwait Liberation Medal (Saudi Arabia) Kuwait Liberation Medal (Kuwait)
Rifle Expert Badge (4th award) Pistol Expert Badge (2nd award)

Civilian awards

Mattis’s civilian awards include:

In popular culture

See also

Bibliography

  • Reynolds, Nicholas E. (2005). Basrah, Baghdad and Beyond: The U.S. Marine Corps in the Second Iraq War. p. 5. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-717-4

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Mattis

George Marshall

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other people named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation).
George Marshall
General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEG
15th United States Army Chief of Staff
In office
September 1, 1939 – November 18, 1945
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Harry S. Truman
Preceded by Malin Craig
Succeeded by Dwight D. Eisenhower
50th United States Secretary of State
In office
January 21, 1947 – January 20, 1949
President Harry S. Truman
Preceded by James F. Byrnes
Succeeded by Dean G. Acheson
10th President of the American Red Cross
In office
October 1, 1949 – December 1, 1950
President Harry S. Truman
Preceded by Basil O’Connor
Succeeded by E. Roland Harriman
3rd United States Secretary of Defense
In office
September 21, 1950 – September 12, 1951
President Harry S. Truman
Preceded by Louis A. Johnson
Succeeded by Robert A. Lovett
Personal details
Born George Catlett Marshall, Jr.
December 31, 1880
Uniontown, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Died October 16, 1959 (aged 78)
Walter Reed Hospital
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political party Nonpartisan[1]
Spouse(s) Elizabeth Carter Coles
(m. 1902; her death 1927)
Katherine Boyce Tupper Brown
(m. 1930; his death 1959)
Alma mater Virginia Military Institute
Profession
Religion Episcopalian[2]
Awards Army Distinguished Service Medal (2)
Silver Star
Nobel Peace Prize
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (United Kingdom)
Signature
Military service
Allegiance  United States of America
Service/branch  United States Army
Years of service 1902–1959[3]
Rank US Army O11 shoulderboard rotated.svg General of the Army
Unit USA - Army Infantry Insignia.png Infantry Branch
Commands Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army.svg Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army
Battles/wars Philippine–American War
World War I

World War II
Chinese Civil War

College football career
VMI Keydets
Position Tackle
Career history
College VMI (1900)
Career highlights and awards

George Catlett Marshall, Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier, famous for his leadership roles during World War II and the Cold War. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army under presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman, and served as Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense under Truman. He was hailed as the “organizer of victory” by Winston Churchill for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II.[4]

Born in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, Marshall was a 1901 graduate of the Virginia Military Institute. After serving briefly as commandant of students at the Danville Military Academy in Danville, Virginia, Marshall received his commission as a second lieutenant of Infantry in February, 1902. In the years after the Spanish-American War, he served in the United States and overseas in positions of increasing rank and responsibility, including platoon leader and company commander in the Philippines during the Philippine–American War. He was the Honor Graduate of his Infantry-Cavalry School Course in 1907, and graduated first in his 1908 Army Staff College class.

In 1916 Marshall was assigned as aide-de-camp to J. Franklin Bell, the commander of the Western Department. After the United States entered World War I, Marshall served with Bell while Bell commanded the Department of the East. He was subsequently assigned to the staff of the 1st Division, and assisted with the organization’s mobilization and training in the United States, as well as planning of its combat operations in France. Subsequently assigned to the staff of the American Expeditionary Forces headquarters, he was a key planner of American operations including the Meuse-Argonne Offensive.

After the war, Marshall was assigned as an aide-de-camp to John J. Pershing, who was then serving as the Army’s Chief of Staff. He later served on the Army staff, commanded the 15th Infantry Regiment in China, and was an instructor at the Army War College. In 1927, he became assistant commandant of the Army’s Infantry School, where he modernized command and staff processes, which proved to be of major benefit during World War II. In 1932 and 1933 he commanded Fort Screven, Georgia.

Marshall commanded 5th Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division and Vancouver Barracks from 1936 to 1938, and received promotion to brigadier general. During this command, Marshall was also responsible for 35 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camps in Oregon and southern Washington. In July 1938, Marshall was assigned to the War Plans Division on the War Department staff, and he was subsequently appointed as the Army’s Deputy Chief of Staff. When Chief of Staff Malin Craig retired in 1939, Marshall became acting Chief of Staff, and then Chief of Staff. He served as Chief of Staff until the end of the war in 1945.

As Chief of Staff, Marshall organized the largest military expansion in U.S. history, and received promotion to five-star rank as General of the Army. Marshall coordinated Allied operations in Europe and the Pacific until the end of the war; in addition to being hailed as the organizer of Allied victory by Winston Churchill, Time magazine named Marshall its Man of the Year for 1943. Marshall retired from active service in 1945, but remained on active duty, a requirement for holders of five-star rank.[5] In late 1945 and early 1946 he served as a special envoy to China in an unsuccessful effort to negotiate a coalition government between the Nationalist of Chiang Kai-shek and Communists under Mao Zedong.

As Secretary of State from 1947 to 1949, Marshall received credit for the Marshall Plan for Europe’s post-war rebuilding, the success of which was recognized with award of the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize.[6] After resigning as Secretary of State, Marshall served as chairman of American Battle Monuments Commission[7] and president of the American National Red Cross.

As Secretary of Defense at the start of the Korean War, Marshall worked to restore the military’s confidence and morale at the end of its post-World War II demobilization and then its initial buildup for combat in Korea and operations during the Cold War.

After resigning as Defense Secretary, Marshall retired to his home in Virginia. He died in 1959 and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

Early life

1900 VMI Keydets football team. Marshall encircled

George Catlett Marshall, Jr., was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, the son of George Catlett Marshall, Sr. and Laura Emily (née Bradford) Marshall.[8]Marshall was a scion of an old Virginia family, as well as a distant relative of former Chief Justice John Marshall.[9] Marshall graduated from the Virginia Military Institute (VMI),[10]where he was initiated into the Kappa Alpha Order, in 1901.[11] He was an All-Southern tackle for the VMI Keydets varsity football team in 1900.[12][13]

Entry into the Army and the Philippines

Following graduation from VMI in 1901, Marshall sat for a competitive examination for a commission in the U.S. Army.[14] While awaiting the results he took the position of Commandant of Students at the Danville Military Institute in Danville, Virginia.[15] Marshall passed the exam and was commissioned a second lieutenant in February, 1902.[16] Prior to World War I, he was posted to various positions in the United States and the Philippines, including serving as an infantry platoon leader and company commander during thePhilippine–American War and other guerrilla uprisings. He was schooled and trained in modern warfare, including a tour at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas from 1906 to 1910 as both a student and an instructor.[17] He was the Honor Graduate of his Infantry-Cavalry School Course in 1907, and graduated first in his 1908 Army Staff College class.[18]

After another tour of duty in the Philippines, Marshall returned to the United States in 1916 to serve as aide-de-camp to the commander of the Western Department, former Army chief of staff Major General J. Franklin Bell, at the Presidio in San Francisco. After the United States declared war on Germany in April 1917, Marshall relocated with Bell to Governors Island, New York when Bell was reassigned as commander of the Department of the East. Marshall was soon after assigned to help oversee the mobilization of the 1st Division for service in France.

World War I

During the Great War, he had roles as a planner of both training and operations. He went to France in mid-1917 as the director of training and planning for the 1st Division. In this capacity he planned the first American attack and victory of the war at Cantigny, May 28–31, 1918.[19] In mid-1918, he was posted to the headquarters of the American Expeditionary Force, where he worked closely with his mentor, General John Joseph Pershing, and was a key planner of American operations. He was instrumental in the planning and coordination of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, which contributed to the defeat of the German Army on the Western Frontin 1918.[20]

Between World War I and II

In 1919, he became an aide-de-camp to General John J. Pershing. Between 1920 and 1924, while Pershing was Army Chief of Staff, Marshall worked in a number of positions in the Army, focusing on training and teaching modern, mechanized warfare. Between World Wars I and II, he was a key planner and writer in the War Department, commanded the 15th Infantry Regiment for three years in China, and taught at the Army War College. In 1927, as a lieutenant colonel, he was appointed assistant commandant of the Infantry School at Fort Benning, where he initiated major changes to modernize command and staff processes, which proved to be of major benefit during World War II. Marshall placed Edwin F. Harding in charge of the Infantry School’s publications, and Harding became editor[21]:41 of Infantry in Battle, a book that codified the lessons of World War I.Infantry in Battle is still used as an officer’s training manual in the Infantry Officer’s Course and was the training manual for most of the infantry officers and leaders of World War II.

From June 1932 to June 1933 he was the Commanding Officer of the 8th Infantry Regiment at Fort Screven, Georgia. From July 1933 to October 1933 he was commander of Fort Moultrie, South Carolina and District I of the Civilian Conservation Corps, and he was promoted to colonel in September 1933. He was senior instructor and chief of staff for the Illinois National Guard’s 33rd Division from November 1933 to August 1936.

Marshall commanded the 5th Brigade of the 3rd Infantry Division and Vancouver Barracks in Vancouver, Washington from 1936 to 1938, and was promoted to brigadier general in October 1936. In addition to obtaining a long-sought and significant troop command, traditionally viewed as an indispensable step to the pinnacle of the US Army, Marshall was also responsible for 35 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camps in Oregon and southern Washington. As post commander Marshall made a concerted effort to cultivate relations with the city of Portland and to enhance the image of the US Army in the region. With the CCC, he initiated a series of measures to improve the morale of the participants and to make the experience beneficial in their later life. He started a newspaper for the CCC region that proved a vehicle to promote CCC successes, and he initiated a variety of programs that developed their skills and improved their health. Marshall’s inspections of the CCC camps gave him and his wife Katherine the chance to enjoy the beauty of the American northwest and made that assignment what he called “the most instructive service I ever had, and the most interesting.”[22]

In July 1938, Marshall was assigned to the War Plans Division in Washington D.C. and subsequently reassigned as Deputy Chief of Staff. In that capacity, then-Brigadier General Marshall attended a conference at the White House at which President Rooseveltproposed a plan to provide aircraft to England in support of the war effort, lacking forethought with regard to logistical support or training. With all other attendees voicing support of the plan, Marshall was the only person to voice his disagreement. Despite the common belief that he had ended his career, this action resulted in his being nominated by President Franklin Roosevelt to be the Army Chief of Staff. Upon the retirement of General Malin Craig on July 1, 1939, Marshall became acting chief of staff. Marshall was promoted to general and sworn in as Chief of Staff on September 1, 1939, the same day the German Army launched its invasion of Poland.[23] He would hold this post until the end of the war in 1945.

World War II

As Chief of Staff, Marshall organized the largest military expansion in U.S. history, inheriting an outmoded, poorly equipped army of 189,000 men and, partly drawing from his experience teaching and developing techniques of modern warfare as an instructor at theArmy War College, coordinated the large-scale expansion and modernization of the U.S. Army. Though he had never actually led troops in combat, Marshall was a skilled organizer with a talent for inspiring other officers.[24] Many of the American generals who were given top commands during the war were either picked or recommended by Marshall, including Dwight D. Eisenhower, Jacob L. Devers, George S. Patton, Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr., Lloyd Fredendall, Leslie McNair, Mark Wayne Clark and Omar Bradley.[25]

Expands military force fortyfold

Faced with the necessity of turning an army of former civilians into a force of over eight million soldiers by 1942 (a fortyfold increase within three years), Marshall directed General Leslie McNair to focus efforts on rapidly producing large numbers of soldiers. With the exception of airborne forces, Marshall approved McNair’s concept of an abbreviated training schedule for men entering Army land forces training, particularly in regard to basic infantry skills, weapons proficiency, and combat tactics.[26][27] At the time, most U.S. commanders at lower levels had little or no combat experience of any kind. Without the input of experienced British or Allied combat officers on the nature of modern warfare and enemy tactics, many resorted to formulaic training methods emphasizing static defense and orderly large-scale advances by motorized convoys over improved roads.[28] In consequence, Army forces deploying to Africa suffered serious initial reverses when encountering German armored combat units in Africa at Kasserine Pass and other major battles.[29] Even as late as 1944, U.S. soldiers undergoing stateside training in preparation for deployment against German forces in Europe were not being trained in combat procedures and tactics in use there.[30]

Replacement system criticized

Originally, Marshall had planned a 265-division Army with a system of unit rotation such as practiced by the British and other Allies.[31] By mid-1943, however, after pressure from government and business leaders to preserve manpower for industry and agriculture, he had abandoned this plan in favor of a 90-division Army using individual replacements sent via a circuitous process from training to divisions in combat.[31] The individual replacement system devised by Marshall and implemented by McNair greatly exacerbated problems with unit cohesion and effective transfer of combat experience to newly trained soldiers and officers.[29][32] In Europe, where there were few pauses in combat with German forces, the individual replacement system had broken down completely by late 1944.[33] Hastily trained replacements or service personnel reassigned as infantry were given six weeks’ refresher training and thrown into battle with Army divisions locked in front-line combat.

The new men were often not even proficient in the use of their own rifles or weapons systems, and once in combat, could not receive enough practical instruction from veterans before being killed or wounded, usually within the first three or four days.[29][34][35] Under such conditions, many replacements suffered a crippling loss of morale, while veteran soldiers were kept in line units until they were killed, wounded, or incapacitated by battle fatigue or physical illness. Incidents of soldiers AWOL from combat duty as well as battle fatigue and self-inflicted injury rose rapidly during the last eight months of the war with Germany.[29][32][34] As one historian concluded, “Had the Germans been given a free hand to devise a replacement system…, one that would do the Americans the most harm and the least good, they could not have done a better job.”[34][36]

Marshall’s abilities to pick competent field commanders during the early part of the war was decidedly mixed. While he had been instrumental in advancing the career of the able Dwight D. Eisenhower, he had also recommended the swaggering Lloyd Fredendall to Eisenhower for a major command in the American invasion of North Africa during Operation Torch. Marshall was especially fond of Fredendall, describing him as “one of the best” and remarking in a staff meeting when his name was mentioned, “I like that man; you can see determination all over his face.” Eisenhower duly picked him to command the 39,000-man Central Task Force (the largest of three) in Operation Torch. Both men would come to regret that decision, as Fredendall was the leader of U.S. Army forces at the disastrous Battle of the Kasserine Pass.[25]

Planned invasion of Europe

Cover to the book Infantry in Battle, the World War II officer’s guide to infantry combat operations. Marshall directed production of the book, which is still used as a reference today.

During World War II, Marshall was instrumental in preparing the U.S. Army and Army Air Forces for the invasion of the European continent. Marshall wrote the document that would become the central strategy for all Allied operations in Europe. He initially scheduled Operation Overlord for April 1, 1943, but met with strong opposition from Winston Churchill, who convinced Roosevelt to commit troops to Operation Husky for the invasion of Italy. Some authors think that World War II could have ended one year earlier if Marshall had had his way; others think that such an invasion would have meant utter failure. This argument is justifiable, as it is true that the German Army in 1943 was overstretched, and defensive works in Normandy were not ready.[37]

It was assumed that Marshall would become the Supreme Commander of Operation Overlord, but Roosevelt selected Dwight Eisenhower as Supreme Commander. While Marshall enjoyed considerable success in working with Congress and President Franklin D. Roosevelt, he refused to lobby for the position. President Roosevelt didn’t want to lose his presence in the states. He told Marshall, “I didn’t feel I could sleep at ease if you were out of Washington.”[38] When rumors circulated that the top job would go to Marshall, many critics viewed the transfer as a demotion for Marshall, since he would leave his position as Chief of Staff of the Army and lose his seat on theCombined Chiefs of Staff.[39]

On December 16, 1944, Marshall became the first American Army general to be promoted to five-star rank, the newly created General of the Army – the American equivalent rank to field marshal. He was the second American to be promoted to a five-star rank, as William Leahy was promoted to fleet admiral the previous day.

