The Pronk Pops Show 1390, February 3, 2020, Story 1: Bearded Rush Limbaugh Announces His Advanced Lung Cancer Diagnosis — Videos — Story 2: Radical Extremist Democrat Socialist (REDS) Bernie Sanders Surges Ahead in Iowa — Story 3:President Trump’s Legal Team Senate Impeachment Trial Closing Arguments —  Vindicate The Right To Vote, Vindicate The Constitution and Vindicate The Rule of Law By Rejecting These Articles of Impeachment — Videos

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Pronk Pops Show 1365 November 22, 2019

Pronk Pops Show 1364 November 21, 2019

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Story 1: Bearded Rush Limbaugh Announces His Advanced Lung Cancer Diagnosis — Videos

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Rush Limbaugh announces he has ‘advanced lung cancer’ EIB Network

Rush Limbaugh announces he has ‘advanced lung cancer’

RUSH: Ladies and gentlemen, this… This day has been one of the most difficult days in recent memory for me because I’ve known this moment was coming in the program today. Now, I’m sure that you all know by now, I really don’t like talking about myself, and I don’t like making things about me other than in the usual satirical, parodic, joking way.

I like this program to be about you and the things that matter to all of us. The one thing that I know that has happened over the 31-plus years of this program is that there has been an incredible bond that has developed between all of you and me. Now, this program’s 31 years old, and in that 31 years, there are people — you hear them call all the time — who have been listening the whole time. They’ve been listening 30 years or 25 years.

I just had somebody say they’ve been here three years. But, whatever, it is a family-type relationship to me, and I’ve mentioned to you that this program and this job is what has provided me the greatest satisfaction and happiness that I’ve ever experienced, more than I ever thought that I would experience. So I have to tell you something today that I wish I didn’t have to tell you.

It’s a struggle for me because I had to inform my staff earlier today. I can’t escape… Even though people are telling me it’s not the way to look at it, I can’t help but feel that I’m letting everybody down with this. But the upshot is that I have been diagnosed with advanced lung cancer, diagnosis confirmed by two medical institutions back on January 20th. I first realized something was wrong on my birthday weekend, January 12th.

I wish I didn’t have to tell you this, and I thought about not telling anybody. I thought about trying to do this without anybody knowing, ’cause I don’t like making things about me. But there are going to be days that I’m not gonna be able to be here because I’m undergoing treatment or I’m reacting to treatment, and I know that that would inspire all kinds of curiosity with people wondering what’s going on.

And the worst thing that can happen is when there is something going on and you try to hide it and cover it up. It’s eventually gonna leak, and then people are gonna say, “Why didn’t you just say it? Why’d you try to fool everybody? ” It’s not that I want to fool anybody. It’s just that I don’t want to burden anybody with it, and I haven’t wanted to. But it is what it is. You know me; I’m the mayor of Realville.

So this has happened, and my intention is to come here every day I can and to do this program as normally and as competently and as expertly as I do each and every day, because that is the source of my greatest satisfaction professionally, personally. I’ve had so much support from family and friends during this that it’s just been tremendous. I told the staff today that I have a deeply personal relationship with God that I do not proselytize about.

But I do, and I have been working that relationship (chuckles) tremendously, which I do regularly anyway, but I’ve been focused on it intensely for the past couple of weeks. I know there are many of you in this audience who have experienced this, who are going through it yourselves at the same time. I am, at the moment, experiencing zero symptoms other than… Look, I don’t want to get too detailed in this.

What led to shortness of breath that I thought might have been asthma or — you know, I’m 69 — it could have been my heart. My heart’s in great shape, ticking away fine, squeezing and pumping great. It was not that. It was a pulmonary problem involving malignancy. So I’m gonna be gone the next couple days as we figure out the treatment course of action and have further testing done. But, as I said, I’m gonna be here as often as I can.

And, as is the case with everybody who finds themselves in this circumstance, you just want to push ahead and try to keep everything as normal as you can, which is something that I’m going to try to do. But I felt that I had to tell you because that’s the kind of relationship I feel like I have with those of you in this audience. I say it every Christmas, which is when I feel more thankful than at Thanksgiving.

And I feel thankful at Thanksgiving, but Christmas it really gets to me. But over the years, a lot of people have been very nice telling me how much this program has meant to them. But whatever that is, it pales in comparison to what you all have meant to me. And I can’t describe this. But I know you’re there every day. I can see you. It’s strange how, but I know you’re there.

