The Pronk Pops Show 1201, February 4, 2019, Story 1: Patriots Win Super Bowl and Brooklyn Dodger Fans Cheer — Champions of The World — OK — Videos — Story 2: Soaking The Rich With 70% Tax Rate Is Not The Answer — Replacing All Federal Taxes With A Single Broad Based Consumption Tax Like The Fair Tax Is The Answer Together With Downsizing The Federal Government Which Is The Problem — Beware of Fake Polls — Videos — Story 3: Trump’s State of The Union Address — United We Stand Divided We Fall — Never Ever Give Up — Video

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Story 1: Patriots Win Superbowl and Brooklyn Dodger Fans Cheer — Champions of The World — OK — Videos —

Patriots vs. Rams | Super Bowl LIII Game Highlights

Super Bowl LIII Highlights | Patriots vs. Rams | NFL

Super Bowl 2019: Patriots beat Rams in historic win

“NFL 2019” — A Bad Lip Reading of The NFL

7 Super Bowl LIII Commercials Worth Watching Again | Inc.

TOP 10 FUNNIEST SUPER BOWL ADS 2019 – Best Ten Superbowl LIII Commercials

Top 10 Worst Superbowl 53 Commercials (2019)

Top 15 LEAKED Super Bowl 53 Commercials (2019 Super Bowl LIII)

Brooklyn faithful can tell you how St. Louis feels watching Rams

Brooklyn Dodgers – The Ghosts of Flatbush

Dodgers’ Brooklyn 1955 Win, LA Move & More: Ex-Broadcaster Vin Scully Remembers | Sports Illustrated

The Brooklyn Dodgers: the original America’s team

LA vs NY Kids – Who’s Smarter?

 

Throwback night: Pats win Super Bowl the old-fashioned way

New England Patriots’ Tom Brady holds his daughter, Vivian, after the NFL Super Bowl 53 football game against the Los Angeles Rams, Sunday, Feb. 3, 2019, in Atlanta. The Patriots won 13-3. (AP Photo/Mark Humphrey)

Graying but still gritty, Tom Brady, Bill Belichick and the Patriots came to the Super Bowl intending to stave off, for at least one more game, the inevitable onslaught of the NFL’s future.

Job well done.

Pro football never looked flatter, older and more stuck in the days of the VCR than it did Sunday.

In a Super Bowl only New England could love, the Patriots won their sixth title by lumbering their way to a 13-3 victory over the Los Angeles Rams — that young, brash, high-flying team with the 33-year-old coach and the 24-year-old quarterback who were, we thought, changing football before our very eyes.

If only we could’ve kept them open.

Among the Super Bowl records set: Fewest points by both teams (16); fewest points by the winning team (13); fewest combined points through three quarters (6); most consecutive drives ending with a punt (8 by the Rams); longest punt (65 yards).

The halftime show with Maroon 5 offered no relief — roundly ripped, including by an Associated Press reviewer who called it “Empty. Boring. Basic. Sleepy.”

He could have said the same about the game. But give credit where it’s due.

The defense designed by Belichick turned Rams quarterback Jared Goff into a jittery mess. He completed 19 of 38 passes for 229 yards, with an assortment of rushed throws, misread coverages and, in the tiny windows in which LA showed any sign of life, a pair of terrible passes.

One, trailing 3-0 in the third quarter, was late and high to wide-open Brandin Cooks in the end zone; the other, trailing 10-3 with 4:17 left in the fourth quarter, was high under pressure for an easy interception by Patriots cornerback Stephon Gilmore that essentially ended the game.

“I know I definitely have a lot to learn from this one,” said Rams coach Sean McVay, who, at 33, is exactly half the age of Belichick.

McVay has been the flavor of the month in the copycat NFL. Other teams have hired away three of his assistant coaches over the last two years, as the league tries to catch up with his newfangled offense that cracked 30 points in 13 games this season.

On Sunday, it managed one 53-yard field goal from Greg Zuerlein and didn’t take a snap inside the New England 20.

Gilmore’s interception came minutes after Brady engineered the game’s lone touchdown drive.

It was five plays and included four straight completions: 18 yards to Rob Gronkowski, 13 yards to Julian Edelman, seven yards to backup running back Rex Burkhead, then a 29-yard teardrop placed perfectly into the arms of Gronkowski, who was double-covered. Sony Michel ran it in from 2 yards for the touchdown with 7 minutes left.

“We couldn’t get points on the board for one reason or another,” Brady said, “but in the end, it feels a lot better than last year, when we did get some points on the board.”

Last year, the Patriots fell 41-33 to Philly in a back-and-forth thriller that essentially featured one good defensive play: a sack and strip on Brady by Eagles defensive end Brandon Graham with the clock running down.

The year before, the Patriots scored 31 points in the second half and overtime for a riveting 34-28 comeback win over Atlanta and title No. 5.

Then, this.

New England’s road to a sixth Lombardi Trophy — tied with Pittsburgh for the most — was never easy this season. The Patriots lost five times, didn’t have home-field advantage through the playoffs and, after every loss, were beset by questions over whether the 41-year-old Brady and his 66-year-old coach might be winding down.

Through it all, though, they could score. New England averaged 27.2 points a game. And in the run through the playoffs, the offense scored 10 touchdowns and Brady barely got touched, and never got sacked.

They were not clicking like that Sunday at the $1.5 billion Mercedes-Benz Stadium, where 70,081 fans — most of them cheering for New England — watched the game.

Other than Edelman, whose 10 catches for 141 yards won him MVP honors and made him look like a combination of Michael Irvin and Jerry Rice considering everything happening around him, the Patriots were out of sync.

Brady’s first pass got intercepted. He went 21 for 35 for 262 yards and a passer rating of 71.4 — more than 26 points lower than he averaged this season.

New England outgained Los Angeles 195-57 in the first half, but settled for two field goal attempts — one miss and one make — for a 3-0 lead at the break.

It was 3-3 heading into the fourth quarter — the fewest points through the first 45 minutes of any playoff game since a 1980 barnburner between the Bucs and Rams that LA won 9-0.

Maybe the biggest irony of all: The New England dynasty’s five previous Super Bowl victories came by 3, 3, 3, 4 and 6. Two were decided on the last play. The other three came down to the final minutes.

Compared to that, this was a veritable runaway.

On a day when New England held LA running back Todd Gurley to 35 yards, when LA couldn’t muster a drive longer than five plays for nearly three quarters, and when LA’s Johnny Hekker (eight punts, 46.3 yard average) was his team’s most effective player, a 10-point lead at the end felt like a million.

“It’s a beautiful thing, man,” said New England cornerback Jason McCourty.

And a game only the Patriots could love.

https://apnews.com/cf0c0abdfc584bde84422d3bed2d524c

FairTax: Fire Up Our Economic Engine (Official HD)

The FairTax: It’s Time

Mike Huckabee – What is the “Fair Tax?”

Freedom from the IRS! – FairTax Explained in Detail

The FairTax for Dummies – Simple to Understand

What’s the difference between the Fair Tax and the Income Tax?

Why is the FairTax better than a flat income tax?

What will the transition be like from the income tax to the FairTax?

Bill Gates: Don’t tax my income, tax my consumption

Taxes: States With Lowest Taxes Growing Fastest

Income Tax vs. Consumption Tax

Is America’s Tax System Fair?

Is Capitalism Moral?

Soak the rich? Americans say go for it

Surveys are showing overwhelming support for raising taxes on top earners.

The prospect of 70 percent tax rates for multimillionaires and special levies on the super-rich draw howls about creeping socialism and warnings of economic disaster in much of Washington.

But polling suggests that when it comes to soaking the rich, the American public is increasingly on board.

Surveys are showing overwhelming support for raising taxes on top earners, including a new POLITICO/Morning Consult poll released Monday that found 76 percent of registered voters believe the wealthiest Americans should pay more in taxes. A recent Fox News survey showed that 70 percent of Americans favor raising taxes on those earning over $10 million — including 54 percent of Republicans.

The numbers suggest the political ground upon which the 2020 presidential campaign will be fought is shifting in dramatic ways, reflecting the rise in inequality in the United States and growing concerns in the electorate about the fairness of the American system.

“There is a deep wellspring in terms of perception of unfairness in the economy that’s been tapped into here that either didn’t exist five years ago or existed and had not had a chance to be expressed,” said Michael Cembalest, chairman of market and investment strategy at JPMorgan Asset Management who has studied the latest tax proposals. “This is quite a moment in American economic history where all of a sudden in a matter of months this thing has kind of exploded like this.”

Even proposals that sound radical poll well.

A plan from first-term Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-N.Y.) to slap a 70 percent marginal rate on income earned over $10 million clocked in at 59 percent support in a recent Hill/HarrisX poll.

The new POLITICO/Morning Consult poll, conducted Feb. 1-2, found that 61 percent favor a proposal like the “wealth tax” recently laid out by Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass.) that would levy a 2 percent tax on those with a net worth over $50 million and 3 percent on those worth over $1 billion. Just 20 percent opposed the idea. The poll surveyed 1,993 registered voters and carries a margin of error of plus or minus 2 percent.

It showed 45 percent favored a plan like that laid out by Ocasio-Cortez while 32 percent opposed it.

Democrats are facing some backlash from conservatives, corporate America and moderates like former Starbucks CEO Howard Schultz over their embrace of higher tax rates on the rich and corporations. Shultz recently called Warren’s wealth tax “ridiculous.” Former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg, a potential moderate Democratic candidate in 2020, likened it to policies in socialist Venezuela.

But Republicans who think they can use the proposals as a political weapon in 2020 to paint Democrats as wild-eyed, tax-and-spend liberals — a winning strategy since Walter Mondale called for higher taxes in 1984 and got crushed — may find it challenging.

“There is certainly an appetite for more taxes on the rich, though the threshold matters,” said Karlyn Bowman, a polling expert at the American Enterprise Institute. “There is also some support for redistributing income.”

Historical trend data from Gallup show that the percentage of people describing their taxes as too high peaked around 1970 at 69 percent when the top marginal rate was around 70 percent, though the effective rate after deductions and other tax-avoidance strategies was much lower.

https://www.politico.com/story/2019/02/04/democrats-taxes-economy-policy-2020-1144874

Story 3: Trump’s State of The Union Address — United We Stand Divided We Fall — Never Ever Give Up — Video

Trump talks race, football, foreign policy and more ahead of the Super Bowl

Trump: Impeachment is the “only way” Democrats can win in 2020

#QAnon Never Ever Give Up !