Throughout the remainder of World War II, Marshall coordinated Allied operations in Europe and the Pacific. He was characterized as the organizer of Allied victory by Winston Churchill. Time magazine named Marshall Man of the Year for 1943. Marshall resigned his post of Chief of Staff in 1945, but did not retire, as regulations stipulate that Generals of the Army remain on active duty for life.[5]

Analysis of Pearl Harbor intelligence failure

After World War II ended, the Congressional Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack received testimony on the intelligence failure. It amassed 25,000 pages of documents, 40 volumes, and included nine reports and investigations, eight of which had been previously completed. These reports included criticism of Marshall for delay in sending General Walter Short, the Army commander in Hawaii, important information obtained from intercepted Japanese diplomatic messages. The report also criticized Marshall’s lack of knowledge of the readiness of the Hawaiian Command during November and December 1941. Ten days after the attack, Lt. General Short and Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, commander of the Navy at Pearl Harbor, were both relieved of their duties. The final report of the Joint Committee did not single out or fault Marshall. While the report was critical of the overall situation, the committee noted that subordinates had failed to pass on important information to their superiors, including Marshall.[40][41]

Post War: China

In December 1945, President Harry Truman sent Marshall to China, much to the dismay of his wife, Katherine, who later said “They kept taking my George away from me”, to broker a coalition government between the Nationalist allies under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and Communists under Mao Zedong. Marshall had no leverage over the Communists, but he threatened to withdraw American aid essential to the Nationalists. Both sides rejected his proposals and the Chinese Civil War escalated, with the Communists winning in 1949. His mission a failure, he returned to the United States in January 1947.[42][43] Chiang Kai-shek and some historians later claimed that cease-fire, under pressure of Marshall, saved the Communists from defeat.[44][45] As Secretary of State in 1947–48, Marshall seems to have disagreed with strong opinions in The Pentagon and State Department that Chiang’s success was vital to American interests, insisting that U.S. troops not become involved.

Secretary of State and Nobel Peace Prize

Medallion issued in 1982 to honor George Marshall’s post-war work for Europe

After Marshall’s return to the U.S. in early 1947, Truman appointed Marshall Secretary of State. He became the spokesman for the State Department’s ambitious plans to rebuild Europe. On June 5, 1947 in a speech[46] atHarvard University, he outlined the American proposal. The European Recovery Program, as it was formally known, became known as the Marshall Plan. Clark Clifford had suggested to Truman that the plan be called the Truman Plan, but Truman immediately dismissed that idea and insisted that it be called the Marshall Plan.[47][48] The Marshall Plan would help Europe quickly rebuild and modernize its economy along American lines. TheSoviet Union forbade its satellites to participate.

Marshall during World War II

Marshall was again named Time’s Man of the Year for 1947. He received the Nobel Peace Prize for his post-war work in 1953, the only career officer in United States Army to ever receive this honor.

As Secretary of State, Marshall strongly opposed recognizing the state of Israel. Marshall felt that if the state of Israel was declared that a war would break out in the Middle East (which it did in 1948 one day after Israel declared independence). Marshall saw recognizing the Jewish state as a political move to gain Jewish support in the upcoming election, in which Truman was expected to lose to Dewey. He told President Truman in May 1948, “If you (recognize the state of Israel) and if I were to vote in the election, I would vote against you.”[49][50][51] However, Marshall refused to vote in any election as a matter of principle.[52]

Marshall resigned from the State Department because of ill health on January 7, 1949, and the same month became chairman of the American Battle Monuments Commission.[53] In September 1949, Marshall was named president of the American National Red Cross.

Secretary of Defense

When the early months of the Korean War showed how poorly prepared the Defense Department was, President Truman fired Secretary Louis A. Johnson and named Marshall as Secretary of Defense in September 1950. The appointment required a congressional waiver because the National Security Act of 1947 prohibited a uniformed military officer from serving in the post. This prohibition included Marshall since individuals promoted to General of the Army are not technically retired, but remain officially on active duty even after their active service has concluded. Marshall’s main role as Secretary of Defense was to restore confidence and morale while rebuilding the armed forces following their post-World War II demobilization.

Korean War

George Marshall portrait by Thomas E. Stephens (c. 1949).

Marshall worked to provide more manpower to meet the demands of both the Korean War and the Cold War in Europe. To implement his priorities Marshall brought in a new leadership team, including Robert A. Lovett as his deputy and Anna M. Rosenberg, former head of the War Manpower Commission, as assistant secretary of defense for manpower. He also worked to rebuild the relationship between the Defense and State Departments, as well as the relationship between the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Marshall participated in the post-Inchon landing discussion that led to authorizing Douglas MacArthur to conduct operations in North Korea. A secret “eyes only” signal from Marshall to MacArthur on September 29, 1950 declared the Truman administration’s commitment: “We want you to feel unhampered strategically and tactically to proceed north of the 38th Parallel”. At the same time, Marshall advised against public pronouncements which might lead to United Nations votes undermining or countermanding the initial mandate to restore the border between North and South Korea. Marshall and the Joint Chiefs of Staff were generally supportive of MacArthur because they were of the view that field commanders should be able to exercise their best judgment in accomplishing the intent of their superiors.

Following Chinese military intervention in Korea during late November, Marshall and the Joint Chiefs of Staff sought ways to aid MacArthur while avoiding all-out war with China. In the debate over what to do about China’s increased involvement, Marshall opposed a cease–fire on the grounds that it would make the U.S. look weak in China’s eyes, leading to demands for future concessions. In addition, Marshall argued that the U.S. had a moral obligation to honor its commitment to South Korea. When British Prime Minister Clement Attlee suggested diplomatic overtures to China, Marshall opposed, arguing that it was impossible to negotiate with the Communist government. In addition, Marshall expressed concern that concessions to China would undermine confidence in the U.S. among its Asian allies, including Japan and the Philippines. When some in Congress favored expanding the war in Korea and confronting China, Marshall argued against a wider war in Korea, continuing instead to stress the importance of containing the Soviet Union during the Cold War battle for primacy in Europe.

Relief of General MacArthur

Increasingly concerned about public statements from General Douglas MacArthur, commander of United Nations forces fighting in the Korean War, which contradicted President Harry S. Truman‘s on prosecution of the war, on the morning of 6 April 1951 Truman held a meeting with Marshall, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Omar Bradley, Secretary of State Acheson and advisor W. Averell Harriman to discuss whether MacArthur should be removed from command.

Harriman was emphatically in favor of MacArthur’s relief, but Bradley opposed it. Marshall asked for more time to consider the matter. Acheson was in favor but did not disclose this, instead warning Truman that if he did it, MacArthur’s relief would cause “the biggest fight of your administration.” At another meeting the following day, Marshall and Bradley continued to oppose MacArthur’s relief. On 8 April, the Joint Chiefs of Staff met with Marshall, and each expressed the view that MacArthur’s relief was desirable from a “military point of view,” suggesting that “if MacArthur were not relieved, a large segment of our people would charge that civil authorities no longer controlled the military.”

Marshall, Bradley, Acheson and Harriman met with Truman again on 9 April. Bradley informed the President of the views of the Joint Chiefs, and Marshall added that he agreed with them. Truman wrote in his diary that “it is of unanimous opinion of all that MacArthur be relieved. All four so advise.”[54] (The Joint Chiefs would later insist that they had only “concurred” with the relief, not “recommended” it.)

On April 11, 1951, President Truman directed transmittal of an order to MacArthur, issued over Bradley’s signature, relieving MacArthur of his assignment in Korea and directing him to turn over command to Matthew Ridgway. In line with Marshall’s view, and those of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, MacArthur’s relief was looked upon by proponents as being necessary to reassert the tenet of civilian control of the military.

Retirement

Marshall retired in September 1951 to his home, Dodona Manor, in Leesburg, Virginia to tend to his gardens and continue his passion for horseback riding. Although, in 1953 he did agree to serve as head of the American delegation at the coronation of QueenElizabeth II of the United Kingdom. He also served as Chairman of the American Battle Monuments Commission from 1949 to 1959.

Death and burial[edit]

Gravesite of George Marshall at Arlington National Cemetery

Marshall died at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C. on October 16, 1959. He was 78 years old. He is interred at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia. In 1959, two other equivalent-ranking U. S. military officers also died, fleet admirals William Halsey Jr. and William D. Leahy.

Reputation and legacy

Marshall’s reputation for excellence as a military organizer and planner was recognized early in his career, and became known throughout the Army. In a performance appraisal prepared while Marshall was a lieutenant in the Philippines, his superior, Captain E. J. Williams responded to the routine question of whether he would want the evaluated officer to serve under his command again by writing of Marshall “Should the exigencies of active service place him in exalted command I would be glad to serve under him.” (Emphasis added.)[55]

In 1913 General Johnson Hagood, then a lieutenant colonel, completed a written evaluation of Marshall’s performance in which he called Marshall a military genius. Responding to the question of whether he would want his subordinate Marshall to serve under him again, Hagood wrote “Yes, but I would prefer to serve under his command.” (Emphasis added.)[56]

In addition to his military success, Marshall is primarily remembered as the driving force behind the Marshall Plan, which provided billions in aid to post war Europe to restart the economies of the destroyed countries. In recent years, the cooperation required between former European adversaries as part of the Marshall Plan has been recognized as one of the earliest factors that led to formation of the European Coal and Steel Community, and eventually the European Union.[57]

In a television interview after leaving office, Harry S. Truman was asked which American he thought had made the greatest contribution of the preceding thirty years. Without hesitation, Truman picked Marshall, adding “I don’t think in this age in which I have lived, that there has been a man who has been a greater administrator; a man with a knowledge of military affairs equal to General Marshall.”[58]

Orson Welles said in an interview with Dick Cavett that “Marshall is the greatest man I ever met… I think he was the greatest human being who was also a great man… He was a tremendous gentleman, an old fashioned institution which isn’t with us anymore.”[59]

Family life

Marshall married Elizabeth Carter Coles, or “Lily”, on Letcher Avenue at her mother’s home in Lexington, Virginia, in 1902. She died in 1927 after a successful surgery that put significant strain on her weak heart. They never had any children together.

In 1930, Marshall married Katherine Boyce Tupper (October 8, 1882 – December 18, 1978), widow of Baltimore lawyer Clifton Stevenson Brown, who was murdered by a disgruntled client, and the mother of three children. One of Marshall’s stepsons with Tupper was US Army Lieutenant Allen Tupper Brown, who was killed by a German sniper in Italy on May 29, 1944. Another stepson was Major Clifton Stevenson Brown, Jr. (1914–1952). Step-daughter Molly Brown Winn, who is the mother of actress Kitty Winn, was married to US Army Major James J. Winn (former aide to General Marshall).

Marshall was a Freemason, having been made a Mason “at sight” in 1941 by the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia. [60]

George Marshall maintained a home, known as Dodona Manor and later The Marshall House (now restored), in Leesburg, Virginia.[61] This was his first and only permanent residence owned by Marshall who later said “this is Home…a real home after 41 years of wandering.”[62] The home and its surrounding gardens are open to the public as a museum with a goal of forwarding Marshall’s leadership qualities and legacy.

Fictional portrayals

Marshall has played in film and television by

Marshall is a character in three different alternate history timelines in novels by Harry Turtledove: Worldwar, Joe Steele, and The Hot War.

Dates of rank

No pin insignia in 1902 Second Lieutenant, United States Army: February 2, 1902
US-O2 insignia.svg First Lieutenant, United States Army: March 7, 1907
US-O3 insignia.svg Captain, United States Army: July 1, 1916
US-O4 insignia.svg Major, National Army: August 5, 1917
US-O5 insignia.svg Lieutenant Colonel, National Army: January 5, 1918
US-O6 insignia.svg Colonel, National Army: August 27, 1918
US-O3 insignia.svg Captain, Regular Army (reverted to permanent rank): June 30, 1920
US-O4 insignia.svg Major, Regular Army : July 1, 1920
US-O5 insignia.svg Lieutenant Colonel, Regular Army: August 21, 1923
US-O6 insignia.svg Colonel, Regular Army: September 1, 1933
US-O7 insignia.svg Brigadier General, Regular Army: October 1, 1936
US-O8 insignia.svg Major General, Regular Army: September 1, 1939
US-O10 insignia.svg General, Regular Army, for service as Army Chief of Staff: September 1, 1939
US-O11 insignia.svg General of the Army, Army of the United States: December 16, 1944
General of the Army rank made permanent in the Regular Army: April 11, 1946

Awards and decorations

U.S. military honors

Bronze oak leaf cluster

Distinguished Service Medal with one Oak Leaf Cluster
Silver Star ribbon.svg Silver Star
Philippine Campaign Medal ribbon.svg Philippine Campaign Medal
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star

World War I Victory Medal with four campaign clasps
Army of Occupation of Germany ribbon.svg Army of Occupation of Germany Medal
American Defense Service ribbon.svg American Defense Service Medal
American Campaign Medal ribbon.svg American Campaign Medal
World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg World War II Victory Medal
National Defense Service Medal ribbon.svg National Defense Service Medal

Foreign orders[edit]

Order of the Bath (ribbon).svg Honorary Knight Grand Cross Order of the Bath (United Kingdom)
Legion Honneur GC ribbon.svg Grand Cross Legion of Honor (France)
BRA Ordem do Merito Militar Cavaleiro.png Order of Military Merit (Brazil) (Presented by General Franciso José Pinto on behalf of President Getullo Vargas on 3 June 1939)[63]
CHL Order of Merit of Chile - Grand Cross BAR.png Grand Cross of the Order of Merit (Chile)
Order of Boyacá - Extraordinary Grand Cross (Colombia) - ribbon bar.png Grand Cross of the Order of Boyacá Cherifien (Colombia) (Given by President Ospina Perez as he opened the IX Panamerican Conference, March 1948)
Legion Honneur Chevalier ribbon.svg Order of Military Merit, First Class (Cuba)
Order of Abdón Calderón 1st Class (Ecuador) - ribbon bar.png Star of Abdon Calderon, First Class (Ecuador)
GRE Order of George I - Grand Cross BAR.png Grand Cross Order of George I with swords (Greece)
Grande ufficiale SSML Regno BAR.svg Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Italy)
Grande ufficiale OCI Kingdom BAR.svg Order of the Crown of Italy (Italy)
MAR Order of the Ouissam Alaouite - Grand Cross (1913-1956) BAR.png Grand Cross of the Order of Ouissam Alaouite (Morocco)
NLD Order of Orange-Nassau - Knight Grand Cross BAR.png Grand Cross with Swords Order of Orange-Nassau (Netherlands)
PER Order of the Sun of Peru - Grand Officer BAR.png Gran Official del Sol del Peru (Peru)
Order suvorov1 rib.png Order of Suvorov, 1st class (Soviet Union)

Foreign decorations and medals

CroixdeGuerreFR-BronzePalm.png Croix de Guerre (France)
Medal for the Centennial of the Republic of Liberia
DK Forsvarets Medalje for Faldne i Tjeneste Ribbon.png Silver Medal for Bravery (Montenegro)
PAN Medalla de la Solidaridad.png Medal of Solidarity, 2nd Class (Panama)

Civilian honors

  • In 1946, he was awarded the United States Congressional Gold Medal.[64]
  • In 1948, he was awarded the Grand Lodge of New York‘s Distinguished Achievement Award for his role and contributions during and after World War II.
  • Nobel Peace Prize 1953 for the Marshall Plan.
  • The United States Postal Service honored him with a Prominent Americans series (1965–1978) 20¢ postage stamp.
  • 1959 Karlspreis (International Charlemagne Prize of the city of Aachen).
  • 1960 George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, originally the Army Ballistics Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville Alabama, became a NASA field center and was renamed.
  • The British Parliament established the Marshall Scholarship in recognition of Marshall’s contributions to Anglo-American relations.
  • Many buildings and streets throughout the U.S. and other nations are named in his honor.
  • George C. Marshall Award, the highest award given to a chapter in Kappa Alpha Order.
  • George C. Marshall High School, founded in 1962 and located in Falls Church, Virginia, is the only public high school in the United States named for Marshall. The nickname of the school – “The Statesmen” – appropriately reflects his life and contributions.
  • The Marshall Elementary School is in the Laurel Highlands School District, Uniontown, Pennsylvania.
  • George C. Marshall Elementary School: located in Vancouver, Washington.
  • The George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
  • George Catlett Marshall Medal, awarded by the Association of the United States Army. Awarded to Bob Hope in 1972.

Bibliography

See also

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Marshall

 

Story 2: Trump Greets and Meets Media At Trump Tower — Big Lie Media Ride The Golden Elevator Up To Trump — Videos

REPORT: Trump having ‘off the record’ meeting with big media executives today

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Donald Trump’s media summit was a ‘f—ing firing squad’

Donald Trump scolded media big shots during an off-the-record Trump Tower sitdown on Monday, sources told The Post.

