The Pronk Pops Show 1313, August 28, 2019, Story 1: Tropical Storm Dorian Headed For Puerto Rico Could Hit All of Florida and Bahama Islands As Category 3 or 4 Hurricane — Trump Tweets Puerto Rico Most Corrupt — Videos — Story 2: Trump Administration Tightens Citizenship Rules of U.S. Military and Government Employees For Their Children Born Abroad — Videos

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Story 1: Tropical Storm Dorian Headed For Puerto Rico Could Hit All of Florida and Bahama Islands As Category 3 or 4 Hurricane — Trump Tweets Puerto Rico Most Corrupt — Storm Dorain Upgraded to Category 1 Hurricane — Videos

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UPDATED Tuesday, Setember 3, 2019

The 2 PM Advisory on Hurricane Dorian has been released

Tropical weather forecast & Dorian midday update: Sept. 3, 2019

Hurricane Dorian stalls off Florida coast

Erosion still major concern for South Florida beaches due to Hurricane Dorian

Hurricane Dorian 5 a.m. advisory Sept. 3

Florida locals hunker down despite Hurricane Dorian evacuation order

UPDATED Friday, August 30, 2019

 

5 PM Advisory for Hurricane Dorian – Friday, August 30

Hurricane Dorian on track to strike Florida as a Category 4 storm

King tides bring flooding to South Florida ahead of Dorian

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Dorian hits Puerto Rico as a Category 1 hurricane

Dorian Takes Aim At Puerto Rico, Could Hit Florida as a Hurricane | Storm Team 4

Tropical Storm Dorian heads toward Puerto Rico, may hit Florida next

Hurricane Dorian Scenarios: Breaking Down Storm’s Path, Storm Surge, Euro Model | NBC 6

Published on Aug 30, 2019

Meteorologist Angie Lassman breaks down various Hurricane Dorian scenarios as the storm continues to churn toward the state. (Note: This video was recorded at 1 p.m. on Friday, August 30th and references the 11 a.m. Hurricane Dorian advisory. For real-time updates on Hurricane Dorian, go here: http://on.nbc6.com/b2IaPO5)

Trump and San Juan mayor trade blows ahead of Dorian

Published on Aug 28, 2019

Mayor Carmen Yulin Cruz takes issue with Trump’s claim that Congress approved $92 billion for Puerto Rico; chief White House correspondent John Roberts reports. #SpecialReport #FoxNews

‘I’m the best thing that’s ever happened to Puerto Rico!’ Trump says

Nightly News Broadcast (Full) – August 28, 2019 | NBC Nightly News

Why Hurricane Categories Make a Difference

Hurricane Size Comparison

Tropical Storm Dorian to hit Puerto Rico, on track to hit Florida

Hurricane Dorian heads toward Florida, gaining strength

Trump slams ‘corrupt’ Puerto Rico

Trump Calls Puerto Rico “Corrupt” As Storm Dorian Heads For Island

Trump calls Puerto Rico ‘one of the most corrupt places on Earth’

San Juan mayor responds to Trump calling her ‘incompetent’

Published on Apr 2, 2019

Carmen Yulín Cruz, mayor of San Juan, Puerto Rico, speaks with CNN’s Erin Burnett after President Donald Trump called her “crazed and incompetent” on Twitter. #CNN #News

Trump says Puerto Rican leaders are ’totally unable’ to handle disaster

Published on Sep 29, 2017

On Sept. 29, President Trump said that “the government of Puerto Rico will have to work with us to determine how this massive rebuilding effort…will be funded and organized and what we will do with the tremendous amount of existing debt already on the island.” Subscribe to The Washington

Tracking Hurricane Dorian: What Makes The Storm’s Path So Unusual? | NBC 6

Published on Aug 29, 2019

Hurricane Dorian could become a Category 4 storm before it makes landfall in Florida. NBC 6 meteorologist Steve MacLaughlin with the latest.

 

 

Tropical Storm Dorian to hit Puerto Rico, on track to hit Florida

 

Puerto Rico Braces for Tropical Storm as Trump Attacks Island on Twitter

The news comes as Puerto Rico is bracing for Tropical Storm Dorian, which could make a direct hit on the island and strengthen into a hurricane later today. Governor Wanda Vázquez has declared a state of emergency for the island. On Tuesday, Trump used the impending storm to take a jab at Puerto Rico, tweeting, “Wow! Yet another big storm heading to Puerto Rico. Will it ever end? Congress approved 92 Billion Dollars for Puerto Rico last year, an all time record of its kind for ‘anywhere.’” San Juan mayor and vocal Trump critic Carmen Yulín Cruz responded by saying in a CNN interview, “[Trump’s] behavior, his lack of understanding … is ludicrous. Three thousand Puerto Ricans did not open their eyes this morning because this racist man did not have it within him to do his job. So, get out of the way, President Trump, and let the people who can do the job get the job done.” The 3,000 people is referring to the death toll from 2017’s devastating Hurricane Maria.

 

UPDATED Thursday, August 29, 2019

NASA releases ISS footage of Hurricane Dorian churning over the Atlantic as forecasters warn the storm is set to strengthen to a monster Category 4 and batter Florida with 130MPH winds on Labor Day

  • Incredible footage from the International Space Station shows Hurricane Dorian swirling in the Atlantic 
  • The footage shows Dorian strengthening at 1.05pm EDT on Thursday north of Puerto Rico  
  • Hurricane Dorian, a Category 1 storm, is set to escalate into a Category 4 as it crosses warm Atlantic waters
  • The hurricane is expected to make landfall on Florida’s eastern coast by Labor Day Monday
  • As of 11am EDT Thursday, Dorian is in open waters blowing at 85mph, 220 miles northwest of San Juan 
  • Hurricane Dorian made landfall on the Virgin Islands Wednesday at 2pm EDT, causing power outages
  • The National Hurricane Center predicts Dorian could hit Florida as soon as late Sunday or early Monday
  • Gov Ron DeSantis declared a state of emergency and urged residents to prepare for a Labor Day strike
  • Dorian caused some flooding and damage across the Caribbean earlier this week
  • It was expected to hit Puerto Rico on Wednesday but passed to the east of the territory, leaving it unscathed 
  • Donald Trump shared a warning to Floridians Thursday morning saying: ‘It will be a very big Hurricane’ 
  • Thursday afternoon he cancelled his trip to Poland in light of the hurricane 
  • Florida is not currently under any watches or warnings and no evacuations have been ordered yet  

Stunning footage from outer space shows Hurricane Dorian in all its might, swirling towards Florida, where it’s forecast to make landfall on Labor Day Monday as a monster Category 4 storm.

The footage was taken by a NASA camera outside the International Space Station and shows Dorian at 1.05pm EDT strengthening as it menacingly churns in the Atlantic ocean just north of Puerto Rico, headed towards the northern Bahamas and Florida’s eastern coast.

It is expected to intensify into a Category 3 storm by Friday and could strengthen into a Category 4 with vicious 130mph winds in the following days.

On Wednesday Dorian was upgraded from a tropical storm to a hurricane and briefly made landfall in the Virgin Islands and impacted small Puerto Rican islands, causing power outages and minor flooding.

Once Dorian escalated into a hurricane, Florida Governor Ron DeSantis declared a state of emergency on Wednesday urging residents to stock up on a week’s worth of supplies, leading Floridians to clean out grocery stores, stock up on gasoline, and protect their homes with aluminum panels.

An update from the National Hurricane Center at 8am EST on Thursday warned that tropical force winds from Dorian, which is currently a Category 1 storm, could start to hit parts of Florida as early as Saturday evening and the hurricane could make landfall by late Sunday or early Monday.

Stunning footage from outer space shows Hurricane Dorian in all its might, swirling towards Florida, where it's forecast to make landfall on Labor Day Monday as a monster Category 4 storm. This was shot from the International Space Station Thursday afternoon

Hurricane Dorian is pictured Thursday in this satellite image as it barrels past Puerto Rico, sparing the island, and heads towards the northern Bahamas and Florida's east coast, leading Florida to declare a state of emergency

On Thursday morning Governor Ron DeSantis urged locals to stock up on seven days worth of food, water and medicine

On Thursday morning Governor Ron DeSantis urged locals to stock up on seven days worth of food, water and medicine

Preparing for the storm: Florida residents in Casselberry started to fill sand bags in preparation for Hurricane Dorian's blow

Preparing for the storm: Florida residents in Casselberry started to fill sand bags in preparation for Hurricane Dorian’s blow

The storm is predicted to escalate to a Category 4 hurricane by the time it makes landfall in Florida's eastern coast

The storm is predicted to escalate to a Category 4 hurricane by the time it makes landfall in Florida’s eastern coast

Stocking up: Locals flocked to groceries store to heed officials warnings and buy enough food and water for the week

Stocking up: Locals flocked to groceries store to heed officials warnings and buy enough food and water for the week

Florida residents in Orlando stocked up on propane gas in anticipation of the potentially Category 4 hurricane

Florida residents in Orlando stocked up on propane gas in anticipation of the potentially Category 4 hurricane

This updated graphic released Thursday at 11 EST shows the predicted trajectory of the hurricane which is expected to make landfall either late Sunday or early Monday

This updated graphic released Thursday at 11 EST shows the predicted trajectory of the hurricane which is expected to make landfall either late Sunday or early Monday

‘This could be the strongest hurricane to hit Central Florida in over 30 years,’ Fox 35 Orlando meteorologist Glenn Richards said. ‘Hurricane force sustained winds would be carried across the entire width of the state if the current forecast holds.’

President Donald Trump tweeted on Thursday morning: ‘Puerto Rico is in great shape with Hurricane Dorian taking a largely different route than anticipated. Thank you to FEMA, first responders, and all, for working so hard & being so well prepared. A great result! The bad news, Florida get ready! Storm is building and will be BIG!

‘Hurricane Dorian looks like it will be hitting Florida late Sunday night. Be prepared and please follow State and Federal instructions, it will be a very big Hurricane, perhaps one of the biggest!’

Thursday afternoon he cancelled his trip to Poland in light of the hurricane and announced he’ll send Vice President Mike Pence in his place.

‘It’s something very important for me to be here,’ he said. ‘The storm looks like it could be a very big one indeed.’

Florida is not currently under any watches or warnings and no evacuations have been ordered yet.

There’s an ‘increasing likelihood of life-threatening storm surge along portions of the Florida east coast and devastating hurricane-force winds,’ NHC warned Thursday.

As of 11AM EDT on Thursday morning, Dorian was located in the open Atlantic blowing at maximum sustained winds of 85mph, some 220 miles northwest of San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Wednesday evening the storm clocked 80mph winds moving northwest at about 13mph and passed Puerto Rico, sparing the island from another disaster as it still reels from 2017’s Hurricane Maria.

President Donald Trump tweeted on Thursday morning: 'Puerto Rico is in great shape with Hurricane Dorian taking a largely different route than anticipated. Thank you to FEMA, first responders, and all, for working so hard & being so well prepared. A great result! The bad news, Florida get ready! Storm is building and will be BIG! Hurricane Dorian looks like it will be hitting Florida late Sunday night. Be prepared and please follow State and Federal instructions, it will be a very big Hurricane, perhaps one of the biggest!'
President Trump tweet

President Donald Trump tweeted on Thursday morning: ‘Puerto Rico is in great shape with Hurricane Dorian taking a largely different route than anticipated. Thank you to FEMA, first responders, and all, for working so hard & being so well prepared. A great result! The bad news, Florida get ready! Storm is building and will be BIG! Hurricane Dorian looks like it will be hitting Florida late Sunday night. Be prepared and please follow State and Federal instructions, it will be a very big Hurricane, perhaps one of the biggest!’

Cleaned out:  Floridians listened to official orders to prepare for the worst and stock up on water, food and medicine that would last for seven days

Cleaned out:  Floridians listened to official orders to prepare for the worst and stock up on water, food and medicine that would last for seven days

Pictures from Port Orange, Florida show an emptied out produce department at a local Walmart as locals prepare to face the possible Category 4 hurricane

Pictures from Port Orange, Florida show an emptied out produce department at a local Walmart as locals prepare to face the possible Category 4 hurricane

This store in David, Florida actually ran out of water when hordes of locals stocked up on bottled water for the hurricane

This store in David, Florida actually ran out of water when hordes of locals stocked up on bottled water for the hurricane

Shoppers pictured above waiting to see if this Davie, Florida Costco will restock on water bottles

Preparing for the worst: This man in Indian Harbor, Florida is seen putting aluminum panels on his house in Melbourne Florida on Thursday to brace for Hurricane Dorian's impact

Bracing for impact: These two Florida residents are seen putting aluminum panels on a hose in Melbourne, Florida on Thursday after Governor DeSantis declared a state of emergency on Wednesday

Bracing for impact: These two Florida residents are seen putting aluminum panels on a hose in Melbourne, Florida on Thursday after Governor DeSantis declared a state of emergency on Wednesday

Dozens of residents headed to this local gas station on Thursday in Miami to stock up on gas before the hurricane hits

This man in Hialeah, Florida filled multiple containers with gasoline in anticipation of the storm

This man in Hialeah, Florida filled multiple containers with gasoline in anticipation of the storm

Rolling Stones forced to change tour date as Florida braces for Hurricane Dorian

The Rolling Stones have been forced to rescheduled their Miami Gardens performance as Florida braces for Hurricane Dorian.

The concert, originally scheduled for Saturday, August 31 at the Hard Rock Stadium, has been moved up a day to Friday, August 30.

On Thursday, lead singer Jagger was spotted with his wife, Melanie Hamrick, son Deveraux and bandmates Keith Richards and Ronnie Wood on their Miami hotel balcony looking out at the gloomy day.

Mick Jagger was spotted at a Miami hotel on Thursday after his band the Rolling Stones announced they were rescheduling their Saturday concert because of the threat of Hurricane Dorian

Mick Jagger was spotted at a Miami hotel on Thursday after his band the Rolling Stones announced they were rescheduling their Saturday concert because of the threat of Hurricane Dorian

Family plans: He was joined by wife Melanie Hamrick, 32, and son Deveraux, 2

Family plans: He was joined by wife Melanie Hamrick, 32, and son Deveraux, 2

Keith Richards, 75, seen wearing a pair of leopard print boxers and a t-shirt that said 'Do not x-ray'

Taking a peek: Ronnie Wood, 72, peeked down at the ground below him

Keith Richards, 75, (left) was seen wearing a pair of leopard print boxers and a T-shirt that said ‘Do not x-ray’. Ronnie Wood, 72, is seen right

The concert, originally scheduled for Saturday, August 31 at the Hard Rock Stadium, has been moved up a day to Friday, August 30

Due to the last minute change, Latin rock star Juanes will not be able to be there to perform, meaning the band will have no opening act.

The announcement was posted to their official Instagram page on Thursday.

‘Due to the weather forecast, the Rolling Stones show scheduled for Saturday, August 31 at the Hard Rock Stadium has been moved to tomorrow night, Friday, August 30. All tickets will be honored for the new date. There will be no opening act – doors will open at 6:00PM ET, and Stones will go on at 8:30PM ET,’ the announcement read.

‘Ticket holders will be receiving an email from Ticketmaster with more information. #stonesnofilter #therollingstones #Miami,’ they added.

The official NHC forecast predicts the storm will grow into a Category 4 storm and will hit the coast late Sunday or early Monday.

‘Dorian’s small size makes it susceptible to rapid intensification. This could occur when it moves past Puerto Rico and frees itself from dry air. These quick bursts of rapid intensification are difficult to forecast,’ according to weather.com.

‘All indications are that by this Labor Day weekend, a powerful hurricane will be near or over the Florida peninsula,’ the NHC in Miami said in an advisory.

NHC also warned early Thursday that heavy rain from Dorian could cause ‘life-threatening flash floods’ in parts of the Bahamas and southeastern U.S. coast.

The 500-mile cone of uncertainty indicates that it could be anywhere from coastal southern Georgia to the Florida keys.

On Wednesday Dorian was upgraded from a tropical storm to a Category 1 hurricane and made landfall in the Virgin Islands. The flooded city of Tortola in the Virgin Islands pictured above

On Wednesday Dorian was upgraded from a tropical storm to a Category 1 hurricane and made landfall in the Virgin Islands. The flooded city of Tortola in the Virgin Islands pictured above 

A washed up boat lies on the shore after Dorian slammed St. Thomas of the Virgin Islands on Wednesday

A washed up boat lies on the shore after Dorian slammed St. Thomas of the Virgin Islands on Wednesday

Dorian was expected to hit Puerto Rico on Wednesday but passed to the east of the territory, leaving it unscathed

Dorian was expected to hit Puerto Rico on Wednesday but passed to the east of the territory, leaving it unscathed. Locals are seen waiting for the storm to arrive in San Juan

Safe: Puerto Rico was hit with just a bit of rain as Dorian approached its northeast region but didn't make landfall. A flooded road in Canovanas on the island pictured above

Safe: Puerto Rico was hit with just a bit of rain as Dorian approached its northeast region but didn’t make landfall. A flooded road in Canovanas on the island pictured above 

Governor Ron DeSantis spoke at the National Hurricane Center on Thursday to urge locals to prepare saying: ‘Be prepared for a lot of water. You should have seven days of food, medicine and water as a part of your plan.’

Also on Thursday he declared a state of emergency for all 67 Florida counties – up from the 26 counties announced yesterday.

Some grocery stores reported that their stock of bottle water and other supplies has already taken a hit, according to the Orlando Sentinel.  The U.S. Coast Guard has also warned all pleasure boats at the Port of Key West to seek safe harbor.

The Florida Department of Emergency Management tweeted a lengthy checklist of supplies to have on hand on Wednesday.

The University of Central Florida, where fall semester classes just started Monday, has urged students living on campus to prepare to move to safer off-campus locations if the storm continues on its projected track.

In East Orange County, officials handed out shovels and bags on Wednesday for residents to make their own sandbags. By late afternoon nearly 7,000 bags had been filled, the Sentinel reported.

In this latest National Hurricane Center update the Bahamas and Florida east coast are predicted to be hit by the hurricane. Dorian will bring along with it heavy rains to the southeastern US later this week into next week

In this latest National Hurricane Center update the Bahamas and Florida east coast are predicted to be hit by the hurricane. Dorian will bring along with it heavy rains to the southeastern US later this week into next week

This graphic shows the tropical-storm-force winds that whip through Florida, hitting early Saturday ahead of the hurricane's landfall

This graphic shows the tropical-storm-force winds that whip through Florida, hitting early Saturday ahead of the hurricane’s landfall

Tropical Storm Dorian was upgraded to a hurricane on Wednesday as winds reached a peak of 75mph

Tropical Storm Dorian was upgraded to a hurricane on Wednesday as winds reached a peak of 75mph

Only a few hurricanes have made landfall in Florida on its East Coast. This map shows some of those rare storms. An unnamed hurricane struck Palm Beach County in 1949, in 1992 the notorious Hurricane Andrew made landfall in Miami-Dade County, in 2004 Hurricane Jeanne hit Martin County and in 2005 Hurricane Katrina broke land in Broward County

Only a few hurricanes have made landfall in Florida on its East Coast. This map shows some of those rare storms. An unnamed hurricane struck Palm Beach County in 1949, in 1992 the notorious Hurricane Andrew made landfall in Miami-Dade County, in 2004 Hurricane Jeanne hit Martin County and in 2005 Hurricane Katrina broke land in Broward County

Cruise lines operating out of Port Canaveral are adjusting schedules to keep boat traffic to a minimum.

Martin County schools canceled all school-related activities through Monday.

Weekend Breakdown of Hurricane Dorian

Through Friday: The eye of Dorian is expected to hit the east and north of Turks and Caicos and the southeastern Bahamas

Saturday: Dorian will potentially impact the northwest Bahamas. Tropical winds will hit Florida

Sunday – Monday: Dorian with make landfall the Southeast U.S., most likely in Florida

Source: Weather.com 

Governor Ron DeSantis spoke at the National Hurricane Center on Thursday to urge locals to prepare saying: ‘Be prepared for a lot of water. You should have seven days of food, medicine and water as a part of your plan.’

Now on the Space Coast, companies like NASA, SpaceX and ULA are working to secure their launch pads and million-dollar equipment as they brace for Dorian’s wrath.

Teams at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station are working to move a $650million mobile launcher, which attaches to a rocket and prepares it for launch. It’s going to be used to launch NASA’s upcoming rocket the Space Launch System and astronaut capsule Orion for upcoming moon missions, according to the Orlando Sentinel.

Elon Musk’s Space X also started to move its fleet of rocket recovery vehicles away from the Space coast.

When Dorian barrels the coast, the space center facilities would be hit first. Space companies have already suffered devastating damage from Hurricane Matthew in 2016 and Hurricane Frances in 2004, which toppled a rocket.

This map shows that Hurricane Dorian is predicted to hit Miami at 125mph in the early hours of Monday and will move inwards towards Melbourne and Fort Myers Tuesday morning at reduced 85mph speeds

This map shows that Hurricane Dorian is predicted to hit Miami at 125mph in the early hours of Monday and will move inwards towards Melbourne and Fort Myers Tuesday morning at reduced 85mph speeds

As of Thursday 11am EDT Hurricane Dorian was located 220 miles northwest of San Juan, Puerto Rico travelling at 13mph with 85mph winds

As of Thursday 11am EDT Hurricane Dorian was located 220 miles northwest of San Juan, Puerto Rico travelling at 13mph with 85mph winds

This map shows the rain forecast with the hurricane, that'll bring up to three inches of rain to Florida through Sunday

This map shows the rain forecast with the hurricane, that’ll bring up to three inches of rain to Florida through Sunday

The Florida Department of Emergency Management tweeted a lengthy checklist of supplies to have on hand on Wednesday

The Florida Department of Emergency Management tweeted a lengthy checklist of supplies to have on hand on Wednesday

Some meteorologists expressed concern that as Dorian moves into the warm waters of the Gulf Stream and gains momentum it could actually reach a Category 4 storm, echoing the last-minute intensification of Hurricane Andrew in August 1992 that escalated into a Category 5 status just prior to making landfall in South Florida.

On Wednesday lightening was detected int he eye of the hurricane – a sign of rapid strengthening.

Dorian left some damage in its wake as it carved its way across the Caribbean as a tropical storm.

On Wednesday Dorian at 2pm EDT Dorian made landfall on Saint Thomas in the U.S. Virgin Islands as a Category 1 hurricane with 75mph winds, causing power outages and minor flooding.

At that time Saint Thomas was in the developing northern eyewall of Dorian, according to WUnderground.

President Donald Trump issued an emergency declaration Wednesday night for the U.S. Virgin Islands, ordering federal assistance with disaster relief for the U.S. territory. He also offered a similar declaration for Puerto Rico, offering federal assistance for local authorities.

Power outages and flooding were reported across the US Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands and the Puerto Rican islands of Vieques and Culebra after Dorian hit St Thomas as a Category 1 storm.

‘We’re happy because there are no damages to report,’ Culebra Mayor William Solís told The Associated Press, noting that only one community lost power.

Meanwhile, Dorian caused an island-wide blackout in St Thomas and St John in the US Virgin Islands, and scattered power outages in St Croix, government spokesman Richard Motta told AP.

In addition, the storm downed trees and at least one electric post in St Thomas, he said, adding that there were no reports of major flooding.

‘We are grateful that it wasn’t a stronger storm,’ he said.

There were no immediate reports of damage in the British Virgin Islands, where Gov Augustus Jaspert said crews were already clearing roads and inspecting infrastructure by late Wednesday afternoon.

Dorian battered the island of St Thomas on Wednesday, causing widespread power outages and leveling trees

Dorian battered the island of St Thomas on Wednesday, causing widespread power outages and leveling trees

Local woman Kim Pemberton shared video showing Tortola in the Virgin Islands being barreled by Dorian as it hit Wednesday

Heavy rain and winds are seen impacting the city

Dorian appears to have largely spared Puerto Rico, passing over the top of the US territory that is still recovering from a powerful storm two years ago.

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) in Miami said the hurricane watch and tropical storm warning for the island had been lifted, and that ‘Dorian continues to move away from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.’

‘The threat has already passed,’ Puerto Rico’s new governor, Wanda Vazquez, told a news conference.

Vazquez announced that schools would reopen and people should return to work from Thursday. She said the storm had given the island a chance to evaluate its hurricane response.

‘These days have been a real exercise where we have been able to re-evaluate and make adjustments in all our responses to protect the people of Puerto Rico,’ she said.

Now meteorologists say severe weather could batter the southeast Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands on Friday.

On Wednesday President Donald Trump was blasted for transferring disaster-relief funds to border control efforts.

On Wednesday as Trump announced FEMA relief for Puerto Rico, he refueled his feud with San Juan Mayor Carmen Yulín Cruz, calling her 'incompetent'
Cruz also had some sharp words for the president saying 'hope we do not see any insulting references to the people of Florida or self aggrandizement tweets'

On Wednesday as Trump announced FEMA relief for Puerto Rico, he refueled his feud with San Juan Mayor Carmen Yulín Cruz. He said: ‘FEMA and all others are ready, and will do a great job. When they do, let them know it, and give them a big Thank You – Not like last time. That includes from the incompetent Mayor of San Juan!’

The Trump administration announced in July in a notification to Congress that it will move $155 million from FEMA’s disaster-relief fund to pay for border enforcement efforts.

On Wednesday Agriculture Commissioner Nikki Fried – Florida’s only statewide elected Democrat – berated Trump for moving the funds as Hurricane Dorian barrels towards Florida.

‘The President must be out of his mind if he thinks it’s a good idea to shift funds out of @FEMA for immigrant detention at the border while a potential Category 3 Hurricane #Dorian bears down on the United States,’ she wrote.

‘We don’t need those funds diverted to fuel a xenophobic agenda,’ she added.

On Wednesday as Trump announced FEMA relief for Puerto Rico, he refueled his feud with San Juan Mayor Carmen Yulín Cruz saying  FEMA and all others are ready, and will do a great job. When they do, let them know it, and give them a big Thank You – Not like last time. That includes from the incompetent Mayor of San Juan!’

'The threat has already passed,' Puerto Rico's new governor, Wanda Vazquez (center), told a news conference in the evening

The threat has already passed,’ Puerto Rico’s new governor, Wanda Vazquez (center), told a news conference in the evening

The storm was expected to pass over or near Puerto Rico on Wednesday. People are seen gathered at the coast of Patillas

The storm was expected to pass over or near Puerto Rico on Wednesday. People are seen gathered at the coast of Patillas

Residents of Yabucoa, Puerto Rico, are seen boarding up their windows to protect against potentially disastrous winds

 

Residents of Yabucoa, Puerto Rico, are seen boarding up their windows to protect against potentially disastrous winds

Florida’s most destructive hurricanes

Hurricane Andrew: This powerful Category 5 Atlantic hurricane battered the Bahamas, Florida and Louisiana in August 1992.

At the time it was the most destructive hurricane to ever hit Florida where it made landfall with wind speeds as high as 165mph, killing 65 people and causing $27.3billion in damage.

Homestead Florida residents picking through the debris left in the wake of the deadly Hurricane Andrew on August 24, 1992

 

Homestead Florida residents picking through the debris left in the wake of the deadly Hurricane Andrew on August 24, 1992

Hurricane Irma: Irma was the strongest observed hurricane in the Atlantic causing at least 134 deaths in September 2017.

This Category 5 hurricane hit the Leeward Islands, the northeastern Caribbean and the Florida Keys.

Trees pictured bent in Hurricane Irma on Sept 10 2017 in Fort Lauderdale, Florida

 

Trees pictured bent in Hurricane Irma on Sept 10 2017 in Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Hurricane Michael: This category 5 hurricane was the first to strike the contiguous United States since Andrew in 1992.

The October 2018 storm killed 74 – including 59 in the U.S. and 15 in Central America.

It reached peak winds of 160mph before it made landfall near Mexico Beach, Florida 

A damaged home in Mexico Beach, Florida pictured above in the wake of Hurricane Michael

 

A damaged home in Mexico Beach, Florida pictured above in the wake of Hurricane Michael

Hurricane Dorian

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Hurricane Dorian 2
Current storm status
Category 2 hurricane (1-min mean)
Dorian Geostationary VIS-IR September 2 1530Z.jpg

Satellite image
05L 2019 5day.png

Forecast map
As of: 2:00 p.m. EDT (18:00 UTC) September 3
Location: 27.5°N 78.7°W ± 15 nm
About 65 mi (105 km) N of Freeport, Bahamas
About 105 mi (170 km) E of Fort Pierce, FL
Sustained winds: 95 kn (110 mph; 175 km/h) (1-min mean)
gusting to 115 kn (130 mph; 215 km/h)
Pressure: 959 mbar (28.32 inHg)
Movement: NW at 4 kn (5 mph; 7 km/h)
See more detailed information.

Hurricane Dorian is a strong tropical cyclone currently affecting the Bahamas and the Southeastern United States. The fourth named storm, second hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 2019 Atlantic hurricane season, Dorian developed from a tropical wave on August 24 in the Central Atlantic. The system gradually intensified while moving toward the Lesser Antilles, before becoming a hurricane on August 28. Rapid intensification ensued, and on August 31, Dorian intensified into a Category 4 major hurricane. On the following day, Dorian reached Category 5 intensity, peaking with one-minute sustained winds of 185 mph (295 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 910 millibars (26.87 inHg) while making landfall in Elbow Cay, Bahamas, at 16:40 UTC. Dorian made another landfall on Grand Bahama several hours later, near the same intensity.

From August 26–28, the storm affected Caribbean nations and territories devastated by hurricanes Irma and Maria in 2017. Extensive precautionary measures were taken to mitigate damage, especially in Puerto Rico, where one person died. Damaging winds primarily affected the Virgin Islands where gusts reached 111 mph (179 km/h). Elsewhere in the Lesser Antilles, impacts from the storm were relatively minor. After moving over the Bahamas the storm, the storm strengthened to a Category 5 storm and slowed its forward motion considerably, remaining essentially stationary over the Abaco Islands and Grand Bahama Island from September 1 to September 3. Wind speeds reached record levels of 185 mph (298 km/h) sustained winds, and gusts over 200 mph (320 km/h). Due to the prolonged and intense storm conditions, including heavy rainfall, high winds, and storm surge, damage in the Bahamas was extensive, with thousands of homes destroyed and at least five deaths recorded. The storm began to move slowly towards the north-northwest during the morning of September 3. By the afternoon of September 3, the storm had weakened to a Category 2 hurricane.

In preparation for the storm, the U.S. states of FloridaGeorgiaSouth CarolinaNorth Carolina and Virginia all declared a state of emergency and many coastal counties from Florida to North Carolina issued mandatory evacuation orders.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

On August 19, 2019, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) identified a tropical wave—an elongated trough of low air pressure—within a monsoon trough over Guinea and Senegal in western Africa. Convective activity associated with the wave was limited by an abundance of Saharan dust in the region.[1] Propagating west over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, the system remained disorganized for several days.[2] On August 23, a defined area of low pressure consolidated at the surface and thunderstorm activity increased.[3] The system acquired sufficient organized convection to be classified as Tropical Depression Five at 15:00 UTC on August 24. At this time the system was situated 805 mi (1,300 km) east-southeast of Barbados. A deep ridge imparted continued westward movement of the depression, steering it toward the Lesser Antilles.[4] A small cyclone, it soon developed a defined inner-core with a 12 mi (18 km) wide eye-like feature. This marked the system’s intensification into a tropical storm, at which time it was assigned the name Dorian by the NHC.[5] Thereafter, moderate wind shear and surrounding dry air limited further organization.[6] Rainbands gradually wrapped more around Dorian on August 25–26, though convection remained inconsistent.[7][8]

Dorian as seen from the ISS on August 29

Dorian continued moving west and came extremely close to Barbados, bringing tropical storm-force winds and heavy rain.[9] It then started moving northwestward toward St. Lucia and entering the Caribbean Sea. The storm underwent a center relocation further north, to the west of Martinique, causing the island to experience tropical storm-force winds as well.[10] Dorian had been predicted to travel northwest and pass over or near the Dominican Republic or Puerto Rico,[11] possibly allowing their mountainous terrain to weaken the tropical storm. At that time, dry air and wind shear were expected to prevent Dorian from attaining hurricane status—although just barely.[12] However, Dorian took a more northerly track than expected, causing it to pass to the east of Puerto Rico and hit the US Virgin Islands.