I know you’re there in great numbers, and I know that you understand everything I say. The rest of the world may not when they hear it expressed a different way, but I know that you do. You’ve been one of the greatest sources of confidence that I’ve had in my life. So, I hope I will be talking about this as little as necessary in the coming days.

But we’ve got a great bunch of doctors, a great team assembled. We’re at full-speed ahead on this, and it’s just now a matter of implementing what we are gonna be told later this week. So, I’ll be back here. I hope I’ll be back Thursday. If not, it will be as soon as I can — and know that every day I’m not here, I’ll be thinking about you and missing you. Thank you very much.

 

Conservative radio show host Rush Limbaugh, 69, stuns his listeners by announcing he has advanced lung cancer

  • The radio personality told listeners the news live on his show Monday afternoon
  • Limbaugh said he first noticed something was wrong after suffering shortness of breath over the weekend of January 12 and was diagnosed eight days later 
  • The host told listeners he will not be on the air for some days due to treatment  
  • Breaking the news he called it ‘one of the most difficult days in recent memory’
  • Staunch Republican Limbaugh is a friend of President Donald Trump and the pair have been spotted golfing together on a number of occasions 
  • Limbaugh is thought to have started smoking when he was 16 but quit in the early 80s after a ‘real bad case of bronchitis, almost like walking pneumonia’ 
  • He has also spoken of his love of smoking cigars in the past, saying they are ‘just a tremendous addition to the enjoyment of life’

Rush Limbaugh has announced that he has been diagnosed with advanced lung cancer.

The radio personality, 69, broke the news live on his show on Monday afternoon, explaining to his millions of listeners that he will not be on the air for some days due to treatment.

Limbaugh said he first noticed something was wrong after suffering from shortness of breath over his birthday weekend of January 12 and was diagnosed on January 20. He said he had thought about not telling anyone of the news.

But the staunch Republican, who is a friend of President Donald Trump, added: ‘There are going to be days that I’m not going to be able to be here.’

He has also spoken of his love of smoking cigars in the past, saying they are ‘just a tremendous addition to the enjoyment of life’.

Rush Limbaugh announced Monday that he has been diagnosed with advanced lung cancer

Donald Trump and Rush Limbaugh at Mar-A-Lago in April 2019. Limbaugh has been spotted playing golf with the president on a number of occasions

The radio host is pictured with his fourth wife Kathryn Rogers

Donald Trump and Rush Limbaugh at Mar-A-Lago in April 2019, left. Limbaugh has been spotted playing golf with the president on a number of occasions. The radio host is pictured with his fourth wife Kathryn Rogers, right

The radio personality is pictured speaking with President Donald Trump in 2018

Limbaugh started his radio career in 1971 as a DJ on a Pennsylvania radio station. He has been spotted playing golf with the president on a number of occasions.

Trump announced the host had signed a new four year contract on his show at a rally in Miami last month, telling supporters: ‘We have great people. Rush just signed another four-year contract. He just wants four more years, OK?’

Limbaugh said Monday: ‘This day has been one of the most difficult days in recent memory, for me, because I’ve known this moment was coming.

‘I’m sure that you all know by now that I really don’t like talking about myself and I don’t like making things about me.

‘One thing that I know, that has happened over the 31-plus years of this program is that there has been an incredible bond that had developed between all of you and me. It is a family type relationship to me.’

He added: ‘I can’t help but feel that I’m letting everybody down with this. But the upshot is that I have been diagnosed with advanced lung cancer.’

How The Rush Limbaugh Show became the voice for conservative politics

Rush Limbaugh started his radio career in 1971 as a DJ on a Pennsylvania radio station.

He started the trend of conservative talk radio in 1988, during Ronald Reagan’s presidency.

He started his first national radio show from New York, later relocating to Palm Beach, Florida.

Since then his show made him a household name with an estimated 14 million listeners in 2015.

The hyper-partisan broadcaster has dominated talk radio with a raucous, liberal-bashing style that made him one of the most influential voices of American right-wing politics and inspired other conservative broadcasters including Sean Hannity, Glenn Beck and Bill O’Reilly.

‘It’s shocking to the industry, and it should be shocking to the political establishment,’ said Michael Harrison, publisher of Talkers magazine, the trade industry publication for talk radio.