“It was like a f–ing firing squad,” one source said of the encounter.

“Trump started with [CNN chief] Jeff Zucker and said ‘I hate your network, everyone at CNN is a liar and you should be ashamed,’ ” the source said.

“The meeting was a total disaster. The TV execs and anchors went in there thinking they would be discussing the access they would get to the Trump administration, but instead they got a Trump-style dressing down,” the source added.

A second source confirmed the fireworks.

“The meeting took place in a big board room and there were about 30 or 40 people, including the big news anchors from all the networks,” the other source said.

“Trump kept saying, ‘We’re in a room of liars, the deceitful dishonest media who got it all wrong.’ He addressed everyone in the room calling the media dishonest, deceitful liars. He called out Jeff Zucker by name and said everyone at CNN was a liar, and CNN was [a] network of liars,” the source said.

“Trump didn’t say [NBC reporter] Katy Tur by name, but talked about an NBC female correspondent who got it wrong, then he referred to a horrible network correspondent who cried when Hillary lost who hosted a debate – which was Martha Raddatz who was also in the room.”

The stunned reporters tried to get a word in edgewise to discuss access to a Trump Administration.

Donald Trump’s media summit was a ‘f—ing firing squad’

Donald Trump scolded media big shots during an off-the-record Trump Tower sitdown on Monday, sources told The Post.

“It was like a f–ing firing squad,” one source said of the encounter.

“Trump started with [CNN chief] Jeff Zucker and said ‘I hate your network, everyone at CNN is a liar and you should be ashamed,’ ” the source said.

“The meeting was a total disaster. The TV execs and anchors went in there thinking they would be discussing the access they would get to the Trump administration, but instead they got a Trump-style dressing down,” the source added.

A second source confirmed the fireworks.

“The meeting took place in a big board room and there were about 30 or 40 people, including the big news anchors from all the networks,” the other source said.

“Trump kept saying, ‘We’re in a room of liars, the deceitful dishonest media who got it all wrong.’ He addressed everyone in the room calling the media dishonest, deceitful liars. He called out Jeff Zucker by name and said everyone at CNN was a liar, and CNN was [a] network of liars,” the source said.

“Trump didn’t say [NBC reporter] Katy Tur by name, but talked about an NBC female correspondent who got it wrong, then he referred to a horrible network correspondent who cried when Hillary lost who hosted a debate – which was Martha Raddatz who was also in the room.”

The stunned reporters tried to get a word in edgewise to discuss access to a Trump Administration.

President-Elect Donald Trump Holds Meetings At His Trump Tower Residence In New York

“[CBS Good Morning co-host Gayle] King did not stand up, but asked some question, ‘How do you propose we the media work with you?’ Chuck Todd asked some pretty pointed questions. David Muir asked ‘How are you going to cope living in DC while your family is in NYC? It was a horrible meeting.”

Trump spokeswoman Kellyanne Conway told reporters the gathering went well.

“Excellent meetings with the top executives of the major networks,” she said during a gaggle in the lobby of Trump Tower. “Pretty unprecedented meeting we put together in two days.”

The meeting was off the record, meaning the participants agreed not to talk about the substance of the conversations.

The hour-long session included top execs from network and cable news channels. Among the attendees were NBC’s Deborah Turness, Lester Holt and Chuck Todd, ABC’s James Goldston, George Stephanopoulos, David Muir and Martha Raddatz,

Also, CBS’ Norah O’Donnell John Dickerson, Charlie Rose, Christopher Isham and King, Fox News’ Bill Shine, Jack Abernethy, Jay Wallace, Suzanne Scott, MSNBC’s Phil Griffin and CNN’s Jeff Zucker and Erin Burnett.

Arthur Sulzberger, publisher of The New York Times, plans to meet with Trump Tuesday.

There was no immediate comment from the Trump Team.

http://nypost.com/2016/11/21/donald-trumps-media-summit-was-a-f-ing-firing-squad/

Trump meets with top TV network executives and anchors

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The Pronk Pops Show 776, October 14, 2016, Story 1: Which Big Lie Media Companies Are Offering Huge Rewards — Pay For Play — To Women Coming Forward To Accuse Trump? — Big Lie Media Suppressing News on Wikileaks 10,000 Plus Emails Instead Covering Women Trump Accusations By A Factor of 10! –Videos — Story 2: Hillary Clinton Applying Saul Alinsky’s Rule For Radicals — Rule 12: Pick The Target, Freeze It, Personalize It and Polarize It. Cut off the support network and isolate the target from sympathy. Go after people not institutions; people hurt faster than institutions — Videos — Story 3: Trump’s October Surprise? Positive Reason To Vote for Trump — Trump’s Fair Tax Less For American People — Make America Great Again — Videos

Posted on October 14, 2016. Filed under: 2016 Presidential Campaign, 2016 Presidential Candidates, Banking System, Benghazi, Blogroll, Breaking News, Budgetary Policy, Communications, Congress, Corruption, Countries, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Donald Trump, Economics, Elections, Empires, Employment, Fast and Furious, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, Fourth Amendment, Government, Government Spending, Hillary Clinton, Hillary Clinton, History, House of Representatives, Illegal Immigration, Iran Nuclear Weapons Deal, Law, Media, Mexico, Mike Pence, Obama, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, President Barack Obama, Progressives, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Scandals, Second Amendment, Senate, Tax Policy, Taxation, Taxes, Terror, Terrorism, Unemployment, United States Constitution, United States of America, Videos, Violence, War, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 776: October 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 775: October 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 774: October 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 773: October 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 772: October 10, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 771: October 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 770: October 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 769: October 5, 2016 

Pronk Pops Show 768: October 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 767: September 30, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 766: September 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 765: September 28, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 764: September 27, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 763: September 26, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 762: September 23, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 761: September 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 760: September 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 759: September 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 758: September 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 757: September 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 756: September 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 755: September 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 754: September 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 753: September 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 752: September 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 751: September 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 750: September 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 749: September 2, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 748: September 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 747: August 31, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 746: August 30, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 745: August 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 744: August 26, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 743: August 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 742: August 24, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 741: August 23, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 740: August 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 739: August 18, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 738: August 17, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 737: August 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 736: August 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 735: August 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 734: August 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 733: August 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 732: August 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 731: August 4, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 730: August 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 729: August 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 728: July 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 727: July 28, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 726: July 27, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 725: July 26, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 724: July 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 723: July 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 722: July 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 721: July 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 720: July 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 719: July 18, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 718: July 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 717: July 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 716: July 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 715: July 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 714: July 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 713: July 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 712: July 5, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 711: July 1, 2016

 Story 1: Which Big Lie Media Companies Are Offering Huge Rewards — Pay For Play — To Women Coming Forward To Accuse Trump? — Big Lie Media Suppressing News on Wikileaks 10,000 Plus Emails Instead Covering Women Trump Accusations By A Factor of 10!  –Videos — 

Image result for 6 top media companies in united states and world

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NEW WIKILEAKS Revelations DEADLY For Hillary Clinton (FULL- 10/15/2016)

Special Report 10/14/16 WikiLeaks Hillary Clinton Was Afraid Of Trey Gowdy

Trump blames Mexican billionaire for harassment stories

Clinton camp discussed holding back POTUS emails in new leak

Judge Jeanine Pirro Sounds Off on WikiLeaks Dumps on Clinton and Trump Accusers – 10/14/16

WikiLeaks exposes Clinton emails revealing link to President

Wikileaks; Email Leak Show Top Clinton Staffer Hitting Catholics, Evangelicals – Clinton Vs Trump

Alex Jones (FULL SHOW Commercial Free) Friday 10/14/16: Wikileaks, Trump, Roger Stone, Dolly Kyle

Hillary Clinton Campaign Hates On Catholics in Wikileaks Email

Trump Blames Mexican Billionaire Carlos Slim For Sexual Misconduct Stories

Pence: Overwhelming majority of Republicans stand with Trump

Can Trump change the dynamic before the third debate?

BREAKING: Trump Crowd Shames Mainstream Media at Cincinnati, OH Rally!

Wikileaks Email Shows Clinton Campaign & DOJ Collusion. Coordination W Media – Newt Gingrich Hannity

The O’Reilly Factor Oct.11 ’16 – Wikileaks, Hillary Clinton, Full Interview With Donald Trump

Hannity Oct.11 ’16 – Wikileaks, Hillary Clinton, Full Interview With Mike Pence & Newt Gingrich

What They’re Not Telling You About The Trump “Scandal”

FBI WIKILEAKS JUST TOOK A DUMP ON HILLARY CLINTON

Eric Trump: WikiLeaks exposed true level of gov’t corruption

Wikileaks Bombshell You’ve NEVER Heard! This Will Change The Election & End Clintons Campaign

Alex Jones Responds To New York Times Hit Piece

BOMBSHELL: WikiLeaks’ Podesta Emails Expose Clinton Campaign Collusion With Media

WikiLeaks’ release of John Podesta’s emails, the Chair of Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaign, exposes that journalists from multiple outlets have been in contact with Clinton’s campaign, and have been colluding to produce pro-Clinton propaganda pieces. Some journalists have discussed fluff-pieces they’ll be producing for Clinton, and others have submitted questions she’ll be asked about during interviews. Obviously, this is very troubling seeing that the media is suppose to hold elected officials accountable—not collude with them.

DNC Chair Donna Brazile Leaked Info. to Clinton’s Campaign:
Articles: http://observer.com/2016/10/breaking-…
http://www.politico.com/story/2016/10…
Email: https://wikileaks.org/podesta-emails/…
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gqX7t…
______________
The Hill Columnist in Contact With Clinton’s Campaign:
Article: http://www.mediaite.com/online/column…

The Hill Floated Article to Clinton’s Campaign:
Article: http://thehill.com/opinion/brent-budo…
Email: https://wikileaks.org/podesta-emails/…
______________
Clinton’s Campaign Pitched Stories to ‘The Daily Beast’: https://wikileaks.org/podesta-emails/…
______________
ThinkProgress Columnist in Contact With Clinton Campaign
Email: https://wikileaks.org/podesta-emails/…
______________
Today Show Tells Clinton Campaign Spokesman They Will Ask Question About Guns: https://wikileaks.org/podesta-emails/…

 

Cliff Richard – Devil Woman [HQ stereo]

Donald Trump Prepares New Attack on Media, Clinton

GOP presidential nominee says reports are ‘slanderous’ and media are pitted against him and his supporters

By MONICA LANGLEY

 

Donald Trump will broaden his attack against the media to hit globalism and the Clinton Foundation by charging that Mexican billionaire Carlos Slim is part of a biased coalition working in collusion with the Clinton campaign and its supporters to generate news reports of decades-old allegations from several women.

Mr. Trump, defiant and enraged in speeches on Thursday, flatly denied charges he had made inappropriate advances on the women over the past three decades.

“What they say is false and slanderous in virtually every respect,” he said at a rally in West Palm Beach, Fla., on Thursday, the day after the New York Times and other news outlets published accounts of women who said he had fondled or kissed them against their will.

As early as Friday, Mr. Trump is planning to claim that Mr. Slim, as a shareholder of New York Times Co. and donor to the Clinton Foundation, has an interest in helping Hillary Clinton’s campaign, according to a Trump adviser.

Attacking the Mexican billionaire would allow Mr. Trump to hit several targets. He could slam the “failing” New York Times, which he says had to be “rescued” by a “foreigner”—Mr. Slim, the adviser said.

At a rally in Florida on Thursday, the GOP presidential nominee Donald Trump railed against the Republican establishment and the media the wake of several new allegations of sexual assault. Photo: Getty

“This is totally false,” said Arturo Elias, Mr. Slim’s spokesman. “Of course we aren’t interfering in the U.S. election. We aren’t even active in Mexican politics.” He said the contributions by Mr. Slim to the Clinton Foundation were a matter of public record.

The Slim family held about 17% of the New York Times Class A shares as of March, making them the largest individual shareholder. The Sulzberger family still controls the company, with more than 90% of the Class B shares. Mr. Slim and his foundation have given between $250,000 and $500,000 to the Clinton Foundation since its founding.

“Carlos Slim is an excellent shareholder who fully respects boundaries regarding the independence of our journalism,” said New York Times publisher Arthur Sulzberger Jr. “He has never sought to influence what we report.”

A Donald Trump bobble-head figurine is displayed for sale by a vendor outside a campaign event for Mr. Trump in Cincinnati, Ohio on Thursday.
A Donald Trump bobble-head figurine is displayed for sale by a vendor outside a campaign event for Mr. Trump in Cincinnati, Ohio on Thursday. PHOTO: BLOOMBERG NEWS

The Times said it stood by its reporting and declined a demand from a lawyer representing Mr. Trump to remove the story.

The attack on Mr. Slim “is just another deranged right-wing conspiracy theory from Donald Trump’s increasingly desperate campaign,” said Brian Fallon, Mrs. Clinton’s press secretary.

Mr. Trump said in his Florida speech he would soon produce emails and other evidence to counter the sexual-misconduct claims but didn’t give specifics. Instead, he framed the episode in blunt populist terms, of how the political and media establishments are pitted against him and his supporters.

“I take all of these slings and arrows gladly for you,” he said. “I take them for our movement so that we can have our country back.”

Mr. Trump’s speech was an extended response to the spate of reports that surfaced Wednesday just as Trump allies had been hoping he had stabilized his standing in the race following last week’s release of a 2005 video in which he bragged about being able to exploit women sexually.

During the debate with Mrs. Clinton Sunday, Mr. Trump said that tape captured “locker room talk” that is not representative of his real behavior.

http://www.wsj.com/articles/trump-angrily-denies-allegations-of-groping-points-finger-at-media-and-clinton-campaign-1476384833

Rigged Debates: Wikileaks Emails Confirm Media in Clinton’s Pocket

Clinton’s people asked for all sorts of special treatment from the DNC and the press—and they got it

U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton (L) embraces Center for American Progress President and CEO John Podesta before addressing the centers' "American Idea: A More Perfect Union" conference at the Decatur House October 12, 2011 in Washington, DC.

Hillary Clinton embraces campaign chair John Podesta on October 12, 2011 in Washington, DC. Chip Somodevila/Getty Images)

On October 12, WikiLeaks released part four and five of Clinton campaign Chair John Podesta’s emails, with part six to be released on October 13, and part seven to follow on October 14.

“As soon as the nomination is wrapped up, I will be your biggest surrogate,” current Interim Chair of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) Donna Brazile, wrote to Podesta in a January 2016 email. As a Vice Chair of the DNC, Brazile was bound to neutrality per the charter, but as shown in several emails released so far, that was not the case.

“I pushed back hard on this, and Axe. So weird to attack the kids the night before the first primary,” Brazile wrote in an email she forwarded to Podesta about what CNN was doing while she served as a CNN contributor.

On October 10, an email was released that showed Brazile tipping off the Clintoncampaign to an outreach campaign being conducted by the Sanders campaign. Brazile defended herself on Twitter claiming she also sent the Sanders campaign “advice,” but did not release or cite any examples.

On October 11, Mediaite’s Jordan Chariton first reported another email that showed Brazile tipping off the Clinton campaign to a question on the death penalty that would be asked at a CNN Town Hall the next day. Brazile was a CNN contributor at the time, and that wasn’t her only helpful tip. “For the debate team,” she wrote in a March email about the Voting Rights Act, forwarded to Podesta.

In 2013, during an interview with ABC News, Brazile said, “if Clinton gets in the race, there will be a coronation of her,” foreshadowing that she and the rest of the DNCand Democratic Party would line up behind Hillary Clinton as the nominee before a single person voted in the Democratic primaries.

In a March 2016 email, Mark Alan Siegel, a former New York State Assemblyman andDemocratic official, advised the Clinton campaign staff to offer Bernie Sanders and his supporters a reduction in future super delegates to pacify them. “So if we ‘give’ Bernie this in the Convention’s rules committee, his people will think they’ve ‘won’ something from the Party Establishment,” he wrote. “And it functionally doesn’t make any difference anyway. They win. We don’t lose. Everyone is happy.”

Neera Tanden, president of the Center for American Progress which publishes Think Progress, wrote in a January 2016 email, “But I should say that I would do whateverHillary needs always. I owe her a lot. And I’m a loyal soldier.”

An April 2015 email describes the Clinton campaign and DNC coordinating to rig the debate schedule for Clinton’s benefit. The debate schedule was a commonly cited criticism against then-DNC Chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz, who resigned after the WikiLeaks release of DNC emails in July showed her overt favoritism for Clinton all through the primaries.