Strongest landfalling Atlantic hurricanesdagger
Rank Hurricane Season Wind speed
mph km/h
1 “Labor Day” 1935 185 295
Dorian 2019
3 Irma 2017 180 285
4 Janet 1955 175 280
Camille 1969
Anita 1977
David 1979
Dean 2007
9 “Cuba” 1924 165 270
Andrew 1992
Maria 2017
Source: HURDAT,[13] AOML/HRD[14]
daggerStrength refers to maximum sustained wind speed
upon striking land.

On August 28, Dorian intensified into a Category 1 hurricane as it approached St. Thomas in the US Virgin Islands, where hurricane-force winds were recorded; at 18:00 UTC that day, Dorian made landfall on St. Thomas at Category 1 intensity.[15][16] However, the hurricane’s small size prevented mainland Puerto Rico from experiencing hurricane- or tropical storm-force winds, although this was not the case for the Spanish Virgin Islands.[17]

File:Hurricane Dorian landfall on Abaco Island.webm

Hurricane Dorian making landfall on Abaco Island as a strong Category 5 hurricane, on September 1, 2019

Once the system moved north past the Virgin islands, the storm entered a more favorable environment. However, dry air was still in the system from its journey through the Caribbean sea and the lesser Antilles, and this gave the storm an erratic look and was lopsided. There was no more dry air afterwards, so the storm began to mix out the dry air, and on the next day, the system started to rapidly intensify, reaching Category 2 status early on August 30.[18] Rapid intensification continued, and the storm eventually reached major hurricane status several hours later, on the same day.[19] This strengthening trend came to a halt for the remainder of the day, but soon resumed.[20] The system continued strengthening, and on August 31, Dorian attained Category 4 major hurricane status.[21] Dorian reached Category 5 intensity on the following day.[22] On the morning of September 1, a dropsonde deployed by a NOAA aircraft measured a wind gust of 176 knots (326 km/h; 203 mph) at the surface. With one-minute sustained winds of 180 mph (290 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 913 mbar (27.0 inHg), the NHC noted that Dorian was the strongest hurricane in modern records to affect the northwestern Bahamas.[23] At 16:40 UTC on September 1, Hurricane Dorian made landfall on Great Abaco Island in the Bahamas, with one-minute sustained winds of 185 mph (298 km/h) wind gusts over 220 mph (355 km/h), and a central barometric pressure of 911 millibars (26.9 inHg).[24][25] The storm’s central pressure bottomed out at 910 millibars (26.87 inHg) within a few hours, as Dorian reached its peak intensity during landfall.[26] Hurricane Dorian’s forward speed decreased around this time, slowing to a westward crawl of 5 mph (8.0 km/h).[26] At 02:00 UTC on September 2, Dorian made landfall on Grand Bahama near the same intensity, with the same sustained wind speed.[27] The storm continued moving very slowly, at some points at only 1 knot (1.2 mph; 1.9 km/h) over Grand Bahama. This effectively had Dorian stall over Grand Bahama. Later on that day, the storm began to undergo an eyewall replacement cycle over Grand Bahama.[28] Dorian weakened to a Category 4 hurricane due to upwelling and the eyewall replacement cycle. In the absence of significant steering currents, Dorian had remained stationary. The storm further weakened to Category 2 intensity at 15:00 UTC September 3, but resumed its slow trek northwest, skirting the U.S. state of Florida.

Current storm information

As of 2:00 p.m. EDT (18:00 UTC) September 3, Hurricane Dorian is located within 15 nautical miles of 27.5°N 78.7°W, about 65 mi (105 km) north of Freeport, Bahamas and about 105 mi (170 km) east of Fort Pierce, Florida. Maximum sustained winds are 95 kn (110 mph; 175 km/h), with gusts to 115 kn (130 mph; 215 km/h). The minimum barometric pressure is 959 mbar (28.32 inHg), and the system is moving northwest at 4 kn (5 mph; 7 km/h). Hurricane-force winds extend up to 60 miles (95 km) from the center of Dorian, and tropical storm-force winds up to 175 miles (280 km) from the center.

For latest official information see:

Watches and warnings

Hurricane Warning
Hurricane conditions
expected within 36 hours.
Hurricane Watch
Hurricane conditions
possible within 48 hours.
  • United States
Tropical Storm Warning
Tropical storm conditions expected within 36 hours.
  • Bahamas
  • United States
    • Florida from north of Deerfield Beach to Jupiter Inlet
    • North of Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida to Edisto Beach, South Carolina
Storm Surge Warning
Life-threatening inundation from storm surge possible within 36 hours.
  • United States
    • Jupiter Inlet, Florida to South Santee River, South Carolina
Storm Surge Watch
Life-threatening inundation from storm surge possible within 48 hours.

Preparations

Caribbean

At 09:00 UTC on August 25, a tropical storm watch was issued for the island of Barbados.[29] Later that day, more watches and warnings were issued for more of the islands. A hurricane watch was also issued at 15:00 UTC August 26 for Saint Lucia.[30][31][32] Late on August 26, a tropical storm watch was issued for Puerto Rico.[33]

In Barbados, Prime Minister Mia Mottley ordered the closure of all schools and advised the nation’s residents to remain indoors for the duration of the storm. Infra worked to clear public drains island-wide.[34] Thirty-eight shelters opened island-wide, with 103 residents seeking refuge in them. All public services were suspended for the duration of the storm.[35][36] Homeless persons were transported to shelter by emergency personnel.[37] On August 26, St. Lucia prime minister Allen Chastanet announced that the nation would “shut down” for the duration of Dorian and all residents were mandated to stay home.[38] Numerous people ignored this warning, however, and the police detained several people who refused to return home.[39] LIAT cancelled multiple flights across the Lesser Antilles due to the storm.[40] The Department of Infrastructure, Ports and Energy placed all heavy machinery and equipment owners on standby to assist in cleanup and relief efforts.[41] In Dominica, Prime Minister Roosevelt Skerrit ordered all public sector workers to remain home and prepare for the storm.[42] The devastation from Hurricane Maria in 2017 brought greater vigilance from the public, and Skerrit assured residents that the nation was “better place now” than after Maria and there would be “no shutting of the country” for Dorian. The Ministry of Public Works mobilized heavy machinery and the police were placed on high alert to more effectively respond to emergency calls.[43] Small craft advisories and flash flood watches were issued for the island.[44]

The Puerto Rico National Guard was activated for potential relief efforts ahead of the hurricane

With Puerto Rico also recovering from Hurricane Maria in 2017, Governor Wanda Vázquez Garced declared a state of emergency for the territory on August 27.[16][45] The following day, the Puerto Rico National Guard was activated to support any relief operations related to the storm. Hundreds of vehicles, generators, and water trucks were fueled and filled to be ready for deployment.[46] Fears centered around the still-unstable power grid which was largely destroyed by Maria. In some areas, power lines remained affixed to palm trees.[34] Hundreds of utility workers were deployed to quickly fix any power outages.[47] Top government officials reported adequate supplies ahead of the storm; however, some local governors indicated a lack of generators and proper public shelters.[34] An estimated 30,000 homes still had damaged roofs from the 2017 hurricane.[48] Residents boarded up windows with plywood and stocked up on bottled water and generators.[34] All government offices and schools closed for the duration of the hurricane. Territory-wide, 360 shelters with a collective capacity of 48,500 persons opened; 24,000 cots were distributed to these shelters.[16] Private organizations worked quickly in Vieques to ensure the safety of residents. Fearing isolation from mainland Puerto Rico. ViequesLove established a radio network to keep residents informed of the hurricane. Volunteers supplied the island’s local shelter with a generator.[47]

Similar to Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands were still recovering from hurricanes Irma and Maria in 2017.[49] A state of emergency was declared for the United States Virgin Islands on August 28,[16] and a curfew was enacted for the duration of the hurricane. All airports and seaports suspended operations.[50] The Government of the British Virgin Islands opened seven shelters territory-wide. A mandatory curfew was put in place from 2:00 p.m. on August 28 to 6:00 a.m. on August 29.[51] Auguste George AirportVirgin Gorda Airport, and Terrance B. Lettsome International Airport closed for the duration of the storm.[52] The majority of the British Virgin Islands’ clinics and hospitals suspended operations during the hurricane; however, a few remained open.[53]

Bahamas

A warning to take immediate cover was issued on the NHC twitter account, at 11 a.m. EDT on September 1, 2019, as Dorian made landfall in Elbow CayBahamas, at 16:40 UTC as a Category 5 hurricane.[54][55] Samuel Butler, the assistant commissioner for the Royal Bahamas Police Force told residents “if you do not to heed to the warning […] we know that the end could be be fatal” and Don Cornish, the administrator with the City of Freeport told others seeking shelter at Old Bahama Bay Hotel “that is not a good idea […] reconsider that decision”.[56]

Mainland United States

President Trump at a FEMA briefing on the hurricane

Florida

On August 28, Florida governor Ron DeSantis declared a state of emergency for 26 counties in the hurricane’s expected path.[47][57] This later expanded to the entire state on August 29. First responders distributed sandbags in many counties. Residents began stocking up on supplies throughout the state. In Brevard County, locals worked to trim large tree branches to protect power lines.[58] University of Central FloridaStetson UniversityRollins College, and Daytona State College cancelled classes between August 30 and September 3.[59] In addition, the Florida Institute of TechnologyUniversity of North FloridaEmbry-Riddle Aeronautical UniversityFlorida Atlantic UniversityUniversity of South Florida, and the University of Miami cancelled classes for at least one day on top of the three-day Labor Day weekend.

The Florida State League and Gulf Coast League of Minor League Baseball both cancelled the remainder of the regular season and the playoffs due to the hurricane.[60][61] In college football, the game between the Florida State Seminoles and the Boise State Broncos originally scheduled for 7 p.m. on August 31 in Jacksonville was moved to 12:00 p.m. on August 31 in Tallahassee to move the game out of the path of the storm.[62] The Orlando Pride of the National Women’s Soccer League postponed their game against the Washington Spirit from August 31 to October 5.[63]

Kay IveyGovernor of Alabama, announced that the Alabama National Guard will be sending up to fifty support personnel to Florida to aide in recovery efforts.[64][65] On September 1, Governor DeSantis stated that 4,500 members of the United States National Guard have been activated to help aide those affected by Dorian, saying that the hurricane is “way too close for comfort.”[66]

On Sunday, September 1, Jacksonville, Florida, announced mandatory evacuations for Monday, September 2, taking effect at 8 a.m. The city bridges closed when wind speeds of 40 mph (64 km/h) were recorded. Emergency shelters opened at 10 a.m. on Monday.[67] Broward County Public Schools will be closed Tuesday;[68] all city and government offices, as well as all Duval County Public SchoolsSt. Johns County Public Schools, and Brevard Public Schools will be closed for Tuesday and Wednesday. Neptune BeachJacksonville Beach, and Atlantic Beach will closed Sunday night.[67] On September 2, a curfew was set in place for Flagler County that will start at 7 p.m. Tuesday until further notice.[69] Legoland Florida and parts of Walt Disney World will be closed Tuesday.[70] The parts not closed will stay open until either 2 p.m or 3 p.m. EST and will stay closed until further notice.[71]

Uber started offering free roundtrip rides to and from shelters for up to $20. Comcast started offering free Wifi to everyone in Florida, Verizon is providing unlimited calling, data, and texting for customers, and AT&T is waiving data overage charges for residents.[72]

Georgia

On August 28, Georgia governor Brian Kemp declared a state of emergency for coastal counties of Georgia that are in the forecast path of the hurricane, including Brantley, Bryan, Camden, Charlton, Chatham, Effingham, Glynn, Liberty, Long, McIntosh, Pierce and Wayne counties.[73] Atlanta Motor Speedway opened their campgrounds free of charge to evacuees of Hurricane Dorian.[74] The College of Coastal Georgia announced campus closures for both Tuesday and Wednesday following Labor Day. Savannah State University also cancelled classes Tuesday.

South Carolina

The South Carolina National Guard and Governor Henry McMaster conduct a briefing on the hurricane

On August 31, South Carolina governor Henry McMaster declared a state of emergency for the entire state after the path of Dorian shifted to affect South Carolina as a strong hurricane.[75]

On September 1, during a news conference, Governor McMaster announced that mandatory evacuations for JasperBeaufortColletonCharlestonBerkeleyDorchesterGeorgetown, and Horry counties will go into effect on Monday, September 2, at noon. State government offices and schools in the counties previously mentioned will be closed until further notice, starting Tuesday.[76] Due to the evacuations, many colleges including College of Charleston and Coastal Carolina University were closed from Tuesday until further notice.

North Carolina

On August 30, North Carolina governor Roy Cooper declared a state of emergency for the entire state, due to the hurricane.[77] Charlotte Motor Speedway opened their campgrounds free of charge to evacuees of Hurricane Dorian.[78] The University of North Carolina at Wilmington cancelled classes for the week of September 3 and issued a mandatory evacuation of the campus.[79] Over the Labor Day weekend, several school districts announced plans to close ahead of expected evacuations. New Hanover CountyPender County and Brunswick County, all in the Cape Fear region, cancelled public schools on September 4-5, as did several private schools and community colleges.[80] Further north, along the Outer Banks in Dare County a mandatory evacuation order was given on September 2, 2019. Visitors and tourists were required to evacuate by noon on September 3, while residents were required to evacuate by 6:00 AM on September 4.[81]

Virginia

On September 2, Virginia governor Ralph Northam declared a state of emergency ahead of Dorian’s anticipated impact on coastal Virginia on Thursday, saying, “Hurricane Dorian is a serious storm, and current predictions indicate that it may affect parts of Virginia. I am declaring a state of emergency to ensure that localities and communities have the appropriate level of assistance, and to coordinate the Commonwealth’s response to any potential impacts from Hurricane Dorian. I encourage Virginians to take all necessary precautions to make sure they are prepared as well.”[82][83]

Elsewhere

On September 1, President Donald Trump tweeted that Alabama “will most likely be hit (much) harder than anticipated.”[84] The Birmingham office of the National Weather Service corrected the record several hours later, saying that Alabama “will NOT see any impacts from Dorian.”[85]

In TennesseeBristol Motor Speedway opened one of their campgrounds free of charge to evacuees of Hurricane Dorian.[86]

Impacts

Deaths and damage by territory
Territory Fatalities Missing Damage
(2019 USD)
Ref
Windward Islands 0 0 Unknown
Leeward Islands 0 0 Unknown
Bahamas Abaco Islands ≥5 0 Unknown [87]
Grand Bahama 0 0 Unknown
United
States
Puerto Rico 1 0 Unknown [45]
Mainland 1 0 Unknown
Totals: ≥7 0 Unknown

Caribbean

On August 26, winds began to pick up in the Lesser Antilles and water levels along the coast began to rise (storm surge).[34] Wind gusts in Barbados reached 55 mph (89 km/h),[45] downing trees and power lines.[36] Some residences in southern Barbados lost power and water service.[36][88] Overall, Dorian caused little damage in Barbados,[35] with only one home suffering damage in Saint Peter.[36] Isolated interruptions to power occurred on St. Lucia; no damage occurred otherwise in the nation.[89][90] In Martinique, heavy rains—peaking at 102 mm (4.0 in) in Rivière-Pilote—and winds up to 61 mph (98 km/h) caused some damage. Approximately 4,000 homes lost power and many streets became impassable due to flooding; one road was washed out.[91][92] Flooding affected some homes and businesses in Rivière-Pilote; however, overall damage was negligible.[92] Heavy showers in Dominica left multiple communities without power and water; however, effects were otherwise limited.[93] Rainfall extended north to Guadeloupe were accumulations reached 121 mm (4.8 in) in Matouba.[94]

Striking the Virgin Islands as an intensifying hurricane, Dorian brought strong winds and heavy rains to the region.[16] Buck Island, just south of Saint Thomas, experienced sustained winds of 82 mph (132 km/h) and a peak gust of 111 mph (179 km/h).[95] Wind gusts on Saint Thomas reached 75 mph (121 km/h).[45] Island-wide blackouts occurred on Saint Thomas and Saint John, while 25,000 customers lost power on Saint Croix.[16][45] The high winds downed trees across the islands.[16] Along the coast, multiple boats broke from their moorings and washed ashore.[96] One person died on Saint John during the hurricane; however, the cause of death is pending investigation and believed to be from natural causes.[50] Some flooding occurred on Tortola in the British Virgin Islands.[51] Significant flooding and some structural damage occurred along the outskirts of Road Town, including a mall that had its roof partially removed by storm-force gusts.[97][98] Downed trees knocked out power to some residences on Virgin Gorda.[99]

Owing to the hurricane’s moving farther northeast than initially anticipated, its effects in Puerto Rico were relatively limited.[16] Wind gusts in Culebra reached 62 mph (100 km/h) and 35 mph (56 km/h) in San Juan. Approximately 23,000 households lost power across the territory.[16][45] No major damage was reported in Culebra.[16] A man in Bayamón died when he fell off his roof trying to clean drains in advance of the storm.[45]

Hurricane Dorian on September 1 making landfall on the Abaco Islands near peak intensity

Bahamas

Increased tides were experienced in the Bahamas ahead of the storm, with rip currents occurring as well. On September 1, 2019, hurricane conditions arrived in some of the Abaco Islands. A few hours later, destructive conditions arrived, with Hurricane Dorian making landfall as a Category 5 hurricane at 16:40 UTC, becoming the strongest hurricane in modern records to strike the northwestern Bahamas.[100] Around 12:30 PM AST, Category 5 winds arrived at the Bahamas with the eyewall. Gusts of over 200 mph (320 km/h) also occurred.[101] At 7:00 (UTC) on September 2, 2019, Grand Bahama International Airport was underwater.[102] Minister of Agriculture Michael Pintard reported an estimated storm tide of 20 to 25 ft (6.1 to 7.6 m) at his home on Grand Bahama.[103] The Bahamas prime minister, Hubert Minnis, said “This is a deadly […] monster storm”.[104]

Marsh Harbour received “catastrophic damage”, according to an ABC News team.[105] There was significant flooding on streets and beaches, and damage to trees and homes, with some roofs ripped off entirely.[106] The scene was described by an ABC reporter as “pure hell”.[105] An eight-year-old boy drowned in the storm surge, while the boy’s sister was also reported to be missing.[107][108] Four other people, along with the eight-year-old boy, were confirmed dead on the Abaco Islands, the prime minister told reporters on Monday.[87][109]

The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) reported that as many as 13,000 homes were damaged or destroyed on Abaco Island. Extensive flooding is also believed to have caused water wells to be contaminated with seawater, creating an urgent need for clean water.[110]

Around 11:24 (UTC) September 2, 2019, total power was lost on the island of New Providence,[111] the following day at 1:50 (UTC) 40% of power had been restored.[112]

Tropical storm conditions continued into Monday. At 2 p.m. EDT, a sustained wind of 56 mph (90 km/h) and a gust of 69 mph (110 km/h) at a NOAA Coastal Marine observing site at Settlement Point on the west end of Grand Bahama Island.[113]

Mainland United States

Florida

On September 2, Florida began experiencing tropical storm-force winds. At 18:00 UTC (2 p.m. EDT), the pier in Juno Beach recorded a wind gust of 48 mph (75 km/h).[114] One death occurred in Indiatlantic when a man fell three stories while boarding up his home.[115]

Records

Most intense landfalling Atlantic hurricanes
Intensity is measured solely by central pressure
Rank Hurricane Season Landfall pressure
1 “Labor Day” 1935 892 mbar (hPa)
2 Camille 1969 900 mbar (hPa)
Gilbert 1988
4 Dean 2007 905 mbar (hPa)
5 “Cuba” 1924 910 mbar (hPa)
Dorian 2019
7 Janet 1955 914 mbar (hPa)
Irma 2017
9 “Cuba” 1932 918 mbar (hPa)
10 Michael 2018 919 mbar (hPa)
Sources: HURDAT,[13] AOML/HRD,[14] NHC[116]

With sustained winds of 185 mph (295 km/h), Dorian is the strongest hurricane on record to strike the Bahamas since records began in 1851.[117][100] Dorian is tied with the 1935 Labor Day hurricane for the highest sustained winds at landfall in an Atlantic hurricane;[118] by the same metric, it is also the strongest Atlantic hurricane since Wilma in 2005. Dorian is one of only two Category 5 hurricanes to make landfall on the Abaco Islands, the other having occurred in 1932,[119] and is the only such storm on record to have impacted Grand Bahama.[120] Additionally, Dorian featured the highest sustained winds in an Atlantic hurricane recorded as far north as its latitude.[121]

See also

References …

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Dorian

 

Saffir–Simpson scale

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS), formerly the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale (SSHS), classifies hurricanes – Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones – that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms – into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds.

Saffir–Simpson scale
Category Wind speeds
(for 1-minute maximum sustained winds)
m/s knots (kn) mph km/h
Five ≥ 70 m/s   ≥ 137 kn   ≥ 157 mph   ≥ 252 km/h  
Four   58–70 m/s     113–136 kn     130–156 mph     209–251 km/h  
Three   50–58 m/s     96–112 kn     111–129 mph     178–208 km/h  
Two   43–49 m/s     83–95 kn     96–110 mph     154–177 km/h  
One   33–42 m/s     64–82 kn     74–95 mph     119–153 km/h  
Related classifications
(for 1-minute maximum sustained winds)
Tropical storm   18–32 m/s     34–63 kn     39–73 mph     63–118 km/h  
Tropical depression   ≤ 17 m/s     ≤ 33 kn     ≤ 38 mph     ≤ 62 km/h  

To be classified as a hurricane, a tropical cyclone must have one-minute maximum sustained winds of at least 74 mph (33 m/s; 64 kn; 119 km/h) (Category 1). The highest classification in the scale, Category 5, consists of storms with sustained winds over 156 mph (70 m/s; 136 kn; 251 km/h). The classifications can provide some indication of the potential damage and flooding a hurricane will cause upon landfall.

The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale is based on the highest average wind over a one-minute time span and is officially used only to describe hurricanes that form in the Atlantic Ocean and northern Pacific Ocean east of the International Date Line.

Other areas use different scales to label these storms, which are called cyclones or typhoons, depending on the area. These areas (except the JTWC) use three-minute or ten-minute averaged winds to determine the maximum sustained winds—which is an important difference and makes direct comparison with storms scaled with the Saffir–Simpson method difficult.

There is some criticism of the SSHWS for not accounting for rain, storm surge, and other important factors, but SSHWS defenders say that part of the goal of SSHWS is to be straightforward and simple to understand.

Contents

History

The scale was developed in 1971 by civil engineer Herbert Saffir and meteorologist Robert Simpson, who at the time was director of the U.S. National Hurricane Center (NHC).[1] The scale was introduced to the general public in 1973,[2] and saw widespread use after Neil Frank replaced Simpson at the helm of the NHC in 1974.[3]

The initial scale was developed by Herbert Saffir, a structural engineer, who in 1969 went on commission for the United Nations to study low-cost housing in hurricane-prone areas.[4] While conducting the study, Saffir realized there was no simple scale for describing the likely effects of a hurricane. Mirroring the utility of the Richter magnitude scale for describing earthquakes, he devised a 1–5 scale based on wind speed that showed expected damage to structures. Saffir gave the scale to the NHC, and Simpson added the effects of storm surge and flooding.

In 2009, the NHC made moves to eliminate pressure and storm surge ranges from the categories, transforming it into a pure wind scale, called the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale (Experimental) [SSHWS].[5] The new scale became operational on May 15, 2010.[6] The scale excludes flood ranges, storm surge estimations, rainfall, and location, which means a Category 2 hurricane that hits a major city will likely do far more cumulative damage than a Category 5 hurricane that hits a rural area.[7] The agency cited various hurricanes as reasons for removing the “scientifically inaccurate” information, including Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Hurricane Ike (2008), which both had stronger than estimated storm surges, and Hurricane Charley (2004), which had weaker than estimated storm surge.[8] Since being removed from the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, storm surge predicting and modeling is now handled with the use of computer numerical models such as ADCIRC and SLOSH.

In 2012, the NHC expanded the windspeed range for Category 4 by 1 mph in both directions, to 130–156 mph, with corresponding changes in the other units (113–136 kn, 209–251 km/h), instead of 131–155 mph (114–135 kn, 210–249 km/h). The NHC and the Central Pacific Hurricane Center assign tropical cyclone intensities in 5 knot increments, and then convert to mph and km/h with a similar rounding for other reports. So an intensity of 115 kn is rated Category 4, but the conversion to miles per hour (132.3 mph) would round down to 130 mph, making it appear to be a Category 3 storm. Likewise, an intensity of 135 kn (~155 mph, and thus Category 4) is 250.02 km/h, which, according to the definition used before the change would be Category 5. To resolve these issues, the NHC had been obliged to incorrectly report storms with wind speeds of 115 kn as 135 mph, and 135 kn as 245 km/h. The change in definition allows storms of 115 kn to be correctly rounded down to 130 mph, and storms of 135 kn to be correctly reported as 250 km/h, and still qualify as Category 4. Since the NHC had previously rounded incorrectly to keep storms in Category 4 in each unit of measure, the change does not affect the classification of storms from previous years.[5] The new scale became operational on May 15, 2012.[9]

Categories

The scale separates hurricanes into five different categories based on wind. The U.S. National Hurricane Center classifies hurricanes of Category 3 and above as major hurricanes, and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center classifies typhoons of 150 mph or greater (strong Category 4 and Category 5) as super typhoons (although all tropical cyclones can be very dangerous). Most weather agencies use the definition for sustained winds recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), which specifies measuring winds at a height of 33 ft (10.1 m) for 10 minutes, and then taking the average. By contrast, the U.S. National Weather ServiceCentral Pacific Hurricane Center and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center define sustained winds as average winds over a period of one minute, measured at the same 33 ft (10.1 m) height,[10][11] and that is the definition used for this scale. Intensity of example hurricanes is from both the time of landfall and the maximum intensity.

The scale is roughly logarithmic in wind speed, and the top wind speed for Category “c” (c = 1 … 4; there is no upper limit for category 5) can be expressed as 83×10(​c15) miles per hour rounded to the nearest multiple of 5 – except that after the change mentioned above, Category 4 is now widened by 1 mph in each direction and that the calculated value for Category 2 (c = 2) is rounded down from 112.8 mph to 110 mph.

The five categories are described in the following subsections, in order of increasing intensity.[12]

Category 1

Category 1
Sustained winds Most recent
33–42 m/s
64–82 kn
119–153 km/h
74–95 mph
Barry 2019-07-13 1600Z.jpgBarry in 2019 at landfall in Louisiana.

Very dangerous winds will produce some damage

Category 1 storms usually cause no significant structural damage to most well-constructed permanent structures; however, they can topple unanchored mobile homes, as well as uproot or snap weak trees. Poorly attached roof shingles or tiles can blow off. Coastal flooding and pier damage are often associated with Category 1 storms. Power outages are typically widespread to extensive, sometimes lasting several days. Even though it is the least intense type of hurricane, they can still produce widespread damage and can be life-threatening storms.[5]

Hurricanes that peaked at Category 1 intensity and made landfall at that intensity include: Gladys (1968), Beth (1971), Agnes (1972), Juan (1985), Ismael (1995), Danny (1997), Claudette (2003), Gaston (2004), Stan (2005), Humberto (2007), Isaac (2012), Manuel (2013), Earl (2016), Hermine (2016), Newton (2016), Franklin (2017), Nate (2017) and Barry (2019).

Category 2

Category 2
Sustained winds Most recent
43–49 m/s
83–95 kn
154–177 km/h
96–110 mph
Arthur 2014-07-03 2130Z.png
Arthur in 2014 approaching North Carolina.

Extremely dangerous winds will cause extensive damage

Storms of Category 2 intensity often damage roofing material (sometimes exposing the roof) and inflict damage upon poorly constructed doors and windows. Poorly constructed signs and piers can receive considerable damage and many trees are uprooted or snapped. Mobile homes, whether anchored or not, are typically damaged and sometimes destroyed, and many manufactured homes also suffer structural damage. Small craft in unprotected anchorages may break their moorings. Extensive to near-total power outages and scattered loss of potable water are likely, possibly lasting many days.[5]

Hurricanes that peaked at Category 2 intensity and made landfall at that intensity include: Able (1952), Alice (1954), Ella (1958), Fifi (1974), Diana (1990), Calvin (1993), Gert (1993), Rosa (1994), Erin (1995), Alma (1996), Juan (2003), Catarina (2004), Alex (2010), Richard (2010), Tomas (2010), Carlotta (2012), Ernesto (2012), and Arthur (2014).

Category 3

Category 3
Sustained winds Most recent
50–58 m/s
96–112 kn
178–208 km/h
111–129 mph
Otto 2016-11-24 1605Z.jpg
Otto in 2016 at its Nicaragua landfall.

Devastating damage will occur

Tropical cyclones of Category 3 and higher are described as major hurricanes in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific basins. These storms can cause some structural damage to small residences and utility buildings, particularly those of wood frame or manufactured materials with minor curtain wall failures. Buildings that lack a solid foundation, such as mobile homes, are usually destroyed, and gable-end roofs are peeled off. Manufactured homes usually sustain severe and irreparable damage. Flooding near the coast destroys smaller structures, while larger structures are struck by floating debris. A large number of trees are uprooted or snapped, isolating many areas. Additionally, terrain may be flooded well inland. Near-total to total power loss is likely for up to several weeks and water will likely also be lost or contaminated.[5]

Hurricanes that peaked at Category 3 intensity and made landfall at that intensity include: Easy (1950), Carol (1954), Hilda (1955), Audrey (1957), Isbell (1964), Celia (1970), Ella (1970), Eloise (1975), Olivia (1975), Alicia (1983), Elena (1985), Roxanne (1995), Fran (1996), Isidore (2002), Jeanne (2004), Lane (2006), Karl (2010), and Otto (2016).

Category 4

Category 4
Sustained winds Most recent
58–70 m/s
113–136 kn
209–251 km/h
130–156 mph
Harvey 2017-08-25 2231Z.png Harvey in 2017 nearing landfall in Texas.

Catastrophic damage will occur

Category 4 hurricanes tend to produce more extensive curtainwall failures, with some complete structural failure on small residences. Heavy, irreparable damage and near complete destruction of gas station canopies and other wide span overhang type structures are common. Mobile and manufactured homes are often flattened. Most trees, except for the heartiest, are uprooted or snapped, isolating many areas. These storms cause extensive beach erosion, while terrain may be flooded far inland. Total and long-lived electrical and water losses are to be expected, possibly for many weeks.[5]

The 1900 Galveston hurricane, the deadliest natural disaster to hit the United States, peaked at an intensity that corresponds to a modern-day Category 4 storm. Other examples of storms that peaked at Category 4 intensity and made landfall at that intensity include: Hazel (1954), Gracie (1959), Donna (1960), Flora (1963), Cleo (1964), Betsy (1965), Carmen (1974), Frederic (1979), Joan (1988), Iniki (1992), Luis (1995), Iris (2001), Charley (2004), Dennis (2005), Gustav (2008), Ike (2008), Joaquin (2015), and Harvey (2017).