‘But we’ve got a great bunch of doctors, a great team assembled. We’re at full-speed ahead on this, and it’s just now a matter of implementing what we are gonna be told later this week. So I’ll be back here. I hope I’ll be back Thursday. If not, it will be as soon as I can — and know that every day I’m not here, I’ll be thinking about you and missing you. Thank you very much.’

Following the news Megyn Kelly tweeted: ‘Just heard the news about Rush Limbaugh, a man who loves this country and his listeners dearly, and is a tireless warrior for things he holds dear. Wishing him strength and tenacity as he takes on this new battle w/advanced lung cancer. Do what you do so well, Rush – FIGHT.’

Liz Cheney added: ‘Prayers for @rushlimbaugh. No one has been a stronger or more effective warrior for the conservative cause and for the future of our country. No one has had a bigger impact. We’re in this fight with you, Rush.’

Limbaugh told listeners in 2013: ‘I started smoking when I was 16. I went to electronics school in Dallas at age 16. Anyway, I was the youngest in this school by four or five years and everybody smoked.

‘So I started smoking. I was 16. Let’s see, it was 1980, ’81, ’82, somewhere around there when I quit.

‘One day I got a real bad case of bronchitis, almost like walking pneumonia, so I could not smoke a cigarette without coughing spasms.

‘So I said, ‘Well, I’m never gonna have a better time than now to quit when I can’t smoke.’ So I quit then.’

WHAT IS LUNG CANCER?

Lung cancer is one of the most common and serious types of cancer.

Around 228,000 people are diagnosed with the condition every year in the US.

There are usually no signs or symptoms in the early stages of lung cancer, but many people with the condition eventually develop symptoms including:

– a persistent cough

– coughing up blood

– persistent breathlessness

– unexplained tiredness and weight loss

– an ache or pain when breathing or coughing

You should see a doctor if you have these symptoms.

Treating lung cancer

Treatment depends on the type of mutation the cancer has, how far it’s spread and how good your general health is.

If the condition is diagnosed early and the cancerous cells are confined to a small area, surgery to remove the affected area of lung may be recommended.

If surgery is unsuitable due to your general health, radiotherapy to destroy the cancerous cells may be recommended instead.

If the cancer has spread too far for surgery or radiotherapy to be effective, chemotherapy is usually used.

There are also a number of medicines known as targeted therapies.

They target a specific change in or around the cancer cells that is helping them to grow.

Targeted therapies cannot cure lung cancer but they can slow its spread.

Source: NHS

His producer Bo Snerdley tweeted: ‘Those of you who are listening to the Rush Limbaugh show now. Pray with us. Thank you. God Bless you Rush Limbaugh. Love you so much Rush.’

The president was seen enjoying lunch with Limbaugh three days before Christmas at Trump’s West Palm Beach golf club. The two also spent Good Friday together last year during a break in the Sunshine State.

Conservative radio host Limbaugh has been one of the president’s most vocal supporters, claiming Special Counsel Robert Mueller’s report was ‘bogus from the beginning’.

He called the probe into possible collusion with the Russians a ‘manufactured coup’.

In 2015 he defended smokers, telling a listener: ‘There ought to be some measure of appreciation for people who buy tobacco products, despite the forces arrayed against them;

‘It’s getting harder and harder to use tobacco products, unless you want to call marijuana tobacco, and you can do that anywhere, for the most part.

‘But the fact of the matter is they have to endure a lot, the public hates them, they’re despised, they can’t smoke in places of comfort anymore, can’t even smoke outside in a park! And yet their actions and their taxes and their purchases are funding children’s health care programs.

‘I’m just saying there ought to be a little appreciation shown for them, instead of having them hated and reviled. I would like a medal for smoking cigars, is what I’m saying.’

Limbaugh’s announcement come at a tumultuous political time, as the conclusion of President Donald Trump’s impeachment trial nears.

The hyper-partisan broadcaster has dominated talk radio with a raucous, liberal-bashing style that made him one of the most influential voices of American right-wing politics and inspired other conservative broadcasters including Sean Hannity, Glenn Beck and Bill O’Reilly.

‘Rush you are in our prayers,’ Beck tweeted. ‘We live in a time of modern miracles. Millions are praying you find one.’