“Through internal discussions, we concluded that it was in our interest to: 1) limit the number of debates (and the number in each state); 2) start the debates as late as possible; 3) keep debates out of the busy window between February 1 and February 27, 2016 (Iowa to South Carolina)” read the email from Charlie Baker, a senior advisor to the Clinton campaign from the Dewey Square Group. “The other campaigns have advocated (not surprisingly) for more debates and for the schedule to start significantly earlier.”

An email from November 2014 shows Clinton campaign staff backing a law that would push the Illinois primary from March to April or May, with their reasoning being that the state could potentially serve as a lifeline to moderate Republicans as it did for Mitt Romney in 2012. “The Clintons won’t forget what their friends have done for them. It would be helpful to feel out what path, if any, we have to get them to yes. This will probably take some pushing,” wrote Clinton Campaign Manager Robby Mook to Podesta. The primary wound up not being moved, with Trump winning Illinois, but the push was strategic as Clinton didn’t poll well against moderate Republicans such as Sen. Marco Rubio and Gov. John Kasich.

In damage control over a false statement Clinton made about Nancy Reagan’s role in the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the Clinton campaign noted in an email chain that they would have to coerce Clinton into admitting she was wrong. “Here is a revised draft of a statement. It does include the words ‘I made a mistake’ in the first line. We need a strategy for getting her to approve this.”

And then there’s the overly docile press, who were so eager to help Clinton get elected. In one email chain discussing the upcoming release of exchanges between Clinton and writer Sidney Blumenthal, insiders noted that the Associated Press appeared to be willing to allow the Clinton campaign to plant favorable stories. “[T]hey are considering placing a story with a friendly at the AP (Matt Lee or Bradley Klapper), that would lay this out before the majority on the committee has a chance to realize what they have and distort it,” wrote Nick Merrill, the Clinton campaign’s traveling press secretary.

“She is going to read me the story later today off the record to further assure me,” Clinton campaign Communications Director Jennifer Palmieri wrote in an email to Podesta and other staff about New York Times‘ Maggie Haberman coordinating directly with the campaign to provide Clinton with favorable coverage.

In March 2015, an email from Clinton campaign manager assistant Marissa Astor provides some options for when a story in the AP will be published, with a statement from Clinton and Q&A regarding her private email server, in addition to an option to “pre-negotiate” a TV interview.

An April 2015 email from Clinton staff issued a press policy that says, “Less than 100 people – NO cell phones, NO press.” According to the email, events with over 100 people, cell phones are allowed, “and ONE print pooler will be escorted in for her remarks only and then escorted out. NO tv cameras. Over 500 people in a public space – YES cell phones, OPEN press (all press access including tv cameras). At fundraisers in private homes NO tv cameras no matter the size. ONE print pooler only.” According to the email, Hillary Clinton approved the policy. “Huma spoke to HRC and she agreed with this plan,” wrote Kristina Schake, the Clinton campaign deputy communications director.

In a January 2015 email, in response to an inquiry as to whether the Clinton staff have any diversity they can point to, political consultant Jim Margolis jokes, “Robby claims he’s 1/16th Apache, so we should be all set.”

Part four, five, six, and seven brings the total WikiLeaks release of Podesta emails to around 10,000 out of about 50,000.

Rigged Debates: Wikileaks Emails Confirm Media in Clinton’s Pocket

Donald Trump to claim Mexican billionaire Carlos Slim behind NYT sex assault stories: WSJ

Trump to claim Carlos Slim was behind sexual assault stories

Trump to claim Carlos Slim was behind sexual assault stories  10 Hours Ago | 00:33

Donald Trump will claim Mexican billionaire Carlos Slim was part of a cabal dredging up allegations the Republican nominee touched women inappropriately, The Wall Street Journal reported.

According to the report, which cited an unnamed Trump adviser, Trump planned to claim that Slim, a New York Times shareholder and Clinton Foundation donor, was trying to boost Hillary Clinton‘s campaign by damaging Trumps. The adviser said Trump could launch the attack as early as Friday, the report said.

A spokesman for Slim denied that the media mogul had interfered in the U.S. election, while New York Times publisher Arthur Sulzberger Jr. said Slim had never sought to influence the newspaper’s coverage, theWSJ reported.

A Clinton campaign press secretary called Trump’s claim a “deranged right-wing conspiracy theory,” the report said.

The Slim family owned around 17 percent of The New York Times Co. Class A shares as of March, although the Sulzberger family controls the company, the report noted.

http://www.cnbc.com/2016/10/14/donald-trump-to-claim-mexican-billionaire-carlos-slim-behind-nyt-sex-assault-stories-wsj.html

Carlos Slim

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For his son, see Carlos Slim Domit.
This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first or paternal family name is Slim and the second or maternal family name is Helú.
Carlos Slim
Carlos Slim 2012.jpg

Carlos Slim in 2012
Born Carlos Slim Helú
January 28, 1940 (age 76)
Mexico City, Mexico
Residence Mexico City, Mexico
Nationality Mexican
Alma mater Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Occupation Chairman & CEO of Telmex,América Móvil, Samsung Mexicoand Grupo Carso
Known for World’s wealthiest person (2010 to 2013)
Net worth US$50 billion (July 2016)[1]
Religion Maronite Catholicism[2]
Spouse(s) Soumaya Domit (m. 1967;d. 1999)
Children Carlos
Marco Antonio
Everétt Patrick
Soumaya
Vanessa
Johanna
Parent(s) Julián Slim Haddad (deceased)
Linda Helú
Website Official website

Carlos Slim Helú (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkaɾlos esˈlim eˈlu]; born January 28, 1940) is a Mexican business magnate, investor, and philanthropist.[3][4] From 2010 to 2013, Slim was ranked as the richest person in the world.[5][6][7][8][9][10] He derived his fortune from his extensive holdings in a considerable number of Mexican companies through his conglomerate,Grupo Carso.[11] As of 31 July 2016 he was #7 on Forbes list of billionaires, with a net worth estimated at US$50 billion.[12]

Slim is the chairman and chief executive of telecommunications companies Telmex and América Móvil, Latin America’s largest mobile-phone carrier, which accounted for around $49 billion of Slim’s wealth by the end of 2010.[13]

Slim’s conglomerate comprises a diverse portfolio of businesses from a wide array of industries that include education, health care, industrial manufacturing, transportation, real estate, media, energy, hospitality, entertainment, high-technology, retail, sports and financial services.[3][4][14][15]

Slim has overseen a vast business empire that is influential in every sector of the Mexican economy and accounts for 40% of the listings on the Mexican Stock Exchange,[14] while his net worth is equivalent to about 6 percent of Mexico’s gross domestic product.[16]

Early life

Slim always knew he wanted to be a businessman and began to develop his business and investment acumen at a young age.[6][17] He received business lessons from his early childhood where his father Julian, often taught the young Carlos the value of financial literacy, management and accountability, teaching him how to read financial statements as well as the importance of keeping accurate financial records, a practice that Slim carries on to this day.[18]

Slim’s first investment began at the age of 11, when he invested in a government savings bond that taught him about the concept of compound interest. He eventually saved every financial and business transaction he made into his personal ledger book which he keeps to this day.[19] At the age of 12, he made his first stock purchase, by purchasing shares in a Mexican bank.[20] By the age of 15, Slim had become a shareholder in Mexico’s largest bank.[16] At the age of 17, he earned 200 pesos a week working for his father’s company.[21] He went on to study civil engineering at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, where he also concurrently taught algebra andlinear programming, which meant that he was both a student and professor.[22][23][24]

Though Slim was a civil engineering major because of his fascination with numbers, he also displayed an interest in economics. He took economics courses in Chile once he finished his engineering degree.[17] Graduating as a civil engineering major, Slim has stated that his mathematical prowess and his background of linear programming was a key factor in helping him gain an edge in the business world, especially when reading financial statements.[17][18][24][25][26][27][28]

Business career

1960s

After graduating from college in 1961, Slim began his career as a stock trader in Mexico, often working 14-hour days.[6] In 1965, profits from Slim’s private investments reached US$400,000,[29] allowing him to start the stock brokerage Inversora Bursátil.[24] In addition, he also began laying the financial groundwork for Grupo Carso.[30] In 1965 he also bought Jarritos del Sur. In 1966, worth US$40 million,[29][31] he founded Inmobiliaria Carso.

1970s

Companies found within the construction, soft drink, printing, real estate, bottling and mining industries were the focus of Slim’s early burgeoning business career.[16] He later expanded into numerous industries including auto parts, aluminium, airlines, chemicals, tobacco, manufacturing of cables and wires, paper and packaging, copper and mineral combustion, tires, cement, retail, hotels, beverage distributors, telecommunications and financial services where Slim’s Grupo Financiero Inbursa – which sells insurance and invests the savings, mutual funds and pension plans of millions of ordinary Mexicans.[30][32] By 1972, he had established or acquired a further seven businesses in these categories, including one which rented construction equipment. In 1976, he branched out by acquiring a 60 percent share of Galas de México, a small printer of cigarette-pack labels for US$1 million, and in 1980, he consolidated his business interests by forming Grupo Galas as the parent company of a conglomerate that had interests in industry, construction, mining, retail, food, and tobacco.[22] In 1981, Slim acquired a majority stake in Cigarros la Tabacelera Mexicana (Cigatam), Mexico’s second largest producer and marketer of cigarettes, at a fire sale price.[6]

1980s

In 1982, the Mexican economy contracted rapidly. As many banks were struggling and foreign investors were cutting back on investing and scurrying, Slim began investing heavily and bought many flagship companies at depressed valuations.[6] Buying troubled assets at depressed prices to resell them later at an attractive price is a business strategy that Slim has executed throughout his career.[16][33]

Having a keen investment eye for value, Slim adhered to his value investment practices with a long history of buying stakes in companies he sees as undervalued.[34] Much of Slim’s business dealings involved a simple strategy, which is to buy a business and hang on to it for its cash flow or eventually sell the stake at a greater profit in future, thereby netting the capital gains as well as reinvesting the initial principal into a new business.[35] In addition, his conglomerate structure allows Slim to purchase numerous stakes that it is made nearly recession proof if one or more sectors of the economy do not do well. Slim also doesn’t address the finer details of the business but instead focuses on business fundamentals where his strategy is buy an asset at an undervalued price for its underlying cash flow and eventually sell his stake for greater profit when the asset gains value, or simply hang to the business for its cash flow.[35]

From the mid 1960s to the early 1980s, Slim and his growing family lived a modest life, while earnings from Slim’s many businesses were re-invested in expansion and more acquisitions. Slim acquired companies with strong returns on capital he believed were undervalued and overhauled their management. He diversified methodically in numerous industry sectors across the Mexican economy, investing in real estate, then a construction equipment company, and mining companies. The portfolio of Slim companies grew to include a printing company, a tobacco company and retail stores.[24]

During the Mexican economic downturn before its recovery in 1985, Slim invested heavily. He bought all or a large percentage of numerous Mexican businesses, including Empresas Frisco, a mining and chemicals company producing silver, gold, copper, lead, and zinc from extracted ores, and also chemical products such as hydrofluoric acid and molybdenum for only $50 million, Industrias Nacobre, a manufacturer of copper products, Reynolds Aluminio, Compania Hulera Euzkadi, Mexico’s largest tire maker, Bimex hotels, and majority share of Sanborn Hermanos food retailer, gift shop and restaurant chain. Slim spent US$13 million to buy insurance company Seguros de México in 1984, and later absorbed the company into the firm, Seguros Inbursa.[24] The value of his stake in Seguros eventually became worth US$1.5 billion by 2007, after four spinoffs.[36] He also acquired a 40% and 50% interest in the Mexican arms of British American Tobacco and The Hershey Company, respectively as well as acquiring large blocks of Denny’s and Firestone Tires. He moved into financial services as well, buying Seguros de México and creating from it, along with other purchases such as Fianzas La Guardiana and Casa de Bolsa Inbursa, the Grupo Financiero Inbursa. Many of these acquisitions were financed by the revenues and cash flows from Cigatam, a tobacco business which he bought early in the economic downturn.[20][22]

In 1988 Slim bought the Nacobre group of companies, which trades in copper and aluminum products, along with a chemicals business, Química Fluor, and others.[22]

1990s

Slim made a large fortune in the early 1990s when Mexico privatized its telecom industry and Grupo Carso acquired Telmex from the Mexican government.[16] In 1990 the Grupo Carso was floated as a public company initially in Mexico and then worldwide.[22] Grupo Carso also acquired majority ownership of Porcelanite, a tile making company in 1990. This investment was assigned to an associated company, but in 1995 Grupo Carso began growing its equity stake to 83 percent and subsequently made it a subsidiary.[20]

Later in 1990 Slim acted in concert with France Télécom and Southwestern Bell Corporation in order to buy the landline telephone company Telmex from the Mexican government, when Mexico began privatizing its national industries.[22] Slim was one of the initial investors of Telmex, the revenues of the company eventually formed the bulk of Slim’s wealth.[35][37] By 2006, 90 percent of the telephone lines in Mexico were operated by Telmex, and his mobile telephone company, Telcel, which was created out of the Radiomóvil Dipsa company,[22] operated almost 80 percent of all the country’s cellphones.[38] By 2012, América Movil, Slim’s mobile telephone company, had taken over Telmex and made it into a privately held subsidiary.[35]

In 1991 he acquired Hoteles Calinda (now OSTAR Grupo Hotelero), and in 1993, he increased his stakes in General Tire and Grupo Aluminio to the point where he had a majority interest.[22]

In 1996 Grupo Carso was split into three companies: Carso Global Telecom, Grupo Carso, and Invercorporación. In the following year, Slim bought the Mexican arm of Sears Roebuck.[22] In July 1997 Grupo Carso agreed in principle to sell Procter & Gamble de México, a subsidiary of The Procter & Gamble Co., a manufacturing plant in Apizaco and the company’s Lypps, Pampys, and other toilet-tissue brands for about US$170 million but kept its tissue-products company Fábricas de Papel Loreto y Peña Pobre.[20]

In 1999, Slim began expanding his business interests beyond Latin America. Though the bulk of his holdings still remained in Mexico, he began setting his sights towards the United States for overseas investments.

2000s

Slim became a prominent figure within the American business scene by 2003 when he began purchasing large stakes in a number of major US retailers such as Barnes & Noble, OfficeMax, Office Depot, Circuit City, Borders, and CompUSA.[39] Much of reason behind Slim’s overseas expansion was due to a running joke in the Mexican business scene where “there was nothing left to acquire in Mexico”.[39] He eyed towards investing the United States where he set up Telmex USA and also acquired a stake in Tracfone, a US cellular telephone company. At the same time, he established Carso Infraestructura y Construcción, S. A. (CICSA) as a construction and engineering company within Grupo Carso.[22] During the same year, Slim had heart surgery and subsequently passed on much of the day-to-day involvement in the businesses to his children and their spouses.[38]

América Telecom, the holding company for América Móvil, was incorporated in 2000. It took stakes in cellular telephone companies outside of Mexico, including the Brazilian ATL and Telecom Americas concerns, Techtel in Argentina, and others in Guatemala and Ecuador. In subsequent years, there were investment in Latin America, with companies in Colombia, Nicaragua, Peru, Chile, Honduras, and El Salvador, as well as a venture withMicrosoft.

