The Pronk Pops Show 800, November 21, 2016, Story 1: General James Mattis (Ret.) served in the United States Marine Corps from 1969 to 2013 — The Next Secretary of Defense? Very Impressive Choice — Videos — Story 2: Trump Greets and Meets Media At Trump Tower — Big Lie Media Ride The Golden Elevator Up To Trump — Press Reset Button Before Going Down — Videos

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 800: November 21, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 783: October 25, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 729: August 1, 2016

Story 1: General James Mattis (Ret.) served in the United States Marine Corps from 1969 to 2013 — The Next Secretary of Defense? Very Impressive Choice — Videos — 

Trump is Considering General Mad Dog Mattis to Cabinet Post – November 21, 2016

James Mattis A Contender For Secretary Of Defense

GEN JAMES MATTIS • DEFENCE SECRETARY

 

RETIRED GENERAL JAMES MATTIS EYED AS TRUMP’S POSSIBLE PICK FOR DEFENSE SECRETARY

Justice w/ Judge Jeanine – President-Elect Trump Meets With Gen.James Mattis, Mitt Romney & Others

Fox & Friends (11/21/16) Inside The Transition – What Did T.W. Shannon Discuss With Mr.Trump?

The facts and fiction behind the ‘draft Mattis’ campaign

Published on Apr 28, 2016

Dissatisfied Republicans are pointing to Retired Marine General James Mattis to run third party; ‘Special Report’s’ Bret Baier takes a closer look

General Mattis Full Remarks at CENTCOM Change of Command Ceremony

Ayotte Questions General Mattis on Iran

SENATOR JOHN McCAIN AND GENERAL JAMES MATTIS DISCUSS WIKILEAKS 7-27-10

Charles Hill and General James Mattis on the Iran Deal, Democracy, and Freedom

General Jim (Mad Dog) Mattis on the Nature of War

2014 Salute to Iraq & Afghanistan Veterans – General James Mattis, USMC (Ret.) – Full Version

The Middle East at an Inflection Point with Gen. Mattis

The State of the World

Published on May 14, 2015

With a growing threat of Islamist terrorists, continued unrest in the Middle East, an increasingly assertive North Korea, and challenging relations in the Asia-Pacific, General Mattis will examine the current state of the world, how it has come to be, where it is going, and what role the U.S. has to play. General Mattis served as the 11th Commander of the United States Central Command, having previously served as Commander of the U.S. Joint Forces Command as well as NATO’s Supreme Allied Commander Transformation. The Heritage Foundation is honored that General Mattis will deliver the annual Colonel James D. McGinley Lecture as part of Heritage’s 2015 Protect America Month programming.

USNA LC12 – GEN James N. Mattis, USMC

Published on Aug 26, 2013

General James N. Matis, USMC, Commander U.S. Central Command, was the Forrestal Speaker for the 2012 USNA Leadership Conference. In his motivating and inspiring address to both the conference participants and the Brigade of Midshipmen he spoke to the theme of “Navigating through Uncharted Waters.” General Matis focused on education, self-confidence, and the importance of cultivating a positive relationship between yourself and the people you lead.

The theme for the 2012 Leadership Conference was “Visionary Leadership: Navigating Through Uncharted Waters”.

Reflections with General James Mattis – Conversations with History

Published on Jun 5, 2014

(Visit: http://www.uctv.tv/) Conversations host Harry Kreisler welcomes General James Mattis (U.S. Marine Corp. ret.), former Head of Central Command for a discussion of his military career. Topics covered include: his formative years, the skill set and temperament required to be a marine, his command philosophy, his battle experience in Afghanistan and Iraq, the role of the military in securing peace, the contribution of the military to the policy debate, and his advice for students as they prepare for the future. Recorded on 03/20/2014. Series: “Conversations with History” [6/2014] [Public Affairs] [Show ID: 28135]

Mark Stoler on Marshall

Soldier and Statesman (Part 1)

Soldier and Statesman (Part 2)

George C Marshall – Famous Generals – The Big Picture

George C. Marshall – Personal Perspective – Part 1 of 2

George C. Marshall – Personal Perspective – Part 2 of 2

George C. Marshall: Soldier-Statesman of the American Century

Published on Nov 9, 2016

Marshall was the architect of both the Allied World War II victory and key U.S. Cold War policies, most notably the European Recovery Program, known as “the Marshall Plan,” for which he received the Nobel Peace Prize. He is generally considered our greatest soldier-statesman since George Washington. By assessing his extraordinary accomplishments, character, and leadership abilities, this lecture by Mark A. Stoler attempts to explain why.

The General Marshall Story

Uploaded on Dec 12, 2009

ARC Identifier 2569675 / Local Identifier 111-TV-408. The story of General George C. Marshall, told on Army’s “THE BIG PICTURE” — This is a personal history film of General George C. Marshall who resigned from the Defense Department and settled in Leesburg, Virginia, in 1951. It is a pictorial record of his role as a public servant, spanning a critical half century, which ultimately placed him in the ranks of great American patriots. It is rare in history when a man who has distinguished his name in war goes on to greatness in peace. But for George Catlett Marshall it was a short step from a brilliant military career to his role as statesman, diplomat, and peacemaker winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace. Narrated by Walter Cronkite, and introduced by Master Sergeant Stuart Queen, “The General Marshall Story” will appeal to old and young for it has been skillfully written and produced. It approaches General Marshall’s life story from an objective viewpoint with a beguilingly fresh format, used on THE BIG PICTURE this past season in relating the General Bradley story. The same excellence that applied in the Bradley story has been carried into “The General Marshall Story.” Visually, and as a professional motion picture exploration for television into the lives of five-star Army generals, THE BIG PICTURE production staff has created a new list of subjects for forthcoming episodes in the weekly TV series. Department of Defense. Department of the Army. Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations. U.S. Army Audiovisual Center. (ca. 1974 – 05/15/1984)

Donald Trump Considering Retired General James Mattis for Defense Chief

Retired Marine general has long voiced concerns about the security threat posed by Iran

Marine Gen. James Mattis, commander, U.S. Central Command at a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing in March 2013. He is said to be a possible pick to be secretary of defense, along with a handful of other retired generals.
Marine Gen. James Mattis, commander, U.S. Central Command at a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing in March 2013. He is said to be a possible pick to be secretary of defense, along with a handful of other retired generals. PHOTO: EVAN VUCCI/ASSOCIATED PRESS

WASHINGTON—President-elect Donald Trump is considering several retired military generals as possible picks to be secretary of defense, people knowledgeable about the transition process said.

Retired Marine Gen. James Mattis, a former war commander who has long voiced concerns about the security threat posed by Iran, is among those being considered. Gen. Mattis is expected to visit with Mr. Trump in New Jersey, transition officials said Friday.

Gen. Mattis didn’t respond to attempts to reach him for comment.

Sen. Jeff Sessions (R., Ala.) and Rep. Mike Pompeo of Kansas are among the cabinet picks announced by President-elect Donald Trump on Friday. WSJ’s Jerry Seib discusses the significance of their appointments on Lunch Break with Tanya Rivero. Photo: EPA

Also under consideration is retired Army Gen.David Petraeus, a former commander of troops in Iraq and Afghanistan. Army Gen. Jack Keane, who has been advising the campaign, also has been in discussions and met with the president-elect on Thursday, transition officials said.

The Trump campaign also is still considering at least three Washington hands for defense secretary, officials have said, including Jim Talent, a retired Republican senator from Missouri; Stephen Hadley, former national-security adviser under President George W. Bush; and Sen. Tom Cotton (R., Ark.), a one-time Army captain from Arkansas who has served in the Senate since last year.