Category 5[edit]

Category 5
Sustained winds Most recent
≥ 70 m/s
≥ 137 kn
≥ 252 km/h
≥ 157 mph
Dorian 2019-09-01 1500Z.jpg Dorian in 2019 nearing its Bahamas landfall.

Extremely catastrophic damage will occur

Category 5 is the highest category of the Saffir–Simpson scale. These storms cause complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings, and some complete building failures with small utility buildings blown over or away. Collapse of many wide-span roofs and walls, especially those with no interior supports, is common. Very heavy and irreparable damage to many wood frame structures and total destruction to mobile/manufactured homes is prevalent. Only a few types of structures are capable of surviving intact, and only if located at least 3 to 5 miles (5 to 8 km) inland. They include office, condominium and apartment buildings and hotels that are of solid concrete or steel frame construction, multi-story concrete parking garages, and residences that are made of either reinforced brick or concrete/cement block and have hipped roofs with slopes of no less than 35 degrees from horizontal and no overhangs of any kind, and if the windows are either made of hurricane-resistant safety glass or covered with shutters. Unless all of these requirements are met, the absolute destruction of a structure is certain.[5]

The storm’s flooding causes major damage to the lower floors of all structures near the shoreline, and many coastal structures can be completely flattened or washed away by the storm surge. Virtually all trees are uprooted or snapped and some may be debarked, isolating most affected communities. Massive evacuation of residential areas may be required if the hurricane threatens populated areas. Total and extremely long-lived power outages and water losses are to be expected, possibly for up to several months.[5]

Historical examples of storms that made landfall at Category 5 status include: “Cuba” (1924), “Okeechobee” (1928), “Bahamas” (1932), “Cuba–Brownsville” (1933), “Labor Day” (1935), Janet (1955), Camille (1969), Edith (1971), Anita (1977), David (1979), Gilbert (1988), Andrew (1992), Dean (2007), Felix (2007), Irma (2017),[13] Maria (2017),[14] Michael (2018),[15] and Dorian (2019). No Category 5 hurricane is known to have made landfall at that strength in the eastern Pacific basin.

Criticism

Some scientists, including Kerry Emanuel and Lakshmi Kantha, have criticized the scale as being simplistic, indicating that the scale takes into account neither the physical size of a storm nor the amount of precipitation it produces.[7] Additionally, they and others point out that the Saffir–Simpson scale, unlike the Richter scale used to measure earthquakes, is not continuous, and is quantized into a small number of categories. Proposed replacement classifications include the Hurricane Intensity Index, which is based on the dynamic pressure caused by a storm’s winds, and the Hurricane Hazard Index, which is based on surface wind speeds, the radius of maximum winds of the storm, and its translational velocity.[16][17] Both of these scales are continuous, akin to the Richter scale;[18] however, neither of these scales have been used by officials.

“Categories 6 and 7”

After the series of powerful storm systems of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, as well as after Hurricane Patricia, a few newspaper columnists and scientists brought up the suggestion of introducing Category 6, and they have suggested pegging Category 6 to storms with winds greater than 174 or 180 mph (78 or 80 m/s; 151 or 156 kn; 280 or 290 km/h).[7][19] Fresh calls were made for consideration of the issue after Hurricane Irma in 2017,[20] which was the subject of a number of seemingly credible false news reports as a “Category 6” storm,[21] partly in consequence of so many local politicians using the term. Only a few storms of this intensity have been recorded. Of the 35 hurricanes currently considered to have attained Category 5 status in the Atlantic, 19 had wind speeds at 175 mph (78 m/s; 152 kn; 282 km/h) or greater and only eight had wind speeds at 180 mph (80 m/s; 160 kn; 290 km/h) or greater (the 1935 Labor Day hurricaneAllenGilbertMitchRitaWilmaIrma, and Dorian). Of the 18 hurricanes currently considered to have attained Category 5 status in the eastern Pacific, only five had wind speeds at 175 mph (78 m/s; 152 kn; 282 km/h) or greater (PatsyJohnLindaRick, and Patricia), and only three had wind speeds at 180 mph (80 m/s; 160 kn; 290 km/h) or greater (Linda, Rick, and Patricia). Most storms which would be eligible for this category were typhoons in the western Pacific, most notably Typhoon Tip in 1979, with sustained winds of 190 mph (310 km/h),[22] and typhoons Haiyan and Meranti in 2013 and 2016, respectively, each with sustained winds of 195 mph (314 km/h). Occasionally, suggestions of using even higher wind speeds as the cutoff have been made. In a newspaper article published in November 2018, NOAA research scientist Jim Kossin said that the potential for more intense hurricanes was increasing as the climate warmed, and suggested that Category 6 would begin at 195 mph (87 m/s; 169 kn; 314 km/h), with a further hypothetical Category 7 beginning at 230 mph (100 m/s; 200 kn; 370 km/h).[23]

According to Robert Simpson, there are no reasons for a Category 6 on the Saffir–Simpson Scale because it is designed to measure the potential damage of a hurricane to human-made structures. Simpson stated that “… when you get up into winds in excess of 155 mph (249 km/h) you have enough damage if that extreme wind sustains itself for as much as six seconds on a building it’s going to cause rupturing damages that are serious no matter how well it’s engineered.”[3] Nonetheless, the counties of Broward and Miami-Dade in Florida have building codes that require that critical infrastructure buildings be able to withstand Category 5 winds.[24][dead link]

See also

References …

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saffir%E2%80%93Simpson_scale

 

 

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U.S. Department of Homeland Security
U.S. Citizenship
and Immigration
Services
http://www.uscis.gov
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
Office of the Director (MS 2000)
Washington, DC 20529-2000
August 28, 2019 PA-2019-05
Policy Alert
SUBJECT: Defining “Residence” in Statutory Provisions Related to Citizenship
Purpose
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is issuing policy guidance in the USCIS
Policy Manual to address requirements for “residence” in statutory provisions related to
citizenship, and to rescind previous guidance regarding children of U.S. government employees
and members of the U.S. armed forces employed or stationed outside the United States.
Background
Numerous statutory provisions related to citizenship1
require applicants or their U.S. citizen
parents to “reside” or to have had a “residence” in a particular location. USCIS is updating the
Policy Manual to better define residence and clarify the distinction between U.S. residence and
physical presence. In addition, USCIS is updating its policy regarding children of U.S. government
employees and U.S. armed forces members employed or stationed outside the United States to
explain that they are not considered to be “residing in the United States” for purposes of acquiring
citizenship under INA 320.
This guidance, contained in Volume 12 of the Policy Manual, is effective as of October 29, 2019
(see attached) and applies prospectively to applications filed on or after that date.2
Policy Highlights
• Clarifies that temporary visits to the United States do not establish U.S. residence and
explains the distinction between residence and physical presence in the United States.
Explains that USCIS no longer considers children of U.S. government employees and U.S.
armed forces members residing outside the United States as “residing in the United States”
for purposes of acquiring citizenship under INA 320.3
Citation: Volume 12: Citizenship and Naturalization, Part H, Children of U.S. Citizens [12
USCIS-PM H]; Part I, Military Members and their Families [12 USCIS-PM I].
1 See, for example, INA 301(c), INA 320(a)(3), and INA 322(a)(4). 2 Children who have already been recognized through the issuance of a Certificate of Citizenship as having acquired
U.S. citizenship under INA 320 will not be affected by this policy change. 3 Instead, the U.S. citizen parent of such a child may apply for naturalization on the child’s behalf under INA 322.

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Policy Alert 2019-05: Defining “Residence” in Statutory Provisions Related to Citizenship
Page 2
This policy is effective on October 29, 2019 and will be incorporated into the Policy Manual
accordingly.
USCIS Policy Manual, Volume 12: Citizenship & Naturalization
Part H – Children of U.S. Citizens
Chapter 2. Definition of Child and Residence for Citizenship and Naturalization
* * *
F. Definition of U.S. Residence
The term residence is defined in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) as the person’s
principal actual dwelling place in fact, without regard to intent.1 A person is not required to live in
a particular place for a specific period of time in order for that place to be considered his or her
“residence.” However, the longer a stay in a particular place, the more likely it is that a person
can establish that place is his or her residence.
1. Difference between Residence and Physical Presence
The term residence should not be confused with physical presence, which refers to the actual
time a person is in the United States, regardless of whether he or she has a residence in the
United States.2 Although some provisions related to naturalization and citizenship require specific
time periods of physical presence, residence, or both,3 in contrast, there is no specific time period
of residence required for purposes of acquiring citizenship where a child is born outside the
United States of two U.S. citizen parents.4
For example, a person who spent time travelling in the United States for a year living in different
hotel rooms in different cities or towns every week and who did not own or rent any property or
have another principal dwelling place in the United States, would likely be able to establish 1 year
of physical presence. However, without additional evidence of a principal actual dwelling place in
the United States, that person could not establish residence in the United States. The table below
provides a few examples on how travel would affect the physical presence and the residence
requirements. However, the examples are not dispositive and individual cases will be determined
based on the individual merits and evidence presented.
1 See INA 101(a)(33). See Savorgnan v. U.S., 338 U.S. 491, 506 (1950). 2 Examples of documentary evidence showing physical presence may include: academic transcripts, military records,
official vaccination records, medical records, employment records, and lease agreements. 3 See INA 301. See INA 309. For more information on physical presence, see Part D, General Naturalization
Requirements, Chapter 4, Physical Presence [12 USCIS-PM D.4]. 4 See INA 301(c).

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Page 3
Examples Illustrating Physical Presence and Residence in the United States
Scenarios Physical
Presence Residence
U.S. citizen parent owns a home and works in a foreign
country. Parent travels to the United States and:
• Stays 2 weeks with a cousin in New York,
• Stays 2 weeks in New York with his or her parents,
and
• Travels to Florida on vacation for 2 weeks.
6 weeks
No U.S. residence
(Residence is
outside the
United States)
Parent is a U.S. citizen born in a foreign country, who
never lived in or visited the United States. His child moved
to the United States as an adult and claimed U.S.
citizenship.
No physical
presence5 No U.S. residence
As a child, U.S. citizen parent came to the United States for
3 consecutive summers to attend a 2-month long camp.
The parent lived and went to school in a foreign country
for the rest of the year.
6 months
No U.S. residence
(Residence is
outside the
United States)
U.S. citizen parent worked in the United States for 9
months in a year for 8 years out of a 9-year period. (Parent
returned to Mexico to spend the remaining 3 months of
each year with family, who never visited the United
States.)
9 months in a
year for 8
years
U.S. residence
established6
2. Special Considerations
Various circumstances may affect whether USCIS considers a person to be residing in the United
States, and therefore whether a U.S. citizen may transmit citizenship to his or her children.
U.S. Citizens who were Born, But Did Not Reside, in the United States
A U.S. citizen may have automatically acquired U.S. citizenship based on birth in the United
States,7 but never actually resided in the United States. This U.S. citizen will not have established
5 See Madar v. USCIS, 918 F.3d 120 (3rd Cir. 2019). In that case, the appellant argued that he was “constructively
resident” in the United States because his U.S. citizen father lived during the relevant time in what was then
Communist Czechoslovakia and was not free to leave the country. The court rejected that claim noting that physical
presence requirements can be constructively satisfied only in extraordinary circumstances, such as, for example,
when a U.S. government error causes citizenship to lapse, preventing the foreign-born parent from complying with
the physical presence requirements.
6 See Alcarez-Garcia v. Ashcroft, 293 F.3rd 1155 (9th Cir. 2002). 7 See U.S. Const. amend XIV. See INA 301(a).

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Policy Alert 2019-05: Defining “Residence” in Statutory Provisions Related to Citizenship
Page 4
residence in the United States, and may be unable to transmit U.S. citizenship to his or her own
children.
For example, if the U.S. citizen, still having never resided in the United States, subsequently
marries another U.S. citizen who never resided in the United States, and they give birth to a child
outside the United States, the child will not acquire citizenship at birth under INA 301(c) because
neither U.S. citizen parent can show the requisite residence in the United States. However, if the
U.S. citizen parent had returned to the United States after his or her birth and established
residence before giving birth to the child outside the United States, then he or she may be able to
meet the residence requirement based on that period of residence and transmit U.S. citizenship
to his or her children.
Commuters and Temporary Visits to the United States
Residence is more than a temporary presence or a visit to the United States. Therefore,
temporary presences and visits are insufficient to establish residence for the purposes of
transmitting citizenship. For example, someone who resides along the border in Mexico or
Canada, but works each day in the United States, cannot use his or her workplace to establish a
residence.
Vacations or brief stays in the United States do not qualify as residence in the United States.
However, attendance at school, college, or university in the United States for an extended period
of time may be considered as residence in the United States depending upon the totality of the
circumstances.8
Owning or Renting Property
A person does not need to own or rent property in the United States in order to establish
residence. In addition, owning or renting property outside of the United States does not
automatically establish lack of residence in the United States. Owning and renting property in the
United States may help to establish residence in the United States if the person also establishes
that he or she actually lived in that property, for example. A person who owns property but
never lived in the property would not be able to establish residence based on owning that
property.
3. Evidence
A U.S. citizen who was born in the United States generally meets the residence requirement as
long as he or she can present evidence to demonstrate that his or her mother was not merely
8 See Matter of M–, 4 I&N Dec. 418 (BIA 1951) (continuous stay in the United States as a college student for almost 3
years held to have residence in the United States for purposes of Section 201(g) of the Nationality Act of 1940, Pub.
L. 76-853, 54 Stat. 1137, 1139 (October 14, 1940)).

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transiting through or visiting the United States at the time of his or her birth.9 For example, a long
form birth certificate is sufficient evidence if it shows a U.S. address listed as the mother’s
residence at the time of the U.S. citizen’s birth.
If a U.S. citizen’s birth certificate indicates that his or her mother’s address was outside of the
United States at the time of the birth, USCIS may find that the U.S. citizen does not meet the
residence requirement unless the U.S. citizen can prove U.S. residence.
Documents that can help demonstrate residence include, but are not limited to, the following:
• U.S. marriage certificate indicating the address of the bride and groom;
• Property rental leases, property tax records, and payment receipts;
• Deeds;
• Utility bills;
• Automobile registrations;
• Professional licenses;
• Employment records or information;
• Income tax records and income records, including W-2 salary forms;
• School transcripts;
• Military records; and
• Vaccination and medical records.
Chapter 3. U.S. Citizens at Birth (INA 301 and 309)
* * * * *
Chapter 4. Automatic Acquisition of Citizenship after Birth (INA 320)
9 For more information on how the rules may vary depending on whether the U.S. citizen is the mother or father of a
child seeking to acquire citizenship, see Chapter 3, U.S. Citizens at Birth (INA 301 and 309), Section A, General
Requirements for Acquisition of Citizenship at Birth [12 USCIS-PM H.4(A)] through Section C, Child Born Out of
Wedlock [12 USCIS-PM H.4(C)].

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A. General Requirements: Genetic, Legitimated, or Adopted Child Automatically Acquiring
Citizenship after Birth1
A child born outside of the United States automatically becomes a U.S. citizen when all of the
following conditions have been met on or after February 27, 2001:2
• The child has at least one parent, including an adoptive parent3 who is a U.S. citizen by
birth or through naturalization;
• The child is under 18 years of age;
• The child is a lawful permanent resident (LPR);4 and
• The child is residing5 in the United States in the legal and physical custody of the U.S.
citizen parent.6
A child born abroad through Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) to a U.S. citizen gestational
mother who is not also the genetic mother may acquire U.S. citizenship under INA 320 if:
• The child’s gestational mother is recognized by the relevant jurisdiction as the child’s legal
parent at the time of the child’s birth; and
1 See INA 320. See Nationality Chart 3. 2 These provisions were created by the Child Citizenship Act of 2000 (CCA), Pub. L. 106-395 (October 30, 2000), which
amended earlier provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) regarding acquisition of citizenship after
birth for foreign-born children who have U.S. citizen parent(s). These CCA amendments became effective on
February 27, 2001.
3 As long as the child meets the requirements to be considered an adopted child for immigration purposes, as
outlined in INA 101(b)(1)(E), INA 101(b)(1)(F), or INA 101(b)(1)(G). 4 A person is generally considered to be an LPR once USCIS approves his or her adjustment application or once he or
she enters the United States with an immigrant visa. See INA 245(b). For certain classifications, however, the
effective date of becoming an LPR is a date that is earlier than the actual approval of the status (commonly referred
to as a “rollback” date). See Part D, General Naturalization Requirements, Chapter 2, Lawful Permanent Resident
(LPR) Admission for Naturalization, Section A, Lawful Permanent Resident (LPR) at Time of Filing and Naturalization
[12 USCIS-PM D.2(A)]. In addition, a person who is born a U.S. national and is the child of a U.S. citizen may establish
eligibility for a Certificate of Citizenship without having to establish LPR status. 5 For the definition of residence, see Chapter 2, Definition of Child and Residence for Citizenship and Naturalization,
Section F, Definition of Residence [12 USCIS-PM H.2(F)].
6 See INA 320. See 8 CFR 320.2. Children of U.S. government employees, including members of the armed forces,
who live with parents who are stationed outside the United States are not considered to be “residing in” the United
States for purposes of acquisition of citizenship under INA 320. For a more thorough discussion, see Chapter 5, Child
Residing Outside of the United States (INA 322), Section E, Application for Citizenship and Issuance of Certificate
under Section 322 (Form N-600K) [12 USCIS-PM H.6(E)].

http://www.uscis.gov
Policy Alert 2019-05: Defining “Residence” in Statutory Provisions Related to Citizenship
Page 7
• The child meets all other requirements under INA 320, including that the child is residing
in the United States in the legal and physical custody of the U.S. citizen parent.7
A stepchild who has not been adopted does not qualify for citizenship under this provision.
* * * * *
Chapter 5. Child Residing Outside of the United States (INA 322)
* * *
D. Temporary Presence by Lawful Admission and Status in United States
* * *
E. Children of U.S. Government Employees and Members of the Armed Forces Employed or
Stationed Abroad
Effective October 29, 2019, children residing abroad with their U.S. citizen parents who are U.S.
government employees or members of the U.S. armed forces stationed abroad are not
considered to be residing in the United States for acquisition of citizenship. Similarly, leave taken
in the United States while stationed abroad is not considered residing in the United States even if
the person is staying in property he or she owns.
Therefore, U.S. citizen parents who are residing outside the United States with children who are
not U.S. citizens should apply for U.S. citizenship on behalf of their children under INA 3228, and
must complete the process before the child’s 18th birthday.9 The child of a member of the U.S.
armed forces accompanying his or her parent abroad on official orders may be eligible to
complete all aspects of the naturalization proceedings abroad. This includes interviews, filings,
oaths, ceremonies, or other proceedings relating to naturalization.10
Applications filed on or after October 29, 2019 are subject to this policy. The policy in place
before October 29, 2019 applies to applications filed before that date. Children who have already
been recognized through the issuance of a Certificate of Citizenship as having acquired U.S.
citizenship under INA 320 are not affected by this policy change.
Background
Children born outside the United States who did not acquire U.S. citizenship at birth have two
7 For a more thorough discussion, see Chapter 2, Definition of Child for Citizenship and Naturalization, Section E,
Child Born Abroad through Assisted Reproductive Technology [12 USCIS-PM H.2(E)]. 8 See Chapter 9, Spouses, Children, and Surviving Family Benefits, Section C, Children of Military Members [12 USCISPM I.9(C)]. 9 See INA 322(a)(3). 10 See INA 322(d).

http://www.uscis.gov
Policy Alert 2019-05: Defining “Residence” in Statutory Provisions Related to Citizenship
Page 8
methods by which they could become U.S. citizens. The first method permits children to
automatically become U.S. citizens under INA 320. Among other eligibility criteria, the statute
requires the child to be “residing in the United States in the legal and physical custody of the
citizen parent pursuant to a lawful admission for permanent residence.”11
The second method is for the U.S. citizen parent of a child “who has not acquired citizenship
automatically under section 320” to apply for U.S. citizenship on the child’s behalf under INA 322.
To be eligible for citizenship under INA 322, the statute requires the child to be “residing outside
of the United States in the legal and physical custody of the applicant (or, if the citizen parent is
deceased, an individual who does not object to the application).”12
USCIS policy previously provided that children of U.S. government employees and members of
the U.S. armed forces who were employed or stationed outside of the United States should be
considered to be both “residing in the United States” for purposes of INA 320 and “residing
outside of the United States” for purposes of INA 322.13 Their parents were permitted to file an
Application for Certificate of Citizenship (Form N-600) on their behalf and obtain a Certificate of
Citizenship showing that they had acquired citizenship automatically, or their parents were
permitted to file an Application for Citizenship and Issuance of Certificate Under Section 322
(Form N-600K) in order to apply for naturalization on the child’s behalf.
USCIS previously arrived at the interpretation that children of members of the U.S. armed forces
could be considered as “residing in the United States” when stationed abroad by comparison to
naturalization under INA 316.
For purposes of naturalization under INA 316, eligibility requirements include continuous
residence in the United States for at least 5 years after being lawfully admitted for permanent
residence.14 An absence from the United States for a continuous period of 1 year of more during
the period for which continuous residence is required, breaks the continuity of such residence,
except in certain cases when the absence is related to qualifying employment, including an
absence by a U.S. government employee who establishes that he or she is absent from the United
States on behalf of the U.S. government.15 The spouse and dependent unmarried sons and
daughters of such an employee are also entitled to this exception excusing the absence from the
United States during which they are residing outside of the United States as dependent members
of the U.S. government employee’s household.
11 See INA 320(a)(3). 12 See INA 322(a)(4). 13 See Policy Manual Technical Update, Child Citizenship Act and Children of U.S. Government Employees Residing
Abroad (July 20, 2015); and USCIS Policy Memorandum, No. 103, Acquisition of Citizenship by Children of U.S. Military
and Government Employees Stationed Abroad under Section 320 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), issued
May 6, 2004.
14 See INA 316(a). See Part D, General Naturalization Requirements, Chapter 3, Continuous Residence [12 USCIS-PM
D.3]. 15 See INA 316(b).

http://www.uscis.gov
Policy Alert 2019-05: Defining “Residence” in Statutory Provisions Related to Citizenship
Page 9
Based on this treatment of U.S. government employees and their children in the context of
naturalization under INA 316, USCIS determined that “residing in the United States” for purposes
of naturalization under INA 320 should likewise be interpreted to include children of U.S. military
and government employees stationed outside of the United States who are residing outside of
the United States with their parents.
However, as of October 29, 2019, USCIS is no longer committed to this reasoning because the
prior USCIS policy guidance is in conflict with several provisions of the Immigration and
Nationality Act (INA), especially with changes to the acquisition of citizenship statutes that
occurred in 2008, after the initial policy determination in 2004.
First, permitting a child to be eligible simultaneously for a Certificate of Citizenship under INA 320
and for naturalization under INA 322 conflicts with the language of INA 322(a), which states that
a parent “may apply for naturalization on behalf of a child born outside of the United States who
has not acquired citizenship automatically under INA 320.”
Second, considering children who are living outside of the United States to be “residing in the
United States” conflicts with the definition of “residence” at INA 101(a)(33), which defines
“residence” as a person’s “principal, actual dwelling place in fact.”
Third, considering these children to be “residing in the United States” is at odds with INA 322(d),
which was enacted in 2008,16 4 years after USCIS issued policy guidance on the topic. When
Congress enacted INA 322(d), it provided for special procedures in cases involving the
naturalization of “a child of a member of the Armed Forces of the United States who is authorized
to accompany such member and reside abroad with the member pursuant to the member’s
official orders, and is so accompanying and residing with the member.” Congress placed this
provision under INA 322, which applies only to children “residing outside of the United States.” It
did not provide similar language for such children to acquire citizenship under INA 320.
Furthermore, in the same legislation, Congress also explicitly provided that spouses of U.S. armed
forces members who reside outside of the United States due to the member’s official orders are
considered to be residing in the United States for naturalization purposes.17 The fact that no
similar provision was included for children of U.S. armed forces members in the acquisition of
citizenship context is significant.18
Finally, the prior USCIS policy produced confusion in several respects. First, it may have resulted
in inconsistent adjudications by USCIS officers adjudicating applications for certificates of
citizenship, and U.S. Department of State (DOS) consular officers adjudicating passport
applications. DOS has interpreted INA 320 to apply solely to children who are physically in the
16 See National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, Pub. L. 110-181, 122 Stat 3 (January 28, 2008). 17 See INA 319(e). 18 See, for example, Keene Corp. v. United States, 508 U.S. 200, 208 (1993) (quoting Russello v. United States, 464 U.S.
16, 23 (1983)) (“[W]here Congress includes particular language in one section of a statute but omits it in another …, it
is generally presumed that Congress acts intentionally and purposely in the disparate inclusion or exclusion.”).

http://www.uscis.gov
Policy Alert 2019-05: Defining “Residence” in Statutory Provisions Related to Citizenship
Page 10
United States and does not recognize an exception by policy for children of U.S. military and U.S.
government employees stationed outside of the United States.19
In addition, the policy resulted in confusion as to the date a child acquired U.S. citizenship,
depending on what form the parent (a U.S. government employee or U.S. armed forces member
employed or stationed outside of the United States) used: Form N-600K would result in
naturalization proceedings under INA 322, while Form N-600 would result in automatic
acquisition of citizenship under INA 320. Children who acquire U.S. citizenship automatically are
citizens as of the date on which they meet all eligibility criteria under INA 320, but children who
seek naturalization under INA 322 become citizens upon taking and subscribing to the oath of
allegiance (or upon approval of the application if the oath is waived).
Under USCIS’ prior policy guidance, a child of a U.S. government employee or U.S. armed forces
member who was employed or stationed outside of the United States could meet all of the
eligibility criteria for acquiring citizenship under INA 320 while residing outside of the United
States, but still seek to naturalize under INA 322. In such a case, the date on which the child
became a citizen would have been unclear.
For all these reasons, USCIS rescinded the prior USCIS policy permitting children of U.S.
government employees and U.S. armed forces members stationed outside of the United States to
be considered “residing in” the United States.
F. Application for Citizenship and Issuance of Certificate under Section 322 (Form N-600K)
* * *
G. Documentation and Evidence
* * *
H. Citizenship Interview and Waiver
* * *
I. Decision and Oath of Allegiance
* * * * *
USCIS Policy Manual, Volume 12: Citizenship & Naturalization
Part I – Military Members and their Families
19 See 8 FAM 301.10-2(A), Evidence of Citizenship for Children Born Abroad to U.S. Citizen Parent(s) Under INA 320 as
amended by the Child Citizenship Act of 2000.

http://www.uscis.gov
Policy Alert 2019-05: Defining “Residence” in Statutory Provisions Related to Citizenship
Page 11
Chapter 9. Spouses, Children, and Surviving Family Benefits
* * *
C. Children of Military Members20
The table below serves as a quick reference guide to certain residence, physical presence, and
overseas naturalization provisions for children of service members. The paragraphs that follow
the table provide further guidance on each provision.
Residence, Lawful Admission, and Overseas Naturalization
for Children of Members of the U.S. Armed Forces
INA
Section21
Place of
Residence
Lawful
Admission
Treatment of
Time Residing
Abroad
Automatic Citizenship or
Overseas Naturalization
320 United
States Must be LPR
Must reside with
U.S. citizen
parent in the
United States
May acquire automatic
citizenship (must take oath in
the United States)
322
Outside the
United
States
No lawful
admission
required
Must reside with
U.S. citizen
parent serving
abroad
Must apply, but may complete
entire naturalization process
from outside the United States
(must take oath before 18th
birthday)
1. Children of Service Members Residing in the United States (INA 320)
* * * * *
20 This section describes certain benefits on residence, lawful admission, and overseas naturalization for children of
service members. See Part H, Children of U.S. Citizens [12 USCIS-PM H], for guidance on the general naturalization,
residence and acquisition of citizenship provisions. 21 See 8 CFR 320.2 and 8 CFR 322.2.

 

https://www.uscis.gov/sites/default/files/policymanual/updates/20190828-ResidenceForCitizenship.pdf

Trump administration tightens citizenship rules for children of U.S. military abroad

Children born to U.S. citizens stationed abroad as government employees or members of the U.S. military will no longer qualify for automatic American citizenship under a policy change unveiled on Wednesday by the Trump administration.

Effective Oct. 29, parents serving overseas in the U.S. armed forces or other agencies of the federal government would need to go through a formal application process seeking U.S. citizenship on their children’s behalf, the policy states.

Currently, children born to U.S. citizens stationed by their government in a foreign country are legally considered to be “residing in the United States,” allowing their parents to simply obtain a certificate showing the children acquired citizenship automatically.

But an 11-page “policy alert” issued by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) said the agency found the prevailing policy to be at odds with other parts of federal immigration law. Beyond that, the rationale for the policy change remained unclear.

“USCIS is updating its policy regarding children of U.S. government employees and U.S. armed forces members employed or stationed outside the United States to explain that they are not considered to be ‘residing in the United States’ for purposes of acquiring citizenship,” the memorandum said.

The number of government and military personnel affected by the change was not immediately known, but the revised policy sparked immediate consternation on the part of some organizations representing members of the armed forces.

“Military members already have enough to deal with, and the last thing that they should have to do when stationed overseas is go through hoops to ensure their children are U.S. citizens,” said Andy Blevins, executive director of the Modern Military Association of America.