Winston Churchill – “Never Give In” Speech

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The Pronk Pops Show 1018, January 17, 2018, Story 1: Ageism Rampant in White House Press Questioning of President Trump Physician — Backlash of Older Voters In 2018 and 2020 Election —  Trump in Excellent Health and Big Lie Media Nuts of Lying Lunatic Left — Videos –Story 2: 70 Percent of Americans Are Overweight or Obese — President Trump Joins The Huge Fluffy Majority — Videos — Story 3: President Trump’s Fake News Awards of 2017 — Big Lie Media’s Junk Journalism Progressive Propaganda Exposed — Videos

Posted on January 18, 2018. Filed under: Addiction, American History, Biology, Blogroll, Breaking News, Chemistry, Communications, Countries, Diet, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Drugs, Elections, Employment, Exercise, Food, Freedom of Speech, Government Spending, Health, Health Care, Hillary Clinton, Hillary Clinton, History, Human, Human Behavior, Illegal Drugs, Illegal Immigration, Independence, Insurance, IRS, Language, Law, Legal Drugs, Life, Media, Medical, Medicare, Medicine, National Interest, Obama, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, President Trump, Privacy, Radio, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Regulation, Scandals, Science, Socials Security, Success, Surveillance/Spying, Taxation, Taxes, Trump Surveillance/Spying, United States of America, War, Wealth, Weather, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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Story 1: Ageism Rampant in White House Press Questioning of President Trump Physician — Backlash of Older Voters In 2018 and 2020 Election —  Trump in Excellent Health and Big Lie Media Nuts of Lying Lunatic Left — Videos —

 

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Aging: It’s Not What You Think | Thad Polk | TEDxUofM

How to die young at a very old age | Nir Barzilai | TEDxGramercy

Let’s change the way we think about old age | ​Zaria Gorvett | TEDxLausanne

Ageism is all around us – hear how it affects older people around the world

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Gabriel Iglesias I’m Not Fat … I’m Fluffy Full Show(2009)

 

 

Ageism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ageism (also spelled “agism“) is stereotyping of and discrimination against individuals or groups on the basis of their age. This may be casual or systematic.[1][2] The term was coined in 1969 by Robert Neil Butler to describe discrimination against seniors, and patterned on sexism and racism.[3] Butler defined “ageism” as a combination of three connected elements. Among them were prejudicial attitudes towards older people, old age, and the aging process; discriminatory practices against older people; and institutional practices and policies that perpetuate stereotypes about elderly people.[4]

While the term is also used to name prejudice and discrimination against adolescents and children, including ignoring their ideas because they are too young, or assuming that they should behave in certain ways because of their age,[5] the term is predominantly used in relation to the treatment of older people. Moreover, it has been pointed out that stigmatization does not only occur outside of the cohesively imagined group of the elderly but likewise takes place within the stigmatized group itself.[6]Fear of death and fear of disability and dependence are major causes of ageism; avoiding, segregating, and rejecting older people are coping mechanisms that allow people to avoid thinking about their own mortality.[7]

It can also be passive and covert (e.g., a movie that shows only young people inhabiting a locality and no children, infants or old people are shown in the area) to drive the notion that the place is ‘young and romantic’.

Classification

Distinction from other age-related bias

Ageism in common parlance and age studies usually refers to negative discriminatory practices against old people, people in their middle years, teenagers and children. There are several forms of age-related bias. Adultism is a predisposition towards adults, which is seen as biased against children, youth, and all young people who are not addressed or viewed as adults.[8]Jeunism is the discrimination against older people in favor of younger ones. This includes political candidacies, jobs, and cultural settings where the supposed greater vitality and/or physical beauty of youth is more appreciated than the supposed greater moral and/or intellectual rigor of adulthood. Adultcentricism is the “exaggerated egocentrism of adults.”[9]Adultocracy is the social convention which defines “maturity” and “immaturity,” placing adults in a dominant position over young people, both theoretically and practically.[10]Gerontocracy is a form of oligarchical rule in which an entity is ruled by leaders who are significantly older than most of the adult population.[11]Chronocentrism is primarily the belief that a certain state of humanity is superior to all previous and/or future times.[12]

Based on a conceptual analysis of ageism, a new definition of ageism was introduced by Iversen, Larsen, & Solem in 2009. This definition constitutes the foundation for higher reliability and validity in future research about ageism and its complexity offers a new way of systemizing theories on ageism: “Ageism is defined as negative or positive stereotypes, prejudice and/or discrimination against (or to the advantage of) elderly people on the basis of their chronological age or on the basis of a perception of them as being ‘old’ or ‘elderly’. Ageism can be implicit or explicit and can be expressed on a micro-, meso- or macro-level” (Iversen, Larsen & Solem, 2009).[13]

Other conditions of fear or aversion associated with age groups have their own names, particularly: paedophobia, the fear of infants and children; ephebiphobia, the fear of youth,[14] sometimes also referred to as an irrational fear of adolescents or a prejudice against teenagers;[15] and gerontophobia, the fear of elderly people.[16]

Implicit ageism

Implicit ageism is the term used to refer to the implicit or subconscious thoughts, feelings, and behaviors one has about older or younger people. These may be a mixture of positive and negative thoughts and feelings, but gerontologist Becca Levy reports that they “tend to be mostly negative.”[17]

Stereotyping

Stereotyping is a tool of cognition which involves categorizing into groups and attributing characteristics to these groups. Stereotypes are necessary for processing huge volumes of information which would otherwise overload a person and are generally accurate descriptors of group characteristics, though some stereotypes are inaccurate.[18] However, they can cause harm when the content of the stereotype is incorrect with respect to most of the group or where a stereotype is so strongly held that it overrides evidence which shows that an individual does not conform to it. For example, age-based stereotypes prime one to draw very different conclusions when one sees an older and a younger adult with, say, back pain or a limp. One might well assume that the younger person’s condition is temporary and treatable, following an accident, while the older person’s condition is chronic and less susceptible to intervention. On average, this might be true, but plenty of older people have accidents and recover quickly and very young people (such as infants, toddlers and small children) can become permanently disabled in the same situation. This assumption may have no consequence if one makes it in the blink of an eye as one is passing someone in the street, but if it is held by a health professional offering treatment or managers thinking about occupational health, it could inappropriately influence their actions and lead to age-related discrimination. Managers have been accused, by Erdman Palmore, as stereotyping older workers as being resistant to change, not creative, cautious, slow to make judgments, lower in physical capacity, uninterested in technological change, and difficult to train.[19] Another example is when people are rude to children because of their high pitched voice, even if they are kind and courteous. A review of the research literature related to age stereotypes in the workplace was recently published in the Journal of Management.[20]

Contrary to common and more obvious forms of stereotyping, such as racism and sexism, ageism is more resistant to change. For instance, if a child believes in an ageist idea against the elderly, fewer people correct them, and, as a result, individuals grow up believing in ageist ideas, even elders themselves.[21] In other words, ageism can become a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Ageist beliefs against the elderly are commonplace in today’s society. For example, an older person who forgets something could be quick to call it a “senior moment,” failing to realize the ageism of that statement. People also often utter ageist phrases such as “dirty old man” or “second childhood,” and elders sometimes miss the ageist undertones.[21]

In a classic study, researchers analyzed the effects of ageism among the elderly.[22] They performed memory tests on three selected groups: residents of China, deaf North Americans, and hearing North Americans. In the three groups, the Chinese residents were presumably the least exposed to ageism, with lifelong experience in a culture that traditionally venerates older generations. Lifelong deaf North Americans also faced less exposure to ageism in contrast to those with typical hearing, who presumably had heard ageist comments their whole life. The results of the memory tests showed that ageism has significant effects on memory.

The gap in the scores between the young and old North Americans with normal hearing were double those of the deaf North Americans and five times wider than those of the Chinese participants. The results show that ageism undermines ability through its self-fulfilling nature.[21] The study was investigating the effect of the stereotype threat, which has been explored as a possible reason for memory deficits,[23] though the stereotype threat has been criticized.[24]

On the other hand, when elders show larger independence and control in their lives, defying ageist assumptions, they are more likely to be healthier, both mentally and physically, than other people their age.[21]

Research indicates that old people are stereotyped as scoring lower on measures of impulsivity, activism, antagonism and openness while young people are stereotyped as scoring higher on these measures. This was found to be universal across cultures and was also found to be reasonably accurate (varying depending on how the accuracy was assessed and the type of stereotype), though differences were consistently exaggerated.[25]

Prejudice

Ageist prejudice is a type of emotion which is often linked to the cognitive process of stereotyping. It can involve the expression of derogatory attitudes, which may then lead to the use of discriminatory behavior. Where older or younger contestants were rejected in the belief that they were poor performers, this could well be the result of stereotyping. But older people were also voted for on a stage in a game where it made sense to target the best performers. This can only be explained by a subconscious emotional reaction to older people; in this case, the prejudice took the form of distaste and a desire to exclude oneself from the company of older people.[26]

Stereotyping and prejudice against different groups in society does not take the same form. Age-based prejudice and stereotyping usually involves older or younger people being pitied, marginalized, or patronized. This is described as “benevolent prejudice” because the tendency to pity is linked to seeing older or younger people as “friendly” but “incompetent.” This is similar to the prejudice most often directed against women and disabled people. Age Concern‘s survey revealed strong evidence of “benevolent prejudice.” 48% said that over-70s are viewed as friendly (compared to 27% who said the same about under-30s). Meanwhile, only 26% believe over-70s are viewed as capable (with 41% saying the same about under-30s).[27]

The figure for friendliness of under-30s is, conversely, an example of Hostile Prejudice. Hostile prejudice based on hatred, fear, aversion, or threat often characterizes attitudes linked to race, religion, disability, and sex. An example of hostile prejudice toward youth is the presumption without any evidence that a given crime was committed by a young person. Rhetoric regarding intergenerational competition can be motivated by politics. Violence against vulnerable older people can be motivated by subconscious hostility or fear; within families, this involves impatience and lack of understanding. Equality campaigners are often wary of drawing comparisons between different forms of inequality.[citation needed]

The impact of “benevolent” and “hostile” prejudice tends to be different. The warmth felt towards older or younger people and the knowledge that many have no access to paid employment means there is often public acceptance that they are deserving of preferential treatment—for example, less expensive movie and bus fares. But the perception of incompetence means older and younger people can be seen as “not up to the job” or “a menace on the roads,” when there is little or exaggerated evidence to support this. Prejudice also leads to assumptions that it is “natural” for older or younger people to have lower expectations, reduced choice and control, and less account taken of their views.[citation needed]

Digital ageism

Digital ageism refers to the prejudices faced by older adults in the digital world. A few examples of the subtle ways in which digital ageism operates in cultural representations, research, and everyday life: Generational segregation naturalizes youth as digitally adept and the old as digital dunces. There is no empirical evidence, though, for a digital divide between older and younger people, with the former never and the latter always capable to use digital media; a far more accurate description is that of a digital spectrum.[28][29][30] The reason for the myth of declining capabilities of older people could be that many cultural representations have long histories reproducing images of the life cycle as a mountain, where we peak in middle age then decline[29][31][32] Older adults’ experiences are often excluded from research agendas on digital media, and ageism is ensconced within disciplines such as mass communication studies. For example, in a media diffusionist perspective,[33] the practices of seniors are depicted as either negligible or as lagging, and the equation of diffusion with individual ownership can hide practical ‘work-arounds’ such as cell phone sharing or missed calls used by older couples on fixed incomes.[34][35] Ageism is also inadvertently embedded in the ways that we generate statistics, for example through data collected based on large age categories (e.g., ’60+’) foisting anyone over 60 into ‘the grey zone’ which obscures differences.[36]