The transition office, based at Trump Tower in New York, named individuals for key posts, including GOP Sen. Jeff Sessions of Alabama for attorney general, Rep. Mike Pompeo of Kansas to lead the CIA, and retired Lt. Gen. Mike Flynn, close Trump confidant on national security matters, as national security adviser.

U.S. law requires the Defense Department chief to come from civilian life, and retired generals are considered civilians for such purposes only after they have been out of active duty for at least seven years. Gens. Mattis and Petraeus, who both played significant roles in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, would require a congressional waiver to serve as defense secretary, since both retired within the last seven years.

Gen. Mattis, who eventually was in charge of U.S. Central Command, which oversees U.S. forces in the Middle East, has found himself at odds with the Obama administration over Iran and U.S. troop withdrawals from his area of responsibility.

Gen. Mattis, who led a task force into southern Afghanistan in 2001 and a division of Marines during the invasion of Iraq in 2003, is also known as “Mad Dog Mattis,” a colorful general known for his intellect, a penchant for speaking plainly and his vast library.

http://www.wsj.com/articles/donald-trump-considering-retired-general-james-mattis-for-defense-chief-1479502633

Leadership Lessons from Gen. James Mattis (Ret.)

Published on Oct 13, 2016

General James Mattis (Ret.) served in the United States Marine Corps from 1969 to 2013. During this time he was the 11th Commander of United States Central Command. We sat down with him and asked him your questions.

0:08 – What is the toughest decision you had to make while in the Marine Corps and did you ever regret your decision?

2:25 — How did you stay motivated throughout your Marine Corps career?

3:27 — How do you keep improving as a leader to meet the demand of each role in your career?

5:53 — There was a cold night in Afghanistan when you were walking the perimeter by yourself, greeting a bunch of young Marines. What were you thinking about?

7:16 — What is the one leadership lesson that you learned as a General grade officer that you wish you had known your whole career?

10:18 — What leadership books do you recommend?

11:55 — What did you look for in your NCO’s and how should the relationship between an NCO and an officer compliment each other?

13:58 — What in your opinion is the most important leadership trait and why?

15:33 — What is the kill-casualty radius of the knife-hand?

Gen. Jack Keane talks Trump Tower national security meeting

 

Trump: ‘Mad Dog’ Mattis is a ‘very impressive’ candidate for defense secretary

James N. Mattis (born September 8, 1950)[3] is a retired United States Marine Corpsgeneral who last served as the 11th commander of United States Central Command from August 11, 2010 to March 22, 2013.

Mattis is known for implementing the COIN strategy. Before President Obama appointed him to replace General Petraeus on August 11, 2010, he previously commandedUnited States Joint Forces Command from November 9, 2007 to August 2010 and served concurrently as NATO’sSupreme Allied Commander Transformation from November 9, 2007 to September 8, 2009. Prior to that, he commanded I Marine Expeditionary Force, United States Marine Forces Central Command, and 1st Marine Division during theIraq War.[4]

As of November 2016, General Mattis is being considered for the position of Secretary of Defense in the new administration of President-electDonald Trump.[5]

Early life and education

Mattis was born on September 8, 1950 in Pullman, Washington.[3] His mother’s name is Lucille (Proulx) Mattis.[6] He graduated from Columbia High School, Richland, Washington, in 1968.

Military career

He initially enlisted in the United States Marine Corps in 1969.[7] He later earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in history from Central Washington University[8] and was commissioned a second lieutenant through ROTC on January 1, 1972.[9] During his service years, Mattis was considered to be an intellectual among the upper ranks, with his personal library numbering more than seven thousand volumes. Major General Robert H. Scales, Retired, PhD, described him as “….one of the most urbane and polished men I have known.” Reinforcing this intellectual persona was the fact he carried his own personal copy of the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius throughout his deployments.[10]

As a lieutenant, Mattis served as a rifle and weapons platoon commander in the 3rd Marine Division. As a captain, he was assigned as the Naval Academy Preparatory School’s Battalion Officer (composed of Enlisted Midshipman Candidates and its Company Officers and Enlisted Staff), commanded Rifle and Weapons Companies in the 1st Marine Regiment, then Recruiting StationPortland, Oregon, as a major.

Persian Gulf War

Upon promotion to the rank of lieutenant colonel, Mattis commanded 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, which was one of Task Force Ripper‘s assault battalions during the Persian Gulf War.

Afghanistan War

As a colonel, Mattis commanded the 7th Marine Regiment. He led the 1st Marine Expeditionary Brigade as its commanding officer upon promotion to brigadier general.

During the initial planning for the War in Afghanistan, Mattis led Task Force 58 in operations in the southern part of the country, becoming the first Marine Corps officer to ever command a Naval Task Force in combat.[9]

While serving in Afghanistan as a brigadier general, he was known as an officer who engaged his men with “real leadership”. A young Marine officer named Nathaniel Fick cited an example of that leadership when he witnessed Mattis in a fighting hole talking with a sergeant and a lance corporal: “No one would have questioned Mattis if he’d slept eight hours each night in a private room, to be woken each morning by an aide who ironed his uniforms and heated his MREs. But there he was, in the middle of a freezing night, out on the lines with his Marines.”[11]

Iraq War

Letter written by Mattis on the eve of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, addressed to members of the 1st Marine Division.

As a major general, Mattis commanded the 1st Marine Division during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent stability operations during the Iraq War.[12]

Mattis played key roles in combat operations in Fallujah, including negotiation with the insurgent command inside the city during Operation Vigilant Resolve in April 2004, as well as participation in planning of the subsequent Operation Phantom Fury in November. In May 2004, Mattis ordered the 3 a.m. bombing of a suspected enemy safe house near the Syrian border, which later came to be known as the Mukaradeeb wedding party massacre, and which resulted in the locally-reported deaths of 42 civilian men, women and children who were attending a wedding celebration. Mattis stated that it had taken him 30 seconds to deliberate on bombing the location.[13]

Following a U.S. Department of Defense survey that showed only 55% of American soldiers and 40% of U.S. Marines would report a colleague for abusing civilians, Mattis told U.S. Marines in May 2007 that “Whenever you show anger or disgust toward civilians, it’s a victory for al-Qaeda and other insurgents.” Reflecting an understanding of the need for restraint in war as key to defeating an insurgency, he added that “Every time you wave at an Iraqi civilian, al-Qaeda rolls over in its grave.”[14]

Mattis popularized the 1st Marine Division’s motto “no better friend, no worse enemy”, a paraphrase of the famous self-made epitaph for the Roman dictatorSulla,[15] in his open letter to all men within the division for their return to Iraq. This phrase later became widely publicized during the investigation into the conduct of Lieutenant Ilario Pantano, a platoon commander serving under Mattis.[16][17][18][19][20][21]

As his division prepared to ship out, Mattis called in experts in Arab culture to lead cultural sensitivity classes. He constantly toured the battlefield to tell stories of Marines who were able to show discretion and cultural sensitivity in moments of high pressure.[22] He encouraged his men to grow mustaches to look more like the people they were working with.[22]

He also was noted for a willingness to remove senior leaders under his command at a time when the U.S. military seemed unable or unwilling to relieve under-performing or incompetent officers. During the division’s push to Baghdad, Mattis relieved Colonel Joe D. Dowdy, regimental commander of Regimental Combat Team-1, and it was such a rare occurrence in the modern military that it made the front page of newspapers. Despite this, Mattis declined to comment on the matter publicly other than to say that the practice of officer relief remains alive, or at least “We are doing it in the Marines.”[11] Later interviews of Dowdy’s officers and men revealed that “the colonel was doomed partly by an age-old wartime tension: Men versus mission—in which he favored his men” while Mattis insisted on execution of the mission to seize Baghdad swiftly.[23]