He urged Congress to take action to address the situation to “ensure our military families don’t suffer the consequences of a reckless administration.” (Reporting by Steve Gorman in Los Angeles; editing by Bill Tarrant and Leslie Adler)

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/reuters/article-7405063/Trump-administration-tightens-citizenship-rules-children-U-S-military-abroad.html

 

 

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The Pronk Pops Show 1232, March 29, 2019, Part 1, Story 1: U.S. Federal Government Sets Ten Year Spending Record as Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Deficit Will Be Over $900 Billion Heading for $1 Trillion on $1,000,000,000,000 — Government Spending Is Out of Control — Robbing From Our Children’s Future — Totally Immoral and Irresponsible — Will Congress Take on Spending? — Yes By Increasing Even More! — I Hear The Drums — Videos — Story 2: Trump Threatens To Close U.S. Mexican Border As Border Apprehension Heading To Over 1 Million In 2019 — 30-60 Million Illegal Alien Invasion of United States Over 32 Years — Enough Is Enough — Shut Border Down and Build and Complete The 2000 Mile Border Barrier Now! — Videos — Story 3: President Trump 2020 Stump Speech Preview — Radical Extremist Democrat Socialists or REDS On The Run — Hello Goodbye — We Can Work It Out — Videos

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Story 1: U.S. Federal Government Sets Ten Year Spending Record as Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Deficit Will Be Over $900 Billion Heading for $1 Trillion on $1,000,000,000,000– Government Spending Is Out of Control — Robbing Our Children’s Future — Totally Immoral and Irresponsible — Will Congress Take on Spending? Yes By Increasing Spending Even More — Videos

 

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News Wrap: Trump asks Cabinet to cut federal budget

Socialist vs. Libertarian: Deficit Debate

David Stockman on the Trump economy

This debt ceiling does not work: David Walker

National debt surpasses $22 trillion

Budget Deficit Hits Highest Level In 6 Years After Tax Cuts | Velshi & Ruhle | MSNBC

US debt is growing faster than the economy: Maya MacGuineas

America’s debt will exceed size of economy within 10 years: Study

Rick Astley – Never Gonna Give You Up (Official Music Video)

Never Gonna Give You Up

We’re no strangers to love
You know the rules and so do I
A full commitment’s what I’m thinking of
You wouldn’t get this from any other guy
I just wanna tell you how I’m feeling
Gotta make you understand
Never gonna give you up
Never gonna let you down
Never gonna run around and desert you
Never gonna make you cry
Never gonna say goodbye
Never gonna tell a lie and hurt you
We’ve known each other for so long
Your heart’s been aching but you’re too shy to say it
Inside we both know what’s been going on
We know the game and we’re gonna play it
And if you ask me how I’m feeling
Don’t tell me you’re too blind to see
Never gonna give you up
Never gonna let you down
Never gonna run around and desert you
Never gonna make you cry
Never gonna say goodbye
Never gonna tell a lie and hurt you
Never gonna give you up
Never gonna let you down
Never gonna run around and desert you
Never gonna make you cry
Never gonna say goodbye
Never gonna tell a lie and hurt you
Never gonna give, never gonna give
(Give you up)
(Ooh) Never gonna give, never gonna give
(Give you up)
We’ve known each other for so long
Your heart’s been aching but you’re too shy to say it
Inside we both know what’s been going on
We know the game and we’re gonna play it
I just wanna tell you how I’m feeling
Gotta make you understand
Never gonna give you up
Never gonna let you down
Never gonna run around and desert you
Never gonna make you cry
Never gonna say goodbye
Never gonna tell a lie and hurt you
Never gonna give you up
Never gonna let you down
Never gonna run around and desert you
Never gonna make you cry
Never gonna say goodbye
Never gonna tell a lie and hurt you
Never gonna give you up
Never gonna let you down
Never gonna run around and desert you
Never gonna make you cry
Songwriters: Mike Stock / Matt Aitken / Peter Waterman
Never Gonna Give You Up lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Universal Music Publishing Group

a-ha – Take On Me (Official Music Video)

Lyrics
We’re talking away
I don’t know what
I’m to say I’ll say it anyway
Today’s another day to find you
Shying away
I’ll be coming for your love, okay?
Take on me (take on me)
Take me on (take on me)
I’ll be gone
In a day or two
So needless to say
I’m odds and ends
But I’ll be stumbling away
Slowly learning that life is okay
Say after me
It’s no better to be safe than sorry
Take on me (take on me)
Take me on (take on me)
I’ll be gone
In a day or two
Songwriters: Pal Waaktaar / Morten Harket / Magne Furuholmen
Take On Me lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC

Toto – Africa (Official Music Video)

Africa
I hear the drums echoing tonight
But she hears only whispers of some quiet conversation
She’s coming in, 12:30 flight
The moonlit wings reflect the stars that guide me towards salvation
I stopped an old man along the way
Hoping to find some old forgotten words or ancient melodies
He turned to me as if to say, “Hurry boy, it’s waiting there for you”
It’s gonna take a lot to drag me away from you
There’s nothing that a hundred men or more could ever do
I bless the rains down in Africa
Gonna take some time to do the things we never had (ooh, ooh)
The wild dogs cry out in the night
As they grow restless, longing for some solitary company
I know that I must do what’s right
As sure as Kilimanjaro rises like Olympus above the Serengeti
I seek to cure what’s deep inside, frightened of this thing that I’ve become
It’s gonna take a lot to drag me away from you
There’s nothing that a hundred men or more could ever do
I bless the rains down in Africa
Gonna take some time to do the things we never had (ooh, ooh)
Hurry boy, she’s waiting there for you
It’s gonna take a lot to drag me away from you
There’s nothing that a hundred men or more could ever do
I bless the rains down in Africa
I bless the rains down in Africa
(I bless the rain)
I bless the rains down in Africa (I bless the rain)
I bless the rains down in Africa
I bless the rains down in Africa (ah, gonna take the time)
Gonna take some time to do the things we never had (ooh, ooh)
Songwriters: David Paich / Jeff Porcaro
Africa lyrics © Spirit Music Group

 

 

Federal Spending Hits Highest Level Since Bank Bailout and Obama Stimulus

By Terence P. Jeffrey | March 26, 2019 | 12:01 PM EDT

Then-President-elect Barack Obama and President George W. Bush, Nov. 10, 2008. (Getty Images/Gary Fabiano-Pool)

(CNSNews.com) – The federal government spent $1,822,712,000,000 in the first five months of fiscal 2019, the most it has spent in the first five months of any fiscal year since 2009, which was the fiscal year that outgoing President George W. Bush signed a $700-billion law to bailout the banking industry and incoming President Barack Obama signed a $787-billion law to stimulate an economy then in recession.

At the same time that federal spending was hitting this ten-year high, federal tax revenues in the first five months of the fiscal year were hitting a four-year low of $1,278,482,000,000.

According to the Monthly Treasury Statement for February, the Treasury spent $1,822,712,000,000 in the five months from October 2018 through February 2019, the first five months of the federal fiscal year.

The last time the Treasury spent more than that in the first five months of a fiscal year—in inflation-adjusted constant February 2019 dollars—was fiscal 2009. That year, the Treasury spent $1,936,268,470,000.

Fiscal 2009 started with President Bush signing the Troubled Asset Relief Program into law on Oct. 3, 2008; it continued with President Obama, after his January inaugural, signing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on Feb. 17, 2009.

At the time, the Bush bank bailout and Obama stimulus were perceived as the two of the biggest emergency spending bills in the nation’s history.

“With evidence mounting that the nation faces a sharp economic downturn, Congress yesterday gave final approval to what may be the biggest government bailout in American history, authorizing the Bush administration to spend $700 billion to try to thaw frozen credit markets and prevent a deep recession,” the Washington Post reported when Bush signed the bank bailout.

The reporting on Obama’s stimulus was similar.

“Warning that its passage into law ‘does not mark the end of our economic troubles,’ President Obama on Tuesday signed the $787 billion stimulus package, a measure he called the most sweeping financial legislation enacted in the nation’s history,” the Washington Post reported on Feb. 17, 2009.

The Congressional Budget Office said this about the impact the stimulus (H.R. 1) would have on federal deficits: “CBO estimates that enacting the conference agreement for H.R. 1 would increase federal budget deficits by $185 billion over the remaining months of fiscal year 2009, by $399 billion in 2010, by $134 billion in 2011, and by $787 billion over the 2009-2019 period.”

After federal spending hit an all-time high of $1,936,268,470,000 (in constant February 2019 dollars) in the first five months of fiscal 2009, it eventually dropped to $1,595,941,280,000 in the first five months of fiscal 2014. That was the lowest level for the first five months of any fiscal year in the last ten.

Federal spending climbed from $1,702,631,750,000 (in constant February 2019 dollars) in the first five months of fiscal 2018 to $1,822,712,000,000 in the first five months of fiscal 2019.

While spending has gone up this year, federal tax receipts have declined.

Total federal tax revenues through February dropped from $1,305,723,550,000 (in constant February 2019 dollars) in fiscal 2018 to $1,278,482,000,000 this year.

The last time, total federal tax revenues were lower through February than they were this year was fiscal 2015, when they were $1,276,806,230,000 (in constant February 2019 dollars).

Standing alone, individual income tax receipts also hit a four-year low of $626,592,000,000.

Corporation income taxes through February hit their lowest level in eight years–$59,194,000,000. That was down from $74,658,920,000 through February in fiscal 2018.

The last time federal corporation income taxes were lower through February than they were this year was fiscal 2011, when they were $43,607,510,000 (in constant February 2019 dollars).

In the month of February alone, corporations paid a net negative in federal income taxes, according to the Monthly Treasury Statement.

During the month, according to the statement, corporations paid a net negative of $669,000,000 in income taxes.

It is not unusual for corporations to pay a net negative in income taxes in the month of February, according to historical data from the Monthly Treasury Statements. In the last 20 fiscal years (2000 through 2019), corporations have paid net negative income taxes in 10 Februaries (2001, 2002, 2003, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2015, 2016, 2018, 2019).

In fact, the net negative $669 million in income taxes paid by corporations this February was less than the net negative income taxes paid by corporations in any of the other nine years over the past 20 that corporations paid net negative income taxes.

The highest level of net negative income taxes paid by corporations over the past 20 years occurred in fiscal 2016, when corporations paid a net negative $3,685,390,000 in income taxes (in constant February 2019 dollars).

Asked about the decline in corporation income tax revenues, a senior Treasury Department official told CNSNews.com that the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act signed by President Trump in December 2017 was understood to be frontloaded in that corporations early on would take advantage of the new expensing rules to build their businesses.

paper by the Tax Foundation explains: “The provision allows businesses to immediately deduct the full cost of short-lived investments, similar to the treatment of other business expenses, rather than stretching the deductions over many years.”

[Below is the summary of receipts from the February 2019 Monthly Treasury Statement.]

(Dollars amounts in this story were adjusted to constant February 2019 values using the Bureau of Labor Statistics inflation calculator.)

https://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/terence-p-jeffrey/federal-spending-hits-highest-level-bank-bailout-and-obama-stimulus

Story 2: Trump Threatens To Close U.S. Mexican Border — “I’m not playing games” — As Border Apprehension Heading To Over 1 Million In 2019 — 30-60 Million Illegal Alien Invasion of United States Over 32 Years — Enough Is Enough — Shut Border Down and Build The Border Barrier Now! — Videos

The southern border is at its breaking point

Why the US may need to close the southern border

Illegal Caravan 2500+ to USA Mexico Border Patrol apprehend 1 million illegal migrants in 2019

Border Patrol: unprecedented number migrants illegally crossing NM border

How Thousands Of Asylum Seekers Are Trapped At The U.S. Border | NBC News

The biggest border issue is US asylum laws, not a wall?

Should the U.S. Asylum System Change?

Border business: Inside immigration

Turbulence in Tijuana Documentary – The Immigration Crisis in Mexico

Trump on border fight: I’m not playing games

CNN’s Wolf Blitzer SHOCKED by TRUMP said HE WILL CLOSE BORDER Next Week and KEEP IT Closed

Who can apply for asylum in the US?

Why seeking asylum in America is so difficult

Trump Says Its Likely He Will Close The U.S.-Mexico Border

Trump threatens to permanently shut down border

Asylum seekers crossing back to the U.S. illegally

This Immigrant Left the U.S. To Seek Asylum In Canada And Regrets It (HBO)

Tears For Fears – Shout (Official Video)

Shout
Shout
Let it all out
These are the things I can do without
Come on
I’m talking to you
Come on
Shout
Shout
Let it all out
These are the things I can do without
Come on
I’m talking to you
Come on
In violent times
You shouldn’t have to sell your soul
In black and white
They really really ought to know
Those one track minds
That took you for a working boy
Kiss them goodbye
You shouldn’t have to jump for joy
You shouldn’t have to shout for joy
Shout
Shout
Let it all out
These are the things I can do without
Come on
I’m talking to you
Come on
They gave you life
And in return you gave them hell
As cold as ice
I hope we live to tell the tale
I hope we live to tell the tale
Shout
Shout
Let it all out
These are the things I can do without
Come on
I’m talking to you
Come on
Shout
Shout
Let it all out
These are the things I can do without
Come on
I’m talking to you
Come on
Shout
Shout
Let it all out
These are the things I can do without
Come on
I’m talking to you
Come on
And when you’ve taken down your guard
If I could change your mind
I’d really love to break your heart
I’d really love to break your heart
Shout
Shout
Let it all out
These are the things I can do without
Come on
I’m talking to you
Come on
Shout
Shout
Let it all out
These are the things I can do without
Come on
I’m talking to you
So come on
Shout
Shout
Let it all out
These are the things I can do without
Come on
I’m talking to you
Come on
Shout
Shout
Let it all out
These are the things I can do without
Come on
I’m talking to you
Come on
Shout
Shout
Let it all out
These are the things I can do without
Come on
I’m talking to you
So come on
Shout
Shout
Let it all out
These are the things I can do without
Come on
I’m talking to you
Songwriters: Ian Stanley / Roland Orzabal
Shout lyrics © EMI Music Publishing, Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC

Trump cuts aid to Central American countries as migrant crisis deepens

by Reuters
Saturday, 30 March 2019 23:40 GMT

Trump has claimed that the countries had “set up” caravans of migrants in order to export them into the United States

By Julia Harte and Tim Reid

WASHINGTON/EL PASO, Texas, March 30 (Reuters) – The U.S. government cut aid to El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras on Saturday after President Donald Trump blasted the Central American countries for sending migrants to the United States and threatened to shutter the U.S.-Mexico border.

A surge of asylum seekers from the three countries have sought to enter the United States across the southern border in recent days. On Friday, Trump accused the nations of having “set up” migrant caravans and sent them north.

Trump said there was a “very good likelihood” he would close the border this week if Mexico did not stop immigrants from reaching the United States. Frequent crossers of the border, including workers and students, worried about the disruption to their lives the president’s threatened shutdown could cause.

At a rally on the border in El Paso, Texas, Democratic presidential hopeful Beto O’Rourke denounced Trump’s immigration policies as the politics of “fear and division.”

A State Department spokesman said in a statement it was carrying out Trump’s directive by ending aid programs to the three Central American nations, known as the Northern Triangle.

The department said it would “engage Congress in the process,” an apparent acknowledgement that it will need lawmakers’ approval to end funding that a Congressional aide estimated would total about $700 million.

New Jersey Senator Bob Menendez, the top Democrat on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, called Trump’s order a “reckless announcement” and urged Democrats and Republicans alike to reject it.

Trump told reporters at his Mar-a-Lago resort in Florida on Friday that the United States was paying the three countries “tremendous amounts of money,” but received nothing in return.

Mario Garcia, a 45-year-old bricklayer in El Salvador, said he was setting off for the United States regardless of the president’s threat to close the frontier.

“There is no work here and we want to improve (our lives), to get ahead for our families, for our children. I don’t give a damn (what Trump says), I’m determined,” Garcia said.

Garcia was one of a group of at least 90 people who left the capital San Salvador over the weekend on buses heading north, in what locals said was the tenth so-called caravan to depart for the United States since October.

The government of El Salvador has said it has tried to stem the flow of migrants.

The Honduran Foreign Ministry on Saturday called the U.S. policies “contradictory” but stressed that its relationship with the United States was “solid, close and positive.”

Trump, who launched his presidential campaign in 2015 with a promise to build a border wall and crack down on illegal immigration, has repeatedly threatened to close the frontier during his two years in office but has not followed through.

This time, Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen and other U.S. officials say border patrol officers have been overwhelmed by a sharp increase asylum seekers, many of them children and families who arrive in groups, fleeing violence and economic hardship in the Northern Triangle.

March is on track for 100,000 border apprehensions, Homeland Security officials said, which would be the highest monthly number in more than a decade. Most of those people can remain in the United States while their asylum claims are processed, which can take years because of ballooning immigration court backlogs.

Nielsen warned Congress on Thursday that the government faces a “system-wide meltdown” as it tries to care for more than 1,200 unaccompanied children and 6,600 migrant families in its custody.

Trump has so far been unable to convince Congress to tighten asylum laws or fund his border wall. He has declared a national emergency to justify redirecting money earmarked for the military to pay for the wall.

Mexico has played down the possibility of a border shutdown. Its foreign minister, Marcelo Ebrard, said the country is a good neighbor and does not act on the basis of threats.

It was not clear how shutting down ports of entry would deter asylum seekers because they are legally able to request help as soon as they set foot on U.S. soil.

But a border shutdown would disrupt tourism and U.S.-Mexico trade that totaled $612 billion last year, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. A shutdown could lead to factory closures on both sides of the border, industry officials say, because the automobiles and medical sectors especially have woven international supply chains into their business models. (Reporting by Julia Harte and Richard Cowan in Washington, and Tim Reid in El Paso; Additional reporting by Jose Luis Gonzalez in Ciudad Juarez, Julia Love in Mexico City, Omar Younis in San Diego, Nelson Renteria in San Salvador and Orfa Mejia in Tegucigalpa; Writing by Daniel Wallis; Editing by Rosalba O’Brien)

http://news.trust.org/item/20190330195340-c3vlh

Asylum in the United States

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Annual Refugee Admissions to the United States by Fiscal Year, 1975 to mid-2018

Annual Asylum Grants in the United States by Fiscal Year, 1990-2016

The United States recognizes the right of asylum for individuals as specified by international and federal law.[1] A specified number of legally defined refugees who either apply for asylum from inside the U.S. or apply for refugee status from outside the U.S., are admitted annually. Refugees compose about one-tenth of the total annual immigration to the United States, though some large refugee populations are very prominent. Since World War II, more refugees have found homes in the U.S. than any other nation and more than two million refugees have arrived in the U.S. since 1980. In the years 2005 through 2007, the number of asylum seekers accepted into the U.S. was about 40,000 per year. This compared with about 30,000 per year in the UK and 25,000 in Canada. The U.S. accounted for about 10% of all asylum-seeker acceptances in the OECD countries in 1998-2007.[2] The United States is by far the most populous OECD country and receives fewer than the average number of refugees per capita: In 2010-14 (before the massive migrant surge in Europe in 2015) it ranked 28 of 43 industrialized countries reviewed by UNHCR.[3]

Asylum has two basic requirements. First, an asylum applicant must establish that he or she fears persecution in their home country.[4] Second, the applicant must prove that he or she would be persecuted on account of one of five protected grounds: racereligionnationalitypolitical opinion, or particular social group.[5]

Character of refugee inflows and resettlement[edit]

Refugee resettlement to the United States by region, 1990–2005 (Source: Migration Policy Institute)

During the Cold War, and up until the mid-1990s, the majority of refugees resettled in the U.S. were people from the former-Soviet Union and Southeast Asia.[citation needed] The most conspicuous of the latter were the refugees from Vietnam following the Vietnam War, sometimes known as “boat people“. Following the end of the Cold War, the largest resettled European group were refugees from the Balkans, primarily Serbs, from Bosnia and Croatia.[citation needed] In the 1990s/2000s, the proportion of Africans rose in the annual resettled population, as many fled various ongoing conflicts.[citation needed]

Large metropolitan areas have been the destination of most resettlements, with 72% of all resettlements between 1983 and 2004 going to 30 locations.[citation needed] The historical gateways for resettled refugees have been California (specifically Los AngelesOrange CountySan Jose, and Sacramento), the Mid-Atlantic region (New York in particular), the Midwest (specifically ChicagoSt. LouisMinneapolis-St. Paul), and Northeast (Providence, Rhode Island).[citation needed] In the last decades of the twentieth century, Washington, D.C.SeattleWashingtonPortlandOregon; and AtlantaGeorgia provided new gateways for resettled refugees. Particular cities are also identified with some national groups: metropolitan Los Angeles received almost half of the resettled refugees from Iran, 20% of Iraqi refugees went to Detroit, and nearly one-third of refugees from the former Soviet Union were resettled in New York.[citation needed]

Between 2004 and 2007, nearly 4,000 Venezuelans claimed political asylum in the United States and almost 50% of them were granted. In contrast, in 1996, only 328 Venezuelans claimed asylum, and a mere 20% of them were granted.[6] According to USA Today, the number of asylums being granted to Venezuelan claimants has risen from 393 in 2009 to 969 in 2012.[7] Other references agree with the high number of political asylum claimants from Venezuela, confirming that between 2000 and 2010, the United States has granted them with 4,500 political asylums.[8]

Criticism

Despite this, concerns have been raised with the U.S. asylum and refugee determination processes. A recent empirical analysis by three legal scholars described the U.S. asylum process as a game of refugee roulette; that is to say that the outcome of asylum determinations depends in large part on the personality of the particular adjudicator to whom an application is randomly assigned, rather than on the merits of the case. The very low numbers of Iraqi refugees accepted between 2003 and 2007 exemplifies concerns about the United States’ refugee processes. The Foreign Policy Association reported that “Perhaps the most perplexing component of the Iraq refugee crisis… has been the inability for the U.S. to absorb more Iraqis following the 2003 invasion of the country. Up until 2008, the U.S. has granted less than 800 Iraqis refugee status, just 133 in 2007. By contrast, the U.S. granted asylum to more than 100,000 Vietnamese refugees during the Vietnam War.” [9]

Relevant law and procedures

“The Immigration and Nationality Act (‘INA’) authorizes the Attorney General to grant asylum if an alien is unable or unwilling to return to her country of origin because she has suffered past persecution or has a well-founded fear of future persecution on account of ‘race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.'”[1]

The United States is obliged to recognize valid claims for asylum under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol. As defined by these agreements, a refugee is a person who is outside his or her country of nationality (or place of habitual residence if stateless) who, owing to a fear of persecution on account of a protected ground, is unable or unwilling to avail himself of the protection of the state. Protected grounds include race, nationality, religion, political opinion and membership of a particular social group. The signatories to these agreements are further obliged not to return or “refoul” refugees to the place where they would face persecution.

This commitment was codified and expanded with the passing of the Refugee Act of 1980 by the United States Congress. Besides reiterating the definitions of the 1951 Convention and its Protocol, the Refugee Act provided for the establishment of an Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to help refugees begin their lives in the U.S. The structure and procedures evolved and by 2004, federal handling of refugee affairs was led by the Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration (PRM) of the U.S. Department of State, working with the ORR at HHS. Asylum claims are mainly the responsibility of the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).

Refugee quotas

Each year, the President of the United States sends a proposal to the Congress for the maximum number of refugees to be admitted into the country for the upcoming fiscal year, as specified under section 207(e) (1)-(7) of the Immigration and Nationality Act. This number, known as the “refugee ceiling”, is the target of annual lobbying by both refugee advocates seeking to raise it and anti-immigration groups seeking to lower it. However, once proposed, the ceiling is normally accepted without substantial Congressional debate. The September 11, 2001 attacks resulted in a substantial disruption to the processing of resettlement claims with actual admissions falling to about 26,000 in fiscal year 2002. Claims were doublechecked for any suspicious activity and procedures were put in place to detect any possible terrorist infiltration, though some advocates noted that, given the ease with which foreigners can otherwise legally enter the U.S., entry as a refugee is comparatively unlikely. The actual number of admitted refugees rose in subsequent years with refugee ceiling for 2006 at 70,000. Critics note these levels are still among the lowest in 30 years.

Recent actual, projected and proposed refugee admissions
Year Africa % East Asia % Europe % Latin America
and Caribbean
% Near East and
South Asia
% Unallocated
reserve
Total
FY 2012 actual arrivals[10] 10,608 18.21 14,366 24.67 1,129 1.94 2,078 3.57 30,057 51.61 58,238
FY 2013 ceiling[10] 12,000 17,000 2,000 5,000 31,000 3,000 70,000
FY 2013 actual arrivals[11] 15,980 22.85 16,537 23.65 580 0.83 4,439 6.35 32,389 46.32 69,925
FY 2014 ceiling[11] 15,000 14,000 1,000 5,000 33,000 2,000 70,000
FY 2014 actual arrivals[12] 17,476 24.97 14,784 21.12 959 1.37 4,318 6.17 32,450 46.36 69,987
FY 2015 ceiling[12] 17,000 13,000 1,000 4,000 33,000 2,000 70,000
FY 2015 actual arrivals[13] 22,472 32.13 18,469 26.41 2,363 3.38 2,050 2.93 24,579 35.14 69,933
FY 2016 ceiling[13] 25,000 13,000 4,000 3,000 34,000 6,000 85,000
FY 2016 actual arrivals[14] 31,625 37.21 12,518 14.73 3,957 4.65 1,340 1.57 35,555 41.83 84,995
FY 2017 ceiling[15] 35,000 12,000 4,000 5,000 40,000 14,000 110,000
FY 2017 actual arrivals[16] 20,232 37.66 5,173 9.63 5,205 9.69 1,688 3.14 21,418 39.87 53,716
FY 2018 ceiling[17] 19,000 5,000 2,000 1,500 17,500 45,000
FY 2018 actual arrivals[18] 10,459 46.50 3,668 16.31 3,612 16.06 955 4.25 3,797 16.88 22,491
FY 2019 ceiling[19] 11,000 4,000 3,000 3,000 9,000 30,000
*FY 2019 actual arrivals[20] 3,473 59.28 893 15.24 1,095 18.69 135 2.30 263 4.49 5,859
  • FY 2019, actual arrivals up to January 11, 2019.

A total of 73,293 persons were admitted to the United States as refugees during 2010. The leading countries of nationality for refugee admissions were Iraq (24.6%), Burma (22.8%), Bhutan (16.9%), Somalia (6.7%), Cuba (6.6%), Iran (4.8%), DR Congo (4.3%), Eritrea (3.5%), Vietnam (1.2%) and Ethiopia (0.9%).

Application for resettlement by refugees abroad

The majority of applications for resettlement to the United States are made to U.S. embassies in foreign countries and are reviewed by employees of the State Department. In these cases, refugee status has normally already been reviewed by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and recognized by the host country. For these refugees, the U.S. has stated its preferred order of solutions are: (1) repatriation of refugees to their country of origin, (2) integration of the refugees into their country of asylum and, last, (3) resettlement to a third country, such as the U.S., when the first two options are not viable.[citation needed]

The United States prioritizes valid applications for resettlement into three levels.[citation needed]

Priority One

  • persons facing compelling security concerns in countries of first asylum; persons in need of legal protection because of the danger of refoulement; those in danger due to threats of armed attack in an area where they are located; or persons who have experienced recent persecution because of their political, religious, or human rights activities (prisoners of conscience); women-at-risk; victims of torture or violence, physically or mentally disabled persons; persons in urgent need of medical treatment not available in the first asylum country; and persons for whom other durable solutions are not feasible and whose status in the place of asylum does not present a satisfactory long-term solution. – UNHCR Resettlement Handbook[citation needed]

Priority Two

is composed of groups designated by the U.S. government as being of special concern. These are often identified by an act proposed by a Congressional representative. Priority Two groups proposed for 2008 included:[21]

  • “Jews, Evangelical Christians, and Ukrainian Catholic and Orthodox religious activists in the former Soviet Union, with close family in the United States” (This is the amendment which was proposed by Senator Frank LautenbergDN.J. and originally enacted November 21, 1989.[22])
  • from Cuba: “human rights activists, members of persecuted religious minorities, former political prisoners, forced-labor conscripts (1965-68), persons deprived of their professional credentials or subjected to other disproportionately harsh or discriminatory treatment resulting from their perceived or actual political or religious beliefs or activities, and persons who have experienced or fear harm because of their relationship – family or social – to someone who falls under one of the preceding categories”[citation needed]
  • from Vietnam: “the remaining active cases eligible under the former Orderly Departure Program (ODP) and Resettlement Opportunity for Vietnamese Returnees (ROVR) programs”; individuals who, through no fault of their own, were unable to access the ODP program before its cutoff date; and Amerasian citizens, who are counted as refugee admissions[citation needed]
  • individuals who have fled Burma and who are registered in nine refugee camps along the Thai/Burma border and who are identified by UNHCR as in need of resettlement[citation needed]
  • UNHCR-identified Burundian refugees who originally fled Burundi in 1972 and who have no possibility either to settle permanently in Tanzania or return to Burundi[citation needed]
  • Bhutanese refugees in Nepal registered by UNHCR in the recent census and identified as in need of resettlement
  • Iranian members of certain religious minorities[citation needed]
  • Sudanese Darfurians living in a refugee camp in Anbar Governorate in Iraq would be eligible for processing if a suitable location can be identified[citation needed]

Priority Three

is reserved for cases of family reunification, in which a refugee abroad is brought to the United States to be reunited with a close family member who also has refugee status. A list of nationalities eligible for Priority Three consideration is developed annually. The proposed countries for FY2008 were Afghanistan, Burma, Burundi, ColombiaCongo (Brazzaville), Cuba, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK)Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), EritreaEthiopiaHaiti, Iran, Iraq, RwandaSomaliaSudan and Uzbekistan.[21]

Individual application

The minority of applications that are made by individuals who have already entered the U.S. are judged on whether they meet the U.S. definition of “refugee” and on various other statutory criteria (including a number of bars that would prevent an otherwise-eligible refugee from receiving protection). There are two ways to apply for asylum while in the United States:

  • If an asylum seeker has been placed in removal proceedings before an immigration judge with the Executive Office for Immigration Review, which is a part of the Department of Justice, the individual may apply for asylum with the Immigration Judge.
  • If an asylum seeker is inside the United States and has not been placed in removal proceedings, he or she may file an application with U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), regardless of his or her legal status in the United States. However, if the asylum seeker is not in valid immigration status and USCIS does not grant the asylum application, USCIS may place the applicant in removal proceedings, in that case a judge will consider the application anew. The immigration judge may also consider the applicant for relief that the asylum office has no jurisdiction to grant, such as withholding of removal and protection under the Convention Against Torture. Since the effective date of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act passed in 1996, an applicant must apply for asylum within one year[23] of entry or be barred from doing so unless the applicant can establish changed circumstances that are material to his or her eligibility for asylum or exceptional circumstances related to the delay.

Immigrants who were picked up after entering the country between entry points can be released by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) on payment of a bond, and an immigration judge may lower or waive the bond. In contrast, refugees who asked for asylum at an official point of entry before entering the U.S. cannot be released on bond. Instead, ICE officials have full discretion to decide whether they can be released.[24]

If an applicant is eligible for asylum, they have a procedural right to have the Attorney General make a discretionary determination as to whether the applicant should be admitted into the United States as an asylee. An applicant is also entitled to mandatory “withholding of removal” (or restriction on removal) if the applicant can prove that her life or freedom would be threatened upon return to her country of origin. The dispute in asylum cases litigated before the Executive Office for Immigration Review and, subsequently, the federal courts centers on whether the immigration courts properly rejected the applicant’s claim that she is eligible for asylum or other relief.

The applicant has the burden of proving that he (or she) is eligible for asylum. To satisfy this burden, an applicant must show that she has a well-founded fear of persecution in her home country on account of either race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group.[25] The applicant can demonstrate her well-founded fear by demonstrating that she has a subjective fear (or apprehension) of future persecution in her home country that is objectively reasonable. An applicant’s claim for asylum is stronger where she can show past persecution, in which case she will receive a presumption that she has a well-founded fear of persecution in her home country. The government can rebut this presumption by demonstrating either that the applicant can relocate to another area within her home country in order to avoid persecution, or that conditions in the applicant’s home country have changed such that the applicant’s fear of persecution there is no longer objectively reasonable. Technically, an asylum applicant who has suffered past persecution meets the statutory criteria to receive a grant of asylum even if the applicant does not fear future persecution. In practice, adjudicators will typically deny asylum status in the exercise of discretion in such cases, except where the past persecution was so severe as to warrant a humanitarian grant of asylum, or where the applicant would face other serious harm if returned to his or her country of origin. In addition, applicants who, according to the US Government, participated in the persecution of others are not eligible for asylum.[26]

A person may face persecution in his or her home country because of race, nationality, religion, ethnicity, or social group, and yet not be eligible for asylum because of certain bars defined by law. The most frequent bar is the one-year filing deadline. If an application is not submitted within one year following the applicant’s arrival in the United States, the applicant is barred from obtaining asylum unless certain exceptions apply. However, the applicant can be eligible for other forms of relief such as Withholding of Removal, which is a less favorable type of relief than asylum because it does not lead to a Green Card or citizenship. The deadline for submitting the application is not the only restriction that bars one from obtaining asylum. If an applicant persecuted others, committed a serious crime, or represents a risk to U.S. security, he or she will be barred from receiving asylum as well.[27]

  • After 2001, asylum officers and immigration judges became less likely to grant asylum to applicants, presumably because of the attacks on 11 September.[28]

In 1986 an Immigration Judge agreed not to send Fidel Armando-Alfanso back to Cuba, based on his membership in a particular social group (gay people) who were persecuted and feared further persecution by the government of Cuba.[29] The Board of Immigration Appeals upheld the decision in 1990, and in 1994, then-Attorney General Janet Reno ordered this decision to be a legal precedent binding on Immigration Judges and the Asylum Office, and established sexual orientation as a grounds for asylum.[29][30] However, in 2002 the Board of Immigration Appeals “suggested in an ambiguous and internally inconsistent decision that the ‘protected characteristic’ and ‘social visibility’ tests may represent dual requirements in all social group cases.”[31][32] The requirement for social visibility means that the government of a country from which the person seeking asylum is fleeing must recognize their social group, and that LGBT people who hide their sexual orientation, for example out of fear of persecution, may not be eligible for asylum under this mandate.[32]

In 1996 Fauziya Kasinga, a 19-year-old woman from the Tchamba-Kunsuntu people of Togo, became the first person to be granted asylum in the United States to escape female genital mutilation. In August 2014, the Board of Immigration Appeals, the United States’s highest immigration court, found for the first time that women who are victims of severe domestic violence in their home countries can be eligible for asylum in the United States.[33] However, that ruling was in the case of a woman from Guatemala and was anticipated to only apply to women from there.[33] On June 11, 2018, Attorney General Jeff Sessions reversed that precedent and announced that victims of domestic abuse or gang violence will no longer qualify for asylum.[34]

INS v. Cardoza-Fonseca precedent

The term “well-founded fear” has no precise definition in asylum law. In INS v. Cardoza-Fonseca480 U.S. 421 (1987), the Supreme Court avoided attaching a consistent definition to the term, preferring instead to allow the meaning to evolve through case-by-case determinations. However, in Cardoza-Fonseca, the Court did establish that a “well-founded” fear is something less than a “clear probability” that the applicant will suffer persecution. Three years earlier, in INS v. Stevic467 U.S. 407 (1984), the Court held that the clear probability standard applies in proceedings seeking withholding of deportation (now officially referred to as ‘withholding of removal’ or ‘restriction on removal’), because in such cases the Attorney General must allow the applicant to remain in the United States. With respect to asylum, because Congress employed different language in the asylum statute and incorporated the refugee definition from the international Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, the Court in Cardoza-Fonseca reasoned that the standard for showing a well-founded fear of persecution must necessarily be lower.