Visual ageism

The term visual ageism was coined in 2017 by Loos and Ivan. They define visual ageism as “the social practice of visually underrepresenting older people or misrepresenting them in a prejudiced way”.[37] We are facing a shift from visual ageism characterized by underrepresentation and the negative representation of older people to a representation of older age characterized by images of stereotypically third age older adults (enjoying life and living their golden years), while older adults in their fourth age (inactive and unable to live independently) remain invisible. A review of empirical studies conducted since 1950 in Europe and North America[37] reveals that print and television advertisements started this transition towards a more positive visual representation of older adults in their age during the last decade of the 20th century, followed by television programs some years later, while older adults in their fourth age remain invisible. This is probably due to the increase in third age rhetoric in the media, picturing older people as healthy and as potential consumers, enjoying life and living their golden years. Media representations of older people have moved from visual under- and misrepresentation (negative images)[38][39][40][41] to more positive depictions[42][43][37] These days, visual ageism in the media tends to come wrapped in the guise of the positive attributes of third age representations of older people, while adults in their fourth age continue to be underrepresented. One possible explanation for this is that healthy third agers might prefer not to be associated with fourth agers, as they remind them too starkly of what lies ahead in their own near future. Although this discomfort or even fear about mortality is undeniably common, from a societal point of view this kind of (self)ageism is hurtful to fourth agers as a group and in a sense to third agers as well, as they risk to become fourth agers themselves one day.[37]

Discrimination

Age discrimination is the result of actions taken to deny or limit opportunities to people on the basis of age. These are usually actions taken as a result of one’s ageist beliefs and attitudes. Age discrimination occurs on both a personal and institutional level.[2]

On a personal level, an older person may be told that he or she is too old to engage in certain physical activities, like an informal game of basketball between friends and family. A younger person may be told they are too young to get a job or help move the dining room table. On an institutional level, there are policies and regulations in place that limit opportunities to people of certain ages and deny them to all others. The law, for instance, requires that all people must be at least 16 years old in order to obtain a driver’s license in the United States. There are also government regulations that determine when a worker may retire. Currently, in the US, a worker must be between 65 and 67 years old (depending upon his or her birth year) before becoming eligible for full Social Security retirement benefits (age 62 for 70% benefits) but some company pension plans begin benefits at earlier ages.[citation needed]

A 2006/2007 survey done by the Children’s Rights Alliance for England and the National Children’s Bureau asked 4,060 children and young people whether they have ever been treated unfairly based on various criteria (race, age, sex, sexual orientation, etc.). A total of 43% of British youth surveyed reported experiencing discrimination based on their age, far eclipsing other categories of discrimination like sex (27%), race (11%), or sexual orientation (6%).[44] Consistently, a study based on the European Social Survey found that whereas 35% of Europeans reported exposure ageism, only 25% reported exposure to sexism and as few as 17% reported exposure to racism.[45]

Ageism has significant effects in two particular sectors: employment and health care. Age discrimination has contributed to disparities in health between men and women. Reducing ageism and sexism would promote improved doctor-patient relationships and reduce ageist stereotypes in the healthcare industry.[46]

Employment

The concept of ageism was originally developed to refer to prejudice and discrimination against older people and middle age, but has expanded to include children and teenagers.[27] Like racial and gender discrimination, age discrimination, at least when it affects younger workers, can result in unequal pay for equal work. Unlike racial and gender discrimination, however, age discrimination in wages is often enshrined in law. For example, in both the United States[47] and the United Kingdom[48]minimum wage laws allow for employers to pay lower wages to young workers. Many state and local minimum wage laws mirror such an age-based, tiered minimum wage. As well, the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 was amended in 1986 to allow the United States Secretary of Labor to provide special certificates to allow an employer to pay less than the minimum wage to individuals whose earning or productive capacity is impaired by age, physical or mental deficiency, or injury.[49] These employees must still be paid wages that are related to the individual’s productivity and commensurate with those paid to similarly located and employed non-handicapped workers.[49]Midlife workers, on average, make more than younger workers do, which reflects educational achievement and experience of various kinds (job-specific, industry-specific, etc.). The age-wage peak in the United States, according to Census data, is between 45 and 54 years of age. Seniority in general accords with respect as people age, lessening ageism. Statistical discrimination refers to limiting the employment opportunities of an individual based on stereotypes of a group to which the person belongs. Limited employment opportunities could come in the form of lower pay for equal work or jobs with little social mobility. Younger female workers were historically discriminated against, in comparison with younger men, because it was expected that, as young women of childbearing years, they would need to leave the work force permanently or periodically to have children.[50] However, midlife female workers may also experience discrimination based on their appearance[51] and may feel less visible and undervalued[52] in a culture where emphasis is on maintaining an approved standard of beauty, e.g. ‘thin, pretty, White, and young’.[53] However, the same standard could have no effect on male colleagues of the same age.[52]Labor regulations also limit the age at which people are allowed to work and how many hours and under what conditions they may work. In the United States, a person must generally be at least 14 years old to seek a job, and workers face additional restrictions on their work activities until they reach age 16.[54] Many companies refuse to hire workers younger than 18. While older workers benefit more often from higher wages than do younger workers, they face barriers in promotions and hiring. Employers also encourage early retirementor layoffs disproportionately more for older or more experienced workers.

Some political offices have qualifications that discriminate on the basis of age as a proxy for experience, education, or accumulated wisdom. For example, the President of the United States must be at least 35 years old; a United States Senator must be at least 30; and a United States Congress member must be at least 25. In the UK, age discrimination against older people has been prohibited in employment since 2006. Since then, the number of age discrimination cases rose dramatically. The laws protect anyone over the age of 16 who is young as well as old. There were over 6,800 claims submitted to the Employment Tribunal in 2010/11 compared with just 900 in 2006/2007 (immediately after the Regulations came in force).[55] However, the figures for 2011/2012 show a 47% fall in the number of claims, and commentators have suggested that the repeal of the Default Retirement Age may be the reason behind this.

Age discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission‘s first complainants were female flight attendants complaining of (among other things) age discrimination.[56] In 1968, the EEOC declared age restrictions on flight attendants’ employment to be illegal sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[57] However, Joanna Lahey, professor at The Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M, found recently that firms are more than 40% more likely to interview a young adult job applicant than an older job applicant.[58] All states in the US prohibit youth under 14 from working with a handful of exceptions, and prohibit youth under 18 from working in hazardous occupations. They are also paid a lower minimum wage and not allowed to work full-time.

Also in Europe, pervasive levels of age discrimination are found in BelgiumEnglandFrance, Spain, and Sweden. Job candidates revealing older age are found to get 39% (in Belgium) to 72% (in France) less job interview invitations compared to equal candidates revealing a younger name.[59][60][61][62][63][64][65] In addition, In a survey for the University of Kent, England, 29% of respondents stated that they had suffered from age discrimination. This is a higher proportion than for gender or racial discrimination. Dominic Abramssocial psychology professor at the university, concluded that Ageism is the most pervasive form of prejudice experienced in the UK population.[66] Discrimination is found to be heterogeneous by the activity older candidates undertook during their additional post-educational years. In Belgium, they are only discriminated if they have more years of inactivity or irrelevant employment.[59]

According to Dr. Robert M. McCann, an associate professor of management communication at the University of Southern California‘s Marshall School of Business, denigrating older workers, even if only subtly, can have an outsized negative impact on employee productivity and corporate profits.[citation needed] For American corporations, age discrimination can lead to significant expenses. In Fiscal Year 2006, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission received nearly 17,000 charges of age discrimination, resolving more than 14,000 and recovering $51.5 million in monetary benefits. Costs from lawsuit settlements and judgments can run into the millions, most notably with the $250 million paid by the California Public Employees’ Retirement System (CalPERS) under a settlement agreement in 2003.[67][68]

Hollywood

Ageism in Hollywood, specifically in terms of women, is profound, from the way youth is praised to the lack of jobs for older actresses. The way youth is praised reflects directly on the way older women are presented in the media. President and CEO of the American Association of Advertising Agencies, O. Burtch Drake, spoke in terms of older women’s representation throughout the media stating “older women are not being portrayed at all; there is no imagery to worry about.”[69] Women over fifty are not the center of attention and if an actress is older they are expected to act anything but their age.[70] These same women who have been acting since their teenage years, who have always been told to act their age, now must change the dynamic of their job by not acting their age when they get to be considered old by society and the media. The standards set in film are fixated upon youth – sexuality, beauty, physicality. Movies that portray women acting their own age (i.e. a 50-year-old acting 50 years old) seems exaggerated and unrealistic because it does not fit the norms associated with women in film and media.[70] Women are forced to feel that they must continuously improve upon their looks to be seen and they can be replaced by a younger model of themselves. “Silver ceiling” references the new type of ceiling older workers in the entertainment industry, especially women, are being faced with. Underemployment of older actresses surpasses that of older actors because of the typical pairing of older actors with younger actresses in films.[71] BBC news anchor, Nigel Kay, found in a survey that “on television older men significantly outnumber older women by about 70 percent to 30 percent.”[69] An issue amongst older women is that their voices are not being heard, which is especially true for older actresses in Hollywood. The issues about employment they are bringing to light as well as the complaints they have are not being taken seriously and they are being excluded from conversations about Hollywood and employment.[72]

Because of the limited ages the film industry portrays and the lack of older actresses, society as a whole has a type of illiteracy about sexuality and those of old age. There is an almost inherent bias about what older women are capable of, what they do, and how they feel.[73] Amongst all ages of actresses there is the attempt to look youthful and fitting to the beauty standards by altering themselves physically, many times under the hands of plastic surgeons.[70] Women become frightful of what they will be seen as if they have wrinkles, cellulite, or any other signifier of aging.[71] As women reach their forties and fifties, pressure to adhere to societal beauty norms seen amongst films and media intensifies in terms of new cosmetic procedures and products that will maintain a “forever youthful” look.[71] In terms of sexuality, older women are seen as unattractive, bitter, unhappy, unsuccessful in films. With older women not being represented in the media and film industries, specifically in Hollywood, thoughts of underachievement, ugliness, and disgust crowd the thoughts of older women as they fail to meet beauty norms. This can cause depression, anxiety, and self-esteem issues in general.[71] “In one survey, women reported feeling more embarrassed about their age than by their masturbation practices or same-gender sexual encounters.”[71] Women are forced to feel that they must continuously improve upon their looks to be seen and they can be replaced by a younger model of themselves.