Kate Rogers and Rush Limbaugh attend the Andrea Bocelli concert at The Mar-a-Lago Club on February 28, 2010 in Palm Beach, Florida

From left to right: Jack Nicklaus and Rush Limbaugh pictured with Rudy Guiliani and Marvin Shanken during at The PGA National Golf Club on March 21, 2011 in West Palm Beach, Florida

From left to right: Jack Nicklaus and Rush Limbaugh pictured with Rudy Guiliani and Marvin Shanken during at The PGA National Golf Club on March 21, 2011 in West Palm Beach, Florida

The media figure’s endorsement and friendship is a conservative political treasure. His idol, Ronald Reagan, wrote a letter that Limbaugh read on the air in December 1992 and which sealed his reputation among conservatives: ‘You’ve become the number one voice for conservatism in our country,’ Reagan wrote.

Two years later, Limbaugh would be so widely credited as key to Republicans’ takeover of Congress for the first time in 40 years, he was deemed an honorary member of the new class.

Limbaugh has frequently been accused of hate-filled speech, including bigotry and blatant racism through his comments and sketches such as ‘Barack the Magic Negro,’ a song featured on his show that said Obama ‘makes guilty whites feel good’ and that the politician is ‘black, but not authentically.’

Rush Limbaugh shares his cancer diagnosis with listeners, telling them: ‘We are a family’

The full transcript from Rush Limbaugh as he shares his cancer diagnosis with listeners on his show on Monday afternoon:

‘Ladies and gentlemen, this… This day has been one of the most difficult days in recent memory for me because I’ve known this moment was coming in the program today. Now, I’m sure that you all know by now, I really don’t like talking about myself, and I don’t like making things about me other than in the usual satirical, parodic, joking way.

‘I like this program to be about you and the things that matter to all of us. The one thing that I know that has happened over the 31-plus years of this program is that there has been an incredible bond that has developed between all of you and me. Now, this program’s 31 years old, and in that 31 years, there are people — you hear them call all the time — who have been listening the whole time. They’ve been listening 30 years or 25 years.

‘I just had somebody say they’ve been here three years. But, whatever, it is a family-type relationship to me, and I’ve mentioned to you that this program and this job is what has provided me the greatest satisfaction and happiness that I’ve ever experienced, more than I ever thought that I would experience. So I have to tell you something today that I wish I didn’t have to tell you.

‘It’s a struggle for me because I had to inform my staff earlier today. I can’t escape… Even though people are telling me it’s not the way to look at it, I can’t help but feel that I’m letting everybody down with this. But the upshot is that I have been diagnosed with advanced lung cancer, diagnosis confirmed by two medical institutions back on January 20th. I first realized something was wrong on my birthday weekend, January 12th.

‘I wish I didn’t have to tell you this, and I thought about not telling anybody. I thought about trying to do this without anybody knowing, ’cause I don’t like making things about me. But there are going to be days that I’m not gonna be able to be here because I’m undergoing treatment or I’m reacting to treatment, and I know that that would inspire all kinds of curiosity with people wondering what’s going on.

‘And the worst thing that can happen is when there is something going on and you try to hide it and cover it up. It’s eventually gonna leak, and then people are gonna say, ‘Why didn’t you just say it? Why’d you try to fool everybody? ‘ It’s not that I want to fool anybody. It’s just that I don’t want to burden anybody with it, and I haven’t wanted to. But it is what it is. You know me; I’m the mayor of Realville.

‘So this has happened, and my intention is to come here every day I can and to do this program as normally and as competently and as expertly as I do each and every day, because that is the source of my greatest satisfaction professionally, personally. I’ve had so much support from family and friends during this that it’s just been tremendous. I told the staff today that I have a deeply personal relationship with God that I do not proselytize about.

‘But I do, and I have been working that relationship (chuckles) tremendously, which I do regularly anyway, but I’ve been focused on it intensely for the past couple of weeks. I know there are many of you in this audience who have experienced this, who are going through it yourselves at the same time. I am, at the moment, experiencing zero symptoms other than… Look, I don’t want to get too detailed in this.

‘What led to shortness of breath that I thought might have been asthma or — you know, I’m 69 — it could have been my heart. My heart’s in great shape, ticking away fine, squeezing and pumping great. It was not that. It was a pulmonary problem involving malignancy. So I’m gonna be gone the next couple days as we figure out the treatment course of action and have further testing done. But as I said, I’m gonna be here as often as I can.