In 2005 Slim invested in Volaris, a Mexican airline[22] and established Impulsora del Desarrollo y el Empleo en America Latina SAB de CV (using the acronym “IDEAL”—roughly translated as “Promoter of Development and Employment in Latin America”), a Mexican construction and civil engineering company primarily engaged in not-for-profit infrastructure development. Since 2006, IDEAL won three infrastructure contracts yet it faces stiff competition from a number of other Mexican and Spanish construction companies. The number of contracts is fewer than its biggest local competitor, Empresas ICA. During the same period, Empresas obtained 18 Mexican projects valued at US$1.09 billion, including airports, toll roads, hospitals and oil platforms. Some of the projects IDEAL has been awarded include the Nezahualcoyotl development, which is a landfill that was acquired for US$150 million by Slim to develop a shopping mall, two schools, a hospital and a park on the site. Other contracts IDEAL has been awarded include a water-treatment plant contract, and a real estate partnership with the Mexican hospital chain Star Médica. IDEAL is also betting on one of the poorest landfills surrounding Mexico City. Slim has also planned to purchase several toll roads offered by the Mexican government that it took over from private companies following the December 1994 currency devaluation.[40] Though speculation that the landfill will take about 12 years to yield a return, the development of a such poor area is revealed to promise handsome business profits over the years as Grupo Elektra, Mexico’s largest consumer electronics retailer, sells 2,000 flat screen televisions a year at its store in the area, making it the third-best-selling outlet. Included in the development, IDEAL will also collect rent from a university, a hospital and a school that will be built around a mall, will have 178 stores, including Inditex’s Zara fashion chain and Slim’s Grupo Sanborns and the Mexican unit of Sears Holdings. A park in Nezahualcoyotl, the first of its kind will also be constructed. The park will comprise 34 soccer fields, 12 tennis, basketball and volleyball courts, a baseball field and a gym with a swimming pool.[14][40]

Arriving to the Presidential Palace for a meeting with Brazil’s PresidentLuiz Inácio Lula da Silva on October 24, 2007

In 2007, after having amassed a 50.1% stake in the Cigatam tobacco company, Slim reduced his holdings by selling a large portion of his equity to Philip Morris for US$1.1 billion, while in the same year also selling his entire interest in a tile company, Porcelanite, for US$800 million. He licensed the Saks name and opened the Mexican arm of Saks Fifth Avenue in Santa Fe, Mexico. During the same year, the estimated value of all of Slim’s companies was at US$150 billion.[24] On December 8, 2007, Grupo Carso announced that the remaining 103 CompUSAstores would be either liquidated or sold, bringing an end to the struggling company,[41] although the IT tech part of CompUSA continued under the name Telvista with U.S. locations inDallas, Texas (U.S. Corporate Office) and Danville, Virginia. Telvista has five centers in Mexico (three in Tijuana, one center in Mexicali, and one in México City).[42] After 28 years, Slim became the Honorary Lifetime Chairman of the business.

In 2008 Slim took a 6.4% stake valued at $27 million in the troubled New York Times Company, as the global recession and declining advertising revenues took a particularly heavy toll on print-based “old media” companies across the United States.[22] Slim increased his stake to 8% by 2012.[43] Slim’s stake in the Times increased again to 16.8% on January 20, 2015 when he exercised stock options to purchase 15.9 million shares, making him the largest shareholder in the company.[44][45]

Slim built Plaza Carso in Mexico City, where most of his ventures share a common headquarters address.[46]

2010s

In 2012 Slim sold the broadcast rights for the Leon games to Telemundo in the United States, and the cable channel Fox Sports in Mexico and the rest of Latin America and to the website mediotiempo.com. The games are also broadcast on the Internet through UNO TV, offered by Telmex. Slim has been involved with broadcasting sports outside Mexico to larger markets such as the United States. In March 2012, America Movil acquired the broadcast rights for the Olympic Games in Sochi 2014 and the Brazil 2016 for Latin America.[47]

In March 2012 Slim, along with American television host Larry King, established Ora TV, an on-demand digital television network that produces and distributes television shows includingLarry King Now, Politicking with Larry King, Recessionista, and Jesse Ventura Uncensored.[48]

In September 2012 Slim bought 30% stakes in Pachuca and León, two Mexican soccer teams through his telecommunications company America Movil. In December 2012, he bought all the shares of the second division team Estudiantes Tecos.[49] Slim has also completed business deals for the television rights to games of the Leon soccer team. His company America Movil purchase 30 percent of the team along with transmission rights as Slim doesn’t have the rights to transmit content by broadcast television or cable TV as well as putting him in competition with Televisa and TV Azteca, two television companies with rights to the rest of Mexican soccer’s first division.[50]

In 2013 Slim’s company, Grupo Carso opened Mexico City’s Telcel Theater, which operates in conjunction with his entertainment company, Grupo CIE (Corporación Interamericana de Entretenimiento), Mexico’s equivalent ofLive Nation.[51]

In April 2013 Slim entered the business of managing Mexican prisons to expand the investments of his construction-financing company. Ideal acquired stakes in two federal prisons from Desarrolladora Homex SAB, a Mexican homebuilder where Slim’s companies will receive 4 billion pesos (US$326 million) within the agreement. The company ran his son, Marco Antonio Slim would add the prisons to its portfolio of infrastructure assets among which include toll roads, hydroelectric dams, and water-treatment plants.[52]

In July 2013 Slim’s company America Movill invested US$40 million in Shazam, a British commercial mobile phone-based music identification service for an undisclosed share. America Movil partnered with the company to aid its growth into advertising and television and help the audio recognition service expand in Latin America.[53][54]

In November 2013 Slim invested US$60 million in the Israeli startup Mobli, a company that deals with connections between people and communities corralled according to different interests.

In December 2013 Slim’s private equity fund, Sinca Inbursa, sold its stake in Mexican pharmaceutical company Landsteiner Scientific. Slim acquired a 27.51 stake in the company in June 2008 and represented 6.6 percent of Sinca’s investment portfolio. The private equity fund’s investments are mainly in transportation and infrastructure and the fund had total market cap of 5.152 billion pesos at the end of 2012.[55]

Slim has also set his sights within the energy industry as well. In 2011, Slim began buying a 70 percent stake in Geoprocesados SA’s Tabasco Oil Co., gaining access to the Colombian oil market as the country seeks to boost crude and natural-gas output.[56] Slim began seeking to boost his oil investments in Colombia because of the country’s open policies on exploration as well as furthering its commitment to double output by 2020.[57] Investors have also been drawn to Colombia because of improved security as well as a clear government regulatory framework for oil drilling.[58] In 2013, Mexico’s national oil and gas company Pemex hired an offshore drilling rig from the Carso Group. Under the agreement, Pemex will operate the rig on a seven-year contract and will pay US$415 million. The rig is owned by Operadora Cicsa, a subsidiary of Carso Group.[59] The relationship between Pemex and Slim rans back as early as in 2006, where NOC hired CICSA for the drilling and completion of over 60 wells in the southern region‍—‌covering the Cinco Presidentes, Macuspana-Muspac, Samaria-Luna and Bellota-Jujo assets – and for the expansion of a petrochemical plant in Veracruz. Carso’s infrastructure and construction subsidiary has been awarded with several oil well development contracts in Pemex’s main assets‍—‌including Chicontepec‍—‌as well as tenders for the construction of natural gas pipelines and marine platforms. With the 2008 Pemex Law reform, the creation of integrated service contracts and the perspectives for a future energy reform, Slim has begun seizing business and investment opportunities in Mexico’s oil and gas industry. CICSA’s pipe manufacturing division Swepomex into a marine platform provider. CICSA has also acquired majority shares in Oklahoma contractor Bronco Drilling, along with minority participations in Houston drilling company Allis Chalmers Energy. Slim controls a 15 percent stake in Bronco, with warrants that could boost the stake to 20 percent. He also has a 2.9 percent stake in Allis-Chalmers.[58] 15% of the country’s main gas operator, Gas Natural Mexico now belong to Sinca Inbursa, a private equity fund controlled by Slim.[55] Slim Helú has also maintained an important business presence in Spanish oil company Repsol and its Argentinian subsidiary YPF, Argentina’s largest oil company, where Slim has an 8.4 percent stake.[4][34]

On April 23, 2014, Slim took control of Telekom Austria, Austria’s biggest phone carrier, which has telcos in countries such as Bulgaria, Croatia and Belarus, under a 10-year agreement, was Slim’s first successful business acquisition in Europe. In a syndicate holding structure the Austrian state holding company OIAG’s 28 percent are combined with Slim’s 27 percent ownership. America Movil will spend as much as US$2 billion to buy out minority shareholders in a mandatory public offer and invest up to 1 billion euros (US$1.38 billion) into the company, which it sees as “platform for expansion into central and eastern Europe”. Labor representatives boycotted attending the OIAG supervisory board meeting for 12 hours criticizing lack of explicit job guarantees.[60]

In July 2014 Slim invested in WellAware, a Texas-based oil and gas software developer, this investment was also made with former Republican vice president Dick Cheney. External funding was provided by Activant Capital Group and Slim, along with participation from strategic investors and WellAware board members Ed Whitacre. When Mexico eventually prepared to open its oil and gas sectors to domestic and foreign private capital for the first time in 75 years, it has been widely speculated that Slim will play a major role toward contributing to Mexico’s new energy landscape. Slim’s investment in WellAware, whose software allows oil and gas companies to track wells and pipelines remotely and collates data for making forecasts, adds to a number of oil-related investments that he has been making in the past years in Mexico, Latin America and the United States.[61]

In January 2015 Grupo Carso publicly launched Claro Musica, an online music service that is a Latin American equivalent of iTunes and Spotify. Slim and his son increased their presence in Mexico’s music industry, particularly in the retail music industry since 2013. Sanborn’s, the Mexican retail department store chain owned by Slim contains an extensive music section and 170 locations in Mexico as well as controlling a majority stake in Mixup, Mexico’s most successful retail music store that comprises a chain 117-store Mexican retailers along with an online iShop through a selling partnership with Apple. Mixup also generated more than US$320 million in revenue in 2014.[51]

In March 2015 Slim began to set his sights on Spain, purchasing Spanish real estate at rock-bottom prices within the ailing Spanish economy. Slim has also been buying up stakes in various troubled Spanish corporations while eyeing various investments across Europe. Slim’s investment company, Inmobiliaria Carso, announced it will buy a stake in the Spanish banking conglomerate Bankia, which couples with Slim’s other purchase of Realia, a Spanish real estate company, where Slim is the second largest shareholder holding a 25% equity stake, behind Fomento de Construcciones y Contratas, a construction company where Slim is also a minor shareholder.[62][63]

On April 15, 2015, Slim formed his own oil company called Carso Oil & Gas. The company was established after shareholders of the subsidiaries of Slim’s business conglomerate, Grupo Carso, voted in February 2015 to mergeCarso Infraestructura, Construccion y Perforacion and Condumex Perforaciones into Carso Oil & Gas. A report that was released by the new company listed its assets at 3.5 billion pesos (approximately US$230 million), placed within 17.7 million shares. Upon formation of the company, Slim remained sanguine about the company and Mexico’s burgeoning energy sector where the state monopoly ceased to exist once held by state-owned oil company Pemex and opening the sector for private investors.[44]

On July 25, 2015, Slim’s investment group Control Empresarial de Capitales invested in IMatchative, a technology startup that ranks the world’s hedge funds creating in-depth behavioral profiles and business analytics. The company creates proprietary behavioral profiles of the top hedge fund managers using everything from divorce records to political donations incorporated in their profiles and fund analysis. Limited partners pay US$30,000 per subscription while hedge fund managers pay half the price and also sign up for a free version of the products the company offers.[64]

On September 8, 2015, one of Slim’s companies announced that Philosophy Jr. Studio, a fashion line for young women, will expand into a standalone retailer chain that will compete with elite fashion retailers across the globe. Although the style of the new fashion line and the number of yearly collections has not been made public, Philosophy Jr. Studio is expected to compete with a myriad of well-known multinational fast-fashion retailers such asH&M, Forever 21, Zara and C&A. The fashion line will be offered at individual brick and mortar boutiques at two shopping malls in Mexico City. With a US$20 million seed investment, Slim’s plan is to have 100 standalone stores by 2017. The brand was established in 2011 and has been sold at Sears Mexico, a unit of Grupo Sanborns, the restaurant, retail, and pharmacy chain owned by Slim.[65]

Personal life

Slim was married to Soumaya Domit from 1967 until her death in 1999. Among her interests were various philanthropic projects, including the creation of a legal framework for organ donation.[22] Slim has six children: Carlos, Marco Antonio, Patrick, Soumaya, Vanessa, and Johanna. Slim’s fortune has given rise to a family business empire and he often acquires shares on behalf of himself and his children. His three older sons serve in key positions in the companies controlled by Slim where most are involved in the day-to-day running of Slim’s business empire.[3][14][18][66] Slim underwent heart surgery in 1999.[38] In high school, Slim’s favorite subjects were history,cosmography, and mathematics.[18]

In his office, Slim does not keep a computer and instead prefers to keep all his financial data in thoroughly kept notebooks.[18] Slim is well versed in technology but prefers to write by hand instead of on a computer.[16] Due to the vast size of his business empire, Slim often jokes that he can’t keep track of all the companies he manages.[11]

Family

Slim was born on January 28, 1940, in Mexico City, Mexico,[67] to Maronite Catholic parents, Julián Slim Haddad and Linda Helú Atta, both of Lebanese descent.[68][69][70] His father, born Khalil Salim Haddad Aglamaz, emigrated to Mexico from Lebanon (then part of Syria in the Ottoman Empire) at the age of 14 in 1902 and changed his name to Julián Slim Haddad.[68] It was not uncommon for Lebanese children to be sent abroad before they reached the age of 15 to avoid being conscripted into the Ottoman Army; four of Haddad’s older brothers were already living in Mexico at the time of his arrival.[22] In August 1926, Julián Slim and Linda Helú married. They had six children: Nour, Alma, Julián, José, Carlos and Linda, with Carlos being the fifth of six children. Julián senior died in 1953, when Slim was just 13 years old.[22] Carlos Slim’s mother, Linda Helú Atta, was born in Parral, Chihuahua, of Lebanese parents who had immigrated to Mexico in the late 19th century. Upon immigrating to Mexico, her parents had founded one of the first Arabic-language magazines for the Lebanese-Mexican community, using a printing press they had brought with them.[22]

In 1911 Julián established a dry goods store, La Estrella de Oriente (The Star of the Orient). La Estrella de Oriente was an important dry goods store located on Venustiano Carranza where it had merchandise worth more than $100,000 by January 21, 1921, only ten years after the business was founded.[23] By 1921, he had begun investing in real estate in the flourishing commercial district of Mexico City where Julián would acquire prime real estate at fire sale prices and in Zocalo District during the 1910–17 Mexican Revolution.[6][16] By 1922, Julián’s net worth reached $1,012,258 pesos and was diversified within various assets including real estate, businesses and various stocks.[23] These business ventures became the source of considerable wealth for himself and his family.[22] As a result of financial prosperity of these ventures, his father soon became a prominent and wealthy businessman, where he was able to make investments during bad economic cycles due to Mexico’s frequent economic downturns.[30] Julián was known for his business savvy, strong work ethic, and commitment to traditional Lebanese moral values. Having a deep understanding of business that was considered ahead of his time, one of Julián’s many pioneering business concepts was an efficient business as one that sold large volumes at smaller margins, and with payment facilities, factors that are prevalent in many large discount stores today.[23]

Personal fortune

Wealth

On March 29, 2007, Slim surpassed American investor Warren Buffett as the world’s second richest person with an estimated net worth of US$53.1 billion compared with Buffet’s US$52.4 billion.[71]

On August 4, 2007, The Wall Street Journal ran a cover story profiling Slim. The article said, “While the market value of his stake in publicly traded companies could decline at any time, at the moment he is probably wealthier than Bill Gates“.[72] According to The Wall Street Journal, Slim credits part of his ability to “discover investment opportunities” early to the writings of his friend, futurist author Alvin Toffler.[72]

On August 8, 2007, Fortune magazine reported that Slim had overtaken Gates as the world’s richest person. Slim’s estimated fortune soared to US$59 billion, based on the value of his public holdings at the end of July. Gates’ net worth was estimated to be at least US$58 billion.[72][73]

On March 5, 2008, Forbes ranked Slim as the world’s second-richest person, behind Warren Buffett and ahead of Bill Gates.[74]

On March 11, 2009, Forbes ranked Slim as the world’s third-richest person, behind Gates and Buffett and ahead of Larry Ellison.[74]

On March 10, 2010, Forbes once again reported that Slim had overtaken Gates as the world’s richest person, with a net worth of US$53.5 billion. At the time, Gates and Buffett had a net worth of US$53 billion and US$47 billionrespectively.[74] He was the first Mexican to top the list.[75] It was the first time in 16 years that the person on top of the list was not from the United States.[76] It was also the first time the person at the top of the list was from an “emerging economy”.[77] Between 2008 and 2010, Slim more than doubled his net worth from $35 to $75 billion.[14]

In March 2011 Forbes stated that Slim had maintained his position as the wealthiest person in the world, with his fortune estimated at US$74 billion.[5]

In December 2012, according to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index, Carlos Slim Helú remained the world’s richest person with an estimated net worth of US$75.5 billion.[78]