The ideal that younger actresses are better than older actresses in Hollywood can be seen by the preferences of the people who are watching movies. Movie spectators display discrimination against older women in Hollywood. A study between 1926-1999 proved that older men in Hollywood had more leading roles than women who were the same age as them.[74] There are many cases where leading actors play the attractive love interest for longer than women.[71] This portrayal of women never aging but men aging can have a negative affect on not only actresses in Hollywood but also women who are not in the media.[71] There are fewer older actresses that get leading roles than young actresses, this promotes the idea that women do not age and that older women are less attractive. This can be harmful to women because they will strive for something that is impossible to have, eternal youth.[71]

What some people think of as old other people may not. An actress in Hollywood may not consider herself old but can be told she is too old for a part. A very well known example of this is what happened to the actress Maggie Gyllenhaal, “she was recently turned down for a role in a movie because she was too old to play the love interest for a 55-year-old man.”[75] When a woman is told she is old she can start to believe that she is. A woman can start acting as if she is older than she believes because she internalizes what other people are saying and what they think about her.[76]

In film the female body is depicted in different states of dress, and portrayed differently depending on the age of the actress. Their clothing is used as an identity marker of the character. Young women are put into revealing and sexy costumes whereas older women often play the part of a mother or grandmother clad in appropriate attire. This can include a bonnet or apron as she carries about her matronly duties.[77] This can lead both men and women to perceive the female body in a certain way based on what is seen on screen. Annette Kuhn said twenty years ago that “One of the major theoretical contributions of the women’s movement has been its insistence on the significance of cultural factors, in particular in the form of socially dominant representations of women and the ideological character of such representation, both in constituting the category ‘woman’ and in delimiting and defining what has been called the ‘sex-gender system'”[77] Women’s bodies are often seen as an object to be looked at and desired by men. As women get older and enter their post-menopausal years, they no longer are examples of the ideal feminine model. Added to that is the idea that females become mentally unstable as they enter their older years. “They become quarrelsome, vexatious and overbearing, petty and stingy; that is to say they exhibit typically sadistic and anal-erotic traits that they did not possess earlier…(Freud 1958,323-24)”[77] Ageism is not new to Hollywood and has been around since the time of silent films. When transitioning from silent movies to talking motion pictures, Charlie Chaplin (a well known silent movie actor) said in an interview that “It’s beauty that matters in pictures-nothing else….Pictures! Lovely looking girls…What if the girls can’t act?…Certainly I prefer to see, say, Dolores Costello [a 1920s silent movie star], in a thin tale than some aged actress of the stage (Walker 1979,132)”.[77]

Healthcare

There is considerable evidence of discrimination against the elderly in health care.[78][79][80] This is particularly true for aspects of the physician-patient interaction, such as screening procedures, information exchanges, and treatment decisions. In the patient-physician interaction, physicians and other health care providers may hold attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that are associated with ageism against older patients. Studies have found that some physicians do not seem to show any care or concern toward treating the medical problems of older people. Then, when actually interacting with these older patients on the job, the doctors sometimes view them with disgust and describe them in negative ways, such as “depressing” or “crazy.”[81] For screening procedures, elderly people are less likely than younger people to be screened for cancers and, due to the lack of this preventative measure, less likely to be diagnosed at early stages of their conditions.[82]

After being diagnosed with a disease that may be potentially curable, older people are further discriminated against. Though there may be surgeries or operations with high survival rates that might cure their condition, older patients are less likely than younger patients to receive all the necessary treatments. For example, health professionals pursue less aggressive treatment options in older patients,[83] and fewer adults are enrolled in tests of new prescription drugs.[84] It has been posited that this is because doctors fear their older patients are not physically strong enough to tolerate the curative treatments and are more likely to have complications during surgery that may end in death.

Other research studies have been done with patients with heart disease, and, in these cases, the older patients were still less likely to receive further tests or treatments, independent of the severity of their health problems. Thus, the approach to the treatment of older people is concentrated on managing the disease rather than preventing or curing it. This is based on the stereotype that it is the natural process of aging for the quality of health to decrease, and, therefore, there is no point in attempting to prevent the inevitable decline of old age.[81][82]

Furthermore, caregivers further undermine the treatment of older patients by helping them too much, which decreases independence,[85] and by making a generalized assumption and treating all elderly as feeble.[21]

Differential medical treatment of elderly people can have significant effects on their health outcomes, a differential outcome which somehow escapes established protections.

In 2017, the European Court of Human Rights ruled in favor of Maria Ivone Carvalho Pinto de Sousa Morais, who had had an operation that was mishandled and rendered her unable to have sex. Portuguese judges had previously reduced damages to her in 2014, ruling then that the operation, which occurred when she was 50, had happened at “an age when sex is not as important as in younger years.” The European Court of Human Rights rejected that decision, with the majority’s ruling stating in part, “The question at issue here is not considerations of age or sex as such, but rather the assumption that sexuality is not as important for a 50-year-old woman and mother of two children as for someone of a younger age. That assumption reflects a traditional idea of female sexuality as being essentially linked to childbearing purposes and thus ignores its physical and psychological relevance for the self-fulfillment of women as people.”[86]

Effects of ageism

Ageism has significant effects on the elderly and young people. The stereotypes and infantilization of older and younger people by patronizing language affects older and younger people’s self-esteem and behaviors. After repeatedly hearing a stereotype that older or younger people are useless, older and younger people may begin to feel like dependent, non-contributing members of society. They may start to perceive themselves in terms of the looking-glass self—that is, in the same ways that others in society see them. Studies have also specifically shown that when older and younger people hear these stereotypes about their supposed incompetence and uselessness, they perform worse on measures of competence and memory.[87] These stereotypes then become self-fulfilling prophecies. According to Becca Levy‘s Stereotype Embodiment Theory, older and younger people might also engage in self-stereotypes, taking their culture’s age stereotypes—to which they have been exposed over the life course—and directing them inward toward themselves. Then this behavior reinforces the present stereotypes and treatment of the elderly.[17][81]

Many overcome these stereotypes and live the way they want, but it can be difficult to avoid deeply ingrained prejudice, especially if one has been exposed to ageist views in childhood or adolescence.

Australia

Australia has had age discrimination laws for some time.[88] Discrimination on the basis of age is illegal in each of the states and territories of Australia. At the national level, Australia is party to a number of international treaties and conventions that impose obligations to eliminate age discrimination.[89]

The Australian Human Rights Commission Act 1986 established the Australian Human Rights Commission and bestows on this Commission functions in relation to a number of international treaties and conventions that cover age discrimination.[89][90] During 1998-1999, 15% of complaints received by the Commission under the Act were about discrimination on the basis of age.[89]

Age discrimination laws at the national level were strengthened by the Age Discrimination Act 2004, which helps to ensure that people are not subjected to age discrimination in various areas of public life, including employment, the provision of goods and services, education, and the administration of Australian government laws and programs. The Act, however, does provide for exemptions in some areas, as well as providing for positive discrimination, that is, actions which assist people of a particular age who experience a disadvantage because of their age.[90]

In 2011, for the first time a position of Age Discrimination Commissioner was created within the Australian Human Rights Commission. The new Commissioner’s responsibilities include raising awareness among employers about the beneficial contributions that senior Australians as well as younger employees can make in the workforce.[91]

Every state in Australia has a probationary plate system for drivers. This is allowed because the Age Discrimination Act says that, in some circumstances, treating someone differently because of their age won’t be against the law. This is known as an exemption and includes
•things done in compliance with Commonwealth laws, including laws about taxation, social security and migration
•things done in compliance with state and territory laws
•certain health and employment programmes
•youth wages or direct compliance with industrial agreements and awards. [92]

Canada

In Canada, Article 718.2, clause (a)(i), of the Criminal Code defines as aggravating circumstances, among other situations, “evidence that the offence was motivated by … age”.[93][94]

Mandatory retirement was ended in Canada in December 2011,[95] but 74% of Canadians still consider age discrimination to be a problem.[96]

Nigeria

In November 2011, the Nigerian House of Representatives considered a bill which would outlaw age discrimination in employment.[97]

Philippines

At least two bills has been filed before the 16th Congress of the Philippines seeking to address age discrimination in employment in the country. The Blas Ople Policy Center, a non-government organization, asserts that responsibilities of making livelihood in a household has shifted to younger members of the family due to bias against hiring people older than 30 years of age. The organization also added that age discrimination contributes to the unemployment rate and acts as a hurdle to inclusive growth in the country. Overseas Filipino Workers returning from abroad seeking to find work in the country were tagged as vulnerable to age discrimination.[98][99]

United States

In the U.S., each state has its own laws regarding age discrimination, and there are also federal laws.[100] In California, the Fair Employment and Housing Act forbids unlawful discrimination against persons age 40 and older. The FEHA is the principal California statute prohibiting employment discrimination, covering employers, labor organizationsemployment agencies, apprenticeship programs and/or any person or entity who aids, abets, incites, compels, or coerces the doing of a discriminatory act. In addition to age, it prohibits employment discrimination based on race or color; religion; national origin or ancestry, disability, mental type or medical condition; marital status; sex or sexual orientation; and pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions.[101] Although there are many protections for age-based discrimination against older workers (as shown above) there are less protections for younger workers.[citation needed]

In September 2016, California passed state bill AB-1687, an anti-ageism law taking effect on January 1, 2017, requiring “commercial online entertainment employment” services that allow paid subscribers to submit information and resumes (such as IMDB Pro), to honor requests to have their ages and birthdays removed. The bill was supported by SAG-AFTRA‘s former and current presidents Ken Howard and Gabrielle Carteris, who felt that the law would help to reduce ageism in the entertainment industry.[102] On February 23, 2017, Judge Vince Girdhari Chhabria issued a stay on the bill pending a further trial, claiming that it was “difficult to imagine how AB 1687 could not violate the First Amendment” because it inhibited the public consumption of factual information.[103]

The District of Columbia and twelve states define age as a specific motivation for hate crimes – California, Florida, Iowa, Hawaii, KansasLouisianaMaineMinnesotaNebraskaNew Mexico, New York and Vermont.[104][105]

The federal government governs age discrimination under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA). The ADEA prohibits employment discrimination based on age with respect to employees 40 years of age or older as well.[106] The ADEA also addresses the difficulty older workers face in obtaining new employment after being displaced from their jobs, arbitrary age limits.[107] The ADEA applies even if some of the minimum 20 employees are overseas and working for a US corporation.[108]

European Union

The European citizenship provides the right to protection from discrimination on the grounds of age. According to Article 21-1 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Unions:Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union#CHAPTER III. EQUALITY, “any discrimination based on any ground such as (…) age, shall be prohibited”.[109]

Additional protection against age discrimination comes from the Framework Directive 2000/78/EC. It prohibits discrimination on grounds of age in the field of employment.[110]

Germany

On 18 August 2006, the General Equal Treatment Act (Allgemeines Gleichbehandlungsgesetz, AGG) came into force. The aim of the AGG is to prevent and abolish discrimination on various grounds including age.[111]

A recent study suggested that youths in Germany feel the brunt of age discrimination.[112]

France

In France, Articles 225-1 through 225-4 of the Penal Code detail the penalization of Ageism, when it comes to an age discrimination related to the consumption of a good or service, to the exercise of an economic activity, to the labor market or an internship, except in the cases foreseen in Article 225-3.[113][114][115]

Belgium

In Belgium, the Law of 25 February 2003 “tending to fight discrimination” punishes Ageism when “a difference of treatment that lacks objective and reasonable justification is directly based on … age”. Discrimination is forbidden when it refers to providing or offering a good or service, to conditions linked to work or employment, to the appointment or promotion of an employee, and yet to the access or participation in “an economic, social, cultural or political activity accessible to the public” (Article 2nd, § 4). Incitement to discrimination, to hatred or to violence against a person or a group on the grounds of (…) age (Article 6) is punished with imprisonment and/or a fine.[116][117] Nevertheless, employment opportunities are worsening for people in their middle years in many of these same countries, according to Martin Kohli et al. in Time for Retirement (1991).