Combat Development Command

After being promoted to lieutenant general, Mattis took command of Marine Corps Combat Development Command. On February 1, 2005, speaking ad libitum at a forum in San Diego, he said “You go into Afghanistan, you got guys who slap women around for five years because they didn’t wear a veil. You know, guys like that ain’t got no manhood left anyway. So it’s a hell of a lot of fun to shoot them. Actually, it’s a lot of fun to fight. You know, it’s a hell of a hoot. It’s fun to shoot some people. I’ll be right upfront with you, I like brawling.” Mattis’s remarks sparked controversy and General Michael Hagee, Commandant of the Marine Corps, issued a statement suggesting that Mattis should have chosen his words more carefully, but would not be disciplined.[24]

U.S. Joint Forces Command

The Pentagon announced on May 31, 2006 that Lieutenant General Mattis was chosen to take command of I Marine Expeditionary Force, based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton.[25] On September 11, 2007, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates announced that President George W. Bush had nominated Mattis for appointment to the rank of general to command U.S. Joint Forces Command in Norfolk, Virginia. NATO agreed to appoint Mattis as Supreme Allied Commander Transformation. On September 28, 2007, the United States Senate confirmed Mattis’s nomination, and he relinquished command of I MEF on November 5, 2007 to Lieutenant General Samuel Helland.

Mattis was promoted to four-star general and took control of JFCOM/SACT on November 9, 2007. He transferred the job of SACT to French General Stéphane Abrial on September 9, 2009, but continued in command of JFCOM.[26]

U.S. Central Command

In early 2010, Mattis was reported to be on the list of U.S. Marine generals being considered for selection to replace James T. Conway as the Commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps.[27] In July, he was recommended by Defense SecretaryRobert Gates for nomination to replace David Petraeus as commander of United States Central Command,[3][28] and formally nominated by PresidentBarack Obama on July 21.[29]

His confirmation by the Senate Armed Services Committee marked the first time Marines had held billets as commander and deputy commander of a Unified Combatant Command.[30] He took command at a ceremony at MacDill Air Force Base on August 11.[31][32][33]

As head of Central Command, Mattis oversaw the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and was responsible for a region that includes Syria, Iran, Yemen.[34] The Obama administration did not place much trust in Mattis, because he was perceived to be too eager for a military confrontation with Iran.[35]

He retired from the Marine Corps on May 22, 2013.

Civilian career

Since retirement from the military, Mattis has worked for FWA Consultants[36] and is an Annenberg Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Hoover Institution.[37] He also serves as a Member of the General Dynamics Board of Directors.[36]

In mid-2012, a Department of Defense official evaluating Theranos’s blood-testing technology for military initiated a formal inquiry with the Food and Drug Administration about the company’s intent to distribute its tests without FDA clearance. In August 2012, via email, Elizabeth Holmes, the CEO of Theranos asked Mattis, who had expressed interest in testing Theranos’s technology in combat areas, to help. Within hours, Mattis forwarded his email exchange with Holmes to military officials, asking “how do we overcome this new obstacle.”[38]

Since 2013, Mattis has been a board member of Theranos, a controversial Silicon Valley biotech company with criticized corporate governance practices.[39] In a July 2013 letter from the Department of Defense approving his possible employment by Theranos, Mattis was given permission with conditions. He was cautioned to do so only if he did not represent Theranos with regards to the blood testing device and its potential acquisition by the Departments of the Navy or Defense.[38]

On November 20, 2016, President-elect Donald Trump said that he was considering Mattis for Secretary of Defense. Trump met with Mattis for a little over one hour in Bedminster, New Jersey.[40] He later stated on Twitter, “General James “Mad Dog” Mattis, who is being considered for Secretary of Defense, was very impressive yesterday. A true General’s General!”[41]

Political views

Israeli-Palestinian peace process

Mattis supports a two-state solution model for Israel-Palestinian peace. He says the current situation in Israel is “unsustainable” and argues that the settlements harm prospects for peace and are leading to apartheid. In particular, he believes the lack of a two-state solution is upsetting to the Arab allies of America, which weakens US esteem amongst its Arab allies. Mattis strongly supports John Kerry on the Middle East peace process, praising Kerry for being wisely focused like a laser-beam towards a two-state solution[42]

Iran and Arab allies

Mattis believes that Iran is the principal threat to the stability of the Middle East, ahead of Al-Qaeda and ISIS. Mattis says: “I consider ISIS nothing more than an excuse for Iran to continue its mischief. Iran is not an enemy of ISIS. They have a lot to gain from the turmoil in the region that ISIS creates.” On the Iran nuclear deal, although he sees it as a poor agreement, he believes there is now no way to tear it up, saying: “We are just going to have to recognize that we have an imperfect arms control agreement. Second, that what we achieved is a nuclear pause, not a nuclear halt”.[43] Additionally, he criticizes President Barack Obama for being naive about Iranian intentions and Congress for being “pretty much absent” on last year’s nuclear deal.[44]

Mattis praises the friendship of regional US allies such as Jordan and the United Arab Emirates.[45] He has criticized Obama and Donald Trump for their view of seeing allies as ‘free-loading’, saying: “For a sitting U.S. president to see our allies as freeloaders is nuts.”[45] He has cited the importance of the United Arab Emirates and Jordan as countries that wanted to help, for example, in filling in the gaps in Afghanistan.[46] He has criticized current defense strategy as giving “the perception we’re pulling back” from US allies.[46] He stresses the need for the US to bolster its ties with allied intelligence agencies, particularly the intelligence agencies of Jordan, Egypt and Saudi Arabia.[47] In 2012, Mattis had been supportive of providing weapons to Syrian rebels, as a way to fight back against Iranian proxies in Syria.[48]

Personal life

Mattis is a graduate of the U.S. Marine Corps Amphibious Warfare School, U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, and the National War College. Mattis is also noted for his intellectualism and interest in military history,[12] with a personal library that once included over 7,000 volumes,[1] and a penchant for publishing required reading lists for Marines under his command.[49][50] Mattis is a life-long bachelor,[51] who has never been married and has no children.[1] He is nicknamed “The Warrior Monk” because of his bachelor life, and the fact he devoted his life to studying and fighting war.[52] He is known for the intellectual rigor he puts on his Marines and his belief in risk-management, and in the need for troops under his command to read widely about the cultural norms and history of the area they are sent to, as he himself does. Before deploying to Iraq, Mattis ensured his troops were given courses on Arab culture and cultural sensitivity classes.[22]

Military awards

Mattis’s decorations, awards, and badges include:

Bronze oak leaf cluster

ribbonribbon

Office of the Secretary of Defense Identification Badge.png
ribbon
V

Gold star
Gold star

ribbon
ribbon ribbon ribbon
ribbon ribbon
Bronze star
Bronze star

Bronze star
Bronze star

Bronze star

Bronze star

Bronze star

ribbon
ribbon
Bronze star
Silver star
Bronze star

Bronze star

ribbon
ribbon ribbon
USMC Rifle Expert badge.pngUSMC Pistol Expert badge.png
1st row Defense Distinguished Service Medal w/ one oak leaf cluster Navy Distinguished Service Medal Defense Superior Service Medal Office of the Secretary of Defense Identification Badge
2nd row Legion of Merit Bronze Star Medal w/ Combat “V” Meritorious Service Medal w/ two 516” Gold Stars Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal
3rd row Combat Action Ribbon Navy Presidential Unit Citation Joint Meritorious Unit Award Navy Unit Commendation
4th row Navy and Marine Corps Meritorious Unit Commendation Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal National Defense Service Medal w/ two 316” bronze stars Southwest Asia Service Medal w/ two316” bronze stars
5th row Afghanistan Campaign Medal w/ one316” bronze star Iraq Campaign Medal w/ one 316” bronze star Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal w/ one 316” bronze star Global War on Terrorism Service Medal
6th row Humanitarian Service Medal Sea Service Ribbon w/ one 316” silver star and two 316” bronze stars Marine Corps Recruiting Service Ribbon w/ one316” bronze star Polish Army Medal in gold
7th row NATO Meritorious Service Medal[26] NATO Medal for Service with ISAF[26] Kuwait Liberation Medal (Saudi Arabia) Kuwait Liberation Medal (Kuwait)
Rifle Expert Badge (4th award) Pistol Expert Badge (2nd award)

Civilian awards

Mattis’s civilian awards include:

In popular culture

See also

Bibliography

  • Reynolds, Nicholas E. (2005). Basrah, Baghdad and Beyond: The U.S. Marine Corps in the Second Iraq War. p. 5. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-717-4

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Mattis

George Marshall

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other people named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation).
George Marshall
General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEG
15th United States Army Chief of Staff
In office
September 1, 1939 – November 18, 1945
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Harry S. Truman
Preceded by Malin Craig
Succeeded by Dwight D. Eisenhower
50th United States Secretary of State
In office
January 21, 1947 – January 20, 1949
President Harry S. Truman
Preceded by James F. Byrnes
Succeeded by Dean G. Acheson
10th President of the American Red Cross
In office
October 1, 1949 – December 1, 1950
President Harry S. Truman
Preceded by Basil O’Connor
Succeeded by E. Roland Harriman
3rd United States Secretary of Defense
In office
September 21, 1950 – September 12, 1951
President Harry S. Truman
Preceded by Louis A. Johnson
Succeeded by Robert A. Lovett
Personal details
Born George Catlett Marshall, Jr.
December 31, 1880
Uniontown, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Died October 16, 1959 (aged 78)
Walter Reed Hospital
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political party Nonpartisan[1]
Spouse(s) Elizabeth Carter Coles
(m. 1902; her death 1927)
Katherine Boyce Tupper Brown
(m. 1930; his death 1959)
Alma mater Virginia Military Institute
Profession
Religion Episcopalian[2]
Awards Army Distinguished Service Medal (2)
Silver Star
Nobel Peace Prize
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (United Kingdom)
Signature
Military service
Allegiance  United States of America
Service/branch  United States Army
Years of service 1902–1959[3]
Rank US Army O11 shoulderboard rotated.svg General of the Army
Unit USA - Army Infantry Insignia.png Infantry Branch
Commands Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army.svg Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army
Battles/wars Philippine–American War
World War I

World War II
Chinese Civil War

College football career
VMI Keydets
Position Tackle
Career history
College VMI (1900)
Career highlights and awards

George Catlett Marshall, Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier, famous for his leadership roles during World War II and the Cold War. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army under presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman, and served as Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense under Truman. He was hailed as the “organizer of victory” by Winston Churchill for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II.[4]

Born in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, Marshall was a 1901 graduate of the Virginia Military Institute. After serving briefly as commandant of students at the Danville Military Academy in Danville, Virginia, Marshall received his commission as a second lieutenant of Infantry in February, 1902. In the years after the Spanish-American War, he served in the United States and overseas in positions of increasing rank and responsibility, including platoon leader and company commander in the Philippines during the Philippine–American War. He was the Honor Graduate of his Infantry-Cavalry School Course in 1907, and graduated first in his 1908 Army Staff College class.

In 1916 Marshall was assigned as aide-de-camp to J. Franklin Bell, the commander of the Western Department. After the United States entered World War I, Marshall served with Bell while Bell commanded the Department of the East. He was subsequently assigned to the staff of the 1st Division, and assisted with the organization’s mobilization and training in the United States, as well as planning of its combat operations in France. Subsequently assigned to the staff of the American Expeditionary Forces headquarters, he was a key planner of American operations including the Meuse-Argonne Offensive.

After the war, Marshall was assigned as an aide-de-camp to John J. Pershing, who was then serving as the Army’s Chief of Staff. He later served on the Army staff, commanded the 15th Infantry Regiment in China, and was an instructor at the Army War College. In 1927, he became assistant commandant of the Army’s Infantry School, where he modernized command and staff processes, which proved to be of major benefit during World War II. In 1932 and 1933 he commanded Fort Screven, Georgia.

Marshall commanded 5th Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division and Vancouver Barracks from 1936 to 1938, and received promotion to brigadier general. During this command, Marshall was also responsible for 35 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camps in Oregon and southern Washington. In July 1938, Marshall was assigned to the War Plans Division on the War Department staff, and he was subsequently appointed as the Army’s Deputy Chief of Staff. When Chief of Staff Malin Craig retired in 1939, Marshall became acting Chief of Staff, and then Chief of Staff. He served as Chief of Staff until the end of the war in 1945.

As Chief of Staff, Marshall organized the largest military expansion in U.S. history, and received promotion to five-star rank as General of the Army. Marshall coordinated Allied operations in Europe and the Pacific until the end of the war; in addition to being hailed as the organizer of Allied victory by Winston Churchill, Time magazine named Marshall its Man of the Year for 1943. Marshall retired from active service in 1945, but remained on active duty, a requirement for holders of five-star rank.[5] In late 1945 and early 1946 he served as a special envoy to China in an unsuccessful effort to negotiate a coalition government between the Nationalist of Chiang Kai-shek and Communists under Mao Zedong.

As Secretary of State from 1947 to 1949, Marshall received credit for the Marshall Plan for Europe’s post-war rebuilding, the success of which was recognized with award of the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize.[6] After resigning as Secretary of State, Marshall served as chairman of American Battle Monuments Commission[7] and president of the American National Red Cross.

As Secretary of Defense at the start of the Korean War, Marshall worked to restore the military’s confidence and morale at the end of its post-World War II demobilization and then its initial buildup for combat in Korea and operations during the Cold War.

After resigning as Defense Secretary, Marshall retired to his home in Virginia. He died in 1959 and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

Early life

1900 VMI Keydets football team. Marshall encircled

George Catlett Marshall, Jr., was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, the son of George Catlett Marshall, Sr. and Laura Emily (née Bradford) Marshall.[8]Marshall was a scion of an old Virginia family, as well as a distant relative of former Chief Justice John Marshall.[9] Marshall graduated from the Virginia Military Institute (VMI),[10]where he was initiated into the Kappa Alpha Order, in 1901.[11] He was an All-Southern tackle for the VMI Keydets varsity football team in 1900.[12][13]

Entry into the Army and the Philippines

Following graduation from VMI in 1901, Marshall sat for a competitive examination for a commission in the U.S. Army.[14] While awaiting the results he took the position of Commandant of Students at the Danville Military Institute in Danville, Virginia.[15] Marshall passed the exam and was commissioned a second lieutenant in February, 1902.[16] Prior to World War I, he was posted to various positions in the United States and the Philippines, including serving as an infantry platoon leader and company commander during thePhilippine–American War and other guerrilla uprisings. He was schooled and trained in modern warfare, including a tour at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas from 1906 to 1910 as both a student and an instructor.[17] He was the Honor Graduate of his Infantry-Cavalry School Course in 1907, and graduated first in his 1908 Army Staff College class.[18]

After another tour of duty in the Philippines, Marshall returned to the United States in 1916 to serve as aide-de-camp to the commander of the Western Department, former Army chief of staff Major General J. Franklin Bell, at the Presidio in San Francisco. After the United States declared war on Germany in April 1917, Marshall relocated with Bell to Governors Island, New York when Bell was reassigned as commander of the Department of the East. Marshall was soon after assigned to help oversee the mobilization of the 1st Division for service in France.