On March 5, 2013, Forbes stated that Slim was still maintaining his first-place position as the wealthiest person in the world, with an estimated net worth of US$73 billion.[79]

On May 16, 2013, Bloomberg L.P. ranked Slim the second-richest person in the world, after Bill Gates.[80]

On July 15, 2014, Forbes announced that Slim had reclaimed the position of the wealthiest person in the world, with a fortune of US$79.6 billion.[81]

In September 2014, Forbes listed Slim as number 1 on its list of billionaires with a net worth of US$81.6 billion.[82]

Real estate

Slim lives in a 6-bedroom home in the Lomas de Chapultepec district of Mexico City,[83] close to where he grew up, that has been his residence for over 40 years. Slim’s real estate holding company Inmobiliaria Carso develops, invests, owns and operates many residential and commercial properties across Mexico. The company owns over 20 shopping centers, including ten in Mexico City, and operates stores in the country under U.S. brands including the Mexican arms of Saks Fifth Avenue, Sears and the Coffee Factory. Slim has been making private real estate investments around the world, particularly in the United States. He has been reported to have acquired 417 Fifth Avenue, an 11-story office tower for US$140 million and also a piece of the former New York Times building on West 43rd street. He controls approximately 8 acres of prime Beverly Hills real estate at the corner of Wilshire and Santa Monica Boulevards.[3] In May 2014 Slim opened Inbursa Aquarium, Latin America’s largest aquarium.[11] Slim owns the Duke Seamans mansion, a 1901 beaux arts house on 5th Avenue in New York City, which he bought for $44 million in 2010. The mansion is 20,000 square feet and has 12 bedrooms, 14 bathrooms, and a doctor’s office in the basement.[3][84] In May 2015, he listed the property for sale at $80 million, nearly twice what he had paid.[33] In April 2015, Slim bought the Marquette Building in Detroit and purchased PepsiCo Americas Beverages headquarters in Somers, New York for US$87 million. Slim owns a second mansion in New York City at 10 W. 56th St, which he leased early in 2015 to the John Barrett Salon for US$1.5 million annually. The property was bought in 2011 for US$15.5 million.[33]

Philanthropy

Slim has been publicly skeptical of The Giving Pledge by Bill Gates and Warren Buffett giving away at least half of their fortunes. But—according to his spokesman—he devoted US$4 billion, or roughly 5%, to his Carlos Slim foundation as of 2011.[85] Though Slim has not gone as far as Gates and Buffett in pledging more than half of his fortune, Slim has expressed firm support for philanthropy and has advised budding entrepreneurs that businessmen must do more than give‍—‌they “should participate in solving problems”.[16] Slim has channeled his philanthropic endeavors into many initiatives such as funding a genomic medicine research project, subsidizing numerous arts and education projects in Mexico City, including the Museo Soumaya (named after his late wife), which displays his art collection for no admission fee.[16]

Slim founded three nonprofit foundations concentrating on Mexico City: one for the arts, education, and health care; one for sports; and one for downtown restoration.

Fundación Carlos Slim Helú

Established in 1986 Fundación Carlos Slim Helú sponsors the Museo Soumaya in Mexico City, named after Slim’s late wife, Soumaya Domit, opened 2011. It holds 66,000 pieces, including religious relics, contains the world’s second-largest collection of Rodin sculptures, including The Kiss, the largest Dalí collection in Latin America, works by Leonardo da Vinci, Pablo Picasso, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, and coins from the viceroys of Spain.[86] The inauguration in 2011 was attended by the President of Mexico, Nobel Prize laureates, writers and other celebrities.[87]

After stating that he had donated US$4 billion of dividends to Fundación Carlos Slim Helú, US$2 billion in 2006, and another US$2 billion in 2010, Slim was ranked fifth in Forbes‘ World’s Biggest Givers in May 2011.[85] Education and health care projects have included $100 million to perform 50,000 cataract surgeries in Peru through the Clinton Initiative, a US$20 million fund to strengthen small and medium-size businesses in Colombia, and a digital education program for youth in Mexico, US$150 million for programs in nutrition and disease prevention in Central America with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the government of Spain, US$50 million to work with theWorld Wildlife Fund on restoration of six areas for species in Mexico, including the monarch butterfly and US$100 million on education programs for young people through Colombian singer Shakira’s Alas Foundation.[85]

Fundación Telmex

In 1995 Slim established Fundación Telmex, a broad-ranging philanthropic foundation, which as he announced in 2007 had been provided with an asset base of US$4 billion to establish Carso Institutes for Health, Sports and Education. Furthermore, it was to work in support of an initiative of Bill Clinton to aid the people of Latin America.[22] Because Mexican foundations are not required to publish their financial information, it is not possible to confirm Slim’s claims of charitable giving through a public source.[85] The foundation has organized Copa Telmex, an amateur sports tournament, recognized in 2007 and 2008 by Guinness World Records as having the most participants of any such tournament in the world. Together with Fundación Carlos Slim Helú, Telmex announced in 2008 that it was to invest more than US$250 million in Mexican sports programs, from grass-roots level to Olympic standard.[22] Telmex sponsored the Sauber F1 team for the 2011 season.[88] [89] [90] Telmex donated at least $1 million to the Clinton Foundation.[91]

Fundación del Centro Histórico de la Ciudad de México A.C.[edit]

In 2000, Slim and ex-broadcaster Jacobo Zabludowsky organized the Fundación del Centro Histórico de la Ciudad de México A.C. (Mexico City Historic Center Foundation) to revitalize and rescue Mexico City’s historic downtown area to enable more people to live, work and find entertainment there.[22] He has been Chair of the Council for the Restoration of the Historic Downtown of Mexico City since 2001.[92]

In 2011 he, along with the president of Mexico, Mexico City mayor, and Mexico City archbishop, inaugurated the first phase of Plaza Mariana close to Basilica de Guadalupe.[93] The complex, whose construction was funded by Slim, includes an evangelization center, museum, columbarium, health center, and market.[94]

Awards

Criticism

Slim’s growing fortune has been a subject of controversy, because it has been amassed in a developing country where average per capita income does not surpass US$14,500 a year, and nearly 17% of the population lives in poverty.[98] Critics claim that Slim is a monopolist, pointing to Telmex’s control of 90% of the Mexican landline telephone market. Slim’s wealth is the equivalent of roughly 5% of Mexico’s annual economic output.[99] Telmex, of which 49.1% is owned by Slim and his family, charges among the highest usage fees in the world, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.[100] The average Mexican spends 1.50 pesos per day on Slim’s goods and services for a total of roughly US$140 million a day and the Federal Telecommunications Institute, a new Mexican government anti-monopoly watchdog said in April 2014 that Slim’s telecom businesses are monopolies.[11] Slim’s business presence in Mexico alone is so broad that many Mexicans find it appropriate to call the country “Slimlandia” as it is almost impossible to go a day in Mexico without contributing to Slim’s wealth.[14]

According to Celso Garrido, economist at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Slim’s domination of Mexico’s conglomerates prevents the growth of smaller companies, resulting in a shortage of paying jobs, forcing many Mexicans to seek better lives in the U.S.[101]

In response to the criticism, Slim has stated, “When you live for others’ opinions, you are dead. I don’t want to live thinking about how I’ll be remembered” by Mexican people claiming indifference about his position on Forbes list of the world’s richest people. He has said he has no interest in becoming the world’s richest person. When asked to explain his sudden increase in wealth at a press conference soon after Forbes annual rankings were published, he said, “The stock market goes up … and down”, and noted that his fortune could quickly drop.[99]

Slim was criticized by the Dutch minister of economic affairs, Henk Kamp, in 2013 for attempting to expand his telecom empire beyond the Americas by América Móvil’s buy-out offer to KPN, a Dutch landline and mobile telecommunications company privatized in the 1990s, by stating “an acquisition of KPN by a “foreign company” could have consequences for the Netherland’s national security”.[102] Two years after Slim’s failed bid to take over the company mainly due to political intervention and Slim’s paucity of interest in purchasing the company, Slim’s America Movil SAB began offering 2.25 billion euros of bonds that can be converted into shares of Royal KPN NV. America Movil now controls a 21.1 percent stake of KPN with a market value of 3.1 billion euros as of May 20, 2015. Slim has been slowly decreasing his holdings since he was forced to withdraw a 7.2 billion euro bid for the Dutch phone line carrier in 2013 after negotiations broke down and KPN’s preference share foundation blocked the takeover attempt.[103]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Slim

Story 2: Hillary Clinton Applying Saul Alinsky’s Rule For Radicals —

Rule 12: Pick The Target, Freeze It, Personalize It and Polarize It. Cut off the support network and isolate the target from sympathy. Go after people not institutions; people hurt faster  than institutions  — Videos 

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Rules for Radicals

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rules for Radicals
Rules for Radicals.png
Author Saul Alinsky
Country U.S.A.
Language English
Subject Grassroots, community organizing
Publisher Random House
Publication date
1971
Pages 196 pp
ISBN 0-394-44341-1
OCLC 140535
301.5
LC Class HN65 .A675

Rules for Radicals: A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals is the last book published in 1971 by activist and writer Saul D. Alinsky shortly before his death. His goal for theRules for Radicals was to create a guide for future community organizers to use in uniting low-income communities, or “Have-Nots”, in order for them to gain social, political, legal andeconomic power.[1] Within it, Alinsky compiled the lessons he had learned throughout his experiences of community organizing from 1939–1971 and targeted these lessons at the current, new generation of radicals.[2]

Divided into ten chapters, Rules for Radicals provides 10 lessons on how a community organizer can accomplish the goal of successfully uniting people into an active organization with the power to effect change on a variety of issues. Though targeted at community organization, these chapters also touch on other issues that range from ethics, education,communication, and symbol construction to nonviolence and political philosophy.[3]

Though published for the new generation of counterculture-era organizers in 1971, Alinsky’s principles have been successfully applied by numerous government, labor, community, and congregation-based organizations, and the main themes of his organizational methods that were elucidated upon in Rules for Radicals have been recurring elements in political campaigns in recent years.

Inspiration for Rules for Radicals

The inspiration for Rules for Radicals was drawn from Alinsky’s personal experience as a community organizer.[1] It was also taken from the lessons he learned from his University of Chicago professor, Robert Park, who saw communities as “reflections of the larger processes of an urban society”.[3] The methods Alinsky developed and practiced were described in his book as a guide on future community organizing for the new generation of radicals emerging from the 1960s.[3][4]

Alinsky believed in collective action as a result of the work he did with the C.I.O and the Institute for Juvenile Research in Chicago where he first began to develop his own, distinct method of community organizing. Additionally, his late work with the Citizens Action Program (CAP) provided some of his most whole and conclusive practices in organizing through the empowerment of the poor, though not well-known. Alinsky saw community structure and the impoverished and the importance of their empowerment as elements of community activism and used both as tools to create powerful, active organizations.[5] He also used shared social problems as external antagonists to “heighten local awareness of similarities among residents and their shared differences with outsiders”.[3] Ironically, this was one of Alinsky’s most powerful tools in community organizing; to bring a collective together, he would bring to light an issue that would stir up conflict with some agency to unite the group. This provided an organization with a specific “villain” to confront and made direct action easier to implement. These tactics as a result of decades of organizing efforts, along with many other lessons, were poured into Rules for Radicals to create the guidebook for community organization.[2]

Themes

Rules for Radicals has various themes. Among them is his use of symbol construction to strengthen the unity within an organization.[3] He would draw on loyalty to a particular church or religious affiliation to create a structured organization with which to operate. The reason being that symbols by which communities could identify themselves created structured organizations that were easier to mobilize in implementing direct action. Once the community was united behind a common symbol, Alinsky would find a common enemy for the community to be united against.

The use of common enemy against a community was another theme of Rules for Radicals, with nonviolent conflict as a uniting element in communities.[6]

Alinsky would find an external antagonist to turn into a “common enemy” for the community within which he was operating. Often, this would be a local politician or agency that had some involvement with activity concerning the community. Once the enemy was established, the community would come together in opposition of it. This management of conflict heightened awareness within the community as to the similarities its members shared as well as what differentiated them from those outside of their organization.[3] The use of conflict also allowed for the goal of the group to be clearly defined. With an established external antagonist, the community’s goal would be to defeat that enemy.[3]

Symbol construction helped to promote structured organization, which allowed for nonviolent conflict through another element in Alinsky’s teaching, direct action. Direct action created conflict situations that further established the unity of the community and promoted the accomplishment of achieving the community’s goal of defeating their common enemy.[2] It also brought issues the community was battling to the public eye. Alinsky encouraged over-the-top public demonstrations throughout Rules for Radicals that could not be ignored, and these tactics enabled his organization to progress their goals faster than through normal bureaucratic processes.[3]

Lastly, the main theme throughout Rules for Radicals and Alinsky’s work was empowerment of the poor.[5] Alinsky used symbol construction and nonviolent conflict to create a structured organization with a clearly defined goal that could take direct action against a common enemy. At this point, Alinsky would withdraw from the organization to allow their progress to be powered by the community itself.[3] This empowered the organizations to create change.[2]

The rules[1]
  1. “Power is not only what you have, but what the enemy thinks you have.” Power is derived from 2 main sources – money and people. “Have-Nots” must build power from flesh and blood.
  2. “Never go outside the expertise of your people.” It results in confusion, fear and retreat. Feeling secure adds to the backbone of anyone.
  3. “Whenever possible, go outside the expertise of the enemy.” Look for ways to increase insecurity, anxiety and uncertainty.
  4. “Make the enemy live up to its own book of rules.” If the rule is that every letter gets a reply, send 30,000 letters. You can kill them with this because no one can possibly obey all of their own rules.
  5. “Ridicule is man’s most potent weapon.” There is no defense. It’s irrational. It’s infuriating. It also works as a key pressure point to force the enemy into concessions.
  6. “A good tactic is one your people enjoy.” They’ll keep doing it without urging and come back to do more. They’re doing their thing, and will even suggest better ones.
  7. “A tactic that drags on too long becomes a drag.” Don’t become old news.
  8. “Keep the pressure on. Never let up.” Keep trying new things to keep the opposition off balance. As the opposition masters one approach, hit them from the flank with something new.
  9. “The threat is usually more terrifying than the thing itself.” Imagination and ego can dream up many more consequences than any activist.
  10. “The major premise for tactics is the development of operations that will maintain a constant pressure upon the opposition.” It is this unceasing pressure that results in the reactions from the opposition that are essential for the success of the campaign.
  11. “If you push a negative hard enough, it will push through and become a positive.” Violence from the other side can win the public to your side because the public sympathizes with the underdog.
  12. “The price of a successful attack is a constructive alternative.” Never let the enemy score points because you’re caught without a solution to the problem.
  13. “Pick the target, freeze it, personalize it, and polarize it.” Cut off the support network and isolate the target from sympathy. Go after people and not institutions; people hurt faster than institutions.

Criticisms

Alinsky received criticism for the methods and ideas he presented. Robert Pruger and Harry Specht noted that much of his instruction has only been effective in urban, low-income areas.[7] Pruger and Specht also criticized his broad statement that Rules for Radicals is a tool for organizing all low-income people. Further, Alinsky’s use of artificially stimulated conflict has been criticized for its ineffectiveness in areas that thrive on unity.[7] According to Judith Ann Trolander, in several Chicago areas in which he worked, his use of conflict backfired and the community was unable to achieve the policy adjustments they were seeking.[2]

Much of the philosophy of community organization found in Rules for Radicals has also come under question as being overly ideological. Alinsky believed in allowing the community to determine its exact goal. He would produce an enemy for them to conflict with, but the purpose of the conflict was ultimately left up to the community. This idea has been criticized due to the conflicting opinions that can often be present within a group.[7] Alinsky’s belief that an organization can create a goal to accomplish is viewed as highly optimistic and contradictory to his creation of an external antagonist. By producing a common enemy, Alinsky is creating a goal for the community, the defeat of that enemy. To say that the community will create their own goal seems backwards considering Alinsky creates the goal of defeating the enemy. Thus, his belief can be seen as too ideological and contradictory because the organization may turn the goal of defeating the common enemy he produced into their main purpose.[7]

Legacy

The scope of influence for Rules for Radicals is a far-reaching one as it is a compilation of the tactics of Alinsky. It has been influential for policymaking and organization for various communities and agency groups, and has influenced politicians and activists educated by Alinsky and the IAF, and other grassroots movements.