An applicant initially presents his claim to an asylum officer, who may either grant asylum or refer the application to an Immigration Judge. If the asylum officer refers the application and the applicant is not legally authorized to remain in the United States, the applicant is placed in removal proceedings. After a hearing, an immigration judge determines whether the applicant is eligible for asylum. The immigration judge’s decision is subject to review on two, and possibly three, levels. First, the immigration judge’s decision can be appealed to the Board of Immigration Appeals. In 2002, in order to eliminate the backlog of appeals from immigration judges, the Attorney General streamlined review procedures at the Board of Immigration Appeals. One member of the Board can affirm a decision of an immigration judge without oral argument; traditional review by three-judge panels is restricted to limited categories for which “searching appellate review” is appropriate. If the BIA affirms the decision of the immigration court, then the next level of review is a petition for review in the United States court of appeals for the circuit in which the immigration judge sits. The court of appeals reviews the case to determine if “substantial evidence” supports the immigration judge’s (or the BIA’s) decision. As the Supreme Court held in INS v. Ventura537 U.S.12 (2002), if the federal appeals court determines that substantial evidence does not support the immigration judge’s decision, it must remand the case to the BIA for further proceedings instead of deciding the unresolved legal issue in the first instance. Finally, an applicant aggrieved by a decision of the federal appeals court can petition the U.S. Supreme Court to review the case by a discretionary writ of certiorari. But the Supreme Court has no duty to review an immigration case, and so many applicants for asylum forego this final step.

Notwithstanding his statutory eligibility, an applicant for asylum will be deemed ineligible if:

  1. the applicant participated in persecuting any other person on account of that other person’s race, religion, national origin, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion;
  2. the applicant constitutes a danger to the community because he has been convicted in the United States of a particularly serious crime;
  3. the applicant has committed a serious non-political crime outside the United States prior to arrival;
  4. the applicant constitutes a danger to the security of the United States;
  5. the applicant is inadmissible on terrorism-related grounds;
  6. the applicant has been firmly resettled in another country prior to arriving in the United States; or
  7. the applicant has been convicted of an aggravated felony as defined more broadly in the immigration context.

Conversely, even if an applicant is eligible for asylum, the Attorney General may decline to extend that protection to the applicant. (The Attorney General does not have this discretion if the applicant has also been granted withholding of deportation.) Frequently the Attorney General will decline to extend an applicant the protection of asylum if he has abused or circumvented the legal procedures for entering the United States and making an asylum claim.

Work permit and permanent residence status

An in-country applicant for asylum is eligible for a work permit (employment authorization) only if his or her application for asylum has been pending for more than 150 days without decision by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) or the Executive Office for Immigration Review. If an asylum seeker is recognized as a refugee, he or she may apply for lawful permanent residence status (a green card) one year after being granted asylum. Asylum seekers generally do not receive economic support. This, combined with a period where the asylum seeker is ineligible for a work permit is unique among developed countries and has been condemned from some organisations, including Human Rights Watch.[35]

Up until 2004, recipients of asylee status faced a wait of approximately fourteen years to receive permanent resident status after receiving their initial status, because of an annual cap of 10,000 green cards for this class of individuals. However, in May 2005, under the terms of a proposed settlement of a class-action lawsuit, Ngwanyia v. Gonzales, brought on behalf of asylees against CIS, the government agreed to make available an additional 31,000 green cards for asylees during the period ending on September 30, 2007. This is in addition to the 10,000 green cards allocated for each year until then and was meant to speed up the green card waiting time considerably for asylees. However, the issue was rendered somewhat moot by the enactment of the REAL ID Act of 2005 (Division B of United States Public Law 109-13 (H.R. 1268)), which eliminated the cap on annual asylee green cards. Currently, an asylee who has continuously resided in the US for more than one year in that status has an immediately available visa number.

Unaccompanied Refugee Minors Program

An Unaccompanied Refugee Minor (URM) is any person who has not attained 18 years of age who entered the United States unaccompanied by and not destined to: (a) a parent, (b) a close non-parental adult relative who is willing and able to care for said minor, or (c) an adult with a clear and court-verifiable claim to custody of the minor; and who has no parent(s) in the United States.[36] These minors are eligible for entry into the URM program. Trafficking victims who have been certified by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the United States Department of Homeland Security, and/or the United States Department of State are also eligible for benefits and services under this program to the same extent as refugees.

The URM program is coordinated by the U.S. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR), a branch of the United States Administration for Children and Families. The mission of the URM program is to help people in need “develop appropriate skills to enter adulthood and to achieve social self-sufficiency.” To do this, URM provides refugee minors with the same social services available to U.S.-born children, including, but not limited to, housing, food, clothing, medical care, educational support, counseling, and support for social integration.[37]

History of the URM Program

URM was established in 1980 as a result of the legislative branch’s enactment of the Refugee Act that same year.[38] Initially, it was developed to “address the needs of thousands of children in Southeast Asia” who were displaced due to civil unrest and economic problems resulting from the aftermath of the Vietnam War, which had ended only five years earlier.[37] Coordinating with the United Nations and “utilizing an executive order to raise immigration quotas, President Carter doubled the number of Southeast Asian refugees allowed into the United States each month.”[39] The URM was established, in part, to deal with the influx of refugee children.

URM was established in 1980, but the emergence of refugee minors as an issue in the United States “dates back to at least WWII.”[38] Since that time, oppressive regimes and U.S. military involvement have consistently “contributed to both the creation of a notable supply of unaccompanied refugee children eligible to relocate to the United States, as well as a growth in public pressure on the federal government to provide assistance to these children.”[38]

Since 1980, the demographic makeup of children within URM has shifted from being largely Southeast Asian to being much more diverse. Between 1999 and 2005, children from 36 different countries were inducted into the program.[38] Over half of the children who entered the program within this same time period came from Sudan, and less than 10% came from Southeast Asia.[38]

Perhaps the most commonly known group to enter the United States through the URM program was known as the “Lost Boys” of Sudan. Their story was made into a documentary by Megan Mylan and Jon Shenk. The film, Lost Boys of Sudan, follows two Sudanese refugees on their journey from Africa to America. It won an Independent Spirit Award and earned two national Emmy nominations.[40]

Functionality

In terms of functionality, the URM program is considered a state-administered program. The U.S. federal government provides funds to certain states that administer the URM program, typically through a state refugee coordinator’s office. The state refugee coordinator provides financial and programmatic oversight to the URM programs in his or her state. The state refugee coordinator ensures that unaccompanied minors in URM programs receive the same benefits and services as other children in out-of-home care in the state. The state refugee coordinator also oversees the needs of unaccompanied minors with many other stakeholders.[41]

ORR contracts with two faith-based agencies to manage the URM program in the United States; Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service (LIRS)[42] and the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB). These agencies identify eligible children in need of URM services; determine appropriate placements for children among their national networks of affiliated agencies; and conduct training, research and technical assistance on URM services. They also provide the social services such as: indirect financial support for housing, food, clothing, medical care and other necessities; intensive case management by social workers; independent living skills training; educational supports; English language training; career/college counseling and training; mental health services; assistance adjusting immigration status; cultural activities; recreational opportunities; support for social integration; and cultural and religious preservation.[43]

The URM services provided through these contracts are not available in all areas of the United States. The 14 states that participate in the URM program include: Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, North Dakota, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington and the nation’s capital, Washington D.C.[43]

Adoption of URM Children

Although they are in the United States without the protection of their family, URM-designated children are not generally eligible for adoption. This is due in part to the Hague Convention on the Protection and Co-Operation in Respect of Inter-Country Adoption, otherwise known as the Hague Convention. Created in 1993, the Hague Convention established international standards for inter-country adoption.[44] In order to protect against the abduction, sale or trafficking of children, these standards protect the rights of the biological parents of all children. Children in the URM program have become separated from their biological parents and the ability to find and gain parental release of URM children is often extremely difficult. Most children, therefore, are not adopted. They are served primarily through the foster care system of the participating states. Most will be in the custody of the state (typically living with a foster family) until they become adults. Reunification with the child’s family is encouraged whenever possible.

U.S. government support after arrival

As soon as people seeking asylum in the United States are accepted as refugees they are eligible for public assistance just like any other person, including cash welfare, food assistance, and health coverage. Many refugees depend on public benefits, but over time may become self-sufficient.[45]

Availability of public assistance programs can vary depending on which states within the United States refugees are allocated to resettle in. For example, health policies differ from state to state, and as of 2017, only 33 states expanded Medicaid programs under the Affordable Care Act.[46] In 2016, The American Journal of Public Health reported that only 60% of refugees are assigned to resettlement locations with expanding Medicaid programs, meaning that more than 1 in 3 refugees may have limited healthcare access.[47]

In 2015, the world saw the greatest displacement of people since World War II with 65.3 million people having to flee their homes.[48] In fiscal year 2016, the Department of State’s Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration under the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act (MRA) requested that $442.7 million be allocated to refugee admission programs that relocate refugees into communities across the country.[49] President Obama made a “Call to Action” for the private sector to make a commitment to help refugees by providing opportunities for jobs and accommodating refugee accessibility needs.[50]

Child separation

The recent U.S. Government policy known as “Zero-tolerance” was implemented in April 2018.[51] In response, a number of scientific organizations released statements on the negative impact of child separation, a form of childhood trauma, on child development, including the American Psychiatric Association,[52] the American Psychological Association,[53] the American Academy of Pediatrics,[54] the American Medical Association,[55] and the Society for Research in Child Development.[56]

Efforts are underway to minimize the impact of child separation. For instance, the National Child Traumatic Stress Network released a resource guide and held a webinar related to traumatic separation and refugee and immigrant trauma.

LGBTQ asylum seekers

Historically, homosexuality was considered a deviant behavior in the US, and the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 barred homosexual individuals from entering the United States due to concerns about their psychological health.[57] One of the first successful LGBTasylum pleas to be granted refugee status in the United States due to sexual orientation was a Cuban national whose case was first presented in 1989.[58] The case was affirmed by the Board of Immigration Appeals and the barring of LGBT and queer individuals into the United States was repealed in 1990. The case, known as Matter of Acosta (1985), set the standard of what qualified as a “particular social group.” This new definition of “social group” expanded to explicitly include homosexuality and the LGBT population. It considers homosexuality and gender identity a “common characteristic of the group either cannot change or should not be required to change because it is fundamental to their individual identities or consciences.”[59] This allows political asylum to some LGBT individuals who face potential criminal penalties due to homosexuality and sodomy being illegal in the home country who are unable to seek protection from the state.[60][61] The definition was intended to be open-ended in order to fit with the changing understanding of sexuality. According to Fatma Marouf, the definition established in Acosta was influential internationally, appealing to “the fundamental norms of human rights.”[62]

Experts disagree on the role of sexuality in the asylum process. Stefan Volger argues that the definition of social group tends to be relatively flexible, and describes sexuality akin to religion—one might change religions but characteristics of religion are protected traits that can’t be forced.[59][62] However, Susan Berger argues that while homosexuality and other sexual minorities might be protected under the law, the burden of proving that they are an LGBT member demonstrates a greater immutable view of the expected LGBT performance.[63] The importance of visibility is stressed throughout the asylum process, as sexuality is an internal characteristic. It is not visibly represented in the outside appearance.[62]

When considering how sexuality is viewed, research utilize asylum claim decisions and individual cases to understand what is considered characteristic of being a member of the LGBT community. In migration studies, there was an implicit assumption that immigrants are heterosexual and LGBT people are citizens.[64]

One theory that took route within the queer migrations studies was Jasbir Puar‘s idea of homonationalism. According to Paur, following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack, the movement against terrorists also resulted in a reinforcement of the binary “us vs. them” against some members of the LGBT community. The social landscape was termed “homonormative nationalism” or homonationalism.[65]

Obstacles asylum seekers face

Gender

Female asylum seekers may encounter issues when seeking asylum in the United States due to what some see as a structural preference for male narrative forms in the requirements for acceptance.[63] Researchers, such as Amy Shuman and Carol Bohmer, argue that the asylum process produces gendered cultural silences, particular in hearings where the majority of narrative construction takes place.[66] Cultural silences refers to things that women refrain from sharing, due to shame, humiliation, and other deterrents.[66] These deterrents can make achieving asylum more difficult as it can keep relevant information from being shared with the asylum judge.[66]

Susan Berger argues that the relationship between gender and sexuality leads to arbitrary case decisions, as there are no clear guidelines for when the private problems becomes an international problem. Berger uses case specific examples of asylum applications where gender and sexuality both act as an immutable characteristic. She argues that because male persecutors of lesbian and heterosexual female applicants tend to be family members, their harm occurs in the private domain and is therefore excluded from asylum consideration. Male applicants, on the other hand, are more likely to experience targeted, public persecution that relates better to the traditional idea of a homosexual asylum seeker. Male applicants are encouraged to perform gay stereotypes to strengthen their asylum application on the basis of sexual orientation, while lesbian women face the same difficulties as their heterosexual partners to perform the homosexual narrative.[63] Joe Rollins found that gay male applicants were more likely to be granted refugee status if they included rape in their narratives, while gay Asian immigrants were less likely to be granted refugee status over all, even with the inclusion of rape.[67] This, he claimed, was due to Asian men being subconsciously feminized.[67]

These experiences are articulated during the hearing process where the responsibility to prove membership is on the applicant.[63][66][59] During the hearing process, applicants are encouraged to demonstrate persecution for gender or sexuality and place the source as their own culture. Shuman and Bohmer argue that in sexual minorities, it is not enough to demonstrate only violence, asylum applicants have to align themselves against a restrictive culture. The narratives are forced to fit into categories shaped by western culture or be found to be fraudulent.[66]

Mexican Transgender Asylum Seeker

LGBT individuals have a higher risk for mental health problems when compared to cis-gender counterparts and many transgender individuals face socioeconomic difficulties in addition to being an asylum seeker. In a study conducted by Mary Gowin, E. Laurette Taylor, Jamie Dunnington, Ghadah Alshuwaiyer, and Marshall K. Cheney of Mexican Transgender Asylum Seekers, they found 5 major stressors among the participants including assault (verbal, physical and sexual), “unstable environments, fear for safety and security, hiding undocumented status, and economic insecurity.”[68] They also found that all of the asylum seekers who participated reported at least one health issue that could be attributed to the stressors. They accessed little or no use of health or social services, attributed to barriers to access, such as fear of the government, language barriers and transportation.[68] They are also more likely to report lower levels of education due to few opportunities after entering the United States. Many of the asylum seeker participants entered the United States as undocumented immigrants. Obstacles to legal services included fear and knowledge that there were legal resources to gaining asylum.[68]

Human Rights Activism

Human Rights and LGBT advocates have worked to create many improvements to the LGBT Asylum Seekers coming into the United States.[69] A 2015 report issued by the LGBT Freedom and Asylum network identifies best practices for supporting LGBT asylum seekers in the US.[70] The US State Department has also issued a factsheet on protecting LGBT refugees.[71]

Film

The 2000 documentary film Well-Founded Fear, from filmmakers Shari Robertson and Michael Camerini marked the first time that a film crew was privy to the private proceedings at the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS), where individual asylum officers ponder the often life-or-death fate of the majority of immigrants seeking asylum. The film analyzes the US asylum application process by following several asylum applicants and asylum officers.

See also

Sources

  • David Weissbrodt and Laura Danielson, Immigration Law and Procedure, 5th ed., West Group Publishing, 2005, ISBN 0-314-15416-7

Notes and references

  1. Jump up to:a b Matter of A-B-27 I&N Dec. 316, 317-18 (A.G. 2018); 8 U.S.C. § 1158 (“Asylum”).
  2. ^ Spreadsheet: Inflows of asylum seekers into selected OECD countries. Associated migration report: OECD International Migration Outlook 2009.
  3. ^ UNHCR (2015). Asylum Trends 2014: Levels and Trends in Industrialized Countries, p. 20. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  4. ^ Scott Rempell, Defining Persecution, http://ssrn.com/abstract=1941006
  5. ^ “8 USC 1101(a)(42)(A)”Legal Information Institute. Cornell University. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  6. ^ http://www.discipleshomemissions.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/DW-WWW-2009-RIMStudy.pdf
  7. ^ “Venezuelan middle class seeks refuge in Miami”.
  8. ^ “Thousands of Venezuelans Have Gotten Political Asylum in the U.S.” 24 June 2011.
  9. ^ “Global Views: Iraq’s refugees, by R. Nolan, Foreign Policy Association Features, Resource Library, June 12, 2007.
  10. Jump up to:a b US Department of State “Proposed refugee admissions for fiscal year 2014
  11. Jump up to:a b US Department of State “Proposed refugee admissions for fiscal year 2015
  12. Jump up to:a b US Department of State “Proposed refugee admissions for fiscal year 2016
  13. Jump up to:a b US Department of State “Proposed refugee admissions for fiscal year 2017
  14. ^ US Department of State “Arrivals by Region 2016_09_30
  15. ^ Presidential Determination – Refugee Admissions for Fiscal Year 2017
  16. ^ Admissions Reports | Arrivals by region | 2017
  17. ^ Proposed Refugee Admissions for Fiscal Year 2018
  18. ^ Admissions Reports | Arrivals by region | 2018
  19. ^ Proposed Refugee Admissions for Fiscal Year 2019
  20. ^ Admissions & Arrivals | Arrivals by Region
  21. Jump up to:a b Report to the Congress Submitted on Behalf of The President of The United States to the Committees on the Judiciary United States Senate and United States House of Representatives in Fulfillment of the Requirements of Section 207(E) (1)-(7) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, Released by the Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration of the United States Department of State, p. 8
  22. ^ Perry, Jeffrey (June 6, 2013). “The Lautenberg Amendment”CounterPunch Magazine. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  23. ^ Schaefer, Kimberley. “Applying for Asylum in the United States”kschaeferlaw.com/. Kimberley Schaefer. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  24. ^ Satija, Neena (2018-07-05). “The Trump administration is not keeping its promises to asylum seekers who come to ports of entry”. The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  25. ^ Chang, Ailsa (September 28, 2018). “Thousands Could Be Deported As Government Targets Asylum Mills’ Clients”NPR(All Things Considered). NPR.
  26. ^ Schaefer, Kimberley. “Asylum in the United States”kschaeferlaw.com/immigration-overview/asylum. Kimberley Schaefer. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  27. ^ Kutidze, Givi. “Green Card Through Asylum”us-counsel.com/green-cards/green-card-asylum. Givi Kutidze. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  28. ^ Farris, Christopher J. and Rottman, Andy J. “The Path to Asylum in the US and the Determinants for Who Gets In and Why.” International Migration Review, Volume 43, Issue 1, Pages 3-34. First Published March 2, 2009.
  29. Jump up to:a b “Asylum Based on Sexual Orientation and Fear of Persecution”. Archived from the original on 24 February 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  30. ^ “How Will Ugandan Gay Refugees Be Received By U.S.?”NPR.org. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  31. ^ Marouf, Fatma E. (2008) “The Emerging Importance of “Social Visibility” in Defining a Particular Social Group and Its Potential Impact on Asylum Claims Related to Sexual Orientation and Gender”. Scholarly Works. Paper 419, pg. 48
  32. Jump up to:a b “Social visibility, asylum law, and LGBT asylum seekers”Twin Cities Daily Planet. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  33. Jump up to:a b Preston, Julia (29 August 2014). “In First for Court, Woman Is Ruled Eligible for Asylum in U.S. on Basis of Domestic Abuse”The New York Times. p. A12. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  34. ^ Benner, Katie; Dickerson, Caitlin (11 June 2018). “Sessions Says Domestic and Gang Violence Are Not Grounds for Asylum”The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  35. ^ Human Rights Watch (12 November 2013). US: Catch-22 for Asylum Seekers. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  36. ^ Congressional Research Service Report to Congress, Unaccompanied Refugee MinorsPolicyarchive.org pg. 7
  37. Jump up to:a b “About Unaccompanied Refugee Minors”. Department of Health and Human Services.
  38. Jump up to:a b c d e “Unaccompanied Refugee Minors” (PDF). Congressional Research Service.
  39. ^ “The Vietnam War and Its Impact – Refugees and ‘boat people. Encyclopedia of the New American Nation.
  40. ^ “Lost Boys of Sudan :: About The Film”. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  41. ^ “The United States Unaccompanied Refugee Minor Program” (PDF). United States Conference of Catholic Bishops.
  42. ^ “LIRS – Stand for Welcome with Migrants and Refugees”. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  43. Jump up to:a b “Unaccompanied Refugee Minors”. Retrieved 3 December2014.
  44. ^ Department of State, Office of Children’s Issues: Intercountry Adoption Overview Adoption.state.gov
  45. ^ “Ten Facts About U.S. Refugee Resettlement”migrationpolicy.org. 2015-10-21. Retrieved 2016-11-17.
  46. ^ “A 50-State Look at Medicaid Expansion”Families USA. 2013-12-16. Retrieved 2018-04-17.
  47. ^ Agrawal, Pooja; Venkatesh, Arjun Krishna (2016). “Refugee Resettlement Patterns and State-Level Health Care Insurance Access in the United States”American Journal of Public Health106 (4): 662–3. doi:10.2105/ajph.2015.303017PMC 4816078PMID 26890186.
  48. ^ “Global Refugee Crisis”Partnership for Refugees. Retrieved 2016-11-17.
  49. ^ Congressional Presentation Document Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM) FY 2016 [PDF] – U.S. Department of State Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration
  50. ^ “Private Sector Call to Action on Refugees”state.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-17.
  51. ^ “Memorandum for Federal Prosecutors Along the Southwest Border, Zero-Tolerance for Offenses Under 8 U.S.C. § 1325(a)”.
  52. ^ “APA Statement Opposing Separation of Children from Parents at the Border”psychiatry.org. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  53. ^ “Statement of APA President Regarding the Traumatic Effects of Separating Immigrant Families”apa.org. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  54. ^ “AAP Statement on Executive Order on Family Separation”aap.org. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  55. ^ “Doctors oppose policy that splits kids from caregivers at border”AMA Wire. 2018-06-13. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  56. ^ “The Science is Clear: Separating Families has Long-term Damaging Psychological and Health Consequences for Children, Families, and Communities”Society for Research in Child Development. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  57. ^ Shannon, Minter, (1993). “Sodomy and Public Morality Offenses under U.S. Immigration Law: Penalizing Lesbian and Gay Identity”Cornell International Law Journal26 (3). ISSN 0010-8812.
  58. ^ “Social visibility, asylum law, and LGBT asylum seekers”. Twin Cities Daily Planet. October 7, 2013.
  59. Jump up to:a b c Vogler, Stefan (2016). “Legally Queer: The Construction of Sexuality in LGBQ Asylum Claims”. Law & Society Review50 (4): 856–889.
  60. ^ Kerr, Jacob (June 19, 2015). “LGBT Asylum Seekers Not Getting Enough Relief In U.S., Report Finds”Huffington Post.
  61. ^ Taracena, Maria Inés (May 27, 2014). “LGBT Global Persecution Leads to Asylum Seekers in Southern AZ”Arizona Public Media, NPR.
  62. Jump up to:a b c Marouf, Fatma (2008). “The Emerging Importance of “Social Visibility” in Defining a “Particular Social Group” and Its Potential Impact on Asylum Claims Related to Sexual Orientation and Gender”. Yale Law & Policy Review27 (1): 47–106.
  63. Jump up to:a b c d Berger, Susan A (2009). “Production and Reproduction of Gender and Sexuality in Legal Discourses of Asylum in the United States”. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society34 (3): 659–85. doi:10.1086/593380.
  64. ^ Lewis, Rachel A; Naples, Nancy A (2014). “Introduction: Queer migration, asylum, and displacement”. Sexualities17 (8): 911–8. doi:10.1177/1363460714552251.
  65. ^ Puar, Jasbir K (2007). Terrorist Assemblagesdoi:10.1215/9780822390442ISBN 978-0-8223-9044-2.[page needed]
  66. Jump up to:a b c d e Shuman, Amy; Bohmer, Carol (2014). “Gender and cultural silences in the political asylum process”. Sexualities17(8): 939–57. doi:10.1177/1363460714552262.
  67. Jump up to:a b Rollins, Joe (2009). “Embargoed Sexuality: Rape and the Gender of Citizenship in American Immigration Law”. Politics & Gender5 (4): 519–544.
  68. Jump up to:a b c Gowin, Mary; Taylor, E. Laurette; Dunnington, Jamie; Alshuwaiyer, Ghadah; Cheney, Marshall K (2017). “Needs of a Silent Minority: Mexican Transgender Asylum Seekers”. Health Promotion Practice18 (3): 332–340. doi:10.1177/1524839917692750PMID 28187690.
  69. ^ Mertus, Julie (2007). “The Rejection of Human Rights Framings: The Case of LGBT Advocacy in the US”. Human Rights Quarterly29 (4): 1036–64. doi:10.1353/hrq.2007.0045JSTOR 20072835.
  70. ^ “Best Practice Guide: Supporting LGBT Asylum Seekers in the United States” (PDF). LGBT Freedom and Asylum Network.
  71. ^ US Department of State LGBT Human Rights Fact Sheet, US Department of State, accessed May 14, 2016

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asylum_in_the_United_States

Story 3: You Can’t Always Get What You Want  — President Trump 2020 Stump Speech Preview — Trump Victory Lap — Radical Extremist Democrat Socialists or REDS — Band On The Run — Videos

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Rolling Stones “You Can’t Always Get What You Want” in 1969

You Can’t Always Get What You Want
I saw her today at a reception
A glass of wine in her hand
I knew she would meet her connection
At her feet was her footloose man
No, you can’t always get what you want
You can’t always get what you want
You can’t always get what you want
And if you try sometime you find
You get what you need
I saw her today at the reception
A glass of wine in her hand
I knew she was gonna meet her connection
At her feet was her footloose man
You can’t always get what you want
You can’t always get what you want
You can’t always get what you want
But if you try sometimes you might find
You get what you need
Oh yeah, hey hey hey, oh…
And I went down to the demonstration
To get my fair share of abuse
Singing, “We’re gonna vent our frustration
If we don’t we’re gonna blow a 50-amp fuse”
Sing it to me now…
You can’t always get what you want
You can’t always get what you want
You can’t always get what you want
But if you try sometimes well you just might find
You get what you need
Oh baby, yeah, yeah!
I went down to the Chelsea drugstore
To get your prescription filled
I was standing in line with Mr. Jimmy
And man, did he look pretty ill
We decided that we would have a soda
My favorite flavor, cherry red
I sung my song to Mr. Jimmy
Yeah, and he said one word to me, and that was “dead”
I said to him
You can’t always get what you want, no!
You can’t always get what you want (tell ya baby)
You can’t always get what you want (no)
But if you try sometimes you just might find
You get what you need
Oh yes! Woo!
You get what you need–yeah, oh baby!
Oh yeah!
I saw her today at the reception
In her glass was a bleeding man
She was practiced at the art of deception
Well I could tell by her blood-stained hands
You can’t always get what you want
You can’t always get what you want
You can’t always get what you want
But if you try sometimes you just might find
You just might find
You get what you need
You can’t always get what you want (no, no baby)
You can’t always get what you want
You can’t always get what you want
But if you try sometimes you just might find
You just might find
You get what you need, ah yes…

FULL MAGA RALLY: President Trump in Grand Rapids, MI

Highlights from U.S. President Donald Trump’s 2020 rally in Michigan

Trump slams 2020 Democrats during Michigan rally

President Trump Talks Auto Industry and Trade: “Get the damn plants open!”

Trump: Russia investigation ‘an elaborate hoax’

“Collusion delusion” is over, Trump says at Michigan rally after Mueller report

Trump shreds the Green New Deal at rally in Michigan

TRUMP ON SCHIFF: During #MAGA Rally in Grand Rapids, MI

TRUMP ON SMOLLETT: Says it might be the only time he agrees with Chicago mayor

President Trump speech at Grand Rapids, Michigan rally

Paul McCartney – Band on the Run (Live)

“Band on the Run” by Paul McCartney & Wings lyrics (HD)

Stuck inside these four walls
Sent inside forever
Never seeing no one
Nice again like you
Mama you, mama you
If I ever get out of here
Thought of giving it all away
To a registered charity
All I need is a pint a day
If I ever get outta here
If we ever get outta of here
Well, the rain exploded with a mighty crash
As we fell into the sun
And the first one said to the second one there
I hope you’re having fun
Band on the run, band on the run
And the jailer man and sailor Sam
Were searching every one
For the band on the run
Band on the run
Band on the run
Band on the run
Well, the undertaker drew a heavy sigh
Seeing no one else had come
And a bell was ringing in the village square
For the rabbits on the run
Band on the run
Band on the run
And the jailer man and sailor Sam
Were searching every one
For the band on the run
Band on the run
Yeah, the band on the run
Band on the run
Band on the run
Band on the run
Well, the night was falling as the desert world
Began to settle down
In the town they’re searching for us everywhere
But we never will be found
Band on the run
Band on the run
And the county judge who held a grudge
Will search for evermore
For the band on the run
Band on the run
Band on the run
Band on the run
Songwriters: Linda McCartney / Paul James McCartney
Band on the Run lyrics © Kobalt Music Publishing Ltd.