World War I

During the Great War, he had roles as a planner of both training and operations. He went to France in mid-1917 as the director of training and planning for the 1st Division. In this capacity he planned the first American attack and victory of the war at Cantigny, May 28–31, 1918.[19] In mid-1918, he was posted to the headquarters of the American Expeditionary Force, where he worked closely with his mentor, General John Joseph Pershing, and was a key planner of American operations. He was instrumental in the planning and coordination of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, which contributed to the defeat of the German Army on the Western Frontin 1918.[20]

Between World War I and II

In 1919, he became an aide-de-camp to General John J. Pershing. Between 1920 and 1924, while Pershing was Army Chief of Staff, Marshall worked in a number of positions in the Army, focusing on training and teaching modern, mechanized warfare. Between World Wars I and II, he was a key planner and writer in the War Department, commanded the 15th Infantry Regiment for three years in China, and taught at the Army War College. In 1927, as a lieutenant colonel, he was appointed assistant commandant of the Infantry School at Fort Benning, where he initiated major changes to modernize command and staff processes, which proved to be of major benefit during World War II. Marshall placed Edwin F. Harding in charge of the Infantry School’s publications, and Harding became editor[21]:41 of Infantry in Battle, a book that codified the lessons of World War I.Infantry in Battle is still used as an officer’s training manual in the Infantry Officer’s Course and was the training manual for most of the infantry officers and leaders of World War II.

From June 1932 to June 1933 he was the Commanding Officer of the 8th Infantry Regiment at Fort Screven, Georgia. From July 1933 to October 1933 he was commander of Fort Moultrie, South Carolina and District I of the Civilian Conservation Corps, and he was promoted to colonel in September 1933. He was senior instructor and chief of staff for the Illinois National Guard’s 33rd Division from November 1933 to August 1936.

Marshall commanded the 5th Brigade of the 3rd Infantry Division and Vancouver Barracks in Vancouver, Washington from 1936 to 1938, and was promoted to brigadier general in October 1936. In addition to obtaining a long-sought and significant troop command, traditionally viewed as an indispensable step to the pinnacle of the US Army, Marshall was also responsible for 35 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camps in Oregon and southern Washington. As post commander Marshall made a concerted effort to cultivate relations with the city of Portland and to enhance the image of the US Army in the region. With the CCC, he initiated a series of measures to improve the morale of the participants and to make the experience beneficial in their later life. He started a newspaper for the CCC region that proved a vehicle to promote CCC successes, and he initiated a variety of programs that developed their skills and improved their health. Marshall’s inspections of the CCC camps gave him and his wife Katherine the chance to enjoy the beauty of the American northwest and made that assignment what he called “the most instructive service I ever had, and the most interesting.”[22]

In July 1938, Marshall was assigned to the War Plans Division in Washington D.C. and subsequently reassigned as Deputy Chief of Staff. In that capacity, then-Brigadier General Marshall attended a conference at the White House at which President Rooseveltproposed a plan to provide aircraft to England in support of the war effort, lacking forethought with regard to logistical support or training. With all other attendees voicing support of the plan, Marshall was the only person to voice his disagreement. Despite the common belief that he had ended his career, this action resulted in his being nominated by President Franklin Roosevelt to be the Army Chief of Staff. Upon the retirement of General Malin Craig on July 1, 1939, Marshall became acting chief of staff. Marshall was promoted to general and sworn in as Chief of Staff on September 1, 1939, the same day the German Army launched its invasion of Poland.[23] He would hold this post until the end of the war in 1945.

World War II

As Chief of Staff, Marshall organized the largest military expansion in U.S. history, inheriting an outmoded, poorly equipped army of 189,000 men and, partly drawing from his experience teaching and developing techniques of modern warfare as an instructor at theArmy War College, coordinated the large-scale expansion and modernization of the U.S. Army. Though he had never actually led troops in combat, Marshall was a skilled organizer with a talent for inspiring other officers.[24] Many of the American generals who were given top commands during the war were either picked or recommended by Marshall, including Dwight D. Eisenhower, Jacob L. Devers, George S. Patton, Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr., Lloyd Fredendall, Leslie McNair, Mark Wayne Clark and Omar Bradley.[25]

Expands military force fortyfold

Faced with the necessity of turning an army of former civilians into a force of over eight million soldiers by 1942 (a fortyfold increase within three years), Marshall directed General Leslie McNair to focus efforts on rapidly producing large numbers of soldiers. With the exception of airborne forces, Marshall approved McNair’s concept of an abbreviated training schedule for men entering Army land forces training, particularly in regard to basic infantry skills, weapons proficiency, and combat tactics.[26][27] At the time, most U.S. commanders at lower levels had little or no combat experience of any kind. Without the input of experienced British or Allied combat officers on the nature of modern warfare and enemy tactics, many resorted to formulaic training methods emphasizing static defense and orderly large-scale advances by motorized convoys over improved roads.[28] In consequence, Army forces deploying to Africa suffered serious initial reverses when encountering German armored combat units in Africa at Kasserine Pass and other major battles.[29] Even as late as 1944, U.S. soldiers undergoing stateside training in preparation for deployment against German forces in Europe were not being trained in combat procedures and tactics in use there.[30]

Replacement system criticized

Originally, Marshall had planned a 265-division Army with a system of unit rotation such as practiced by the British and other Allies.[31] By mid-1943, however, after pressure from government and business leaders to preserve manpower for industry and agriculture, he had abandoned this plan in favor of a 90-division Army using individual replacements sent via a circuitous process from training to divisions in combat.[31] The individual replacement system devised by Marshall and implemented by McNair greatly exacerbated problems with unit cohesion and effective transfer of combat experience to newly trained soldiers and officers.[29][32] In Europe, where there were few pauses in combat with German forces, the individual replacement system had broken down completely by late 1944.[33] Hastily trained replacements or service personnel reassigned as infantry were given six weeks’ refresher training and thrown into battle with Army divisions locked in front-line combat.

The new men were often not even proficient in the use of their own rifles or weapons systems, and once in combat, could not receive enough practical instruction from veterans before being killed or wounded, usually within the first three or four days.[29][34][35] Under such conditions, many replacements suffered a crippling loss of morale, while veteran soldiers were kept in line units until they were killed, wounded, or incapacitated by battle fatigue or physical illness. Incidents of soldiers AWOL from combat duty as well as battle fatigue and self-inflicted injury rose rapidly during the last eight months of the war with Germany.[29][32][34] As one historian concluded, “Had the Germans been given a free hand to devise a replacement system…, one that would do the Americans the most harm and the least good, they could not have done a better job.”[34][36]

Marshall’s abilities to pick competent field commanders during the early part of the war was decidedly mixed. While he had been instrumental in advancing the career of the able Dwight D. Eisenhower, he had also recommended the swaggering Lloyd Fredendall to Eisenhower for a major command in the American invasion of North Africa during Operation Torch. Marshall was especially fond of Fredendall, describing him as “one of the best” and remarking in a staff meeting when his name was mentioned, “I like that man; you can see determination all over his face.” Eisenhower duly picked him to command the 39,000-man Central Task Force (the largest of three) in Operation Torch. Both men would come to regret that decision, as Fredendall was the leader of U.S. Army forces at the disastrous Battle of the Kasserine Pass.[25]

Planned invasion of Europe

Cover to the book Infantry in Battle, the World War II officer’s guide to infantry combat operations. Marshall directed production of the book, which is still used as a reference today.