Direct impact

After Alinsky died in California in 1972, his influence helped spawn other organizations and policy changes. Rules for Radicals was a direct influence that helped to form the United Neighborhood Organization in the early 1980s.[3] Its founders Greg Galluzzo, Mary Gonzales, and Pater Martinez were all students of Alinsky.[3] The work of UNO helped to improve the hygiene, sanitation, and education in southeastern Chicago.[3] Additionally, the founders of Organization of the North East in Chicago during the 1970s applied Alinsky’s principles to organize multiethnic neighborhoods in order to gain greater political representation.[3]

Rules for Radicals have been dispersed by Alinsky’s students who undertook their own community organizing endeavors. Students of Alinsky’s such as Edward T. Chambers used Rules for Radicals to help form the Industrial Areas Foundation, the Queens Citizens Organization, and the Communities Organized for Public Service. Another student of Alinsky’s, Ernest Cortez, rose to prominence in the late 1970s in San Antonio while organizingHispanic neighborhoods. His use of congregation-based organizing received much acclaim as a popular method of Alinsky’s by utilizing “preexisting solidary neighborhood elements, especially church groups, so that the constituent units are organizations, not individuals.”[5] This congregation-based organizing and symbol construction was taught to him by Edward Chambers and the IAF during his time studying under both.

The methods and teachings of Rules for Radicals have also been linked to the Mid-America Institute, the National People’s Action, the National Training and Information Center, the Pacific Institute for Community Organizations, and the Community Service Organization.[5]

Later influence

The methods from Rules for Radicals have been seen in modern American politics. The use of congregation-based organizing has been linked to Jesse Jackson when he was organizing his own political campaign.[8] The book was praised and used as an organizational guide by the Tea Party conservative group FreedomWorks during Dick Armey‘s tenure as chairman.[9][10]

Publication data

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c Rules for Radicals, by Saul Alinsky
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Trolander, Judith Ann (1982). “Social Change: Settlement Houses and Saul Alinsky, 1939–1965”. Social Service Review. University of Chicago Press. 56 (3): 346–65. ISSN 1537-5404. JSTOR 30011558 – viaJSTOR. (registration required (help)).
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m Reitzes, Donald C.; Reitzes, Dietrich C. (1987). “Alinsky in the 1980s: Two Contemporary Chicago Community Organizations”. The Sociological Quarterly. Midwest Sociological Society.28 (2): 265–83. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1987.tb00294.x. ISSN 1533-8525. JSTOR 4121434 – via JSTOR. (registration required (help)).
  4. Jump up^ “Playboy Interview: Saul Alinsky”. Playboy Magazine. March 1972.
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b c d McCarthy, John D. (1989). “The Alinsky Legacy: Alive and Kicking.by Donald C. Reitzes, Dietrich C. Reitzes”. Contemporary Sociology.American Sociological Association. 18 (1): 46–7. ISSN 1939-8638.JSTOR 2071926 – via JSTOR. (registration required (help)).
  6. Jump up^ Marshall, Dale Rogers (1976). “Rules for Radicals: A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals by Saul D. Alinsky; How People Get Power: Organizing Oppressed Communities for Action by Si Kahn; Action for a Change: A Student’s Manual for Public Interest Organizing by Ralph Nader, Donald Ross; Winning Elections: A Handbook in Participatory Politics by Dick Simpson; Political Action: A Practical Guide to Movement Politics by Michael Walzer”. The American Political Science Review. American Political Science Association. 70 (2): 620–3. doi:10.2307/1959680. ISSN 1537-5943.JSTOR 1959680 – via JSTOR. (registration required (help)).
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Pruger, Robert; Harry Specht (June 1969). “Assessing Theoretical Models of Community Organization Practice: Alinsky as a Case in Point”.Social Service Review. 43 (2): 123. doi:10.1086/642363.JSTOR 30020552.
  8. Jump up^ Swarts, Heidi (2011). “Drawing New Symbolic Boundaries Over Old Social Boundaries: Forging Social Movement Unity in Congregation-Based Community Organizing”. Sociological Perspectives. Sage Publications. 54(3): 453–77. doi:10.1525/sop.2011.54.3.453. ISSN 1533-8673.JSTOR 10.1525/sop.2011.54.3.453 – via JSTOR. (registration required (help)).
  9. Jump up^ Knickerbocker, Brad (January 28, 2012). “Who is Saul Alinsky, and why is Newt Gingrich so obsessed with him?”. Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  10. Jump up^ Vogel, Kenneth P. (October 22, 2010). “Right loves to hate, imitate Alinsky”. Politico. Retrieved September 11, 2016.

Further reading

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rules_for_Radicals

Saul Alinsky

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Saul Alinsky
Saul Alinsky.jpg
Born Saul David Alinsky
January 30, 1909
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Died June 12, 1972 (aged 63)
Carmel-by-the-Sea, California, U.S.
Cause of death Heart attack
Nationality American
Ethnicity Ashkenazi Jewish
Education University of Chicago, Ph.B.1930
U. of Chicago Graduate School, criminology, 1930–1932
Occupation Community organizer, writer,political activist
Known for Political activism, writing,community organization
Notable work Rules for Radicals (1971)
Spouse(s)
  • Helene Simon (m. 1932; d. ?)
  • Jean Graham (m. 1952;div. 1970)
  • Irene McInnis Alinsky (m. 1971)
Children Katherine and David (by Helene)
Awards Pacem in Terris Award, 1969
Notes

Saul David Alinsky (January 30, 1909 – June 12, 1972) was an American community organizer and writer. He is generally considered to be the founder of modern community organizing. He is often noted for his 1971 book Rules for Radicals.

In the course of nearly four decades of political organizing, Alinsky received much criticism, but also gained praise from many public figures. His organizing skills were focused on improving the living conditions of poor communities across America. In the 1950s, he began turning his attention to improving conditions in the African-American ghettos, beginning with Chicago’s and later traveling to other ghettos in California, Michigan, New York City, and a dozen other “trouble spots”.

His ideas were adapted in the 1960s by some U.S. college students and other young counterculture-era organizers, who used them as part of their strategies for organizing on campus and beyond.[5] Time magazine wrote in 1970 that “It is not too much to argue that American democracy is being altered by Alinsky’s ideas.”[6] Conservative author William F. Buckley Jr. said in 1966 that Alinsky was “very close to being an organizational genius”.[7]

Biography

Early life

Saul David Alinsky was born in 1909 in Chicago, Illinois, to Russian Jewish immigrant parents, the only surviving son of Benjamin Alinsky’s marriage to his second wife, Sarah Tannenbaum Alinsky.[8] Alinsky stated during an interview that his parents never became involved in the “new socialist movement.” He added that they were “strict Orthodox, their whole life revolved around work and synagogue … I remember as a kid being told how important it was to study.”[4] He attended Marshall High School in Chicago until his parents divorced and then went to live with his father who moved to California, graduating from Hollywood High School[9] in 1926.

Because of his strict Jewish upbringing, he was asked whether he ever encountered antisemitism while growing up in Chicago. He replied, “it was so pervasive you didn’t really even think about it; you just accepted it as a fact of life.”[4] He considered himself to be a devout Jew until the age of 12, after which time he began to fear that his parents would force him to become a rabbi.

I went through some pretty rapid withdrawal symptoms and kicked the habit … But I’ll tell you one thing about religious identity…Whenever anyone asks me my religion, I always say—and always will say—Jewish.[4]

At the same time, he was also an agnostic.[10][11][12]

University of Chicago

In 1930, Alinsky graduated with a Bachelor of Philosophy from the University of Chicago, where he majored in archaeology, a subject that fascinated him.[4] His plans to become a professional archaeologist were changed due to the ongoing economic Depression. He later stated, “Archaeologists were in about as much demand as horses and buggies. All the guys who funded the field trips were being scraped off Wall Street sidewalks.”[4]

Employment

After attending two years of graduate school at the University of Chicago, he accepted work for the state of Illinois as a criminologist. On a part-time basis, he also began working as an organizer with the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). By 1939, he became less active in the labor movement and became more active in general community organizing, starting with the Back of the Yards and other poor areas on the South Side of Chicago. His early efforts to “turn scattered, voiceless discontent into a united protest” earned the admiration of Illinois governor Adlai Stevenson, who said Alinsky’s aims “most faithfully reflect our ideals of brotherhood, tolerance, charity and dignity of the individual.”[4]

As a result of his efforts and success at helping slum communities, Alinsky spent the next 10 years repeating his organization work across the nation, “from Kansas City and Detroit to the barrios of Southern California.” By 1950 he turned his attention to the black ghettos of Chicago. His actions aroused the ire of Mayor Richard J. Daley, who also acknowledged that “Alinsky loves Chicago the same as I do.”[4] He traveled to California at the request of the San Francisco Bay Area Presbyterian Churches to help organize the black ghetto in Oakland. Hearing of his plans, “the panic-stricken Oakland City Council promptly introduced a resolution banning him from the city.”[4]

Community organizing and politics

In the 1930s, Alinsky organized the Back of the Yards neighborhood in Chicago (made infamous by Upton Sinclair‘s 1906 novel, The Jungle, which described the horrific working conditions in the Union Stock Yards). He went on to found the Industrial Areas Foundation while organizing the Woodlawn neighborhood; IAF trained organizers and assisted in the founding of community organizations around the country.

In Rules for Radicals (his final work, published in 1971 one year before his death), Alinsky wrote at the end of his personal acknowledgements:

Lest we forget at least an over-the-shoulder acknowledgment to the very first radical: from all our legends, mythology, and history (and who is to know where mythology leaves off and history begins or which is which), the first radical known to man who rebelled against the establishment and did it so effectively that he at least won his own kingdom – Lucifer.[13]

In the book, he addressed the 1960s generation of radicals, outlining his views on organizing for mass power. In the opening paragraph Alinsky writes,

What follows is for those who want to change the world from what it is to what they believe it should be. The Prince was written by Machiavelli for the Haves on how to hold power. Rules for Radicals is written for the Have-Nots on how to take it away.[13]

Alinsky did not join political parties. When asked during an interview whether he ever considered becoming a Communist Party member, he replied:

Not at any time. I’ve never joined any organization—not even the ones I’ve organized myself. I prize my own independence too much. And philosophically, I could never accept any rigid dogma or ideology, whether it’s Christianity or Marxism. One of the most important things in life is what Judge Learned Hand described as ‘that ever-gnawing inner doubt as to whether you’re right.’ If you don’t have that, if you think you’ve got an inside track to absolute truth, you become doctrinaire, humorless and intellectually constipated. The greatest crimes in history have been perpetrated by such religious and political and racial fanatics, from the persecutions of the Inquisition on down to Communist purges and Nazi genocide.[4]

He did not have much respect for mainstream political leaders who tried to interfere with growing black–white unity during the difficult years of the Great Depression. In Alinsky’s view, new voices and new values were being heard in the U.S., and “people began citing John Donne‘s ‘No man is an island.'”[4] He observed that the hardship affecting all classes of the population was causing them to start “banding together to improve their lives,” and discovering how much in common they really had with their fellow man.[4]

Alinsky once explained that his reasons for organizing in black communities included:

Negroes were being lynched regularly in the South as the first stirrings of black opposition began to be felt, and many of the white civil rights organizers and labor agitators who had started to work with them were tarred and feathered, castrated—or killed. Most Southern politicians were members of the Ku Klux Klan and had no compunction about boasting of it.[4]

Alinsky’s tactics were often unorthodox. In Rules for Radicals he wrote,

[t]he job of the organizer is to maneuver and bait the establishment so that it will publicly attack him as a ‘dangerous enemy.’ [According to Alinsky], the hysterical instant reaction of the establishment [will] not only validate [the organizer’s] credentials of competency but also ensure automatic popular invitation.[14]

As an example, after organizing FIGHT (an acronym for Freedom, Independence [subsequently Integration], God, Honor, Today) in Rochester, New York,[15] Alinsky once threatened to stage a “fart in” to disrupt the sensibilities of the city’s establishment at a Rochester Philharmonic concert. FIGHT members were to consume large quantities of baked beans after which, according to author Nicholas von Hoffman, “FIGHT’s increasingly gaseous music-loving members would tie themselves to the concert hall where they would sit expelling gaseous vapors with such noisy velocity as to compete with the woodwinds.”[16] Satisfied with his threat yielding action, Alinsky later threatened a “piss in” at Chicago O’Hare Airport. Alinsky planned to arrange for large numbers of well-dressed African Americans to occupy the urinals and toilets at O’Hare for as long as it took to bring the city to the bargaining table. According to Alinsky, once again the threat alone was sufficient to produce results.[16] In Rules for Radicals, he notes that this tactic fell under two of his rules: Rule #3: Wherever possible, go outside the experience of the enemy; and Rule #4: Ridicule is man’s most potent weapon.

Alinsky described his plans for 1972 to begin to organize the white middle class across the United States, and the necessity of that project. He believed that many Americans were living in frustration and despair, worried about their future, and ripe for a turn to radical social change, to become politically active citizens. He feared the middle class could be driven to a right-wing viewpoint, “making them ripe for the plucking by some guy on horseback promising a return to the vanished verities of yesterday.”[4] His stated motive: “I love this goddamn country, and we’re going to take it back.”[4]

Death

Alinsky died at the age of 63 from a heart attack near his home in Carmel, California, on June 12, 1972. He was cremated in Carmel and his ashes were interred at Mt. Mayriv Cemetery (the cemetery is now included in Zion Gardens Cemetery) in Chicago.[17][18] Shortly before his death he had discussed life after death in Playboy:[4]

ALINSKY: … if there is an afterlife, and I have anything to say about it, I will unreservedly choose to go to hell.
PLAYBOY: Why?
ALINSKY: Hell would be heaven for me. All my life I’ve been with the have-nots. Over here, if you’re a have-not, you’re short of dough. If you’re a have-not in hell, you’re short of virtue. Once I get into hell, I’ll start organizing the have-nots over there.
PLAYBOY: Why them?
ALINSKY: They’re my kind of people.

Legacy and honors

The documentary, The Democratic Promise: Saul Alinsky and His Legacy, states that “Alinsky championed new ways to organize the poor and powerless that created a backyard revolution in cities across America.”[19] Based on his organizing in Chicago, Alinsky formed the Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF) in 1940. After he died, Edward T. Chambers became its Executive Director. Hundreds of professional community and labor organizers, and thousands of community and labor leaders have been trained at its workshops. Fred Ross, who worked for Alinsky, was the principal mentor for Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta. Other organizations following in the tradition of the Congregation-based Community Organizing pioneered by IAF include PICO National Network, Gamaliel Foundation, Brooklyn Ecumenical Cooperatives, founded by former IAF trainer, Richard Harmon and Direct Action and Research Training Center (DART).[20][21][22]

Several prominent American leaders have been influenced by Alinsky’s teachings,[21] including Ed Chambers,[19] Tom Gaudette, Ernesto Cortes, Michael Gecan, Wade Rathke, and Patrick Crowley.[23][24] Alinsky is often credited with laying the foundation for the grassroots political organizing that dominated the 1960s.[19] Jack Newfield, writing in New York magazine, included Alinsky among “the purest Avatars of the populist movement”, along with Ralph Nader, Cesar Chavez, and Jesse Jackson.[25]

Although Alinsky held little respect for elected officials,[26] he has been described as an influence on several notable politicians in both the Democratic and Republican parties.