Paul McCartney and Wings: Band On The Run – ITV Special – Dermot O’Leary

Paul McCartney “Hello Goodbye/All My Loving/We Can Work It Out” Live

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The Pronk Pop Show 1096, June 20, 2018, Story 1: Obama Put The Illegal Alien Children in Cages and Wrapped Them In Foil — Trump Signs Executive Order Keeping Illegal Alien Families Together So They Can Be Deported Together — Not A Single Mile of The Big Beautiful Barrier Built Because of Congress — Open Border Democrats and Republicans Will Never Vote Funding For Wall/Barrier — Fund The 2000 Mile Barrier and Secure U.S. Borders or Be Voted Out of Office in November 2018 — Enforce Immigration Law By Deporting All 30-60 Million Illegal Alien Who Invaded and Broke Into The United States — American Citizen Voters/American People vs. Political Elitist Establishment/ Incompetent Ruling Class — Videos — Story 2: House Republicans Attempt To Pass One of Two Immigration Bills — Senate Cannot Pass An Immigration Bill Because Democrats Favor Open Border and No Funding For Trump’s Wall — Trump Will Veto Any Bill That Does Not Fund The Wall To Control and Secure The Border –Videos

Posted on June 20, 2018. Filed under: Addiction, American History, Banking System, Barack H. Obama, Bill Clinton, Blogroll, Budgetary Policy, Cartoons, Congress, Constitutional Law, Corruption, Countries, Culture, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Education, Elections, Empires, Employment, Foreign Policy, Freedom of Speech, Government, Government Dependency, Government Spending, Hillary Clinton, Hillary Clinton, History, House of Representatives, Human, Human Behavior, Illegal Immigration, Immigration, Independence, Killing, Labor Economics, Language, Law, Legal Immigration, Life, Lying, National Interest, News, Obama, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, President Trump, Privacy, Public Relations, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Regulation, Scandals, Security, Senate, Sexual Harrasment, Spying on American People, Success, Surveillance/Spying, Tax Policy, Terror, Trade Policy, Trump Surveillance/Spying, United States of America, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

 

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Pronk Pops Show 1096, June 20, 2018

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Pronk Pops Show 1044, March 7, 2018

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Pronk Pops Show 1042, March 1, 2018

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Story 1: Obama Put The Illegal Alien Children in Cages and Wrapped Them In Foil — Trump Signs Executive Order Keeping Illegal Alien Families Together So They Can Be Deported Together — Not A Single Mile of The Big Beautiful Barrier Built Because of Congress — Open Border Democrats and Republicans Will Never Vote Funding For Wall/Barrier — Fund The 2000 Mile Barrier and Secure U.S. Borders or Be Voted Out of Office in November 2018 — Enforce Immigration Law By Deporting All 30-60 Million Illegal Alien Who Invaded and Broke Into The United States — American Citizen Voters/American People vs. Political Elitist Establishment/ Incompetent Ruling Class —

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Trump speaks about immigration hours after signing executive order

Trump signs order to keep families together at border

Trump signs executive order to end family separations

President Trump Signs Executive Order To Keep Immigrant Families Together | TIME

Tucker Carlson Tonight 6/21/18 – Breaking Fox News (June 21, 2018)

What’s Really Happening With Families At The Border

Trump Signs Order to End Migrant Family Separation on US Border

Immigration by the Numbers — Off the Charts

Immigration, World Poverty and Gumballs – NumbersUSA.com

Published on Sep 10, 2010

How Many Illegal Aliens Are in the US? – Walsh – 1

Published on Oct 20, 2007

How Many Illegal Aliens Are in the US? – Walsh – 2

Immigration Histrionics & Academy Award Crocodile Tears — Lionel on Real News With David Knight

What Pisses Me Off About The Migrant Children Scandal

Immigration Derangement Syndrome | Dave Smith and Stefan Molyneux

Debunking Lies On Trump’s Child/Border Policy

Jake Tapper: Trump surrendered for the first time

Hundreds of Immigrant Children Wait in Cages

Tent city for migrant children in Texas draws criticism

Trump, Obama and Bush: How Presidents Approached Immigration Policy | NYT News

Surge in children separated at border floods facility for undocumented immigrants

Hundreds Of Migrant Kids Stuck At Border Stations | NBC Nightly News

ICE director: Illegal immigrant parents using kids as pawns

Tucker: Stay skeptical of people in charge – they lie a lot

Tucker: The Left does not care about family separation

Tucker: Viewers don’t trust CNN – they’re untrustworthy

Published on Jun 28, 2017

Live: Trump signs executive order to keep border families together

Ingraham: Separating parents from kids and fact from fiction

DHS Secretary Nielsen denies separation amounts to ‘child abuse’

Families separated at the border: what’s really going on?

Gutfeld on the media’s take on border separations

Sen. Kamala Harris: Trump’s “Intent” To Put “Children In Cages” | The Beat With Ari Melber | MSNBC

Ex-CIA chief: I’m scared of America

Ingraham: Separating parents from kids and fact from fiction

Live: President Trump meets with Congress today

Reunited migrant families face uncertain future at Texas shelter

RAW VIDEO: Hundreds of children wait in Border Patrol facility in Texas | ABC7

Children in cages’: How the U.S. got here

Photographer explains photo of crying toddler at border

Mother separated from children at the border says she “never imagined” it would happen

The Hispanic child migrants desperate to reach America

Published on Apr 30, 2015

Caring for undocumented children who cross the border

Published on Aug 28, 2014

Who are the children crossing the US border? – BBC News

Published on Aug 2, 2014

A family divided by immigration

Published on Nov 20, 2014

Obama’s Amnesty & How Illegal Immigration Affects Us

Published on Nov 24, 2014

In El Salvador, Gang Violence is a Part of Everyday Life: Part 1

Published on May 20, 2016

Living In Fear: Gangs of El Salvador (Part 2)

Published on Nov 24, 2015

Femicide, Part 1: Honduras, one of the most dangerous places to be a woman | ABC News

Inside the ‘pure hell’ of violence against women in Honduras

Why are Central American children making journey to U.S.?

Unaccompanied immigrant children put strain on resources

Migrant children describe their dangerous journey into U.S.

Published on Jun 18, 2014

Murder and Migration in Honduras: Immigrant America

Published on Sep 8, 2014

UNACCOMPANIED MINORS: The challenges facing unaccompanied immigrant children

Published on Nov 18, 2014

Wave of child migrants pose challenges for Florida schools

What happens to migrant children who get deported back to Central America?

Published on Jul 25, 2014

The Hispanic child migrants desperate to reach America

Published on Apr 30, 2015

Trump signs order that he says will keep migrant families together

  • Trump signs an order that he says will keep migrant families together.
  • The president backs down after insisting that only Congress can end his administration’s policy of separating families crossing the border illegally.

Trump signs executive order to keep migrant families together

Trump signs executive order to keep migrant families together  

President Donald Trump signed an executive order Wednesday that he says will keep migrant families together during detention on the U.S.-Mexico border.

The president backed down from his administration’s policy of splitting migrant families, which for days the White House insisted could only end through congressional action. Facing a nationwide uproar and bipartisan calls to at least temporarily end the practice, the president said he “didn’t like the sight or feeling of families being separated.”

Trump said he will not end the administration’s “zero tolerance” policy of criminally prosecuting every adult who crosses U.S. borders illegally, including those seeking asylum. The White House also will keep pressure on Congress to pass legislation that meets Trump’s goals of halting the separation practice, funding his proposed border wall and limiting legal immigration.

“We’re keeping families together and this will solve that problem. At the same time we are keeping a very powerful border and there continues to be a zero tolerance,” Trump told reporters before he signed the order.

It was not immediately clear Wednesday what would happen to the children already separated from their parents. The order did not appear to address how the government would go about reuniting families.

Reuters later reported that House Republicans briefed on the order by Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen worried the measure would not prevent family separations during detentions longer than 20 days.

Watched by Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen (L) and Vice President Mike Pence, US President Donald Trump holds an executive order on immigration which he just signed in the Oval Office of the White House on June 20, 2018 in Washington, DC.

Mandel Ngan | AFP | Getty Images
Watched by Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen (L) and Vice President Mike Pence, US President Donald Trump holds an executive order on immigration which he just signed in the Oval Office of the White House on June 20, 2018 in Washington, DC.

Here’s what the executive order would do, according to text circulated by the White House:

  • It orders Nielsen “to the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of appropriations” to keep families together during criminal proceedings.
  • The measure says the administration does not have to keep families together “when there is a concern” that detaining a child with a parent “would pose a risk to the child’s welfare.”
  • It directs Attorney General Jeff Sessions to file a request with a federal district court in California to change a legal settlement that curbs the government’s ability to keep children in detention.
  • It orders Sessions to prioritize criminal proceedings for cases involving families.

Ahead of the signing, the House apparently still planned to vote Thursday on GOP-crafted immigration legislation that would enact stricter border security measures and offer a path to citizenship for young immigrants brought to the U.S. illegally as children. It is unclear whether Senate Republicans will still pursue more narrow legislation to address only family separation.

By signing the order, Trump may also have taken political pressure off Democrats. Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer signaled he would be reluctant to support legislation to end the policy because Trump had the ability to halt it himself. If Trump had not signed the order, Democrats would have faced a tougher decision about backing a bill.

“You do not want to give Jeff Bezos a seven-year head start.”
Hear what else Buffett has to say

In a tweeted statement Wednesday, Schumer said “it’s a relief that [Trump] has reversed himself & recognized the cruelty of separating families.” He added: “While the EO doesn’t reference the families already ripped apart, I hope & expect that the admin will be able to quickly reunite these children w/their parents.”

Chuck Schumer

@SenSchumer

It’s a relief that @realDonaldTrump has reversed himself & recognized the cruelty of his policy of separating families. While the EO doesn’t reference the families already ripped apart, I hope & expect that the admin will be able to quickly reunite these children w/their parents.

Speaking at the start of an earlier Wednesday meeting with members of Congress, Trump said he faced a dilemma as criticism of his administration’s policy has grown louder in the past week.

“The dilemma is if you’re weak … the country is going to be overwhelmed with [undocumented immigrants]. … If you’re strong, then you don’t have any heart. Perhaps I’d like to be strong,” the president said, according to pool reporters in the room.

Earlier Wednesday, reports said Nielsen drafted a document in collaboration with White House lawyers. Nielsen has been the administration’s most public face in defending the highly controversial policy, put in place this spring. On Tuesday night, she was confronted by protesters as she dined at a Mexican restaurant in Washington.

The order says the Defense Department will assist the Department of Homeland Security and the Health and Human Services Department, which are being stretched to the limit by the demands of housing the surging numbers of individuals who are being taken into custody.

At least 2,000 children have been separated from their parents under the Trump administration’s zero tolerance policy, according to DHS.

https://www.cnbc.com/2018/06/20/trump-says-hes-going-to-sign-a-preemptive-measure-to-keep-migrant-families-together.html

HERE ARE THE PHOTOS OF OBAMA’S ILLEGAL IMMIGRANT DETENTION FACILITIES THE MEDIA WON’T SHOW YOU

Benny Johnson | Reporter At Large

The media and political class become more and more outraged over the Trump administration’s decision to detain and prosecute immigrants illegally crossing the border.

Lost in the debate is any acknowledgment that President Obama’s administration also used detention facilities.

Current U.S. immigration laws, when enforced, have the consequence of temporarily separating adults who arrive with children into separate detention facilities in order to prosecute the adults.

The policy of prosecuting immigrants for crossing the border illegally has been in place for multiple administrations. The Obama administration prosecuted half a million illegal immigrants and similarly separated families in the process. So did the Bush administration.

Personal accounts from immigration lawyers tell a tale of Obama being equally concerned about unaccompanied minors traveling to the border and wanting to create a deterrent.

Photos of border detention facilities from the Obama-era, taken during 2014, look nearly identical to the ones taken during the Trump era.

You never see them, however. Here they are, taken in 2014 during a media tour of Obama-era detention facilities in Brownsville, Texas, and Nogales, Arizona.

REUTERS/Ross D. Franklin/Pool

As the Daily Caller previously reported, “Obama administration prosecuted nearly 500,000 illegal immigrants between FY 2010-FY2016. They referred 1/5 of illegals for prosecution, which often resulted in family separations.”

Editor’s Note: Two of the 32 photos originally included in this post were found to be from a CPB press handout June 17, 2018. They have since been removed.

http://dailycaller.com/2018/06/19/photos-obama-immigration-detention-facilities

Story 2: House Republicans Attempt To Pass One of Two Immigration Bills — Senate Cannot Pass An Immigration Bill Because Democrats Favor Open Border and No Funding For Trump’s Wall — Trump Will Veto Any Bill That Does Not Fund The Wall To Control and Secure The Border –Videos

Paul Ryan: We don’t want to see families separated

Speaker Ryan: House to vote on compromise immigration bill Thursday

US Senate Rejects Immigration Reform Proposals

Senate rejects every immigration proposal

Published on Feb 15, 2018

Sen. David Perdue: Trump wants all 4 ‘pillars’ in immigration bill

 

RUSH: Okay, folks, I’m just gonna say it here. If the media keeps this up — if they keep up generating this hysteria — somebody’s gonna get killed. I think we’re pretty close to somebody getting killed already, and I’m not being hyperbolic, and I’m not trying to call attention to myself. I’m genuinely worried about the out-of-control aspect of this. The news media’s fanning the flames. The news media is leading the way on this. It’s again an oxymoron. News media? There is no media, and none of this is news.

It’s a manufactured crisis — that is one of many — after Donald Trump committed an unpardonable sin — and that was winning the presidential election. This today is not about kids and the way they’re being treated anywhere. This is about Donald Trump winning and these people not being able to do anything about it. Look at everything they’ve thrown at Trump. They’ve had full-blown intelligence community FBI, CIA, DOJ, special counsel investigations all happening simultaneously designed to drive Donald Trump from office in six months.

Failed.

Every one of them has failed.

Donald Trump’s popularity is increasing. His approval numbers are increasing. Overall satisfaction in the country is rising. In fact, if you dig deep into this latest Gallup survey, you find that all across the board in this country people are looking up, and they’re optimistic. It’s rooted to economics. The only group of people fit to be tied are Democrats, and it is just… It’s eating them alive. These people are people who think they run this country.

These are people who think they shape public opinion, and they are being confronted every day with their irrelevance. They’re being confronted every day with their failure. This all began with personal hatred of Donald Trump back in 2015, and it has just ratcheted up with the passing of every week, and it’s reached the boiling point now. You know, Twitter is basically the cesspool of this country. Twitter is where the human debris of…

Now there are exceptions, of course. But Twitter is where the hopeless, the powerless, the invisible — and of course those people hate that they’re powerless and they hate that they don’t have any influence, and they hate that they’re invisible. So hate is governing, fueling everything that is occurring in what we call the news media today. Virtually every news story today has a component driving it, which is hate.

And it is hate for victors, hate for the successful, hate for Donald Trump. They don’t have any outlet for it! You know, assuaging their anger on Twitter is not making ’em happy. It’s not solving anything. I think largely the left is incapable of contentment or happiness anyway no matter what’s going on. But they are staring smack-dab in a mirror, and what they’re seeing is failure and ineffectiveness. It’s driving ’em batty.

The Drive-By Media is especially unhinged. This is the longest it’s taken to get rid of a political opponent that they can ever recall. It didn’t take ’em this long to get rid of Nixon, unless you figure they worked on it for Nixon’s entire political career. They figure they got George W. Bush. Even though they didn’t drive him out of office, they ruined him, and they ruined his administration by the midpoint of his second term.

They’re doing everything they can to protect Barack Obama. Obama is just as culpable for whatever’s happening at the border. It was happening times two with Obama, by the way. The real reason that Hillary Clinton wasn’t prosecuted was to save Barack Obama’s rear end. He was as culpable in using unprotected servers and sending classified data as she was. But they couldn’t prosecute her because that would ensnare him, and we can’t do that.

So it’s piling on itself. This hatred is a poison. It is intensifying because there’s no outlet for it. We’ve gotten to the point Chuck Schumer… You know, the Democrats out of one side of their mouth are clamoring for the president to do something. The president didn’t create the problem; Congress did. But typically, Congress is acting like they’ve got nothing to do with this. They’re demanding an executive order. They’re demanding that Trump do something.

But if you get down to brass tacks, Chuck Schumer and the Democrat Party, they do not want this issue solved. This isn’t about children. It isn’t about reuniting families. By the way, speaking of that, do you know Trump’s doing it another way? I have a story in the Stack. A bunch of Millennial sponges are leaving their parents’ houses! Did you know this, Snerdley? It’s all of a sudden a bunch of Millennials are moving out of mom and dad’s house.

https://www.mrctv.org/embed/530796

The reason is they can afford to now. Donald Trump is separating American families with a robust and growing economy! The point is: Chuck Schumer doesn’t want this stuff solved. The Democrats don’t want a resolution to this. Chuck Schumer thinks this is the issue that’s gonna win the house for the Democrats in 2018. You want to talk cynicism? Out of one side of their mouths, they preach compassion and they cry crocodile tears over the circumstances occurring at the border.

And when presented with solutions or when told to fix it because you wrote the you laws, “Oh, no, no, no, no! No, no, no. This is the presidency the president’s responsibility. We can’t…” They don’t want this solved. This isn’t about the kids. It isn’t about separated families. Those circumstances are just the opportunity. They are just the stage on which to run this latest operation. The Democrats now more than ever are rabid, unhinged…

They’re becoming zombie-like. If you don’t believe me, jump on Twitter for a few minutes. It has become the refugee of human debris. People who know they’re powerless, people who know they’re ineffective… They live each and every day with hatred, self-loathing, what have you. They don’t like themselves to begin with. They’ve got no outlet for this. Hillary Clinton’s loss to Donald Trump has created a mob of political monsters who gather on Twitter to spew insane hatred — and this is bleeding over to people even in the establishment.

Michael Hayden, the former director of the CIA, is comparing the United States to Nazi Germany! This is not some Twitter troll. This is the former director of the CIA, Michael Hayden. It’s one of the laziest political arguments you can make is to compare somebody to Hitler or something in this country to Nazi Germany. Well, if it was this bad, why didn’t anybody care about it when it was happening twice as much during the Obama presidency, hmm? You’re not supposed to ask that question.

Because when you do, they say, “Well, that’s looking backward. We need to look forward. We need to solve this. This is not who we are.” Oh, it most certainly is! All of this is the result of court cases. I went through this the other day. I don’t expect many people to remember it because it’s… In a sense, it’s a little complicated, and this is being reduced to its most simple element/form, that the United States and Donald Trump and separating decent, hardworking families.

“They’re causing children to die of starvation. They’re freezing in 70-degree weather because there are no blankets and all they’re being given is apples and water.” Wait a minute. I thought eating fruit every day was one of the healthiest things you could do. Hillary Clinton’s loss is the root, the foundation for all of this — and by the way, this sentiment that you’re seeing now expressed in hysterical, rabid rage has been there long before Trump.

This is who the American left is. They have been trending in this direction for the entire time I’ve been hosting this particular program. Yeah, it happened before, but now it is full-blown, five-alarm, 9.8 Richter scale, DEFCON 5 rage. I really mean I think somebody’s gonna get seriously hurt here before this is all over. Peter Fonda — who fits the bill of obscure, forgotten, incompetent, never amounted to much anyway, desperate to be known, desperate to be influential — has started tweeting in all caps.

One tweet: “WE SHOULD HACK THIS SYSTEM, GET THE ADDRESSES OF THE ICE AGENTS CBP AGENTS AND SURROUND THEIR HOMES IN PROTEST. WE SHOULD FIND OUT WHAT SCHOOLS THEIR CHILDREN GO TO AND SURROUND THE SCHOOLS IN PROTEST. THESE AGENTS ARE DOING THIS CUZ THEY WANT TO DO IT. THEY LIKE DOING THIS,” and he concludes with the ever-creative F-word. So here is somebody that is suggesting, promoting, urging what would become a violent mob.

First, “HACK THIS SYSTEM, GET THE ADDRESSES OF THE ICE AGENTS CBP AGENTS AND SURROUND THEIR HOMES … FIND OUT WHAT SCHOOLS THEIR CHILDREN GO TO AND SURROUND THE SCHOOLS IN PROTEST” because these agents like it. These agents like separating families. They like children suffering.

Another Peter Fonda tweet: “”WE SHOULD RIP BARRON TRUMP FROM HIS MOTHER’S ARMS AND PUT HIM IN A CAGE WITH PEDOPHILES AND SEE IF MOTHER WILL WILL STAND UP AGAINST THE GIANT [BUTT]HOLE SHE IS MARRIED TO.” This generated a response tweet from Donald Trump Jr. “You’re clearly a sick individual and everyone’s internet bad ass. But rather than attack an 11-year-old like a bully and a coward, why don’t you pick on somebody a little bigger?”

Man Arrested for Threatening Mast’s Kids Over Immigration Policy –‘If you’re going to separate kids at the border, I’m going to kill his kids,’ caller to congressman’s office says.” Brian Mast is from down here. Brian Mast is a war hero who has lost limbs in service to the United States. “A man from Stuart, Florida, has been arrested after threatening to kill Republican Rep. Brian Mast’s children over President Donald Trump’s family separation policy.”

This is in Roll Call. There is no Trump family separation policy, but this is like peeing against the wind, trying to get the facts straight about this. There is no Trump policy. It is United States statutory law that has been enforced by a separate opinion from the beloved Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. The man’s name, in this case, is Lawrence Key. He “was arrested after allegedly making a threatening call to Mast’s Washington office on Monday…

“Key is accused of telling an intern who answered the phone ‘I’m going to find the congressman’s kids and kill them. If you’re going to separate kids at the border, I’m going to kill his kids. Don’t try to find me because you won’t.’” A little news on Lawrence Key.

“Key is active with the Martin County Democratic Party and volunteers with the local Planned Parenthood…” He’s a big-time Democrat activist. “[F]riends described him as a ‘gentle soul’ and didn’t believe he would hurt anyone, the station reported. Key denied making the threat to FBI agents and a Martin County deputy, but said if Mast supports Trump’s policy, he should be separated from his children.” (impression) Yeah, I didn’t say it, but let me tell you what I would say if I had said it: “If Mast supports Trump, then separate Mast from his kids.

Now, why does this guy think what he thinks? Why is this guy dead wrong about what he thinks is going on? Answer: The media. How else is this guy “learning,” quote-unquote, what’s happening, what’s going on? There is no other source of information for this that generates this kind of lunatic, deranged hatred. But as far as this guy Key is concerned, he had to have a foundation of hatred going into this, as they all do, because of their inability to defeat Donald Trump and their inability to get rid of Donald Trump. You can understand their frustration.

The best and brightest at the FBI, the best and brightest at the Department of Justice, the best and brightest at the CIA, the best and brightest of the Obama administration joined forces to get rid of Donald Trump in the first six months of his presidency — and they have bombed out. They have failed miserably. And, furthermore, they have been unable to separate Trump’s supporters from Trump. That irritates them as much as all the rest.

They’ve already begun shooting Republicans at baseball practice.

Steve Scalise.

Peter Fonda’s tweets finally made a news story at TheHill.com: “Peter Fonda Calls for Protests at ICE Agents’ Homes and Their Children’s Schools,” and then Kirstjen Nielsen decided to have dinner in Washington not far from the White House the other night. So she went to a Mexican restaurant. That ticked ’em off! Just that alone blew their minds away. She had no right to go to a Mexican restaurant given what she’s doing. They should have gone to a Chinese place, given what Trump’s trying to do.

People that went to the restaurant and drove her out of it while she was eating are Bernie Sanders supporters. They are from the confirmed Socialist for America organization or whatever it is. They’re Antifa types, but they are Bernie Sanders supporters.

BREAK TRANSCRIPT

RUSH: You’ve got the media now literally driving people crazy out there. Peter Fonda tweeting that he wanted to kidnap Barron Trump from his mother’s arms.

Melania Calls Secret Service After Actor Peter Fonda Calls For Barron Trump to Be Kidnapped — The Office of the First Lady has notified the Secret Service after actor Peter Fonda called for kidnapping Melania and Donald Trump’s son, Barron… In a tweet sent Wednesday, the actor called for Barron to be ‘ripped’ from Melania’s arms and put in a cage ‘with pedophiles.’ Spokesperson for the first lady Stephanie Grisham told the Daily Caller that the Secret Service has been ‘notified’ of the threat. ‘The tweet is sick and irresponsible and USSS has been notified,’ Grisham said.”

Now, let’s imagine what it’s like inside the residence at the White House when something like this happens. I want you to think of it happening to you instead of the president of the United States and his wife. If there were a local bully in town making threats on your children, what would be happening in your house? My guess is that something along the lines of the mother and the kid demanding the dad do something about this.

But let’s say the dad has the kind of job where he just can’t react to this stuff personally, publicly all the time and so doesn’t. What happens to the other people in the family frustrated ’cause dad won’t speak out for them because for whatever reason dad can’t? Now, I don’t know that that’s going on here. But it’s a pretty safe bet that Melania Trump didn’t sign up for this. I mean, despite how controversial she knew it was gonna be and despite how unhinged these people are, it’s asking a lot of people to sit here and let this roll off your back and to act like it’s not that big a deal.

It’s a big thing to ask them to stay above this because their station in life requires them to. It’s a tough thing to ask people to ignore this, because reacting to it would take them down to the level of the sewer where Peter Fonda is. But that is what they’re faced with. Imagine being Donald Trump and seeing this tweet or hearing about it, and imagine wanting to personally take some action. But he can’t because of the constraints of the job, the requirements of the job.

So he has to sit here and let this stuff play out. The most that can happen is to call the Secret Service. At least publicly. Don’t misunderstand. I don’t think Trump is gonna not do anything about this. But it can’t be public. I mean, Trump cannot gonna appear as the valiant hero on a white horse and deal with this. Public figures are constrained by any number of things that prevent them from acting as people would expect them to react in the face of direct threats like this.

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The Pronk Pops Show 1021, January 25, 2018, Story 1: President Trump aka Amnesty Don Will Lose His Support Base If He Agrees To A Pathway To Citizenship For Any of The 30-60 Million Illegal Aliens in The United States Including Illegal Alien “Dreamers” — Do Not Reward Criminal Behavior — Do Not Repeat Reagan’s Biggest Mistake of Granting Amnesty Before Securing The Borders — Enforce Existing Immigration Law — Deport All Illegal Aliens — Trump’s Promise — Videos — Story 2: President Trump Woos World Leaders To Invest in America at World Economic Forum (WEF) in Davos Global Gathering of Corporate and Political Establishment Elitists — Videos — Story 3: FBI Missing Text Messages Found and Fake Bureau of Investigation of Clinton Emails Revealed — The Fix Was In To Make Sure Hillary Clinton Was Exonerated For Massive Mishandling of Classified Information — Appoint Special Counsel and Indict Hillary Clinton — You Have Five Days Before 5 Year Statue of Limitations Runs Out! — Videos

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Story 1: President Trump aka Amnesty Don Will Lose His Support Base If He Agrees To A Pathway To Citizenship For Any of The 30-60 Million Illegal Aliens in The United States Including Illegal Alien “Dreamers” — Do Not Reward Criminal Behavior — Do Not Repeat Reagan’s Biggest Mistake of Granting Amnesty Before Securing The Borders — Enforce Existing Immigration Law — Deport All Illegal Aliens — Trump’s Promise — Videos —

Trump immigration proposal would offer a path to citizenship

White House reveals framework of immigration proposal

Trump immigration proposal draws mixed reactions from both parties

The Ingraham Angle 1/25/18 With Laura Ingraham | The Ingraham Angle Fox News January 25, 2018

Trump will offer citizenship to 1.8 MILLION ‘Dreamers’

How DACA Hurts Americans

1995: Barbara Jordan on “Immigration Reform”

President Trump says he shares immigration views with Barbara Jordan

SHOCKER: Trump wants AMNESTY for DREAMERS – caught on tape

Tucker: Entitled Illegal Immigrants Demand Amnesty – Tucker Carlson

Rep. Bob Goodlatte on chain migration, FBI revelations

Taxpayers fund commercial flights for illegal immigrants

Illegal Aliens Quietly Being Relocated Throughout U.S. on Commercial Flights

Donald Trump lays out three steps of his immigration policy

Trump: It is realistic to deport all illegal immigrants

Inside Trump’s impromptu White House press conference

Listen: Trump says he would speak to Mueller under oath

Hear Trump’s full exchange with reporters

Donald Trump explains his immigration plan

Donald Trump lays out three steps of his immigration policy

Trump: It is realistic to deport all illegal immigrants

Inside Trump’s impromptu White House press conference

Listen: Trump says he would speak to Mueller under oath

Hear Trump’s full exchange with reporters

Donald Trump explains his immigration plan

Ingraham Warns Trump Not to Renege on Immigration Promises

Tucker Carlson blasts Trump’s ‘negotiation skills’ on immigration

Tucker Carlson blasts Trump’s ‘negotiation skills’ on immigration

Trump’s immigration meeting was lowest day of presidency: Ann Coulter

Sen. Tom Cotton on chain migration, Tillerson speculation

BEST VERSION: Reagan on Amnesty & Illegal Immigration

President Reagan’s Remarks at Ceremony for Immigration Reform and Control Act. November 6, 1986

The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986

Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986

“They’re all Illegals” Adam Carolla REACTS to DACA termination by President Trump

Immigration by the Numbers — Off the Charts

‘Amnesty Don’ Trends at Number One on Twitter in Washington, D.C.

“Amnesty Don” is trending, everyone. My question: Will that change Trump’s mind by 8 am?

Trump’s biggest supporters immediately took to Twitter using the hashtag “#AmnestyDon” to blast the President for his choice to give into DACA amnesty.

DACA recipients currently hold upwards of 700,000 U.S. jobs. An ultimate end to the program – with DACA recipients not getting amnesty –would result in a 700,000 job stimulus for American workers. This would amount to nearly 30,000 new U.S. job openings for American workers every month once the program is officially phased out.

Although screening for DACA was previously touted as being sufficient in keeping criminals out, United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) revealed that more than 2,100 recipients had their status revoked for being criminals or gang members.

John Binder is a reporter for Breitbart News. Follow him on Twitter at @JxhnBinder.

http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2017/09/13/amnesty-don-trends-at-number-one-on-twitter-in-washington-d-c/

 

Trump offers to triple Obama’s amnesty number in exchange for tougher security laws

President Trump will submit his immigration proposal to Congress next week. (Associated Press/File)
President Trump will submit his immigration proposal to Congress next week. (Associated Press/File) more >
 – The Washington Times – Updated: 6:45 p.m. on Thursday, January 25, 2018

President Trump will propose a pathway to citizenship for 1.8 million illegal immigrant Dreamers, nearly tripling the Obama-era DACA program, the White House said Thursday.

Mr. Trump’s vision, which he will submit to Congress next week, would grant legal status to fewer than the 3 million people under the plan Senate Democrats have backed. But the number of people is far higher than the 690,000 in the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program.

White House officials said they felt they had to go that far in order to demand major changes on the security side, including an end to catch-and-release of illegal immigrants snared at the border, faster deportations for those caught overstaying their visas inside the U.S. and $25 billion for Mr. Trump’s wall.

The president also will demand strict limits on the chain of family migration across the board — not just for newly legalized Dreamers.

He would allow immigrants to petition for spouses and minor children but would eliminate parents, siblings and adult children from chain migration. Extended family already in the backlog would be allowed to enter, but no further applications would be accepted.

The combination of legalization and security puts Mr. Trump squarely in the middle of the immigration debate, between Democrats who want a more generous amnesty and House Republicans who opposed citizenship and were instead pushing a massive package of security changes.

“As part of this effort to ensure there is full bipartisan support for this package, we believe the total number that will be able to apply for legal status … will be a population of individuals of 1.8 million people,” a senior White House official said.

The official said Mr. Trump wouldn’t agree to a deal on Dreamers without the border security, enforcement and policy changes.

“This is kind of a bottom line for the president,” another official told reporters at the White House.

The plan calls for a $25 billion trust fund to build Mr. Trump’s border wall and other infrastructure. That would ensure a future Congress couldn’t withhold the money.