During World War II, Marshall was instrumental in preparing the U.S. Army and Army Air Forces for the invasion of the European continent. Marshall wrote the document that would become the central strategy for all Allied operations in Europe. He initially scheduled Operation Overlord for April 1, 1943, but met with strong opposition from Winston Churchill, who convinced Roosevelt to commit troops to Operation Husky for the invasion of Italy. Some authors think that World War II could have ended one year earlier if Marshall had had his way; others think that such an invasion would have meant utter failure. This argument is justifiable, as it is true that the German Army in 1943 was overstretched, and defensive works in Normandy were not ready.[37]

It was assumed that Marshall would become the Supreme Commander of Operation Overlord, but Roosevelt selected Dwight Eisenhower as Supreme Commander. While Marshall enjoyed considerable success in working with Congress and President Franklin D. Roosevelt, he refused to lobby for the position. President Roosevelt didn’t want to lose his presence in the states. He told Marshall, “I didn’t feel I could sleep at ease if you were out of Washington.”[38] When rumors circulated that the top job would go to Marshall, many critics viewed the transfer as a demotion for Marshall, since he would leave his position as Chief of Staff of the Army and lose his seat on theCombined Chiefs of Staff.[39]

On December 16, 1944, Marshall became the first American Army general to be promoted to five-star rank, the newly created General of the Army – the American equivalent rank to field marshal. He was the second American to be promoted to a five-star rank, as William Leahy was promoted to fleet admiral the previous day.

Throughout the remainder of World War II, Marshall coordinated Allied operations in Europe and the Pacific. He was characterized as the organizer of Allied victory by Winston Churchill. Time magazine named Marshall Man of the Year for 1943. Marshall resigned his post of Chief of Staff in 1945, but did not retire, as regulations stipulate that Generals of the Army remain on active duty for life.[5]

Analysis of Pearl Harbor intelligence failure

After World War II ended, the Congressional Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack received testimony on the intelligence failure. It amassed 25,000 pages of documents, 40 volumes, and included nine reports and investigations, eight of which had been previously completed. These reports included criticism of Marshall for delay in sending General Walter Short, the Army commander in Hawaii, important information obtained from intercepted Japanese diplomatic messages. The report also criticized Marshall’s lack of knowledge of the readiness of the Hawaiian Command during November and December 1941. Ten days after the attack, Lt. General Short and Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, commander of the Navy at Pearl Harbor, were both relieved of their duties. The final report of the Joint Committee did not single out or fault Marshall. While the report was critical of the overall situation, the committee noted that subordinates had failed to pass on important information to their superiors, including Marshall.[40][41]

Post War: China

In December 1945, President Harry Truman sent Marshall to China, much to the dismay of his wife, Katherine, who later said “They kept taking my George away from me”, to broker a coalition government between the Nationalist allies under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and Communists under Mao Zedong. Marshall had no leverage over the Communists, but he threatened to withdraw American aid essential to the Nationalists. Both sides rejected his proposals and the Chinese Civil War escalated, with the Communists winning in 1949. His mission a failure, he returned to the United States in January 1947.[42][43] Chiang Kai-shek and some historians later claimed that cease-fire, under pressure of Marshall, saved the Communists from defeat.[44][45] As Secretary of State in 1947–48, Marshall seems to have disagreed with strong opinions in The Pentagon and State Department that Chiang’s success was vital to American interests, insisting that U.S. troops not become involved.

Secretary of State and Nobel Peace Prize

Medallion issued in 1982 to honor George Marshall’s post-war work for Europe

After Marshall’s return to the U.S. in early 1947, Truman appointed Marshall Secretary of State. He became the spokesman for the State Department’s ambitious plans to rebuild Europe. On June 5, 1947 in a speech[46] atHarvard University, he outlined the American proposal. The European Recovery Program, as it was formally known, became known as the Marshall Plan. Clark Clifford had suggested to Truman that the plan be called the Truman Plan, but Truman immediately dismissed that idea and insisted that it be called the Marshall Plan.[47][48] The Marshall Plan would help Europe quickly rebuild and modernize its economy along American lines. TheSoviet Union forbade its satellites to participate.

Marshall during World War II

Marshall was again named Time’s Man of the Year for 1947. He received the Nobel Peace Prize for his post-war work in 1953, the only career officer in United States Army to ever receive this honor.

As Secretary of State, Marshall strongly opposed recognizing the state of Israel. Marshall felt that if the state of Israel was declared that a war would break out in the Middle East (which it did in 1948 one day after Israel declared independence). Marshall saw recognizing the Jewish state as a political move to gain Jewish support in the upcoming election, in which Truman was expected to lose to Dewey. He told President Truman in May 1948, “If you (recognize the state of Israel) and if I were to vote in the election, I would vote against you.”[49][50][51] However, Marshall refused to vote in any election as a matter of principle.[52]

Marshall resigned from the State Department because of ill health on January 7, 1949, and the same month became chairman of the American Battle Monuments Commission.[53] In September 1949, Marshall was named president of the American National Red Cross.

Secretary of Defense

When the early months of the Korean War showed how poorly prepared the Defense Department was, President Truman fired Secretary Louis A. Johnson and named Marshall as Secretary of Defense in September 1950. The appointment required a congressional waiver because the National Security Act of 1947 prohibited a uniformed military officer from serving in the post. This prohibition included Marshall since individuals promoted to General of the Army are not technically retired, but remain officially on active duty even after their active service has concluded. Marshall’s main role as Secretary of Defense was to restore confidence and morale while rebuilding the armed forces following their post-World War II demobilization.

Korean War

George Marshall portrait by Thomas E. Stephens (c. 1949).

Marshall worked to provide more manpower to meet the demands of both the Korean War and the Cold War in Europe. To implement his priorities Marshall brought in a new leadership team, including Robert A. Lovett as his deputy and Anna M. Rosenberg, former head of the War Manpower Commission, as assistant secretary of defense for manpower. He also worked to rebuild the relationship between the Defense and State Departments, as well as the relationship between the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Marshall participated in the post-Inchon landing discussion that led to authorizing Douglas MacArthur to conduct operations in North Korea. A secret “eyes only” signal from Marshall to MacArthur on September 29, 1950 declared the Truman administration’s commitment: “We want you to feel unhampered strategically and tactically to proceed north of the 38th Parallel”. At the same time, Marshall advised against public pronouncements which might lead to United Nations votes undermining or countermanding the initial mandate to restore the border between North and South Korea. Marshall and the Joint Chiefs of Staff were generally supportive of MacArthur because they were of the view that field commanders should be able to exercise their best judgment in accomplishing the intent of their superiors.

Following Chinese military intervention in Korea during late November, Marshall and the Joint Chiefs of Staff sought ways to aid MacArthur while avoiding all-out war with China. In the debate over what to do about China’s increased involvement, Marshall opposed a cease–fire on the grounds that it would make the U.S. look weak in China’s eyes, leading to demands for future concessions. In addition, Marshall argued that the U.S. had a moral obligation to honor its commitment to South Korea. When British Prime Minister Clement Attlee suggested diplomatic overtures to China, Marshall opposed, arguing that it was impossible to negotiate with the Communist government. In addition, Marshall expressed concern that concessions to China would undermine confidence in the U.S. among its Asian allies, including Japan and the Philippines. When some in Congress favored expanding the war in Korea and confronting China, Marshall argued against a wider war in Korea, continuing instead to stress the importance of containing the Soviet Union during the Cold War battle for primacy in Europe.