United Kingdom

Barbara Robb, founder of the British pressure group, Aid for the Elderly in Government Institutions (AEGIS), compiled Sans Everything: A Case to Answer, a controversial book detailing the inadequacies of care provided for older people, which prompted a nationwide scandal in the UK in 1976. Although initially official inquiries into these allegations reported that they were “totally unfounded or grossly exaggerated”,[118] her campaigns led to revealing of other instances of ill treatment which were accepted and prompted the government to implement NHS policy changes.[119]

However, in the UK, laws against ageism are new. Age discrimination laws were brought into force in October 2006,[120] and can now be found in the Equality Act 2010. This implements the Equal Treatment Framework Directive 2000/78/EC and protects employees against direct discrimination, indirect discriminationharassment and victimisation. There is also provision in the Equality Act 2010 to prohibit age discrimination in the provision of goods and services, though this has not yet been implemented by the current UK Coalition Government and will not be implemented before October 2012 at the earliest.[needs update][121]

Despite the relatively recent prohibition on age discrimination, there have already been many notable cases and official statistics show a 37% increase in claims in 2009/10[122] and a further 31% increase in 2010/11.[123] Examples include the case involving Rolls Royce,[124] the “Heyday” case brought by Age UK[125] and the recent Miriam O’Reilly case against the BBC.[126]

Recent research suggested that the number of age discrimination claims annually could reach 15,000 by 2015.[127]

The European Social Study survey in 2011 revealed that nearly two out of five people claim to have been shown a lack of respect because of their age. The survey suggested that the UK is riven by intergenerational splits, with half of people admitting they do not have a single friend over 70; this compares with only a third of Portuguese, Swiss and Germans who say that they do not have a friend of that age or older.[128] A Demos study in 2012 showed that three quarters of people in the UK believed there to be not enough opportunities for older and younger people to meet and work together.[129]

The “Grey Pride” campaign has been advocating for a Minister for Older People and its campaign has had some success, with Labour Leader Ed Miliband appointing Liz Kendall as Shadow Minister for Older People.[130]

The artist Michael Freedman, an outspoken advocate against age discrimination within the art world says that “mature students, like me, come to art late in life, so why are we penalised and demotivated? Whatever happened to lifelong learning and the notion of a flexible workforce?”[131]

Advocacy campaigns

Many current and historical intergenerational and youth programs have been created to address the issue of Ageism. Among the advocacy organizations created in the United Kingdom to challenge age discrimination are Age UK and the British Youth Council.

In the United States there have been several historic and current efforts to challenge Ageism. The earliest example may be the Newsboys Strike of 1899, which fought ageist employment practices targeted against youth by large newspaper syndicates in the Northeast. During the Franklin D. Roosevelt Administration, First LadyEleanor Roosevelt was active in the national youth movement, including the formation of the National Youth Administration and the defense of the American Youth Congress. She made several statements on behalf of youth and against Ageism. In one report entitled, “Facing the Problems of Youth,” Roosevelt said of youth,

“We cannot simply expect them to say, ‘Our older people have had experience and they have proved to themselves certain things, therefore they are right.’ That isn’t the way the best kind of young people think. They want to experience for themselves. I find they are perfectly willing to talk to older people, but they don’t want to talk to older people who are shocked by their ideas, nor do they want to talk to older people who are not realistic.”[132]

Students for a Democratic Society formed in 1960 to promote democratic opportunities for all people regardless of age, and the Gray Panthers was formed in 1970 by Maggie Kuhn, with a goal of eliminating Ageism in all forms.[133]Three O’Clock Lobby formed in 1976 to promote youth participation throughout traditionally ageist government structures in Michigan, while Youth Liberation of Ann Arbor started in 1970 to promote youth and fight Ageism.

Aid for the Elderly in Government Institutions (AEGIS) was a British pressure group that campaigned to improve the care of older people in long-stay wards of National Health Servicepsychiatric hospitals.[134][135] The group was founded by Barbara Robb in 1965,[135] and was active until Robb’s death in 1976.[136]

More recent U.S. programs include Americans for a Society Free from Age Restrictions, which formed in 1996 to advance the civil and human rights of young people through eliminating ageist laws targeted against young people, and to help youth counter Ageism in America.[137] The National Youth Rights Association started in 1998 to promote awareness of the legal and human rights of young people in the United States,[138] and the Freechild Project was formed in 2001 to identify, unify and promote diverse opportunities for youth engagement in social change by fighting Ageism.

Related campaigns

  • Director Paul Weitz reported he wrote the 2004 film, In Good Company to reveal how ageism affects youth and adults.[139]
  • In 2002 The Freechild Project created an information and training initiative to provide resources to youth organizations and schools focused on youth rights.[140]
  • In 2006 Lydia Giménez-LLort, an assistant professor of Psychiatry and researcher at the Autonomous University of Barcelona coined the term ‘Snow White Syndrome’ at the ‘Congrés de la Gent Gran de Cerdanyola del Vallès’ (Congress of the Elderly of Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain) as a metaphor to define Ageism in an easier and more friendly way while developing a constructive spirit against it. The metaphor is based on both the auto-Ageism and adultocracy exhibited by the evil queen of the Snow White fairy tale as well as the social Ageism symbolized by the mirror[141]
  • Since 2008 ‘The Intergenerational Study’ by Lydia Giménez-LLort and Paula Ramírez-Boix from the Autonomous University of Barcelona is aimed to find the basis of the link between grandparents and grandsons (positive family relationships) that are able to minimize the Ageism towards the elderly. Students of several Spanish universities have enrolled in this study which soon will be also performed in USA, Nigeria, Barbados, Argentina and Mexico. The preliminary results reveal that ‘The Intergenerational study questionnaire’ induces young people to do a reflexive and autocritic analysis of their intergenerational relationships in contrast to those shown towards other unrelated old people which results very positive to challenge Ageism. A cortometrage about ‘The International Study’ has been directed and produced by Tomás Sunyer from Los Angeles City College[142]
  • Votes at 16 intends to lower the voting age in the United Kingdom to 16, reducing Ageism and giving 16-year-olds equal pay on the National Minimum Wage. The group claims that 16-year-olds get less money than older people for the same work, angering many 16-year-olds. They additionally postulate that 16-year-olds will have their voice listened to by older people more often.
  • Chilean director, Sebastian Lelio, is creating a U.S. version of his acclaimed 2013 film, “Gloria.”[143] The original film challenges the notion that as women age they become culturally ‘invisible’;[144] they may continue to be powerful, desirable, and sexually active. In the U.S. version, actress Julianne Moore will portray the lead character.[145]

Accusations of ageism

In a recent interview, actor Pierce Brosnan cited ageism as one of the contributing factors as to why he was not asked to continue his role as James Bond in the Bond film Casino Royale, released in 2006.[146]

Also, successful singer and actress Madonna spoke out in her 50s about ageism and her fight to defy the norms of society.[147] In 2015, BBC Radio 1 were accused of ageism after the station didn’t add her new single to their playlist. Similarly, Sex and the City star Kim Cattrall has also raised the issue of ageism.[148]

A 2007 Pew Research Center study found that a majority of American voters would be less likely to vote for a President past a given age[which?], with only 45% saying that age would not matter.[citation needed]

See also

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ageism

Age discrimination in the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In 2007, the United States’ economy crashed, which affected many people. As a result, the unemployment rate within the U.S. has risen, with people over the age of 50 are facing record unemployment for their age group.[1] Factors that may affect employers’ decisions to hire or retain older workers include:

  • older workers may be more expensive to employ than younger ones,
  • older workers may lack up-to-date skills,
  • older workers may retire before an employer recovers hiring and training costs.

These concerns are mostly unfounded, but they are widespread.[2]

Benefits of employing older workers

Though companies may be reluctant to hire an elderly person, there are many benefits for an elderly person to have a job and be working. One benefit is that having a job can help decrease the mortality rate within the elderly.[3] In addition to living longer, one study found that the elderly that worked part-time had higher life satisfaction.[4]

In addition to the elderly benefiting from working, the companies employing elderly workers can also have several benefits. One study found that workforce professionals had stronger moral and ethical aptitudes, placed a greater importance on work in their lives, and disliked wasting time, more so than those of college students that were new in the working world.[5] In comparison to younger workers, elderly workers were found to be safer, have less counterproductive work behaviors, less work place aggression, less likely to abuse substances on the job, and less likely to be tardy to work.[6] Elderly workers also tend to be more loyal to a company and are able to use their previous work experience to help develop products, processes, and different approaches that help with organizational competitiveness.[7]

Age discrimination

People in the United States may start to contemplate retirement around the age of 60, when they become eligible for retirement benefits through the Social Security program. However, Social Security benefits are not generous, and absent other retirement savings or a pension plan, many Americans want or need to continue to work. Americans who seek Social Security benefits before reaching full retirement age will receive a reduced benefit.[1] Many retirees hold jobs to supplement their Social Security benefits.