Mr. Obama supported a path to citizenship for Dreamers but was unable to get that legislation through Congress, which was why his administration circumvented Capitol Hill to create the DACA program.

Begun in 2012, the program approved some 800,000 people for renewable two-year permits granting them a stay of deportation and authority to work in the U.S. Of those people, some 690,000 were still protected under DACA as of late last year.

Of the additional 1.1 million people Mr. Trump would enroll, about 600,000 were eligible for DACA but, for various reasons, didn’t apply, and 500,000 or so who would be admitted under adjusted timelines.

The White House called the 1.8 million “a dramatic concession by the White House to get to 60 votes in the Senate.”

It would take the immigrants 10 to 12 years to earn citizenship.

Sen. Ted Cruz, Texas Republican, said the president had embraced an amnesty that even President Obama was denied.

“I do not believe we should be granting a path to citizenship to anybody here illegally,” he said. “All of these proposals being floated that have a path to citizenship for DACA recipients are markedly to the left of where President Obama was. DACA itself has no path to citizenship under President Obama’s illegal executive amnesty.”

Democrats remained skeptical of Mr. Trump’s support for citizenship, which he announced to reporters on Wednesday.

“What he says on Tuesday is not necessarily what he says on Thursday,” said Sen. Ron Wyden of Oregon, the top Democrat on the Senate Finance Committee.

Other Democrats said Mr. Trump’s calculus of a trade of Dreamers for the wall was still unacceptable.

“I do not support border wall funding,” said Sen. Cory A. Booker, New Jersey Democrat.

He said he was holding out hope that Dreamers could get citizenship without a wall.

“I’m a prisoner of hope, but that does not mean I have some Pollyannaish view that this is going to work out,” said Mr. Booker. “Hope is work, hope is sacrifice, so we are going to fight this.”

Still, Sen. Michael F. Bennet, Colorado Democrat, said the president’s move toward citizenship for Dreamers was encouraging.

“I think there is a general consensus among people working on this that a pathway has to be part of it,” he said.

The White House plan could undercut efforts by House conservatives, who back a much tougher security plan. That would grant the 690,000 people under DACA a new legal status of three-year work permits, approved by Congress, in exchange for mandatory use of E-Verify for employers to check work status, curtailing abuse of the asylum system, cracking down on sanctuary cities and punishing repeat illegal immigrants.

The White House said it envisioned Mr. Trump’s plan as the basis for Senate negotiations but expected the House to pass its own bill.

“We’re not trying to force something on the House at this point. I think the House has got its own independent process,” an adviser said.

The White House said the president’s plan would boost security at the northern border as well, which could entice senators in Montana, North Dakota and Minnesota who are calling for attention to the U.S.-Canada line.

Mr. Trump’s plan would cancel the Diversity Visa Lottery, which gives 50,000 visas per year based on chance. Those visas would be recaptured and used to reduce the backlog in merit-based migration.

The president also asked Congress to allow faster deportations for those who overstay their visitors’ visas, who could account for half of all new illegal immigration.

Mr. Trump said Congress must change the laws to help end the catch-and-release policy that applies to countries other than Mexico and Canada who cannot be quickly turned back home.

Under the current system, migrants who cannot be detained are released with the hope that they will return for their deportation hearings. They rarely do.

The White House said it had dozens of other enforcement changes it could have demanded, such as E-Verify, but it would pursue those later.

“This is the first bite,” said a White House official. “There is a second phase to this. There are 11 million people who live here illegally.”

The plan is unlikely to please activists on either side of the debate.

Indeed, immigrant rights groups were skeptical even after Mr. Trump said he would support full citizenship rights.

Frank Sharry, executive director of America’s Voice, called it “a spoonful of sugar before the bitter medicine of Trump’s far-reaching nativist agenda.”

“No way. We won’t stand for it,” he said. “They don’t get to exploit a crisis they created to take a wrecking ball to the Statue of Liberty.”

https://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2018/jan/25/trump-amnesty-cover-18-million-dreamers/

 

Trump Proposes Citizenship for Dreamers in Exchange for Wall, Other Concessions

Administration also looking to restrict family-based immigration and hiring more border agents, immigration judges and prosecutors

Immigrant rights groups rallied on Thursday in Hartford, Conn., as lawmakers in Washington negotiated an immigration deal.
Immigrant rights groups rallied on Thursday in Hartford, Conn., as lawmakers in Washington negotiated an immigration deal. PHOTO: JOHN MOORE/GETTY IMAGES

WASHINGTON—President Donald Trump proposed a path to citizenship for 1.8 million undocumented immigrants brought to the U.S. as children, if lawmakers agree to create a $25 billion fund to expand barriers along the Mexico border and make other changes to the immigration system.

The proposal, presented to Senate leaders on Thursday, would additionally restrict family-based immigration, which is the channel by which most immigrants have come to the U.S. for the past 50 years. The White House plan also calls for an end to a lottery-type program that randomly awards 50,000 visas annually to foreigners.

Mr. Trump was in Davos, Switzerland, for the World Economic Forum on Thursday. But his top aides told Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell that the president would sign into law legislation that included these changes. The Republican leader responded that he intended to bring such a bill to a vote during the week of Feb. 5, White House officials said.

It wasn’t immediately clear whether Mr. McConnell could find enough support for such a measure. Passage needs a total of 60 votes in the Senate that will require backing from Republicans, who hold 51 seats, and some Democrats.

And White House officials on Thursday acknowledged that approval was an even bigger question in the House, where a small but powerful wing of conservative Republicans can—and often do—prevent their party from acting without help from Democrats.

The biggest question Thursday was how conservatives will react to Mr. Trump’s support for citizenship for the Dreamers, who were shielded from deportation by actions taken by former President Barack Obama. About 700,000 immigrants registered for that program, known as Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals.

Mr. Trump’s plan would protect those people, plus others who would otherwise qualify. That brings the total to about 1.8 million people who could become citizens within 10 to 12 years, White House officials said.

“This represents a dramatic concession by the White House to get to 60 votes from the Senate,” a senior administration official said, describing the bill as a “compromise on many fronts.”

Mr. Trump’s path to citizenship would also include requirements for work, education and “good moral character,” which has long been one of the requirements for naturalization in the U.S. That status could be revoked in the case of criminal conduct, public safety concerns or dependency on the government for subsistence, such as cash assistance.

When the president suggested he would be in favor of a plan late Wednesday before leaving for Davos, the conservative website Breitbart.com ran a headline referring to Mr. Trump as “Amnesty Don.”

But Mr. Trump has long said he was open to protecting Dreamers, and the White House is betting that his supporters will overlook those concessions if he can secure funding for a border wall. While Mr. Trump promised voters he would make Mexico pay for the wall, his plan instead asks Congress to find $25 billion for a trust fund that future lawmakers couldn’t divert to other programs.

The total price tag on Mr. Trump’s plan for border security—along both the southern and northern border—would cost billions more, White House officials said. Asked if it would cost another $5 billion, one White house official said that amount was “in the ballpark.”

Additional border security measures the president is seeking include standardizing treatment of undocumented immigrants, regardless of country of origin; expediting removal of those who overstayed their visa; and hiring additional border agents, immigration judges, and prosecutors.

“A expeditious removal process is going to be a huge deterrent for new people coming in illegally, which will many, many, many lives,” a senior administration official said. “Once people see there is predictability in the system, they will stop coming in illegally.”

On family-based immigration, Mr. Trump’s plan would restrict so-called chain migration to only spouses and minor children. The administration argues that successive rounds of family-based admissions tilts the immigrant pool away from young, skilled workers best equipped to prosper and assimilate.

Those who have already applied for family-based immigration would be allowed to continue through the process, under Mr. Trump’s plan.

Some of that backlog would be cleared by using slots from the Diversity Visa Lottery. The president called for an end to the process, a marginal visa program once tied to efforts to help Irish migrants, after it was used by the man accused of driving a rented truck through a crowd of cyclists and pedestrian in New York City.

Ending the program would also free up visas to be used for skilled migrants, a White House official said.

“The president campaigned pretty hard on immigration—this is something he’s given on,” a senior White House official said, calling the proposal, “kind of a bottom line for the president.”

https://www.wsj.com/articles/democrats-try-to-narrow-focus-of-an-immigration-deal-1516903971

Senator Richard J. Durbin, Democrat of Illinois, met with the young unauthorized immigrants known as Dreamers and their supporters outside the Capitol last week. CreditErin Schaff for The New York Times

WASHINGTON — President Trump proposed legislation on Thursday that would provide a path to citizenship for as many as 1.8 million young undocumented immigrants in exchange for an end to decades of family-based migration policies, a costly border wall and a vast crackdown on other immigrants living in the country illegally.

Describing the plan as “extremely generous” but a take-it-or-leave-it proposal, White House officials said they hoped it would be embraced by conservatives and centrists in Congress as the first step in an even broader effort to fix the nation’s immigration system.

Officials said the legislation would pave the way to citizenship not only for the 690,000 people who had signed up for protection under an Obama-era program, known as Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, or DACA, but also for another 1.1 million undocumented immigrants who would have qualified for the program but never applied. Mr. Trump ended the DACA program, whose protections did not include a path to citizenship, last September.

But the new plan — drafted by Stephen Miller, the president’s hard-line domestic policy adviser, and John F. Kelly, the White House chief of staff — was immediately rejected by Democrats, immigration advocates and some Republicans, with some describing it as nothing but an attempt to rid the country of immigrants and shut the nation’s borders.

Republican and Democratic senators are working on a narrower immigration plan of their own. They hope that if it can pass the Senate with a strong bipartisan majority, it will put pressure on the House — where attempts at immigration overhauls have died in recent years — to pass the legislation as well.

Senate passage of a bipartisan bill could perhaps leave Mr. Trump with the take-it-or-leave-it decision. Just over two weeks ago, in a televised negotiating session at the White House, Mr. Trump said he would sign anything that got to him.

Senators Lindsey Graham of South Carolina and Jeff Flake of Arizona — Republicans who have in the past fought against hard-line immigration policies — said the Senate was unlikely to simply accept the president’s legislation.

“We’re getting started without them,” Mr. Flake said. Mr. Graham said bluntly, “This is a negotiation.”

Members of both parties said that legislation would have a better chance of passing if it focused on legal status for DACA recipients without a dramatic crackdown on illegal immigrants or new restrictions on legal immigration for extended family members.

“If you start putting in all of these highly charged toxic issues, it’s just not going to work,” said Senator Bill Nelson, Democrat of Florida.

Anti-immigration activists also assailed the plan, though for the opposite reason. Breitbart News greeted word of the president’s plan with the headline “Amnesty Don Suggests Citizenship for Illegal Aliens.”

Under Mr. Trump’s plan, described to reporters by senior White House officials, young immigrants who were brought into the United States illegally as children would be granted legal status, would be allowed to work, and could become citizens over a 10-to-12-year period if they remained out of trouble with the law.

In exchange, Congress would have to create a $25 billion trust fund to pay for a southern border wall, dramatically increase immigration arrests, speed up deportations, crack down on people who overstay their visas, prevent citizens from bringing their parents to the United States, and end a State Department program designed to encourage migration from underrepresented countries.

White House officials said that the list of enhanced security measures — which have been on anti-immigration wish lists for decades — were nonnegotiable. They warned that if no deal is reached, DACA recipients will face deportation when the program fully expires on March 5.

One senior official said the young immigrants would not be targeted, but are “illegal immigrants” who would be processed for deportation if they came into contact with immigration officers.

Eddie Vale, a Democratic consultant working with a coalition of immigration groups, described the president’s proposal as an effort to sabotage bipartisan talks and win passage of “a white supremacist wish list.”

Officials said the president’s decision to formally present a plan to Congress was a direct response to members of Congress, including Senator Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, the majority leader, who had complained that they did not know where the president stood in the immigration debate.

“We’re basically signaling that this is the bill the president can sign,” one senior official said during the briefing.

Officials said they expected Mr. McConnell to bring the president’s plan to the Senate floor for a vote during the week of Feb. 5, just days before the Feb. 8 expiration of a short-term government spending plan.

The president’s legislative proposal is designed to exert maximum pressure on Democrats, who are desperate to protect the young immigrants, known as Dreamers, but who fiercely oppose the policies embraced by hard-liners like Mr. Miller.

The strategy would work only if the Senate fails to reach a broad bipartisan accord on an alternative: legislation that would protect the Dreamers and bolster border security, but reject the most draconian aspects of the White House’s proposal.

Mr. Trump hinted at the proposal to come on Wednesday evening in impromptu comments suggesting that he was open to allowing some of the young immigrants to become citizens in 10 to 12 years. But his comments were quickly followed on Thursday morning by a White House email warning of a flood of immigrants into the country and demanding an end to policies that allow families to sponsor the immigration of their immediate relatives.

And even as Mr. Trump was offering reassuring words to the Dreamers — “tell them not to worry,” he told reporters Wednesday evening — senior White House officials were emphasizing the more hard-line features of their forthcoming immigration proposal.

In September, Mr. Trump ended the DACA program and set it to expire at the beginning of March, when recipients would no longer be able to work legally in the United States and would once again face the threat of deportation.

Democratic lawmakers and activists say they will refuse to accept any proposal that requires them to forsake the well-being of other immigrants, including the parents of the Dreamers, to secure the fate of the young immigrants themselves.

“It is shameful that the White House is holding these youth hostage in exchange for their extreme immigration agenda,” said Kevin Appleby, the senior director of international migration policy for the Center for Migration Studies.

On Thursday, a bipartisan group of senators calling itself the Common Sense Coalition gathered in the office of Senator Susan Collins, Republican of Maine, to discuss the immigration issue. At issue is the scope of the bill. Some senators want to draft a narrow bill that bolsters border security and codifies protections now extended to DACA recipients, which do not include a path to citizenship. Others say the legislation should take Mr. Trump up on his offer of citizenship, but to do that, lawmakers might have to take the rest of the White House’s deal.

“Do we simply codify what DACA is and extend it out over a period of time, or do we try to go farther than that as the president is suggesting?” asked Senator Mike Rounds, Republican of South Dakota. “If you do that, you have to address the issue of chain migration, and that’s where it becomes a lot more complicated.”

Hard-liners, apparently led by Senator John Cornyn of Texas, the No. 2 Republican in the Senate, say the White House’s strategy needs to be considered — and that means four elements: Dreamers; border security and a wall; chain migration; and an end to the diversity visa lottery.

“Everybody wants to alter reality in a way that sort of suits their needs,” Mr. Cornyn said. “But the reality is the president said there has to be four pillars. People just need to accept that and deal with it.”

Senator Richard J. Durbin, Democrat of Illinois, and Mr. Graham have been leading bipartisan talks on immigration. Their initial proposal — which did not include the president’s more hard-line proposals — was rejected by Mr. Trump during a White House meeting in which the president used vulgarities to describe Africans.

872COMMENTS

On Wednesday night, Mr. Graham held a meeting with a far larger group of about 30 senators. They decided that Mr. Durbin, the No. 2 Democrat in the Senate, and Mr. Cornyn would each function as a clearinghouse for ideas on immigration from their respective parties.

“We’ve got more people in the room, which is good,” Mr. Graham said. “We’re getting more input. We’ve just got to turn it into more output.”

  https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/25/us/politics/trump-immigration-plan-white-house.html

 

Trump offers to triple Obama’s amnesty number in exchange for tougher security laws

President Trump will submit his immigration proposal to Congress next week. (Associated Press/File)
President Trump will submit his immigration proposal to Congress next week. (Associated Press/File) more >
 – The Washington Times – Updated: 6:45 p.m. on Thursday, January 25, 2018

President Trump will propose a pathway to citizenship for 1.8 million illegal immigrant Dreamers, nearly tripling the Obama-era DACA program, the White House said Thursday.

Mr. Trump’s vision, which he will submit to Congress next week, would grant legal status to fewer than the 3 million people under the plan Senate Democrats have backed. But the number of people is far higher than the 690,000 in the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program.

White House officials said they felt they had to go that far in order to demand major changes on the security side, including an end to catch-and-release of illegal immigrants snared at the border, faster deportations for those caught overstaying their visas inside the U.S. and $25 billion for Mr. Trump’s wall.

The president also will demand strict limits on the chain of family migration across the board — not just for newly legalized Dreamers.

He would allow immigrants to petition for spouses and minor children but would eliminate parents, siblings and adult children from chain migration. Extended family already in the backlog would be allowed to enter, but no further applications would be accepted.

The combination of legalization and security puts Mr. Trump squarely in the middle of the immigration debate, between Democrats who want a more generous amnesty and House Republicans who opposed citizenship and were instead pushing a massive package of security changes.

“As part of this effort to ensure there is full bipartisan support for this package, we believe the total number that will be able to apply for legal status … will be a population of individuals of 1.8 million people,” a senior White House official said.

The official said Mr. Trump wouldn’t agree to a deal on Dreamers without the border security, enforcement and policy changes.

“This is kind of a bottom line for the president,” another official told reporters at the White House.

The plan calls for a $25 billion trust fund to build Mr. Trump’s border wall and other infrastructure. That would ensure a future Congress couldn’t withhold the money.

Mr. Obama supported a path to citizenship for Dreamers but was unable to get that legislation through Congress, which was why his administration circumvented Capitol Hill to create the DACA program.

Begun in 2012, the program approved some 800,000 people for renewable two-year permits granting them a stay of deportation and authority to work in the U.S. Of those people, some 690,000 were still protected under DACA as of late last year.

Of the additional 1.1 million people Mr. Trump would enroll, about 600,000 were eligible for DACA but, for various reasons, didn’t apply, and 500,000 or so who would be admitted under adjusted timelines.

The White House called the 1.8 million “a dramatic concession by the White House to get to 60 votes in the Senate.”

It would take the immigrants 10 to 12 years to earn citizenship.

Sen. Ted Cruz, Texas Republican, said the president had embraced an amnesty that even President Obama was denied.

“I do not believe we should be granting a path to citizenship to anybody here illegally,” he said. “All of these proposals being floated that have a path to citizenship for DACA recipients are markedly to the left of where President Obama was. DACA itself has no path to citizenship under President Obama’s illegal executive amnesty.”

Democrats remained skeptical of Mr. Trump’s support for citizenship, which he announced to reporters on Wednesday.

“What he says on Tuesday is not necessarily what he says on Thursday,” said Sen. Ron Wyden of Oregon, the top Democrat on the Senate Finance Committee.

Other Democrats said Mr. Trump’s calculus of a trade of Dreamers for the wall was still unacceptable.

“I do not support border wall funding,” said Sen. Cory A. Booker, New Jersey Democrat.

He said he was holding out hope that Dreamers could get citizenship without a wall.

“I’m a prisoner of hope, but that does not mean I have some Pollyannaish view that this is going to work out,” said Mr. Booker. “Hope is work, hope is sacrifice, so we are going to fight this.”

Still, Sen. Michael F. Bennet, Colorado Democrat, said the president’s move toward citizenship for Dreamers was encouraging.

“I think there is a general consensus among people working on this that a pathway has to be part of it,” he said.

The White House plan could undercut efforts by House conservatives, who back a much tougher security plan. That would grant the 690,000 people under DACA a new legal status of three-year work permits, approved by Congress, in exchange for mandatory use of E-Verify for employers to check work status, curtailing abuse of the asylum system, cracking down on sanctuary cities and punishing repeat illegal immigrants.

The White House said it envisioned Mr. Trump’s plan as the basis for Senate negotiations but expected the House to pass its own bill.

“We’re not trying to force something on the House at this point. I think the House has got its own independent process,” an adviser said.

The White House said the president’s plan would boost security at the northern border as well, which could entice senators in Montana, North Dakota and Minnesota who are calling for attention to the U.S.-Canada line.

Mr. Trump’s plan would cancel the Diversity Visa Lottery, which gives 50,000 visas per year based on chance. Those visas would be recaptured and used to reduce the backlog in merit-based migration.

The president also asked Congress to allow faster deportations for those who overstay their visitors’ visas, who could account for half of all new illegal immigration.

Mr. Trump said Congress must change the laws to help end the catch-and-release policy that applies to countries other than Mexico and Canada who cannot be quickly turned back home.

Under the current system, migrants who cannot be detained are released with the hope that they will return for their deportation hearings. They rarely do.

The White House said it had dozens of other enforcement changes it could have demanded, such as E-Verify, but it would pursue those later.

“This is the first bite,” said a White House official. “There is a second phase to this. There are 11 million people who live here illegally.”

The plan is unlikely to please activists on either side of the debate.

Indeed, immigrant rights groups were skeptical even after Mr. Trump said he would support full citizenship rights.

Frank Sharry, executive director of America’s Voice, called it “a spoonful of sugar before the bitter medicine of Trump’s far-reaching nativist agenda.”

“No way. We won’t stand for it,” he said. “They don’t get to exploit a crisis they created to take a wrecking ball to the Statue of Liberty.”

https://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2018/jan/25/trump-amnesty-cover-18-million-dreamers/

 

Trump Proposes Citizenship for Dreamers in Exchange for Wall, Other Concessions

Administration also looking to restrict family-based immigration and hiring more border agents, immigration judges and prosecutors

Immigrant rights groups rallied on Thursday in Hartford, Conn., as lawmakers in Washington negotiated an immigration deal.
Immigrant rights groups rallied on Thursday in Hartford, Conn., as lawmakers in Washington negotiated an immigration deal. PHOTO: JOHN MOORE/GETTY IMAGES

WASHINGTON—President Donald Trump proposed a path to citizenship for 1.8 million undocumented immigrants brought to the U.S. as children, if lawmakers agree to create a $25 billion fund to expand barriers along the Mexico border and make other changes to the immigration system.

The proposal, presented to Senate leaders on Thursday, would additionally restrict family-based immigration, which is the channel by which most immigrants have come to the U.S. for the past 50 years. The White House plan also calls for an end to a lottery-type program that randomly awards 50,000 visas annually to foreigners.

Mr. Trump was in Davos, Switzerland, for the World Economic Forum on Thursday. But his top aides told Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell that the president would sign into law legislation that included these changes. The Republican leader responded that he intended to bring such a bill to a vote during the week of Feb. 5, White House officials said.

It wasn’t immediately clear whether Mr. McConnell could find enough support for such a measure. Passage needs a total of 60 votes in the Senate that will require backing from Republicans, who hold 51 seats, and some Democrats.

And White House officials on Thursday acknowledged that approval was an even bigger question in the House, where a small but powerful wing of conservative Republicans can—and often do—prevent their party from acting without help from Democrats.

The biggest question Thursday was how conservatives will react to Mr. Trump’s support for citizenship for the Dreamers, who were shielded from deportation by actions taken by former President Barack Obama. About 700,000 immigrants registered for that program, known as Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals.

Mr. Trump’s plan would protect those people, plus others who would otherwise qualify. That brings the total to about 1.8 million people who could become citizens within 10 to 12 years, White House officials said.

“This represents a dramatic concession by the White House to get to 60 votes from the Senate,” a senior administration official said, describing the bill as a “compromise on many fronts.”

Mr. Trump’s path to citizenship would also include requirements for work, education and “good moral character,” which has long been one of the requirements for naturalization in the U.S. That status could be revoked in the case of criminal conduct, public safety concerns or dependency on the government for subsistence, such as cash assistance.

When the president suggested he would be in favor of a plan late Wednesday before leaving for Davos, the conservative website Breitbart.com ran a headline referring to Mr. Trump as “Amnesty Don.”

But Mr. Trump has long said he was open to protecting Dreamers, and the White House is betting that his supporters will overlook those concessions if he can secure funding for a border wall. While Mr. Trump promised voters he would make Mexico pay for the wall, his plan instead asks Congress to find $25 billion for a trust fund that future lawmakers couldn’t divert to other programs.

The total price tag on Mr. Trump’s plan for border security—along both the southern and northern border—would cost billions more, White House officials said. Asked if it would cost another $5 billion, one White house official said that amount was “in the ballpark.”

Additional border security measures the president is seeking include standardizing treatment of undocumented immigrants, regardless of country of origin; expediting removal of those who overstayed their visa; and hiring additional border agents, immigration judges, and prosecutors.

“A expeditious removal process is going to be a huge deterrent for new people coming in illegally, which will many, many, many lives,” a senior administration official said. “Once people see there is predictability in the system, they will stop coming in illegally.”

On family-based immigration, Mr. Trump’s plan would restrict so-called chain migration to only spouses and minor children. The administration argues that successive rounds of family-based admissions tilts the immigrant pool away from young, skilled workers best equipped to prosper and assimilate.

Those who have already applied for family-based immigration would be allowed to continue through the process, under Mr. Trump’s plan.

Some of that backlog would be cleared by using slots from the Diversity Visa Lottery. The president called for an end to the process, a marginal visa program once tied to efforts to help Irish migrants, after it was used by the man accused of driving a rented truck through a crowd of cyclists and pedestrian in New York City.

Ending the program would also free up visas to be used for skilled migrants, a White House official said.

“The president campaigned pretty hard on immigration—this is something he’s given on,” a senior White House official said, calling the proposal, “kind of a bottom line for the president.”

https://www.wsj.com/articles/democrats-try-to-narrow-focus-of-an-immigration-deal-1516903971

End Chain Migration

 

Chain Migration refers to the endless chains of foreign nationals who are allowed to immigrate to the United States because citizens and lawful permanent residents are allowed to sponsor their non-nuclear family members.

It is the primary mechanism that has caused legal immigration in the U.S. to quadruple from about 250,000 per year in the 1950s and 1960s to more than 1 million annually since 1990. As such, it is one of the chief culprits in America’s current record-breaking population boom and all the attendant sprawl, congestion, and school overcrowding that damage Americans’ quality of life.

HOW CHAIN MIGRATION WORKS

 

Chain Migration starts with a foreign citizen chosen by our government to be admitted on the basis of what he/she is supposed to offer in our national interest. The Original Immigrant is allowed to bring in his/her nuclear family consisting of a spouse and minor children. After that, the chain begins. Once the Original Immigrant and his/her spouse becomes a U.S. citizen, they can petition for their parents, adult sons/daughters and their spouses and children, and their adult siblings.

The Family-Chain categories are divided into four separate preferences:

  • 1st Preference: Unmarried sons/daughters of U.S. citizens and their children (capped at 23,400/year)
  • 2nd Preference: Spouses, children, and unmarried sons/daughters of green card holders (capped at 114,000/year)
  • 3rd Preference: Married sons/daughters of U.S. citizens and their spouses and children (capped at 23,400/year)
  • 4th Preference: Brothers/sisters of U.S. citizens (at least 21 years of age) and their spouses and children (capped at (65,000/year)

CHAIN MIGRATION LEADS TO ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION

 

Due to Chain Migration, distant relatives of original immigrants may come to see immigration as a right or entitlement. When they realize that they may, in fact, have to wait years for a visa to become available because of annual caps and per-country limits on several of the family-based immigration categories, many decide to come illegally while they wait for their turn.

According to recent Visa Bulletins prepared by the U.S. Department of State, green cards are currently being issued to Philippino-born adult brothers and sisters of U.S. citizens (the fourth preference under the family-sponsored categories) who first filed their green card applications in the early-1990s. While these adult family members are guaranteed green cards under current law, the wait time is so long, these family members instead choose to come to the United States and remain here illegally until their green card becomes available. In fact, the long wait times created by Chain Migration was one factor leading to Congress’ decision to increase the annual caps on legal immigration in 1990.

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY OF CHAIN MIGRATION

 

Immigration Act of 1924 — Congress exempted spouses and unmarried adult children between 18-21 from per-country quotas

Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 — Congress created chain categories for parents, adult children, and adult siblings in a limited number of countries. Highly-educated or skilled immigrants, however, received priority.

Immigration Act of 1965 (Hart-Celler Act) — Congress extended the chains to every country of the world and reversed the priority so that the chain categories had preference over skill categories.

Immigration Act of 1990 — Congress raised the caps on chain categories.

The 1952 Immigration and Nationality Act established a four-category selection system for countries in the Eastern Hemisphere (Northern and Western Europe were heavily favored). As in the past, the Western Hemisphere was not subject to numerical limitations. The first preference, accounting for 50 percent of all green cards issues, went to skilled immigrants. The next three categories were divided among specified relatives of U.S. citizens and permanent resident aliens.

  • 30 percent were made available to parents of U.S. citizens aged 21 or older.
  • 20 percent were made available to the spouses and children of lawful permanent residents.
  • Unused visas (capped at 25 percent per country) were made available to adult siblings and adult children of U.S. citizens.

From “A Brief History of U.S. Immigration Policy” by Joyce Vialet, Congressional Research Service, December 22, 1980:

Although U.S. immigration policy incorporated family relationships as a basis for admitting immigrants as early as the 1920s, the promotion of family reunification found in current law originated with the passage of the 1952 Immigration and Nationality Act (INA, P.L. 82-414). While the 1952 act largely retained the national origins quota system established in the Immigration Act of 1924, it also established a hierarchy of family-based preferences that continues to govern contemporary U.S. immigration policy today, including prioritizing spouses and minor children over other relatives and relatives of U.S. citizens over those of lawful permanent residents (LPRs).

Immigration numbers soared during the second half of the 1950s and early-1960s, with more than half of all immigration coming from the Western Hemisphere which was not subject to numerical limitations. According to the Congressional Research Service:

The gradual recognition that the national origins quota system was not functioning effectively as a means of regulating immigration was an important factor leading to the major policy revision which came in 1965.

The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act made two significant changes that, in combination with the chain categories, doubled immigration over the next 25 years.

  • Revised the means by which immigration was regulated by replacing the national origin quotas with annual limits:
    • 170,000 annual limit for the Eastern Hemisphere
      • 20,000 per country
    • 120,000 annual limit for the Western Hemisphere
      • 20,000 per country (added in 1976)
  • Reversed the priority system for the Eastern Hemisphere so the chain categories gained preference over education and skills.
    • Amendments in 1976 applied the preference system to the Western Hemisphere as well.

In 1976, Congress amended the 1965 bill by reversing the priority system — family-sponsored then employment-based — for both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Then, In 1978, Congress ended the per-county limits and replaced them with a single worldwide cap of 290,000. Through passage of the Refugee Act of 1980, Congress reduced the worldwide cap to 270,000, but removed Refugees as a preference.

The 1990 Immigration Act raised the annual caps on these chain categories in bold (P.L. 101-649, Section 111):

  • unlimited for parents of adult U.S. citizens
  • 23,400 for unmarried adult children of citizens
  • 114,200 for spouses and minor children of legal permanent residents; and unmarried adult children of LPRs (with 77% reserved for spouses and minor children)
  • 23,400 for married children of citizens
  • 65,000 for adult siblings of citizens age 21 and over

THE SOLUTION: RAISE ACT

 

The Immigration Act of 1990 called for a bi-partisan commission to “review and evaluate the impact of this Act and the amendments made by this Act” and to issue findings and recommendations on (among other things) the “impact of immigration…on labor needs, employment, and other economic and domestic conditions in the United States.”

The commission, chaired by Barbara Jordan, recommended the elimination of the chain migration categories.