Relief of General MacArthur

Increasingly concerned about public statements from General Douglas MacArthur, commander of United Nations forces fighting in the Korean War, which contradicted President Harry S. Truman‘s on prosecution of the war, on the morning of 6 April 1951 Truman held a meeting with Marshall, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Omar Bradley, Secretary of State Acheson and advisor W. Averell Harriman to discuss whether MacArthur should be removed from command.

Harriman was emphatically in favor of MacArthur’s relief, but Bradley opposed it. Marshall asked for more time to consider the matter. Acheson was in favor but did not disclose this, instead warning Truman that if he did it, MacArthur’s relief would cause “the biggest fight of your administration.” At another meeting the following day, Marshall and Bradley continued to oppose MacArthur’s relief. On 8 April, the Joint Chiefs of Staff met with Marshall, and each expressed the view that MacArthur’s relief was desirable from a “military point of view,” suggesting that “if MacArthur were not relieved, a large segment of our people would charge that civil authorities no longer controlled the military.”

Marshall, Bradley, Acheson and Harriman met with Truman again on 9 April. Bradley informed the President of the views of the Joint Chiefs, and Marshall added that he agreed with them. Truman wrote in his diary that “it is of unanimous opinion of all that MacArthur be relieved. All four so advise.”[54] (The Joint Chiefs would later insist that they had only “concurred” with the relief, not “recommended” it.)

On April 11, 1951, President Truman directed transmittal of an order to MacArthur, issued over Bradley’s signature, relieving MacArthur of his assignment in Korea and directing him to turn over command to Matthew Ridgway. In line with Marshall’s view, and those of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, MacArthur’s relief was looked upon by proponents as being necessary to reassert the tenet of civilian control of the military.

Retirement

Marshall retired in September 1951 to his home, Dodona Manor, in Leesburg, Virginia to tend to his gardens and continue his passion for horseback riding. Although, in 1953 he did agree to serve as head of the American delegation at the coronation of QueenElizabeth II of the United Kingdom. He also served as Chairman of the American Battle Monuments Commission from 1949 to 1959.

Death and burial[edit]

Gravesite of George Marshall at Arlington National Cemetery

Marshall died at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C. on October 16, 1959. He was 78 years old. He is interred at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia. In 1959, two other equivalent-ranking U. S. military officers also died, fleet admirals William Halsey Jr. and William D. Leahy.

Reputation and legacy

Marshall’s reputation for excellence as a military organizer and planner was recognized early in his career, and became known throughout the Army. In a performance appraisal prepared while Marshall was a lieutenant in the Philippines, his superior, Captain E. J. Williams responded to the routine question of whether he would want the evaluated officer to serve under his command again by writing of Marshall “Should the exigencies of active service place him in exalted command I would be glad to serve under him.” (Emphasis added.)[55]

In 1913 General Johnson Hagood, then a lieutenant colonel, completed a written evaluation of Marshall’s performance in which he called Marshall a military genius. Responding to the question of whether he would want his subordinate Marshall to serve under him again, Hagood wrote “Yes, but I would prefer to serve under his command.” (Emphasis added.)[56]

In addition to his military success, Marshall is primarily remembered as the driving force behind the Marshall Plan, which provided billions in aid to post war Europe to restart the economies of the destroyed countries. In recent years, the cooperation required between former European adversaries as part of the Marshall Plan has been recognized as one of the earliest factors that led to formation of the European Coal and Steel Community, and eventually the European Union.[57]

In a television interview after leaving office, Harry S. Truman was asked which American he thought had made the greatest contribution of the preceding thirty years. Without hesitation, Truman picked Marshall, adding “I don’t think in this age in which I have lived, that there has been a man who has been a greater administrator; a man with a knowledge of military affairs equal to General Marshall.”[58]

Orson Welles said in an interview with Dick Cavett that “Marshall is the greatest man I ever met… I think he was the greatest human being who was also a great man… He was a tremendous gentleman, an old fashioned institution which isn’t with us anymore.”[59]

Family life

Marshall married Elizabeth Carter Coles, or “Lily”, on Letcher Avenue at her mother’s home in Lexington, Virginia, in 1902. She died in 1927 after a successful surgery that put significant strain on her weak heart. They never had any children together.

In 1930, Marshall married Katherine Boyce Tupper (October 8, 1882 – December 18, 1978), widow of Baltimore lawyer Clifton Stevenson Brown, who was murdered by a disgruntled client, and the mother of three children. One of Marshall’s stepsons with Tupper was US Army Lieutenant Allen Tupper Brown, who was killed by a German sniper in Italy on May 29, 1944. Another stepson was Major Clifton Stevenson Brown, Jr. (1914–1952). Step-daughter Molly Brown Winn, who is the mother of actress Kitty Winn, was married to US Army Major James J. Winn (former aide to General Marshall).

Marshall was a Freemason, having been made a Mason “at sight” in 1941 by the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia. [60]

George Marshall maintained a home, known as Dodona Manor and later The Marshall House (now restored), in Leesburg, Virginia.[61] This was his first and only permanent residence owned by Marshall who later said “this is Home…a real home after 41 years of wandering.”[62] The home and its surrounding gardens are open to the public as a museum with a goal of forwarding Marshall’s leadership qualities and legacy.

Fictional portrayals

Marshall has played in film and television by

Marshall is a character in three different alternate history timelines in novels by Harry Turtledove: Worldwar, Joe Steele, and The Hot War.

Dates of rank

No pin insignia in 1902 Second Lieutenant, United States Army: February 2, 1902
US-O2 insignia.svg First Lieutenant, United States Army: March 7, 1907
US-O3 insignia.svg Captain, United States Army: July 1, 1916
US-O4 insignia.svg Major, National Army: August 5, 1917
US-O5 insignia.svg Lieutenant Colonel, National Army: January 5, 1918
US-O6 insignia.svg Colonel, National Army: August 27, 1918
US-O3 insignia.svg Captain, Regular Army (reverted to permanent rank): June 30, 1920
US-O4 insignia.svg Major, Regular Army : July 1, 1920
US-O5 insignia.svg Lieutenant Colonel, Regular Army: August 21, 1923
US-O6 insignia.svg Colonel, Regular Army: September 1, 1933
US-O7 insignia.svg Brigadier General, Regular Army: October 1, 1936
US-O8 insignia.svg Major General, Regular Army: September 1, 1939
US-O10 insignia.svg General, Regular Army, for service as Army Chief of Staff: September 1, 1939
US-O11 insignia.svg General of the Army, Army of the United States: December 16, 1944
General of the Army rank made permanent in the Regular Army: April 11, 1946

Awards and decorations

U.S. military honors

Bronze oak leaf cluster

Distinguished Service Medal with one Oak Leaf Cluster
Silver Star ribbon.svg Silver Star
Philippine Campaign Medal ribbon.svg Philippine Campaign Medal
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star

World War I Victory Medal with four campaign clasps
Army of Occupation of Germany ribbon.svg Army of Occupation of Germany Medal
American Defense Service ribbon.svg American Defense Service Medal
American Campaign Medal ribbon.svg American Campaign Medal
World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg World War II Victory Medal
National Defense Service Medal ribbon.svg National Defense Service Medal

Foreign orders[edit]