‘And as is the case with everybody who finds themselves in this circumstance, you just want to push ahead and try to keep everything as normal as you can, which is something that I’m going to try to do. But I felt that I had to tell you because that’s the kind of relationship I feel like I have with those of you in this audience. I say it every Christmas, which is what I feel more thankful than as Thanksgiving.

‘And I feel thankful at Thanksgiving, but Christmas it really gets to me. But over the years, a lot of people have been very nice telling me how much this program has meant to them. But whatever that is, it pales in comparison to what you all have meant to me. And I can’t describe this. But I know you’re there every day. I can see you. It’s strange how, but I know you’re there.

‘I know you’re there in great numbers, and I know that you understand everything I say. The rest of the world may not when they hear it expressed a different way, but I know that you do. You’ve been one of the greatest sources of confidence that I’ve had in my life. So I hope I will be talking about this as little as necessary in the coming days.

‘But we’ve got a great bunch of doctors, a great team assembled. We’re at full-speed ahead on this, and it’s just now a matter of implementing what we are gonna be told later this week. So I’ll be back here. I hope I’ll be back Thursday. If not, it will be as soon as I can — and know that every day I’m not here, I’ll be thinking about you and missing you. Thank you very much.’

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7962489/Rush-Limbaugh-69-reveals-diagnosed-advanced-lung-cancer.html

Rush Limbaugh

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Rush Limbaugh
Rush Limbaugh by Gage Skidmore.jpg

Limbaugh in 2019
Born
Rush Hudson Limbaugh III

January 12, 1951 (age 69)

Nationality American
Alma mater Southeast Missouri State University (did not graduate)
Occupation Radio host, political commentator
Years active 1967–present
Net worth US$500 million (2016)
Spouse(s)
Roxy Maxine McNeely
(m. 1977; div. 1980)
Michelle Sixta
(m. 1983; div. 1990)
Marta Fitzgerald
(m. 1994; div. 2004)
Kathryn Rogers (m. 2010)
Website rushlimbaugh.com

Rush Hudson Limbaugh III (/ˈlɪmbɔː/ LIM-baw; born January 12, 1951) is an American radio personality, conservative political commentator, author, and former television show host. He is best known as the host of his long running radio show The Rush Limbaugh Show, which entered national syndication on AM and FM radio stations in 1988. The show has aired live from Limbaugh’s home studio in West Palm Beach, Florida since 1996. Limbaugh began his career in 1967 as a radio DJ at various stations in Pittsburgh and Missouri. After a brief hiatus, Limbaugh returned to radio in 1984 at KFBK-AM in Sacramento, California, adopting a talk, political commentary, and listener phone-in format to his show. In 1988, Limbaugh started at WABC-AM in New York City where he became a prominent media figure.

In addition to his radio show, Limbaugh hosted a national television show from 1992 to 1996. He has written seven books; his first two, The Way Things Ought to Be (1992) and See, I Told You So (1993), made The New York Times Best Seller list. Limbaugh is among the highest-paid radio figures. In 2008, he signed an eight-year deal with Clear Channel Communications worth $400 million to continue his radio show on its network.[1] In 2018, Forbes listed his earnings at $84.5 million [2], up slightly from 2017 when he was ranked as the 11th highest-earning celebrity.[3] In 2015, Talkers Magazine estimated that Limbaugh’s show attracted a cumulative weekly audience of 13.25 million listeners to become the most-listened-to radio show in the US.[4][5] Limbaugh has mentioned his audience has continued to grow to 14 million listeners each day and 27 million each week.[6] He is a critic of liberalism in the US and liberal bias in the widespread media.

Contents

Early life

Limbaugh was born on January 12, 1951 in Cape Girardeau, Missouri to parents Rush Hudson Limbaugh Jr. and Mildred Carolyn (née Armstrong) Limbaugh. He and his younger brother David were born into the Limbaugh family; his father was a lawyer and a U.S. fighter pilot who served in the China Burma India Theater of World War II. His mother was from Searcy, Arkansas. The name “Rush” was originally chosen for his grandfather to honor the maiden name of a family member, Edna Rush.[7]