“Unless there is a compelling national interest to do otherwise, immigrants should be chosen on the basis of the skills they contribute to the U.S. economy. The Commission believes that admission of nuclear family members and refugees provide such a compelling national interest, even if they are low-skilled. Reunification of adult children and siblings of adult citizens solely because of their family relationship is not as compelling.” – Barbara Jordan, June 28, 1995

Sen. Tom Cotton (R-Ark.) introduced legislation that would end Chain Migration based on the Jordan Commission’s recommendations – the Reforming American Immigration for Strong Employment (RAISE) Act (S. 354). The bill would reduce legal immigration by up to 50% by ending future chain migration and the diversity visa lottery.

https://www.numbersusa.com/solutions/end-chain-migration

Story 2: President Trump Woos World Leaders To Invest in America at World Economic Forum (WEF) in Davos Global Gathering of Corporate and Political Establishment Elitists — Videos

The Ingraham Angle 1/25/18 With Laura Ingraham | The Ingraham Angle Fox News January 25, 2018

Trump arrives in Davos

Trump meets with Theresa May in Davos

Trump threatens to cut off aid to Palestinians

INVESTING IN AMERICA: President Trump Speaks To World Leaders in Davos

President Trump has dinner with European Business Leaders. Davos. World Economic Forum. Jan 25, 2018

President Donald Trump In Davos For World Economic Forum | NBC News

Davos Notebook: Here’s why Trump is at the World Economic Forum

🔴 LIVE: President Trump at DAVOS World Economic Forum 2018 Switzerland

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What is Davos? | CNBC Explains

World Economic Forum opens in Davos

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We want peace and prosperity’ says Trump as he storms Davos with offers of better trade deals and pleas for big business to invest in America

  • President Donald Trump has arrived to Switzerland to participate in the Davos economic conference 
  • Members of his cabinet arrived in advance and joined in panels and interviews 
  • He told reporters, ‘We want great prosperity and we want great peace’
  • He will push his ‘America First’ agenda and seek more fair, reciprocal trade between the US and its allies
  • ‘America first is not America alone,’ said White House senior economic adviser Gary Cohn
  • Trump met British Prime Minister Theresa May after canceling a visit to the UK earlier this month
  • The president and Prime Minster shook hands after reaffirming the ‘Special Relationship’ between the nations
  • Trump said that he would ‘fight’ for Britain and said that any rumors of a fracture in relations were false 
  • Met with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu who thanked Trump for recognizing Jerusalem as capital
  • He will also attend a reception the White House has said will be held in his honor and meets with CEOs
  • Trump said before departing that he was ‘looking forward’ to speaking to special counsel Robert Mueller
  • Trump, never invited as a businessman, will be the first president to attend Davos since Bill Clinton in 2000
  • The president was not accompanied by his wife Melania, who pulled out of the trip on short notice following allegations that he had an affair with a porn star

‘I think the real message is we want great prosperity and we want great peace,’ Trump said after holding back-to-back meetings with British Prime Minister Theresa May and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.

 ‘And I think that really is the message,’ Trump told pool reporters who trailed him at each scheduled meeting at the gathering of bigwigs in the snowy Alpine town.

Trump also renewed his public pitch for investors to pour money into the U.S. ‘It’s been going really well. A lot of people are coming back to the United States. We are seeing tremendous investment,’ he said. ‘And today’s been a very exciting day, very great day and great for our country.

Trump landed on Thursday in Switzerland, where his outsized personality and determination to push an ‘America First’ agenda was upending the annual Davos conference.

To an extent, the annual confab of billionaires and CEOs was centering around Trump even before Air Force One touched down in Zurich, then flew aboard Marine One to Davos in the Swiss Alps.

President Donald Trump says he’s bringing a message of “peace and prosperity” to an annual economic summit in the Swiss Alps

The approximately 40-minute trip took Trump over a snowy countryside dotted with houses, frosted mountains and a glistening lake.

As Trump got off the helicopter in Davos, he gestured to aides who held him by the arms as he walked across the snowy landing zone to his waiting car.

‘We’re very happy to be here,’ Trump said as he arrived. ‘The United States is doing very well, and will continue to do well and this will be a very exciting two days.’

Trump waved to a bank of cameras when he arrived, before being immediately whisked away to the annual gathering of heads of state and business leaders where he had a one-on-one meeting with May.

He then had a meeting with Netanyahu, where the two reaffirmed the historic decision by the United States to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, and Trump blasted Palestinian leaders for ‘disrespecting’ the U.S.

Before the arrival of Trump it was German Chancellor Angela Merkel who got most of the press as she took on isolationism and protectionism in her remarks here Wednesday, while French President Emmanuel Macron took a dig at Trump over global warming.

Trump’s advisers have said that he will give a full-throated defense of his ‘America First’ policies in a Friday speech, at a time when the conference is wrapping up.

The president was not accompanied by his wife Melania, who pulled out of the trip at short notice following allegations that he had an affair with a porn star.

While the president is expected to declare that the United States is open for business, the protectionist-leaning president’s attendance at the annual gathering for free-trade-loving political and business elites has raised eyebrows.

Security was stepped up 

A squadron of helicopters swooped out of a red morning sky and into Zurich airport on Thursday morning ahead of the arrival of President Trump, who was due to stop there before moving on to Davos

President Donald Trump landed Thursday in Switzerland, where his 'America First' agenda is already upending Davos

President Donald Trump landed Thursday in Switzerland, where his ‘America First’ agenda is already upending Davos

President Trump's helicopter touching down in Davos

President Trump leaving his Marine One helicopter in Davos

The President’s ‘Marine One’ helicopter touched down at Davos after taking him to the ski resort from Zurich airport

The president was not accompanied by his wife Melania, who pulled out of the trip at short notice following allegations that he had an affair with a porn star.

The president was not accompanied by his wife Melania, who pulled out of the trip at short notice following allegations that he had an affair with a porn star.

Marine One carrying US President Donald Trump lands at the heliport during Trump's arrival at the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum

Marine One carrying US President Donald Trump lands at the heliport during Trump’s arrival at the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum

Marine One carrying US President Donald Trump lands at the heliport prior to the economic conference in Davos

The president's motorcade then made its way through the streets of the town after his helicopter touched down

President Donald Trump is trying to dispel the perception that he and British Prime Minister Theresa May don’t get along

His decision to sign new tariffs boosting American manufacturers this week has prompted fresh concerns about his nationalist tendencies.

Trump also seemed eager to dispel concerns about his global leadership.

‘WE LOVE YOU’: TRUMP GREETS MAY IN DAVOS

Donald Trump vowed to ‘fight for’ Britain today as he and Theresa May put on a gushing show of unity in a bid to kill concerns about the state of the Special Relationship.

The US president stressed the warmth of ties as he met the Prime Minister for talks at the World Economic Forum in Davos, saying they ‘respect each other a lot’ and were on the ‘same wavelength’.

As Mrs May nodded in agreement, Mr Trump said he wanted to correct ‘false rumours’ that they did not get on.

‘I think the feeling is mutual from the standpoint of liking each other a lot,’ he said. ‘We love your country.’

He added: ‘There is nothing that would happen to you that we wont be there to fight for you – you know that.’

Mrs May replied: ‘As you say we had a great discussion today and we continue to have that really special relationship with the United States.

‘We stand shoulder to shoulder because we face the same challenges around the world.’

The effusive praise came despite claims of rising tensions, with reports Mr Trump keeps interrupting the PM on the phone and his state visit invite has turned into a ‘nightmare’. There was an extraordinary public row last year after Mr Trump retweeted anti-Muslim posts by a British Far Right group.

As the leaders sat awkwardly next to each other for photographs this afternoon, they said they would be ‘talking about’ the state visit.

During his meeting with May, Trump said the two leaders have a ‘really great relationship, although some people don’t necessarily believe that.’ He said it was a ‘false rumor’ that the relationship was strained and that he wanted to ‘correct it.’

‘We are very much joined at the hip when it comes to the military. We have the same ideas, the same ideals, and there’s nothing that would happen to you that we won’t be there to fight for you,’ he told May. ‘You know that.’

Trump hosted May at the White House days after he took office.

But he recently canceled a planned trip to London to celebrate the opening of the new U.S. embassy.

And last year, Trump and May traded criticism over his retweets of a far-right group’s anti-Muslim videos.

Britain is eager to strike a free trade deal with the U.S. after it leaves the EU in 2019.

And during his meeting with Netanyahu, Trump said that Palestinians must return to peace talks with Israel in order to receive US aid money.

Trump’s decision last year to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital roiled Arab nations and led Palestinians to refuse to meet with Vice President Mike Pence during his visit to the Mideast this week. Palestinians also declared a new U.S.-led peace push dead, saying Washington can no longer be an honest broker.

Trump says U.S. aid to the Palestinians is ‘on the table’ but they won’t get it ‘unless they sit down and negotiate peace.’

Trump commented as he opened a meeting with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu during an economic summit in Davos, Switzerland.

Netanyahu praised Trump’s decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and to move the U.S. Embassy there from Tel Aviv.

U.S. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said Thursday that U.S. is ready to negotiate an ‘attractive’ trade deal with Britain once the country has left the European Union.

Trump’s ‘America First’ agenda and aversion to multilateral trade agreements would seem at odds with a global summit that stresses free trade and international cooperation.

But U.S. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin got to Davos ahead of Trump and insisted Wednesday that the United States supports free trade.

‘America First’ does mean working with the rest of the world,’ said Mnuchin, who is leading the largest U.S. delegation ever to attend the exclusive gathering. ‘It just means that President Trump is looking out for American workers and American interests, no different than he expects other leaders would look out for their own.’

No hard feelings: U.S. President Donald Trump shakes hands with Theresa May during their meeting on Thursday in Davos

U.S. Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross argued that new U.S. tariffs on imported solar-energy components and large washing machines are meant to deal with ‘inappropriate behavior’ by other countries and are not protectionist. Still, Ross conceded that China could respond by imposing its own tariffs on U.S. products.

As he signed the tariffs, Trump said he was heading to Davos to talk ‘about investing in the United States again.’

The president is set to address the forum Friday. He is expected to showcase the booming U.S. economy and measures like his recent tax overhaul, claiming that a thriving America benefits the world. A vocal critic of trade deals he sees as unfair to the United States, Trump will also stress the need for what he sees as fair competition.

The president has criticized global pacts, withdrawing from the Trans-Pacific Partnership on trade, demanding changes to the North American Free Trade Agreement and announcing his intent to exit the Paris climate accord.

In the lead-up to Trump’s arrival, other leaders at the meeting have argued against any drift toward protectionism in the global economy. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi said new barriers to trade could pose a danger on a par with climate change and extremist attacks. And Canada’s Justin Trudeau revealed that his country and the 10 remaining members of the Trans-Pacific Partnership have revised their trade deal following the U.S. withdrawal.

During his stay in Switzerland, Trump is also planning to hobnob with other world leaders at a reception the White House said is being held in his honor. He’ll also court European business leaders to try to persuade them to invest in the U.S.

But it was Trump’s unexpected comments about Robert Mueller’s Russia probe that made headlines as he took off for Europe.

‘I’m looking forward to it, actually,’ Trump, told reporters in a surprise press availability in the White House. ‘I would do it under oath,’ he said.

DAVOS: WHERE THE WORLD’S MOST POWERFUL MEET

Every year the world’s political and business leaders are joined by a sprinkling of celebrities gather in Davos for the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum (WEF).

The Swiss resort town has become shorthand for the meeting, which grew from a small group hosted by German academic Klaus Schwab to an event attended by more than 3,000 participants.

President Donald Trump meets with British Prime Minister Theresa May at the World Economic Forum

President Donald Trump meets with British Prime Minister Theresa May at the World Economic Forum

The WEF describes itself as ‘International Organization for Public-Private Cooperation’ and was founded by economist and engineer Schwab in 1971, the year of the first Davos meeting,

Schwab’s vision was for a body that gave leaders from the world of business and government a chance bring their respective abilities together to spark ideas for solving the world’s economic and social problems.

Politicians themselves were first invited in 1974 and two years later the WEF introduced a membership system for businesses.

The WEF boasts that at Davos, Greece and Turkey held talks to avoid war, East and West Germany discussed unification and North and South Korea held their first ever ministerial meetings.

By and large, though, the summit consists of a lot of meetings where ideas are discussed, which are open to the public.

There are also meetings restricted to paying attendees and also a good deal of behind the scenes deal making.

Companies lay on plenty of food and drink laid to encourage networking among the 900 chief executives and 70 odd world leaders while bands, including in the past The Killers, are on hand to provide entertainment.

For participants, the day often starts with a breakfast invite for 7am and there are parties that last until in the early hours.

To get an invite to Davos you’ll probably have to be a world leader or chief executive and if not then running a socially minded company or NGO.

Or you can get your company to pay 27,000 Swiss francs ($29,000) plus membership of the World Economic Forum and a very expensive hotel.

Trump’s posture – wary of global pacts to fight climate change and blasting global trade deals as a ‘ripoff’ to the U.S. – as adverse to some of the overall sentiment at an event that brings celebrities, U.S. politicians and operatives from both parties, and leaders from around the world together.

The theme of the 2018 conference is ‘Creating a Shared Future in a Fractured World.’

First Lady Melania Trump did not accompany her husband on the trip. Her office cited logistical issues, and Trump did not announce his own intention to visit until weeks before the event began, leaving staff scrambling to find accommodations for the president’s retinue.

Trump's advisors have forecast that he will give a full-throated defense of his 'America First' policies in a Friday speech, at a time when the conference is wrapping up 

Trump’s advisors have forecast that he will give a full-throated defense of his ‘America First’ policies in a Friday speech, at a time when the conference is wrapping up

Other than a trip to Mar-a-Lago, the first lady has not been seen with the president since a Wall Street Journal report that Trump personal lawyer Michael Cohen paid $130,000 to adult film star Stormy Daniels just weeks before the 2016 campaign as part of a nondisclosure agreement. Daniels said in previous interviews that have since been published that she had a sexual affair with the president – something Trump denies.

Macron, who is getting a state visit to the U.S. in a high honor, rapped Trump in his opening remarks here.

‘When you arrive here and see the snow, it could be hard to believe in global warming,’ he joked. ‘Obviously you don’t invite anyone skeptical about global warming this year.’

Trump previewed how he would herald the U.S. in a tweet shortly before he took off.

am doing, will only get better…Our country is finally WINNING again!’ he wrote.

Trump’s Commerce secretary, Wilbur Ross, has warned new U.S. trade actions could be coming.

But Alibaba CEO Jack Ma warned here: ‘Don’t use trade as a weapon.’ He added: ‘It’s so easy to launch a trade war, but it’s so difficult to stop the disaster of this war.’

Security at the secretive mountain resort of Davos was ramped up on Thursday morning ahead of the arrival of President Trump.

A tight operation was also in place in Zurich, where the President was due to stop briefly before being ferried to Davos, with heavily armoured police vehicles guarding the tarmac.

Helicopters swooped low out of a red morning sky like a scene from Vietnam war film Apocalypse Now ahead of the President’s arrival.

Trump boarded Marine One out of Washington on Wednesday evening and was expected to arrive in Zurich by mid-morning Thursday, before being ferried to Davos.

US helicopters stop to refuel at Zurich airport before escorting Trump to Davos, where he is due to spend the next two days speaking with world and business leaders

US helicopters stop to refuel at Zurich airport before escorting Trump to Davos, where he is due to spend the next two days speaking with world and business leaders

In Davos itself security was also being stepped up, with snipers positioned on rooftops around the ski resort 

A Swiss Army helicopter patrols the skies above Davos, where the World Economic Forum is being held this week

A Swiss Army helicopter patrols the skies above Davos, where the World Economic Forum is being held this week

First Lady Melania Trump did not accompany her husband to Davos, due to 'scheduling and logistical issues,' according to her office

First Lady Melania Trump did not accompany her husband to Davos, due to ‘scheduling and logistical issues,’ according to her office

He will spend two days mingling among the ‘globalists’ he spent much of the 2016 election campaign trashing, before delivering a speech on Friday.

The President is expected to push his America First agenda and seek more fair, reciprocal trade deals with allies, having bemoaned chronic trade deficits with many of them in the past.

‘America first is not America alone,’ said White House senior economic adviser Gary Cohn, who is traveling with Trump. ‘When we grow, the world grows; when the world grows, we grow. We’re part of it, and we’re part of a world economy. And the president believes that.’

Trump, never invited as a businessman, will be the first U.S. president to attend Davos since Bill Clinton in 2000.

In the run-up to his trip to Davos, Trump slapped a 30 per cent tariff on imported solar panels, among the first unilateral trade restrictions imposed by the administration as part of a broader protectionist agenda.

Then on Wednesday in Davos, U.S. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said he welcomed a weakening in the dollar. Fears of protectionist trade policies by the United States had already pushed the greenback to a three-year low, and Mnuchin’s remark pushed it down further.

Trump will use his trip for some diplomacy. In addition to the meetings with British Prime Minister Theresa May and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on Thursday, the president will see Rwandan President Paul Kagame, current chairman of the African Union, and Swiss President Alain Berset on Friday.

Iran’s growing influence in the Middle East, North Korea’s nuclear challenge and the battle against Islamic State militants figured to be prominent topics of his meetings.

French President Emmanuel Macron told RTS channel that he had ‘strongly recommended’ to Trump to attend the Davos forum during a recent phone conversation they had on Iran … ‘because I think it’s a good thing for President Trump to explain his strategy for the U.S. and the world here in Davos.

‘And that he encounters some form of confrontation and dialogue,’ Macron said.

Trump will host a small dinner for European business executives on Thursday night.

There is broad concern in European capitals that 2018 could be the year Trump’s bark on trade turns into bite, as he considers punitive measures on steel and threatens to end the 90s-era North American Free Trade Agreement with Canada and Mexico.

Trump will appeal for increased global investment in the United States to take advantage of corporate tax cuts approved by Congress late in 2017 and Trump’s deregulatory policies.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5311077/Security-beefed-Davos-ahead-Trumps-arrival.html#ixzz55Foh1prV

World Economic Forum

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum headquarters (cropped).jpg

Headquarters in Cologny (Switzerland).
World Economic Forum logo.svg
Motto Committed to improving the state of the world
Formation 1971; 47 years ago
Founder Klaus Schwab
Type Nonprofit organization
Legal status Foundation
Purpose Economic[vague]
Headquarters Cologny, Switzerland
Region served
Worldwide
Official language
English
Klaus Schwab
Website www.weforum.org
Formerly called
European Management Forum

The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in ColognyGenevaSwitzerland. Recognized by the Swiss authorities as an international body,[1] its mission is cited as “committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political, academic, and other leaders of society to shape global, regional, and industry agendas”.

The forum is best known for its annual meeting at the end of January in Davos, a mountain resort in Graubünden, in the eastern Alps region of Switzerland. The meeting brings together some 2,500 top business leaders, international political leaders, economists, celebrities and journalists for up to four days to discuss the most pressing issues facing the world. Often this location alone is used to identify meetings, participation, and participants with such phrases as, “a Davos panel” and “a Davos Man”.[2]

The organization also convenes some six to eight regional meetings each year in locations across Africa, East Asia, and Latin America, and holds two further annual meetings in China, India and the United Arab Emirates. Beside meetings, the foundation produces a series of research reports and engages its members in sector-specific initiatives.[3]

History

Professor Klaus Schwab opens the inaugural European Management Forum in Davos in 1971.

F. W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandelashake hands at the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum held in Davos in January 1992

Naoto Kan, then Japanese prime minister gives a special message at the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2011

Klaus Schwab, founder and executive chairman, World Economic Forum

Carlos Ghosn, the chairman and CEO of RenaultNissanRenault-Nissan Alliance and the Chairman of AvtoVAZ

The forum was founded in 1971 by Klaus Schwab, a German-born business professor at the University of Geneva.[4] First named the “European Management Forum”, it changed its name to the World Economic Forum in 1987 and sought to broaden its vision to include providing a platform for resolving international conflicts.

In the summer of 1971, Schwab invited 444 executives from Western European firms to the first European Management Symposium held in the Davos Congress Centre under the patronage of the European Commission and European industrial associations, where Schwab sought to introduce European firms to American management practices. He then founded the WEF as a nonprofit organization based in Geneva and drew European business leaders to Davos for the annual meetings each January.[5]

Schwab developed the “stakeholder” management approach, which attributed corporate success to managers actively taking account of all interests: not merely shareholders, clients, and customers, but also employees and the communities within which the firm is situated, including governments.[6] Events in 1973, including the collapse of the Bretton Woods fixed-exchange rate mechanism and the Arab–Israeli War, saw the annual meeting expand its focus from management to economic and social issues, and, for the first time political leaders were invited to the annual meeting in January 1974.[7]

Political leaders soon began to use the annual meeting as a neutral platform. The Davos Declaration was signed in 1988 by Greece and Turkey, helping them turn back from the brink of war. In 1992, South African President F. W. de Klerk met with Nelson Mandela and Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi at the annual meeting, their first joint appearance outside South Africa. At the 1994 annual meeting, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and PLO chairmanYasser Arafat reached a draft agreement on Gaza and Jericho.[8]

In late 2015, the invitation was extended to include a North Korean delegation for the 2016 forum, “in view of positive signs coming out of the country,” the WEF organizers noted. North Korea has not been attending the WEF since 1998. The invitation was accepted but after the January 2016 North Korean nuclear test on 6 January, the invitation was revoked, and the country’s delegation was made subject to “existing and possible forthcoming sanctions.”[9]Despite protests by North Korea calling the decision by the WEF managing board a “sudden and irresponsible” move, the WEF committee maintained the exclusion because “under these circumstances there would be no opportunity for international dialogue.”[10]

In 2017, the World Economic Forum in Davos attracted considerable attention when for the first time, a head of state from the People’s Republic of China was present at the alpine resort. With the backdrop of Brexit, an incoming protectionist US administration and significant pressures on free trade zones and trade agreements, President Xi Jinping defended the global economic scheme, and portrayed China as a responsible nation and a leader for environmental causes. He sharply rebuked the current populist movements that would introduce tariffs and hinder global commerce, warning that such protectionism could foster isolation and reduced economic opportunity.[11]

Organization

Headquartered in Cologny, the forum also has offices in New York, Beijing and Tokyo. On October 10, 2016, the Forum announced the opening of its new Center for the Fourth Industrial Revolution in San Francisco. According to the Forum, the center will “serve as a platform for interaction, insight and impact on the scientific and technological changes that are changing the way we live, work and relate to one another”.[12]

The World Economic Forum strives to be impartial and is not tied to any political, partisan, or national interests. The foundation is “committed to improving the State of the World”.[13] Until 2012, it had observer status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council; it is under the supervision of the Swiss Federal Council. The foundation’s highest governance body is the foundation board.[14]

Erdoğan walks out of the session at the World Economic Forum in 2009.

During its annual meeting, more than 2,500 participants from slightly fewer than 100 countries gather in Davos. Approximately 1,500 are business leaders,[citation needed] drawn from its members, 1,000 of the world’s top companies. Besides these, participants included 219 public figures, including 40 heads of state or government, 64 cabinet ministers, 30 heads or senior officials of international organizations, and 10 ambassadors. More than 432 participants were from civil society, including 32 heads or representatives of non-governmental organizations, 225 media leaders, 149 leaders from academic institutions and think tanks, 15 religious leaders of different faiths, and 11 union leaders.[15][not in citation given]

Membership

The foundation is funded by its 1,000 member companies, typically global enterprises with more than five billion dollars in turnover (varying by industry and region). These enterprises rank among the top companies within their industry and/or country and play a leading role in shaping the future of their industry and/or region. Membership is stratified by the level of engagement with forum activities, with the level of membership fees increasing as participation in meetings, projects, and initiatives rises.[16] As of 2011, an annual membership costs $52,000 for an individual member, $263,000 for “Industry Partner” and $527,000 for “Strategic Partner”. An admission fee costs $19,000 per person.[17] In 2014, WEF raised annual fees by 20 percent, making the cost for “Strategic Partner” from CHF 500,000 ($523,000) to CHF 600,000 ($628,000).[18]

Activities

Annual meeting in Davos

A sports shop has turned into a temporary informal reception location “Caspian week”, WEF 2018.

The flagship event of the foundation is the invitation-only annual meeting held during the winter at the end of January in Davos, Switzerland, bringing together chief executive officers from its 1,000 member companies, as well as selected politicians, representatives from academiaNGOs, religious leaders, and the media in an alpine winter environment. The town is small enough to allow participants to meet anywhere outside the sessions and allows them the greatest opportunities to attend receptions organized by companies and countries.[19] The participants are also taking part in role playing events, such as the Investment Heat Map.[20] Informal winter meetings may have led to as many ideas and solutions as the official sessions.[21] Approximately 2,200 participants gather for the five-day event and attend some of the 220 sessions in the official programme. The winter discussions focus around key issues of global concern (such as the globalization, capital markets, wealth management, international conflicts, environmental problems and their possible solutions).[3]

As many as 500 journalists from online, print, radio, and television take part, with access to all sessions in the official program, some of which are also webcast.[22] Not all the journalists are given access to all areas, however. This is reserved for white badge holders. “Davos runs an almost caste-like system of badges,” according to BBC journalist Anthony Reuben. “A white badge means you’re one of the delegates – you might be the chief executive of a company or the leader of a country (although that would also get you a little holographic sticker to add to your badge), or a senior journalist. An orange badge means you’re just a run-of-the-mill working journalist.”[23]

All plenary debates from the annual meeting also are available on YouTube,[24] with photographs at Flickr,[25][26]

Year Dates Theme
1988 The New State of the World Economy
1989 Key Developments in the 90s: Implications for Global Business
1990 Competitive Cooperation in a Decade of Turblenece
1991 The New Direction for Global Leadership
1992 Global Cooperation and Megacompetition
1993 Rallying all the forces for Global Recovery
1994 Redefining the Basic Assumptions of the World Economy
1995 Leadership for Challenges beyond Growth
1996 Sustaining Globalization
1997 Building the Network Society
1998 Managing Volatility and Priorities for the 21st Century
1999 Responsible Globality: Managing the impact of Globalization
2000 New Beginnings: Making a difference
2001 25–30 January Sustaining Growth and Bridging the Divides: A Framework for Our Global Future
2002 Leadership in Fragile Times
2003 Building Trust
2004 Partnering for Security and Prosperity
2005 26–30 January Taking Responsibility for Tough Choices
2006 25–29 January The Creative Imperative
2007 24–28 January Shaping the Global Agenda, The Shifting Power Equation
2008 23–27 January The Power of Collaborative Innovation
2009 Shaping the Post-Crisis World
2010 27–30 January Improve the State of the World: Rethink, Redesign, Rebuild
2011 Shared Norms for the New Reality
2012 25–29 January The Great Transformation: Shaping New Models
2013 23–27 January Resilient Dynamism[27]
2014 22–25 January The Reshaping of the World: Consequences for Society, Politics and Business.
2015 21–24 January New global context
2016 20–23 January Mastering the Fourth Industrial Revolution
2017 17–20 January Responsive and Responsible Leadership
2018 23–26 January Creating a Shared Future in a Fractured World

Participants

Juan Manuel Santos, president of Colombia, at the 2010 World Economic Forum

In 2011, some 250 public figures (heads of state or government, cabinet ministers, ambassadors, heads or senior officials of international organizations) attended the annual meeting, including: Felipe CalderónRobert B. ZoellickÁlvaro Uribe VélezNicolas SarkozyBan Ki-moonAngela MerkelN. Chandrababu NaiduFerenc GyurcsányFrançois FillonMorgan TsvangiraiGordon BrownDavid CameronMin ZhuPaul KagameQueen Rania of JordanDmitry MedvedevSusilo Bambang YudhoyonoKevin RuddBarney FrankKofi AnnanWerner FaymannLeonel FernándezJacob ZumaCyril RamaphosaNaoto KanJean-Claude Trichet, and Zeng Peiyan.[28]

Al GoreBill ClintonBill GatesBonoPaulo Coelho, and Tony Blair also are regular Davos attendees. Past attendees include Recep Tayyip ErdoganHenry KissingerNelson MandelaRaymond BarreJulian Lloyd WebberSandro SalsanoWences Casares, and Yasser Arafat.

Summer annual meeting[edit]

Wang Jianlin, Chairman of the Dalian Wanda Group, at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the New Champions in Dalian

In 2007, the foundation established the Annual Meeting of the New Champions (also called Summer Davos), held annually in China, alternating between Dalian and Tianjin, bringing together 1,500 participants from what the foundation calls Global Growth Companies, primarily from rapidly growing emerging countries such as China, India, Russia, Mexico, and Brazil, but also including quickly growing companies from developed countries. The meeting also engages with the next generation of global leaders from fast-growing regions and competitive cities, as well as technology pioneers from around the globe.[29][30] The Chinese Premier has delivered a plenary address at each annual meeting.

Regional meetings

Prithviraj Chavan, chief minister of Maharashtra India; Sudha Pilay, member secretary, planning commission, India; and Ben Verwaayen, chief executive officer, Alcatel-Lucent, France were the co-chairs of the India Economic Summit 2011 in Mumbai

Felipe Calderónpresident of Mexico, speaking during Latin America Broadens Its Horizons, a session at the 2007 annual meeting of the World Economic Forum

Every year regional meetings take place, enabling close contact among corporate business leaders, local government leaders, and NGOs. Meetings are held in Africa, East Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. The mix of hosting countries varies from year to year, but consistently China and India have hosted throughout the decade since 2000.[31]

Young Global Leaders

The group’s Forum of Young Global Leaders[32] consists of 800 people chosen by the forum organizers as being representative of contemporary leadership, “coming from all regions of the world and representing all stakeholders in society”, according to the organization. After five years of participation they are considered alumni.

Social Entrepreneurs

Since 2000, the WEF has been promoting models developed by those in close collaboration with the Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship,[33] highlighting social entrepreneurshipas a key element to advance societies and address social problems.[34][35] Selected social entrepreneurs are invited to participate in the foundation’s regional meetings and the annual meetings where they may meet chief executives and senior government officials. At the Annual Meeting 2003, for example, Jeroo Billimoria met with Roberto Blois, deputy secretary-general of the International Telecommunication Union, an encounter that produced a key partnership for her organization Child helpline international.[36]

Global Shapers

In 2011, the World Economic Forum started a global network of people between the ages of 20 and 30 who have shown great potential for future leadership roles in society.[37] The Community of Global Shapers,[38] highlighting Global Shapers, is a network of self-organizing local hubs based in each major city around the world. They undertake events and activities intended by the Global Shapers to generate a positive impact within their local community.

As of 11 July 2016 there are 459 Hubs with more than 6,100 Shapers.[39]

Thirst

“Thirst” is an international non-profit organization based in Beijing, China. It was set up in 2011 through the Water Security Council of the World Economic Forum. The organization educates 14–24-year olds about the idea of embedded water, the water crisis, and sustainable water usage.[40]

Research reports

Two Academy Awardwinner, Pakistani journalist Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy at the forum in 2013

The foundation also acts as a think tank, publishing a wide range of reports. In particular, “Strategic Insight Teams” focus on producing reports of relevance in the fields of competitiveness, global risks, and scenario thinking.

Filipino businessman Zóbel de Ayala at the forum in 2009

The “Competitiveness Team”[41] produces a range of annual economic reports (first published in brackets): the Global Competitiveness Report (1979) measured competitiveness of countries and economies; The Global Information Technology Report (2001) assessed their competitiveness based on their IT readiness; the Global Gender Gap Report examined critical areas of inequality between men and women; the Global Risks Report (2006) assessed key global risks; the Global Travel and Tourism Report (2007) measured travel and tourism competitiveness; the Financial Development Report (2008)[42] aimed to provide a comprehensive means for countries to establish benchmarks for various aspects of their financial systems and establish priorities for improvement; and the Global Enabling Trade Report (2008) presented a cross-country analysis of the large number of measures facilitating trade among nations.[43]

The “Risk Response Network”[44] produces a yearly report assessing risks which are deemed to be within the scope of these teams, have cross-industry relevance, are uncertain, have the potential to cause upwards of US$10 billion in economic damage, have the potential to cause major human suffering, and which require a multi-stakeholder approach for mitigation.[45]

Initiatives

The Global Health Initiative was launched by Kofi Annan at the annual meeting in 2002. The G