In 1969, while a political science major at Wellesley College, Hillary Rodham chose to write her senior thesis on Alinsky’s work, with Alinsky himself contributing his own time to help her.[27][28] Although Rodham defended Alinksy’s intentions in her thesis, she was critical of his methods and dogmatism.[27][29] (Years later when she became First Lady, the thesis was not made publicly available by the school based upon a White House request.[30])

According to biographer Sanford Horwitt, U.S. President Barack Obama was influenced by Alinsky and followed in his footsteps as a Chicago-based community organizer. Horwitt asserted that Barack Obama’s 2008 presidential campaign was influenced by Alinsky’s teachings.[31] Alinksy’s influence on Obama has been heavily emphasized by some of his detractors, such as Rush Limbaugh and Glenn Beck. Thomas Sugrue of Salon.com writes, “as with all conspiracy theories, the Alinsky-Obama link rests on a kernel of truth”.[26] For three years in the mid 80s, Obama worked for the Developing Communities Project, which was influenced by Alinsky’s work, and he wrote an essay that was collected in a book memorializing Alinsky.[26][32] Newt Gingrich repeatedly stated his opinion that Alinsky was a major influence on Obama during his 2012 presidential campaign, equating Alinsky with “European Socialism”, although Alinsky was U.S.-born and was not a Socialist.[33] Gingrich’s campaign itself used tactics described by Alinsky’s writing.[34]

Adam Brandon, a spokesman for the conservative non-profit organization FreedomWorks, one of several groups involved in organizing Tea Party protests, says the group gives Alinsky’s Rules for Radicals to its top leadership members. A shortened guide called Rules for Patriots is distributed to its entire network. In a January 2012 story that appeared in The Wall Street Journal, citing the organization’s tactic of sending activists to town-hall meetings, Brandon explained, “[Alinsky’s] tactics when it comes to grass-roots organizing are incredibly effective.” Former Republican House Majority Leader Dick Armey also gives copies of Alinsky’s book Rules for Radicals to Tea Party leaders.[35]

In 1969, Alinsky was awarded the Pacem in Terris Peace and Freedom Award, an annual award given by the Diocese of Davenport to commemorate an encyclical by Pope John XXIII.[36]

See also

Works

  • Reveille for Radicals, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946.
  • John L. Lewis: An Unauthorized Biography. New York: Putnam, 1949.
  • Rules for Radicals: A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals. New York: Random House, 1971.
  • The Philosopher and the Provocateur: The Correspondence of Jacques Maritain and Saul Alinsky. Bernard E Doering (ed.). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saul_Alinsky

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Government Collects $3.27 Trillion in Taxes in Fiscal Year 2016

Gov’t still runs $587 billion deficit despite collecting record taxes

BY:
October 14, 2016 4:35 pm

The federal government collected $3.27 trillion in taxes in fiscal year 2016, according to the latest monthly Treasury Departmentstatement. The federal government ran a deficit of $587 billion despite the record revenue.

Treasury receipts include tax revenue from individual income taxes, corporate income taxes, social insurance and retirement taxes, unemployment insurance taxes, excise taxes, estate and gift taxes, customs duties, and other miscellaneous items.

After adjusting for inflation, the amount of taxes collected by the federal government in fiscal year 2016 is slightly lower than the $3.3 trillion the government collected in fiscal year 2015. The 2016 fiscal year begins on Oct. 1, 2015, and runs through Sept. 30, 2016.

The federal government collected $3,266,688,000,000 from October through September in fiscal year 2016. Most of the $3.27 trillion came from individual income taxes, which comprised almost half of that total at $1.55 trillion.

Although the federal government brought in approximately $3.27 trillion in revenue in fiscal 2016, according to the Treasury, it also spent approximately $3.85 trillion, leaving a deficit of approximately $587 billion.

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The Pronk Pops Show 689, May 31, 2016, Story 1: Human Life First, Animal Life Second — Save The Human, Save The Human and Gorilla, Save The Gorilla, Let God Decide — Black Genocide. Story 2: Trump Attacks Media That Support Clinton — Big Lie Media — Sleeze Bags — Videos

Posted on May 31, 2016. Filed under: 2016 Presidential Campaign, 2016 Presidential Candidates, Animal, Banking System, Blogroll, Breaking News, Budgetary Policy, Business, Congress, Countries, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Economics, Education, Elections, Employment, Fiscal Policy, House of Representatives, Human, Labor Economics, Life, Monetary Policy, News, Obama, Philosophy, Photos, Plant, Politics, Progressives, Senate, Tax Policy, Taxation, Taxes, Terror, Terrorism, Trade Policy, Unemployment, United States of America, Videos, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 689: May 31, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 688: May 27, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 687: May 26, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 686: May 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 685: May 24, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 684: May 23, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 683: May 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 682: May 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 681: May 17, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 680: May 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 679: May 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 678: May 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 677: May 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 676: May 10, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 675: May 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 674: May 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 673: May 5, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 672: May 4, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 671: May 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 670: May 2, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 669: April 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 668: April 28, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 667: April 27, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 660: April 18, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 655: April 11, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 650: April 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 649: March 31, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 647: March 29, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 645: March 24, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 643: March 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 642: March 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 641: March 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 640: March 10, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 638: March 8, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 636: March 4, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 635: March 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 634: March 2, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 633: March 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 632: February 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 631: February 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 630: February 24, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 629: February 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 628: February 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 627: February 18, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 626: February 17, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 625: February 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 624: February 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 623: February 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 622: February 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 621: February 10, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 620: February 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 619: February 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 618: February 5, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 617: February 4, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 616: February 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 615: February 1, 2016

Story 1: Human Life First, Animal Life Second — Save The Human, Save The Human and Gorilla, Save The Gorilla, Let God Decide — Black Genocide.  Story 2: Trump Attacks Media That Support Clinton — Big Lie Media — Sleeze Bags — Videos

Story 1

harambecincinnatizooMAIN-gorilla-world-map-Cincinnati-Zoo

Zoo-Gorilla-ChildHT_gorilla_zoo_as

VID-Harambe-a-male-silverback-gorillaVID-Harambe-a-male-silverback-gorilla-at-Cincinnati-Zoo (1)

VID-Harambe-a-male-silverback-gorilla-at-Cincinnati-Zoo

people protestrest in peacerememberin loving memoryflowerschild and statue636001363053931578-APTOPIX-Zoo-Gorilla-Child-Hurtmohter10_Int_350_abortion_facts-4abortion-is-americas-silent-holocaust-pro-life-choice-roe-v-wadeabortion and blacksblackblacklivesmatterDREAM-IS-DEAD-BlackHistoryMonthMost-dangerous-place-for-a-black-baby-is-in-the-wombNUMBER-ONE-KILLER-2013-FBabortions-in-americaslavery vs abortionhowcandreamsurvive

Child falls into gorilla pit at Cincinnati Zoo: timeline leading to Harambe’s death – Tomo News

Four Year Old Boy Falls Into Gorilla Pit At The Cincinnati Zoo!! (Part 1)

Gorilla drags child through enclosure in Cincinnati

4 Year Old Boy FALLS Into Enclosure At Cincinnati Zoo Gorilla Shot and Killed (VIDEO)

MAAFA 21 [A documentary on eugenics and genocide]

Black Genocide: The Democrats Institutionalized Racism

Dr King Speaks Out On The Genocide Of Black America

Story 2

Donald Trump attacks the press

Trump, Clinton getting fair and balanced media coverage?

“I’m Going To Continue To Attack The Press!” Donald Trump Press Conference On Donations To Veterans

Full Interview Donald Trump Targets Democratic States, Trump Promises Fox News 2016 Part 2

Wall Street Journal Bret Stephens – Trump Must Lose So Badly That GOP Voters Learn Their Lesson

Limbaugh: Bret Stephens of WSJ really hates Trump, really loves open borders

At Least $1.9 Million In Donations Trump Collected For Vets Was Sent Last Week

Donald Trump reads a list of donations he says were made to veterans groups following a fundraiser he held in Iowa back in January.

Donald Trump reads a list of donations he says were made to veterans groups following a fundraiser he held in Iowa back in January.

Richard Drew/AP

This post was updated at 5:30 p.m. EDT.

At least $1.9 million of the donations to veterans groups that presumptive Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump reported on Tuesday came in last week, after Trump began responding to intense media scrutiny of his earlier claims about raising in excess of $6 million for veterans. Trump said on Tuesday that his efforts raised a total of $5.6 million.

NPR reached out to all 41 of the groups Trump listed as receiving donations. Of those, 31 responded. One group, the Navy SEAL Foundation, said it does not disclose details of its donations. The other 30 confirmed the amounts Trump reported Tuesday, accounting for $4.27 million of the $5.6 million total.

The donations came in from a combination of sources, including the Donald J. Trump Foundation, various groups and individuals who cited Trump’s efforts along with their donations, and Trump himself.

The candidate gave a $1 million check to the Marine Corps-Law Enforcement Foundation on May 24, as questions from the Washington Post and other news outlets about Trump’s prior claims regarding these donations accelerated.

Prior to Tuesday, only about $4 million of the fund had been accounted for as paid to veterans charities and service organizations through reporting by various news organizations, chiefly the Post.

Trump engaged in a social media battle over the issue with that publication, saying he is being attacked for trying do to something for veterans, always adding that raising millions of dollars was something he didn’t have to do. “I have never received such bad publicity for doing such a good job,” Trump complained.

Tuesday, in his most combative news conference yet, in a campaign where he has set a new standard for a contentious relationship with the news media, Trump finally addressed the matter before reporters.

Speaking at his namesake Trump Tower in New York City, he continued to attack journalists for even asking questions about where the money went.

Trump grudgingly released the list of organizations that he says got the money. He predicted the $5.6 million total that he cited will continue to grow, to eventually top the $6 million figure he claimed back at the event where he first solicited donations to veterans, in Des Moines, Iowa, on Jan. 28.

A list of veterans groups Donald Trump says received donations due to his fundraising efforts.

A list of veterans groups Donald Trump says received donations due to his fundraising efforts.

Donald J. Trump For President Inc.

Here’s the full list.

But Trump continued to attack the press for asking for accountability about the money.

He called reporters “extremely dishonest,” “sleazy,” “biased,” “nasty,” “not good people” and more.

He added, “The press should be ashamed of themselves. On behalf of the vets they should be ashamed of themselves.”

Trump also asserted that all of the money had gone to the groups, and that “zero dollars” went to administrative costs.

Finally, he offered reasons for the delay in releasing the list of recipients. Trump said organizations needed to be vetted to ensure their legitimacy and their nonprofit status. “We needed to vet the vets.” Plus, he insisted that he wanted to do all of this privately, that he “didn’t want credit.” One reporter asked, if Trump didn’t want credit, then why repeatedly remind people at events and on television that he’d raised $6 million for veterans? Isn’t that “taking credit” the reporter added? Trump responded, “It’s not.”

One shouted question was, “Don’t you believe you should be accountable?” Trump responded, “I’m totally accountable. But I didn’t want credit for it.”

At another point Trump said simply, “I don’t think it’s anybody’s business if I want to send money to the vets.”

He was asked why he resents the mere act of verifying the contributions. Trump said, “Because I wanted to make this out of the goodness of my heart. I didn’t want to do this where the press was involved.”

And, from a Fox News journalist, “Is asking a question an attack?”

Trump shot back, “From the political press it is, I see the stories they write.”

It went on like this for 40 minutes. Reporters probing and pushing for information. Trump making no attempt to hide his contempt for them. One questioner wondered if this is what it would be like when a President Trump meets with the White House Press Corps.

The candidate shot back, “Yes, it is.”

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Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 685-689

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Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 526-531

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Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 296-306

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 287-295

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The Pronk Pops Show 613, January 28, 2016, Story 1: The Trump Tease– Will Trump Be At Debate? If Not, Fox Is The Loser — What a Diff’rence a Day Makes — Videos

Posted on January 28, 2016. Filed under: 2016 Presidential Campaign, 2016 Presidential Candidates, Ben Carson, Ben Carson, Blogroll, Breaking News, Budgetary Policy, Business, Chris Christie, Communications, Congress, Constitutional Law, Countries, Crime, Culture, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Donald Trump, Economics, Elections, Empires, Employment, Energy, Federal Government, Fiscal Policy, Government, Government Dependency, Government Spending, History, House of Representatives, Illegal Immigration, Immigration, Jeb Bush, Labor Economics, Law, Legal Immigration, Marco Rubio, Media, Mike Huckabee, Monetary Policy, Networking, News, Obama, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, President Barack Obama, Pro Life, Progressives, Radio, Rand Paul, Rand Paul, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Regulation, Scandals, Senate, Tax Policy, Taxation, Taxes, Ted Cruz, Ted Cruz, Terror, Terrorism, Trade Policy, United States of America, Videos, Violence, Wall Street Journal, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 613: January 28, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 612: January 27, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 611: January 26, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 610: January 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 609: January 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 608: January 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 607: January 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 606: January 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 605: January 15, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 604: January 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 603: January 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 602: January 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 601: January 11, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 600: January 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 599: January 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 598: January 5, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 597: December 21, 2015

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Pronk Pops Show 592: December 14, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 591: December 11, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 590: December 10, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 589: December 9, 2015 

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Pronk Pops Show 587: December 4, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 586: December 3, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 585: December 2, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 584: December 1, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 583: November 30, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 582: November 25, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 581: November 24, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 580: November 23, 2015  

Pronk Pops Show 579: November 20, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 578: November 19, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 577: November 18, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 576: November 17, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 575: November 16, 2015  (more…)

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The Pronk Pops Show 602, January 12, 2016, Story 1: A Choice: Trump or Sanders or An Echo: Bush or Clinton — What A Difference A Day Makes — Part 1 of 2 — Videos

Posted on January 12, 2016. Filed under: 2016 Presidential Campaign, 2016 Presidential Candidates, Abortion, Addiction, American History, Benghazi, Bernie Sanders, Blogroll, Breaking News, Bribery, Business, Cartoons, College, Comedy, Communications, Congress, Constitutional Law, Corruption, Countries, Crime, Culture, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Donald Trump, Drugs, Economics, Education, Elections, Empires, Employment, Energy, European History, Fast and Furious, Federal Government, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, Free Trade, Government, Government Dependency, Government Spending, Health, Health Care, Health Care Insurance, High Crimes, Hillary Clinton, Hillary Clinton, Hillary Clinton, History, Homicide, House of Representatives, Illegal Drugs, Illegal Immigration, Illegal Immigration, Immigration, Impeachment, Independence, Insurance, Investments, Iraq, Islam, Islamic State, Jeb Bush, Labor Economics, Language, Law, Legal Immigration, Libya, Media, Medicare, Middle East, Movies, Music, National Security Agency, Natural Gas, Natural Gas, News, Nixon, Obama, Oil, Oil, Philosophy, Photos, Pistols, Politics, Polls, President Barack Obama, Progressives, Public Sector Unions, Radio, Rand Paul, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Religion, Republican Candidates For President 2016, Resources, Rifles, Scandals, Security, Senate, Social Science, Social Security, Spying, Success, Taxation, Taxes, Technology, Ted Cruz, Ted Cruz, Terror, Terrorism, Turkey, Unemployment, Unions, United States Constitution, United States of America, Videos, Violence, Wall Street Journal, War, Wealth, Welfare Spending, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 602: January 12, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 601: January 11, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 600: January 8, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 599: January 6, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 598: January 5, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 597: December 21, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 596: December 18, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 595: December 17, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 594: December 16, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 593: December 15, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 592: December 14, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 591: December 11, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 590: December 10, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 589: December 9, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 588: December 7, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 587: December 4, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 586: December 3, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 585: December 2, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 584: December 1, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 583: November 30, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 582: November 25, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 581: November 24, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 580: November 23, 2015  

Pronk Pops Show 579: November 20, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 578: November 19, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 577: November 18, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 576: November 17, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 575: November 16, 2015  (more…)

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The Pronk Pops Show 591, December 11, 2015, Story 1: Lying Lunatic Left and Radical Islam Attacks American People — Saul Alinsky’s Rules For Radicals and The Traitor and Terrorist Totalitarian Threats — Videos

Posted on December 11, 2015. Filed under: 2016 Presidential Campaign, 2016 Presidential Candidates, American History, Blogroll, Bombs, Breaking News, Business, Coal, Communications, Constitutional Law, Corruption, Culture, Disasters, Education, Empires, Energy, European History, Foreign Policy, Free Trade, Genocide, Government, Government Dependency, Government Spending, History, Illegal Immigration, Immigration, Impeachment, Independence, Law, Legal Immigration, Media, Middle East, MIssiles, Natural Gas, News, Oil, Philosophy, Photos, Pistols, Politics, Polls, President Barack Obama, Pro Abortion, Progressives, Radio, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Rifles, Security, Social Science, Solar, Taxation, Taxes, Terror, Terrorism, Videos, Violence, War, Wealth, Weapons, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Project_1

The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 591: December 11, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 590: December 10, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 589: December 9, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 588: December 7, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 587: December 4, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 586: December 3, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 585: December 2, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 584: December 1, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 583: November 30, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 582: November 25, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 581: November 24, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 580: November 23, 2015  

Pronk Pops Show 579: November 20, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 578: November 19, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 577: November 18, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 576: November 17, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 575: November 16, 2015  (more…)

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