Order of the Bath (ribbon).svg Honorary Knight Grand Cross Order of the Bath (United Kingdom)
Legion Honneur GC ribbon.svg Grand Cross Legion of Honor (France)
BRA Ordem do Merito Militar Cavaleiro.png Order of Military Merit (Brazil) (Presented by General Franciso José Pinto on behalf of President Getullo Vargas on 3 June 1939)[63]
CHL Order of Merit of Chile - Grand Cross BAR.png Grand Cross of the Order of Merit (Chile)
Order of Boyacá - Extraordinary Grand Cross (Colombia) - ribbon bar.png Grand Cross of the Order of Boyacá Cherifien (Colombia) (Given by President Ospina Perez as he opened the IX Panamerican Conference, March 1948)
Legion Honneur Chevalier ribbon.svg Order of Military Merit, First Class (Cuba)
Order of Abdón Calderón 1st Class (Ecuador) - ribbon bar.png Star of Abdon Calderon, First Class (Ecuador)
GRE Order of George I - Grand Cross BAR.png Grand Cross Order of George I with swords (Greece)
Grande ufficiale SSML Regno BAR.svg Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Italy)
Grande ufficiale OCI Kingdom BAR.svg Order of the Crown of Italy (Italy)
MAR Order of the Ouissam Alaouite - Grand Cross (1913-1956) BAR.png Grand Cross of the Order of Ouissam Alaouite (Morocco)
NLD Order of Orange-Nassau - Knight Grand Cross BAR.png Grand Cross with Swords Order of Orange-Nassau (Netherlands)
PER Order of the Sun of Peru - Grand Officer BAR.png Gran Official del Sol del Peru (Peru)
Order suvorov1 rib.png Order of Suvorov, 1st class (Soviet Union)

Foreign decorations and medals

CroixdeGuerreFR-BronzePalm.png Croix de Guerre (France)
Medal for the Centennial of the Republic of Liberia
DK Forsvarets Medalje for Faldne i Tjeneste Ribbon.png Silver Medal for Bravery (Montenegro)
PAN Medalla de la Solidaridad.png Medal of Solidarity, 2nd Class (Panama)

Civilian honors

  • In 1946, he was awarded the United States Congressional Gold Medal.[64]
  • In 1948, he was awarded the Grand Lodge of New York‘s Distinguished Achievement Award for his role and contributions during and after World War II.
  • Nobel Peace Prize 1953 for the Marshall Plan.
  • The United States Postal Service honored him with a Prominent Americans series (1965–1978) 20¢ postage stamp.
  • 1959 Karlspreis (International Charlemagne Prize of the city of Aachen).
  • 1960 George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, originally the Army Ballistics Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville Alabama, became a NASA field center and was renamed.
  • The British Parliament established the Marshall Scholarship in recognition of Marshall’s contributions to Anglo-American relations.
  • Many buildings and streets throughout the U.S. and other nations are named in his honor.
  • George C. Marshall Award, the highest award given to a chapter in Kappa Alpha Order.
  • George C. Marshall High School, founded in 1962 and located in Falls Church, Virginia, is the only public high school in the United States named for Marshall. The nickname of the school – “The Statesmen” – appropriately reflects his life and contributions.
  • The Marshall Elementary School is in the Laurel Highlands School District, Uniontown, Pennsylvania.
  • George C. Marshall Elementary School: located in Vancouver, Washington.
  • The George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
  • George Catlett Marshall Medal, awarded by the Association of the United States Army. Awarded to Bob Hope in 1972.

Bibliography

See also

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Marshall

 

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Donald Trump’s media summit was a ‘f—ing firing squad’

Donald Trump scolded media big shots during an off-the-record Trump Tower sitdown on Monday, sources told The Post.

“It was like a f–ing firing squad,” one source said of the encounter.

“Trump started with [CNN chief] Jeff Zucker and said ‘I hate your network, everyone at CNN is a liar and you should be ashamed,’ ” the source said.

“The meeting was a total disaster. The TV execs and anchors went in there thinking they would be discussing the access they would get to the Trump administration, but instead they got a Trump-style dressing down,” the source added.

A second source confirmed the fireworks.

“The meeting took place in a big board room and there were about 30 or 40 people, including the big news anchors from all the networks,” the other source said.

“Trump kept saying, ‘We’re in a room of liars, the deceitful dishonest media who got it all wrong.’ He addressed everyone in the room calling the media dishonest, deceitful liars. He called out Jeff Zucker by name and said everyone at CNN was a liar, and CNN was [a] network of liars,” the source said.

“Trump didn’t say [NBC reporter] Katy Tur by name, but talked about an NBC female correspondent who got it wrong, then he referred to a horrible network correspondent who cried when Hillary lost who hosted a debate – which was Martha Raddatz who was also in the room.”

The stunned reporters tried to get a word in edgewise to discuss access to a Trump Administration.

Donald Trump’s media summit was a ‘f—ing firing squad’

Donald Trump scolded media big shots during an off-the-record Trump Tower sitdown on Monday, sources told The Post.

“It was like a f–ing firing squad,” one source said of the encounter.

“Trump started with [CNN chief] Jeff Zucker and said ‘I hate your network, everyone at CNN is a liar and you should be ashamed,’ ” the source said.

“The meeting was a total disaster. The TV execs and anchors went in there thinking they would be discussing the access they would get to the Trump administration, but instead they got a Trump-style dressing down,” the source added.

A second source confirmed the fireworks.

“The meeting took place in a big board room and there were about 30 or 40 people, including the big news anchors from all the networks,” the other source said.

“Trump kept saying, ‘We’re in a room of liars, the deceitful dishonest media who got it all wrong.’ He addressed everyone in the room calling the media dishonest, deceitful liars. He called out Jeff Zucker by name and said everyone at CNN was a liar, and CNN was [a] network of liars,” the source said.

“Trump didn’t say [NBC reporter] Katy Tur by name, but talked about an NBC female correspondent who got it wrong, then he referred to a horrible network correspondent who cried when Hillary lost who hosted a debate – which was Martha Raddatz who was also in the room.”

The stunned reporters tried to get a word in edgewise to discuss access to a Trump Administration.

President-Elect Donald Trump Holds Meetings At His Trump Tower Residence In New York

“[CBS Good Morning co-host Gayle] King did not stand up, but asked some question, ‘How do you propose we the media work with you?’ Chuck Todd asked some pretty pointed questions. David Muir asked ‘How are you going to cope living in DC while your family is in NYC? It was a horrible meeting.”

Trump spokeswoman Kellyanne Conway told reporters the gathering went well.

“Excellent meetings with the top executives of the major networks,” she said during a gaggle in the lobby of Trump Tower. “Pretty unprecedented meeting we put together in two days.”

The meeting was off the record, meaning the participants agreed not to talk about the substance of the conversations.

The hour-long session included top execs from network and cable news channels. Among the attendees were NBC’s Deborah Turness, Lester Holt and Chuck Todd, ABC’s James Goldston, George Stephanopoulos, David Muir and Martha Raddatz,

Also, CBS’ Norah O’Donnell John Dickerson, Charlie Rose, Christopher Isham and King, Fox News’ Bill Shine, Jack Abernethy, Jay Wallace, Suzanne Scott, MSNBC’s Phil Griffin and CNN’s Jeff Zucker and Erin Burnett.

Arthur Sulzberger, publisher of The New York Times, plans to meet with Trump Tuesday.

There was no immediate comment from the Trump Team.

http://nypost.com/2016/11/21/donald-trumps-media-summit-was-a-f-ing-firing-squad/

Trump meets with top TV network executives and anchors

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