According to studies, over the past few years the poverty rate for the group of people that range from 55–64 years old has increased from 8.6 to 9.4, which is the second largest increase for that group since August 1983.[8] One of the reasons that caused this increase in the poverty rate in the older generation is because they are oftentimes discriminated against by companies because of their age. Many companies find the older people as a group act as more of a cost than an asset to the company.[8] Some argue that younger people may discriminate against older workers because they don’t like them, or that they believe older workers are not motivated or lack current job skills.[8]

Most companies choose to offer health care and insurance to all of their employees. The older generation workers often require more benefits from the company due to their age. One worker at the age of 58 who was a two-time cancer survivor and also had fibromyalgiawas laid-off and replaced with a younger girl that was half her age.[8] Although the woman couldn’t prove it, she believed that she was fired and replaced because of her age and the costs that the company incurred by having her as an employee. As a result, because older people are more likely to have health concerns and issues, they are many times the first to be cut from a company. While many age discrimination claims have been filed and have increased drastically, they are very hard to prove and charge against a company.[8]

In order to reduce age discrimination in the United States, Congress passed the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA), a law that provides certain employment protections to workers who are over the age of forty, who work for an employer who has twenty or more employees. For protected workers, the ADEA prohibits discrimination at all levels of employment, from recruitment and hiring, through the employment relationship, and through decisions for layoffs or termination of the employment relationship.[9]

Studies

One researcher decided to make an experiment to test if age discrimination actually exists. For the experiment she created 4,000 mock female résumés and sent them to different companies throughout Boston, Massachusetts as well as St. Petersburg, Florida.[2] Each résumé included the date that the fictitious applicant graduated from high school which indicated the age of each person to the company. The ages of each applicant on the résumés ranged from 35 to 62 years old. The results of the study showed that a younger person was 40 percent more likely to be hired than an older applicant of 50 years or older at the designated companies. As a result, the study proved that companies do often age discriminate against specific groups, especially the older generation.[2]

Another study found that it is not uncommon for employers to use stereotypes to rationalize discriminating against hiring elderly workers. The first of which is the employees’ salary expectations. If an older worker had a job before that had a higher salary, then he/she might keep looking for another job that has a high salary, so hiring him/her is a waste of time to the company. A second reason is that the elderly worker often will have a younger boss, so employers think that the older employee will not be satisfied working for someone who is younger or less experienced.[10]

Causes

There are many reasons for the workplace age discrimination. People are living longer because of healthier lifestyles and advances in medicine. People are working longer because the mandatory retirement age has been eliminated, the recent poor economy has diminished savings and there has been a decline in benefit retirement plans. Thus, more older people are interested in seeking and holding employment.

There are many reasons why older workers may have a difficult time finding work after being laid-off. Many older workers were employed by the same employer for many years, and in some cases that may have been their only job during their entire career.[1] Many older workers are less likely to be skilled at job-seeking, as they haven’t had to search for employment in many years.[1] Also, as the years have passed, companies have turned to more efficient means by offering applications only online. However, while the current generation relies on technology, many older workers may be accustomed to older methods of performing the same labor. Some may find it difficult to use a computer, whether to find and apply for jobs or in the workplace.[1]

Because many of the people in the older generation are less likely to have skills on the computer, their technological inabilities also hold them back from being hired.[1] As the years have passed, many companies have begun to focus using the internet and other programs on the computer, making it more likely they will hire a younger worker that is capable of using technology over an older person that doesn’t know how.[1] This lack of knowledge means that companies would have to provide more training for the elderly person than they would often have to provide for a younger employee. This can be costly and time consuming for companies.[11] Older adults often resist the use of computers for various reasons, such as impaired eyesight and hearing, arthritis and other physical ailments, and reduced cognitive skills, including memory loss and short attention spans, which make surfing the Web more challenging. Learning how to effectively utilize new technology for the elderly can be more demanding due to the fact that learning new skills is stressful both mentally and physically.[12]

The unemployment issue among the older generation not only creates problems for the specific age group, but it also causes policy issues around the nation.[8] The government makes decisions on how to solve the crisis because with this group of people out of work, the older generation is unable to be self-sufficient during a large part of their adult life; a time when they are more likely to have health issues.[8] Also, these people are nearing the time when they will no longer be able to work, and may not be prepared or have the financial means to take care of themselves. As a result, policy makers must try to solve the issue of unemployment by creating more jobs. However, they also must try to create a policy that offers benefits for the older people that are unemployed because they are more likely to be unemployed longer than others.[2]

Solutions

A common solution to become qualified for more jobs and have more opportunities to exit unemployment is to go back to school, whether that is high school or college.[13] Many of the older people do not have a complete high school or college education; therefore, and as a result they do not have the correct training for many jobs that are currently available.[13] However, many older people have found that returning to school would force them to incur more costs than they would if they didn’t go back to school. Taking a class at a local college could cost several thousand dollars. If a person is only a few years away from reaching the age of retirement, they may find it less costly to endure a poor standard of living for a few years and then get their Social Security instead of using part of their limited resources for classes that may never offer them any aid.[13] Another solution for the older generation to become qualified for more jobs is to take instructional courses on how to use computers. Instructional courses may need to incorporate varied instructional styles such as introducing new material and building on prior knowledge by using direct instruction followed by opportunities to integrate and practice new information. Instructors must understand how to best deliver instruction to senior learners in order to provide effective, engaging instruction. Ideal learning environments are ones that are flexible and sensitive to the needs of the senior learner. Once older people gain the skills to use a computer, they will have a greater chance of being hired for a job.[14] An alternative solution is to move to areas of the country that have a better job market. However, older people are more likely to own more assets such as land and their houses. As a result, it would be more difficult and possibly less beneficial for an older person to move and leave these behind.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g Rich, Motoko. “For the Unemployed Over 50, Fears of Never Working Again.” The New York Times. 2010 Sept. 19 https://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/20/business/economy/20older.html?pagewanted=all. 3 Dec. 2011.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d Miller, Mark (14 January 2011). “Older unemployed workers half as likely to get hired”. Retrieved 28 September2017.
  3. Jump up^ Blanc, P. D., Katz, P., & Yelin, E. (1996). Mortality risk among elderly workers. “American Journal of Industrial Medicine”, 543-547.
  4. Jump up^ Chang, H., & Yen, S. T. (2011). Full-time, part-time employment and life satisfaction of the elderly. “The Journal of Socio-Economics”, 40(6), 815-823.
  5. Jump up^ Van Ness, R. K., Melinsky, K., Buff, C. L., & Seifert, C. F. (2010). Work ethic: Do new employees mean new work values?. “Managerial Issues”, 22(1), 10-34.
  6. Jump up^ Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2008). The relationship of age to ten dimensions of job performance. “Journal of Applied Psychology”, 93(2), 392-423.
  7. Jump up^ Shultz, K. S., Olson, D. A., & Wang, M. (2011). Overqualified employees: Perspectives of older workers. “Industrial & Organizational Psychology”, 4(2), 247-249.
  8. Jump up to:a b c d e f g James, Susan. “Unemployment: Companies Cut Pricey Older Workers.” ABC News. 2009 10 Mar. http://abcnews.go.com/Business/Story?id=7042634&page=1. 30 Nov. 2011.
  9. Jump up^ Larson, Aaron (25 July 2016). “Age Discrimination Law”ExpertLaw. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
  10. Jump up^ Roscigno, V. J., Mong, S., Byron, R., & Tester, G. (2007). Age discrimination, social closure and employment. “Social Forces”, 86(1), 313-334.
  11. Jump up^ Brandon, E. “Why Older Workers Can’t get Hired.” http://money.usnews.com/money/blogs/planning-to-retire/2012/05/18/why-older-workers-cant-get-hired
  12. Jump up^ Cohen, Aaron M. “Wiring the Elderly.” Futurist. 2010.
  13. Jump up to:a b c “Unique Training Requirements of Low-Income, Older Workers.” U.S. Department of Labor.2010 7 Jan. http://www.doleta.gov/Seniors/html_docs/docs/unique1.cfm. 1 Dec. 2011.
  14. Jump up^ “Instructional Styles, Attitudes And Experiences Of Seniors In Computer Workshops” Educational Gerontology.2010.
  • Butler, T., & Berret, B. (2011). A generation lost: the reality of age discrimination in today’s hiring practices. Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 9, 1-11. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 Sept. 2013.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Age_discrimination_in_the_United_States

Story 2: 2 Out of 3 Americans Are Overweight or Obese — President Trump Joins The Huge Fluffy Majority — Videos

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“Road Trip” – Gabriel Iglesias- (From Hot & Fluffy comedy special)

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Story 3: President Trump’s Fake News Awards of 2017 — Big Lie Media’s Junk Journalism Progressive Propaganda Exposed — Videos

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Trump’s ‘Fake News’ award winners are …

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The Fake News Awards 2017

#Trump Gaslights and Psychs Out the #MSM Yet Again and They Took the Bait Hook, Line and Sinker

 

The Highly-Anticipated 2017 Fake News Awards

TEAM GOP – January 17, 2018

2017 was a year of unrelenting bias, unfair news coverage, and even downright fake news. Studies have shown that over 90% of the media’s coverage of President Trump is negative.

Below are the winners of the 2017 Fake News Awards.

1. The New York Times’ Paul Krugman claimed on the day of President Trump’s historic, landslide victory that the economy would never recover.


2. ABC News’ Brian Ross CHOKES and sends markets in a downward spiral with false report.



3. CNN FALSELY reported that candidate Donald Trump and his son Donald J. Trump, Jr. had access to hacked documents from WikiLeaks.


(via Fox News)
4. TIME FALSELY reported that President Trump removed a bust of Martin Luther King, Jr. from the Oval Office.


5. Washington Post FALSELY reported the President’s massive sold-out rally in Pensacola, Florida was empty. Dishonest reporter showed picture of empty arena HOURS before crowd started pouring in.

View image on TwitterView image on TwitterView image on TwitterView image on Twitter

.@DaveWeigel @WashingtonPost put out a phony photo of an empty arena hours before I arrived @ the venue, w/ thousands of people outside, on their way in. Real photos now shown as I spoke. Packed house, many people unable to get in. Demand apology & retraction from FAKE NEWS WaPo!

6. CNN FALSELY edited a video to make it appear President Trump defiantly overfed fish during a visit with the Japanese prime minister. Japanese prime minister actually led the way with the feeding.


7. CNN FALSELY reported about Anthony Scaramucci’s meeting with a Russian, but retracted it due to a “significant breakdown in process.”


(via washingtonpost.com)
8. Newsweek FALSELY reported that Polish First Lady Agata Kornhauser-Duda did not shake President Trump’s hand.


9. CNN FALSELY reported that former FBI Director James Comey would dispute President Trump’s claim that he was told he is not under investigation.


10. The New York Times FALSELY claimed on the front page that the Trump administration had hidden a climate report.


(via WashingtonPost.com)

11. And last, but not least: “RUSSIA COLLUSION!” Russian collusion is perhaps the greatest hoax perpetrated on the American people. THERE IS NO COLLUSION!

Well, now that collusion with Russia is proving to be a total hoax and the only collusion is with Hillary Clinton and the FBI/Russia, the Fake News Media (Mainstream) and this phony new book are hitting out at every new front imaginable. They should try winning an election. Sad!

 

While the media spent 90% of the time focused on negative coverage or fake news, the President has been getting results:

1. The economy has created nearly 2 million jobs and gained over $8 trillion in wealth since the President’s inauguration.

2. African Americans and Hispanics are enjoying the lowest unemployment rate in recorded history.

3. The President signed historic tax cuts and relief for hardworking Americans not seen since President Reagan.

4. President Trump’s plan to cut regulations has exceeded “2 out for every 1 in” mandate, issuing 22 deregulatory actions for every one new regulatory action.

5. The President has unleashed an American energy boom by ending Obama-era regulations, approving the Keystone pipeline, auctioning off millions of new acres for energy exploration, and opening up ANWR.

6. ISIS is in retreat, having been crushed in Iraq and Syria.

7. President Trump followed through on his promise to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Israel and instructed the State Department to begin to relocate the Embassy.

8. With President Trump’s encouragement, more member nations are paying their fair share for the common defense in the NATO alliance.

9. Signed the Veterans Accountability and Whistleblower Protection Act to allow senior officials in the VA to fire failing employees and establishes safeguards to protect whistleblowers.

10. President Trump kept his promise and appointed Associate Justice Neil Gorsuch to the U.S. Supreme Court.

https://gop.com/the-highly-anticipated-2017-fake-news-awards/

 

A Times Square billboard that “The Late Show With Stephen Colbert” bought to nominate itself for President Trump’s “Fake News Awards.” CreditMike Segar/Reuters

WASHINGTON — President Trump — who gleefully questioned President Barack Obama’s birthplace for years without evidence, long insisted on the guilt of the Central Park Five despite exonerating proof and claimed that millions of illegal ballots cost him the popular vote in 2016 — wanted to have a word with the American public about accuracy in reporting.

On Wednesday, after weeks of shifting deadlines, and cryptic clues, Mr. Trump released his long-promised “Fake News Awards,” an anti-media project that had alarmed advocates of press freedom and heartened his political base.

“And the FAKE NEWS winners are …,” he wrote on Twitter at 8 p.m.

The message linked, at first, to a malfunctioning page on GOP.com, the Republican National Committee website. An error screen read: “The site is temporarily offline, we are working to bring it back up. Please try back later.”

When the page came back online less than an hour later, it resembled a Republican Party news release. Headlined “The Highly Anticipated 2017 Fake News Awards” and attributed to “Team GOP,” it included a list of Trump administration accomplishments and jabs at news organizations presented in the form of an 11-point list.

The “winners” were CNN, mentioned four times; The New York Times, with two mentions; and ABC, The Washington Post, Time and Newsweek, with one mention apiece.

Taken as a whole, Mr. Trump’s examples of grievances came as no surprise to anyone who has read his complaints about the media on Twitter.

The various reports singled out by Mr. Trump touched on serious issues, like the media’s handling of the investigation by the special counsel Robert S. Mueller III into the Trump campaign’s possible ties to Russia, and frivolous matters, like the manner in which journalists conveyed how the president fed fish during a stop at a koi pond on his visit to Japan.

The first item on the list referred not to a news article but to a short opinion piece posted on The Times’s website at 12:42 on the night Mr. Trump became president: “The New York Times’ Paul Krugman claimed on the day of President Trump’s historic, landslide victory that the economy will ‘never’ recover,” the entry read.

What Mr. Krugman actually wrote was this: “If the question is when markets will recover, a first-pass answer is never.” Mr. Krugman concluded his election night take by predicting that a global recession was likely, while adding the caveat, “I suppose we could get lucky somehow.”

Three days later, Mr. Krugman retracted his prediction of an economic collapse, saying he overreacted.

The next target was Brian Ross of ABC News, who was suspended by the network last month because of an erroneous report.

Photo

President Trump’s tweet linked, at first, to a malfunctioning page on GOP.com, the Republican National Committee website.

ABC apologized for and corrected Mr. Ross’s report that Michael T. Flynn, the former national security adviser, planned to testify that Mr. Trump had directed him to make contact with Russian officials when Mr. Trump was still a candidate.

In fact, Mr. Trump had directed Mr. Flynn to make contact after the election, when he was president-elect.

At the time of Mr. Ross’s suspension, Kathleen Culver, the director of the Center for Journalism Ethics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said that the president was likely to use the mistake as ammunition against his political opponents — an observation that seemed borne out by the “Fake News Awards.”

The third entry on the GOP.com list went after CNN, a favorite target of the president, for reporting incorrectly last month that the president’s eldest child, Donald Trump Jr., had received advance notice from WikiLeaks about a trove of hacked documents that it planned to release during last year’s presidential campaign.

In fact, the email to the younger Mr. Trump was sent a day after the documents, stolen from the Democratic National Committee, were made available to the general public. The correction undercut the main thrust of CNN’s story, which had been seized on by critics of the president as evidence of coordination between WikiLeaks and the Trump campaign.

Another entry on the list took on The Washington Post, claiming that it had “FALSELY reported the President’s massive sold-out rally in Pensacola, Florida was empty. Dishonest reporter showed picture of empty arena HOURS before crowd started pouring in.”

The reporter in question was David Weigel, who had posted the photo in question on his Twitter account before quickly deleting it. The Post itself did not publish the photo or a report on the size of the crowd at the Trump event. The “Fake News Awards” entry, however, conflated a reporter’s tweetwith the publication itself. It also omitted the fact that Mr. Weigel deleted his tweet and apologized for it when it was pointed out to him that it was misleading. Further, it did not mention that Mr. Trump had called for Mr. Weigel to be fired over the tweet. (He was not.)

The content of the 11-point list was perhaps less notable than its premise: a sitting president using his bully pulpit for a semi-formalized attack on the free press.

In two subsequent tweets on Wednesday night, Mr. Trump added that there were “many great reporters I respect” and defended his administration’s record in the face of “a very biased media.”

The technical anticlimax seemed a fitting end to a peculiar saga that began in November when Mr. Trump floated the bestowing of a “FAKE NEWS TROPHY.”

The idea matured into the “Fake News Awards,” which the president initially said in a Jan. 2 Twitter post he would give out on Jan. 8 to honor “the most corrupt & biased of the Mainstream Media.”

With the date approaching, Mr. Trump wrote on Twitter that the event would be moved to Wednesday because “the interest in, and importance of, these awards is far greater than anyone could have anticipated!”

Photo

Sarah Huckabee Sanders, the White House secretary, on Wednesday, hours before the awards were announced. “I know you’re all waiting to see if you are big winners, I’m sure,” she told reporters. CreditDoug Mills/The New York Times

From the beginning, the awards were the sort of Trumpian production that seemed easy to mock but difficult to ignore. Members of the news media joked about the speeches they would prepare, the tuxedos and gowns they would fetch. It would be an honor, they said, just to be nominated.

Here, it seemed, was the opéra bouffe climax of Mr. Trump’s campaign against the media, a bizarro-world spectacle that both encapsulated and parodied the president’s animus toward a major democratic institution.

Late-night comedy shows created satirical Emmys-style advertising campaigns to snag what some referred to as a coveted “Fakey.”

“The Late Show With Stephen Colbert” bought a billboard in Times Square, nominating itself in categories like “Least Breitbarty” and “Corruptest Fakeness.” Jimmy Kimmel, who has emerged as a Trump bête noire, called it “the Stupid People’s Choice Awards.”

Politico reported that the awards could even pose an ethical issue for White House aides, with some experts arguing that the event would breach a ban on government officials using their office to explicitly promote or deride private organizations.

And press advocates cringed at the prospect of a gala dedicated to the phrase “fake news,” which has already helped corrode trust in journalism in the United States and around the world. In response to Mr. Trump’s endeavor, the Committee to Protect Journalists this month recognized the president among the “world leaders who have gone out of their way to attack the press and undermine the norms that support freedom of the media.”

Two Republicans from Arizona, Senator John McCain and Senator Jeff Flake, denounced Mr. Trump’s anti-press attacks, with Mr. Flake noting in a speech on the Senate floor on Wednesday that the president had borrowed a term from Stalin to describe the media: “enemy of the people.”

The buzz around the president’s latest anti-press stunt has contributed to a larger shift in American attitudes toward the press.

In a study released this week by Gallup and the Knight Foundation, 66 percent of Americans who were surveyed said most news organizations blurred opinion and fact, up from 42 percent in 1984. “Fake news” was deemed a threat to democracy by a majority of respondents.

Mr. Trump’s list did not mention BuzzFeed, a media outlet that drew his ire last year when it published a salacious and largely unsubstantiated intelligence dossier that purported to lay out how Russia had aided the Trump campaign. On Jan. 8, President Trump’s longtime lawyer, Michael D. Cohen, filed a defamation lawsuit in federal court against Fusion GPS, the firm behind the report, as well as a separate lawsuit against BuzzFeed in state court.

Mr. Trump also did not mention Michael Wolff, the author of the slashing, if error-specked, best seller, “Fire and Fury: Inside the Trump White House,” although a lawyer working on his behalf had sent a letter demanding that the publisher Henry Holt and Company halt publication of the book.

“Fire and Fury” did not come out until Jan. 5, so perhaps the author will receive a prominent mention next January, if the president sees fit to give out the 2018 Fake News Awards.

The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts Portfolio

 

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The Pronk Pops Show 552, October 13, 2015, Story 1: The Greatest Threat To The American People — Obesity — Losing The Battle of The Bulge — Videos

Posted on October 13, 2015. Filed under: Addiction, Blogroll, College, Diet, Diseases, Drugs, Exercise, Food, Health, Illegal Drugs, Legal Drugs, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 552: October 13, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 551: October 12, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 550: October 9, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 549: October 8, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 548: October 7, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 547: October 5, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 546: October 2, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 545: October 1, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 544: September 30, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 543: September 29, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 542: September 28, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 541: September 25, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 540: September 24, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 539: September 23, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 538: September 22, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 537: September 21, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 536: September 18, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 535: September 17, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 534: September 16, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 533: September 15, 2015  

Pronk Pops Show 532: September 14, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 531: September 11, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 530: September 10, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 529: September 9, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 528: September 8, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 527: September 4, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 526: September 3, 2015  

Pronk Pops Show 525: September 2, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 524: August 31, 2015  

Pronk Pops Show 523: August 27, 2015  

Pronk Pops Show 522: August 26, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 521: August 25, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 520: August 24, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 519: August 21, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 518: August 20, 2015  

Pronk Pops Show 517: August 19, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 516: August 18, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 515: August 17, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 514: August 14, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 513: August 13, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 512: August 12, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 511: August 11, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 510: August 10, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 509: July 24, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 508: July 20, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 507: July 17, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 506: July 16, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 505: July 15, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 504: July 14, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 503: July 13, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 502: July 10, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 501: July 9, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 500: July 8, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 499: July 6, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 498: July 2, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 497: July 1, 2015

one pound per weekexercise and weight loss24F07BA800000578-2920219-Graphic_shows_an_epidemic_of_obesity_across_most_of_the_U_S_Eurheight-and-weight-chart_1bmi-chart   height-weight-chart ideal-weight-table

obesityChild obesity-in-america obesity-overweight-statistics-diet-plan obesity-statistics PFTA Personal Trainer Certfication School Obese America US-Obesity-Statistics-Infographic-CDC-Large

50-percent-obesity-cartoon color-bal-diets-web death fitzsimmons food prices and obesity food throwaway global threat government food supplies labels on children obesity 2  southoverweight-americans-headed-towards-more-severe-obesity-1435174101-1258

[HD] Fast food, Fat profits, Obesity in America

Taboo: Fat

The Cost Of Obesity In America

America: Too Fat to Fight

Tipping the scale: Obese Americans outnumber merely overweight

The US obesity threat

Old Before My Time: Obesity – Documentary

Why Americans Are Obese

Obesity in America

Obese Nation: Why Are Americans So Fat?

Too Fat To Toddle Part 1

Too Fat To Toddle Part 2

Too Fat To Toddle Part 3

Too Fat To Toddle Part 4

Our Supersized Kids

Too Fat For 15: 500 Pounds and Counting

Adult obesity rates 2030: Americans, you’ll be even fatter

America the Fat: 28% of Americans Now Classified as Totally Sedentary

George Carlin – Fussy Eater

George Carlin – Where’s the Blue Food?

George Carlin on fat people

George Carlin – Bullshit is everywhere

George Carlin’s Best Jokes: Walking Magazine

Report: U.S most obese in the world, fattest kids by a mile, tops for poor teen health

http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/report-u.s-most-obese-in-the-world-fattest-kids-by-a-mile-tops-for-poor-teen-health/article/2573993

5 Shocking Facts About Obesity in America

A new analysis of data on body mass index reveals we’re tipping the scales, and then some.

Staff Writer Liz Dwyer

There’s plenty to celebrate on the healthy eating front: Cereal brands and fast-food joints are dropping artificial colors and flavors, and trans fats have been banned. But while those kinds of changes will likely lead to more nutritious food offerings, given the latest data on America’s obesity problem, the adjustments seem like too little, too late.

At least, that’s how you might feel after reading some of the information culled from a study published Monday in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine. The data compiled by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis reveals just how jaw-dropping the nation’s weight problem has become.

The researchers pulled body mass index data collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007 to 2012 on a representative sample size of more than 15,200 people ages 25 or older. From that they were able to estimate the BMI of more than 188 million Americans.

How out of control is our weight problem?

1. More Americans are obese than overweight.

Lifestyle magazines tend to be full of tips on how to drop five or 10 pounds. But plenty of Americans need to lose a whole lot more than that to have a healthy BMI (between 18.5 and 24.9). According to the researchers, 67.6 million Americans older than age 25 in 2012 had a BMI over 30, which is considered obese. That outpaces the 65.2 million citizens with BMIs between 25 and 29.9, who were considered overweight.
2. Overall, more men than women are too heavy.

Women are often fat shamed in the media and pressured to look like a Victoria’s Secret Angel. But when the researchers measured the number of folks who are either overweight or obese, they found that more guys are struggling with their waistline. The researchers found that nearly 75 percent of men are overweight or obese, compared with 67 percent of women. And thanks to the “dad bod” phenomenon, guys with bellies and love handles are being celebrated.

3. If they’re heavy, women are more likely to be obese than overweight.

Of the ladies who need to drop some pounds, 37 percent are classified as obese and 30 percent are considered overweight.

4. Black Americans are the most obese racial or ethnic group.

Black Lives Matter has become a rallying cry around gun violence and police brutality. But according to the data, it seems the phrase should also be applied to black Americans’ physical health. The researchers found that black Americans are the most obese of all racial and ethnic groups—an astounding 39 percent of black men and 57 percent of black women are obese. Even more sobering: Seventeen percent of black women and 7 percent of black men have a body mass index over 40, which puts them into the “extremely obese” category. This shouldn’t be such a surprise given the connection between poverty rates and obesity. And no wonder just over 13 percent of black folk are diabetic, the second-highest proportion after Native Americans.

5. Latino Americans are struggling with the scale too.

The nation’s Latino population is soaring—and many of those individuals are likely to be heavy, particularly if they are Mexican American. According to the researchers, 43 percent of Mexican American women and 38 percent of Mexican American men are obese. (Interestingly enough, residents of Mexico, which is home to one of the heaviest populations on the planet, are also the most confident about their bodies.)

So, Why Should You Care? With sky-high BMI rates such as these, America is well positioned to be the home of the free and the land of folks with type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and cancer. Our health care costs have already played a role in recent presidential elections, and the expense of treating the obesity-related illnesses of millions of U.S. citizens could suck future state and federal budgets dry.

“There are many things we can do to interrupt this worrisome and costly trend, and the benefits go well beyond what’s obvious to the eye,” Graham A. Colditz, one of the study’s authors, said in a statement. “Some cancers, for example, can be prevented by eating a healthy diet, exercising and keeping weight in check. We need to do what we can to change behaviors of current and future generations to reverse this preventable societal burden.”

Perhaps these stats will be a wake-up call that eating less and moving more has to be a national priority.

http://www.takepart.com/article/2015/06/24/5-shocking-facts-about-obesity-america

Obesity Rates & Trends Overview

Obesity Rates Remain High

Adults

Obesity Rates and Trends Overview
  • More than a third of adults (34.9 percent) were obese as of 2011 to 2012.1 More than two-thirds of adults were overweight or obese (68.6 percent).2
  • Nearly 40 percent of middle-aged adults, ages 40 to 59, were obese (39.5 percent), which was more than younger adults, ages 20 to 39 (30.3 percent) or older adults, ages 60 and over (35.4 percent).3
  • More than 6 percent of adults were severely obese (body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher).
  • More women than men, ages 20 and over, have higher rates of obesity and extreme obesity (36.1 percent and 8.3 percent versus 33.5 percent and 4.4 percent).4
  • Obesity rates were highest among Black (47.8 percent) adults, followed by Latino (42.5 percent) and White (32.6 percent) adults and lowest among Asian American (10.8 perfect) adults.5

Children

  • Approximately 17 percent of children and teenagers (ages 2 to 19) were obese from 2011 to 2012, and 31.8 percent were either overweight or obese.6
  • More than one-in-12 children (8.4 percent) are obese in early childhood (2- to 5-year-olds).
  • By ages 12 to 19, 20.5 percent of children and adolescents were obese.
  • More than 2 percent of young children were severely obese, 5 percent of 6-to-11-year-olds were severely obese and 6.5 percent of 12- to 19-year olds were severely obese.7
  • Racial and ethnic inequities persist among children also; 22.5 percent of Latino children and 20.2 percent of Black children are obese, compared to 14.1 percent of non-Latino White and 6.8 percent of Asian-American children.

Stabilizing — At a High Rate

Obesity Rates and Trends Overview

Adults

  • Over the past 35 years, obesity rates have more than doubled. From 2005 to 2006 to 2011 to 2012, rates remained the same.8 The average American is more than 24 pounds heavier today than in 1960.9

Children

  • Childhood obesity rates have more than tripled since 1980.10 The overall rates have remained the same for the past 10 years.11

Some cohorts stable, some rising

  • While rates have remained stable among girls, regardless of race or ethnicity, rates have continued to increase among men and boys and Black and Mexican American women.12,13,14,15

Age Differences

Adults

  • Among obese adults (ages 20+), female obesity rates (36.5 percent) are higher than male obesity rates (33.1 perfect). This is also seen among adults that are severely and morbidly obese.16
  • Adults ages 40 to 59 (39.5 percent) have higher obesity than adults ages 20 to 39 (30.3 percent) and ages 60+ (35.4 percent). This is also true among those who are severely and morbidly obese, where those between ages 40 to 59 have higher rates than those between ages 20 to 39 and ages 60+.

Children

  • Overall boys and girls ages 2 to 19 have similar obesity rates (16.7 percent versus 17.2 percent). However preschool (ages 2 to 5) boys have a higher obesity rate (9.5 percent) than preschool girls (7.2 percent). The reverse is true among ages 6 to 11 where girls’ obesity rates more than double to 17.9 percent and the rates among boys increase to 16.4 percent.17
  • Indian/Native Alaskan low-income preschool children (ages 2 to 4) have the highest obesity rates — at 21.1 percent. Overall rates among low-income preschoolers remain high at 14.7 percent, with Latinos at 18.7 percent, Whites at 12.7 percent, Blacks at 11.8 percent, and Asian/ Pacific Islanders at 11.6 percent.18
  • Among children between ages 6 to 11, Latino (26.1 percent) and Black (23.8 percent) obesity rates are higher than the White (13.1 percent) rate. These same increased rates are seen among Latino and non-Latino black teenagers ages 12 to 19 (2011 to 2012).19
Obesity Rates and Trends Overview

Notes

1 Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults: United States, 2011-2012. NCHS Data Brief, 131, 2013.

2 Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA, 311(8):806-814, 2014.

3 Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults: United States, 2011-2012. NCHS Data Brief, 131, 2013.

4 Fryar DC, Carroll MD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults: United States, 1960-1962 through 2011-2012. National Center for Health Statistics Health E-Stat. 2014. (accessed May 2015).

5 Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults: United States, 2011-2012. NCHS Data Brief, 131, 2013.

6 Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA, 311(8):806-814, 2014.

7 Skinner AC, Skelton J. Prevalence and Trends in Obesity and Severe Obesity Among Children in the United States, 1999-2012. JAMA Pediatrics, doi:10.1001/ jamapediatrics.2014.21, 2014.

8 Fryar DC, Carroll MD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults: United States, 1960-1962 through 2011-2012. National Center for Health Statistics Health E-Stat. 2014. (accessed May 2015).

9 Odgen CL. Childhood Obesity in the United States: The Magnitude of the Problem. Power Point. (accessed June 2013).

10 Fryar CD, Carroll MD and Ogden, CL. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Extreme Obesity Among Adults: United States, Trends 1960-1962 Through 2009-2010. National Center for Health Statistics E-Stat, 2012. (accessed May 2013).

11 Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA, 311(8):806-814, 2014.

12 Fryar DC, Carroll MD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults: United States, 1960-1962 through 2011-2012. National Center for Health Statistics Health E-Stat. 2014. (accessed May 2015).

13 Institute of Medicine. The current state of obesity solutions in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014.

14 Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA, 311(8):806-814, 2014.

15 National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2013: With Special Feature on Prescription Drugs. Hyattsville, MD. 2014.

16 Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA, 311(8):806-814, 2014.

17 Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA, 311(8):806-814, 2014.

18 Pan L, McGuire LC, Blanck HM, May-Murriel AL, Grummer-Strawn LM. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Obesity Trends Among Young Low-Income Children. Am J Prev Med, 48(5):570-574. 2015.

19 Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA, 311(8):806-814, 2014.

http://stateofobesity.org/obesity-rates-trends-overview/

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