Limbaugh is partly of German ancestry.[8] The family includes many lawyers, including his grandfather, father and brother; his uncle, Stephen N. Limbaugh Sr., was a federal judge in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri. His cousin, Stephen N. Limbaugh Jr., is a judge in the same court, appointed by George W. Bush. Limbaugh’s grandfather, Rush Limbaugh Sr., was a Missouri prosecutor, judge, special commissioner, member of the Missouri House of Representatives in the 1930s and longtime president of the Missouri Historical Society.[9]

In 1969, Limbaugh graduated from Cape Girardeau Central High School.[citation needed] He played football.[10][11] During this time, at age 16 he worked his first radio job at KGMO-AM, a local radio station in Cape Girardeau. He used the airname Rusty Sharpe having found “Sharpe” in a telephone book.[7][12] Limbaugh later cited Chicago DJ Larry Lujack as a major influence on him, “the only person I ever copied.”[13] Because of his parents’ desire to see him attend college, he enrolled at Southeast Missouri State University but dropped out after two semesters. According to his mother, “he flunked everything […] he just didn’t seem interested in anything except radio.”[7][14]Biographer Zev Chafets believes that a large part of Limbaugh’s life has been dedicated to gaining his father’s respect and approval.[15]

Career

1971–1988: Early radio career

In February 1971, after dropping out of university, the 20-year-old Limbaugh accepted an offer to DJ at WIXZ-AM, a Top 40 station in McKeesport, Pennsylvania. He adopted the airname “Bachelor Jeff” Christie and worked afternoons before moving to morning drive.[16] The station’s general manager compared Limbaugh’s style at this time to “early Imus.”[17] In 1973, after eighteen months at WIXZ, Limbaugh was fired from the station due to “personality conflict” with the program director. He then started a nighttime position at KQV-AM in Pittsburgh, succeeding Jim Quinn.[18] In late 1974, Limbaugh was dismissed after new management put pressure on the program director to fire him. Limbaugh recalled the general manager telling him that he would never land success as an air personality and suggested a career in radio sales.[19] After rejecting his only offer at the time, a position in Neenah, Wisconsin, Limbaugh returned to living with his parents in Cape Girardeau.[18] During this time, he became a lifelong fan of the Pittsburgh Steelers.[20][21][22]

In 1975, Limbaugh began an afternoon show at the Top 40 station KUDL in Kansas City, Missouri. He soon became the host of a public service talk program that aired on weekend mornings which allowed him to develop his style and present more controversial ideas.[23] In 1977, he was let go from the station but remained in Kansas City to start an evening show at KFIX. The stint was short-lived, however, and disagreements with management led to his dismissal weeks after.[24] By this time, Limbaugh had become disillusioned with radio and felt pressure to pursue a different career. He looked back on himself as “a moderate failure […] as a deejay”.[25] In 1979, he accepted a part-time role in group sales for the Kansas City Royals baseball team which developed into a full-time position as director of group sales and special events. He worked from the Royals Stadium.[26] There he developed a close friendship with then-Royals star third baseman and future Hall of Famer George Brett; the two remain close friends.[27] Limbaugh claimed that business trips to Europe and Asia during this time developed his conservative views as he considered these countries having lower standards of living than the US.[28]

In November 1983, Limbaugh returned to radio with a year’s stint at KMBZ-AM in Kansas City. He decided to drop his on-air moniker and broadcast under his real name.[29] He was fired from the station, but weeks later he landed a spot on KFBK-AM in Sacramento, California, replacing Morton Downey Jr. The show launched on October 14, 1984.[30] The repeal of the Fairness Doctrine—which had required that stations provide free air time for responses to any controversial opinions that were broadcast—by the FCC on August 5, 1987 meant stations could broadcast editorial commentary without having to present opposing views. Daniel Henninger wrote, in a Wall Street Journal editorial, “Ronald Reagan tore down this wall (the Fairness Doctrine) in 1987 … and Rush Limbaugh was the first man to proclaim himself liberated from the East Germany of liberal media domination.”[31]

1988–1990s: WABC New York City and syndication

Limbaugh at The Phil Donahue Show in 1991

In July 1988, after his success in Sacramento caught the attention of former ABC Radio President Edward McLaughlin, Limbaugh started a new show at WABC-AM in New York City.[32] He debuted just weeks after the Democratic National Convention, and just weeks before the Republican National Convention. Limbaugh’s radio home in New York City was the talk-formatted WABC (AM), and this remained his flagship station for many years, even after Limbaugh moved to West Palm Beach, Fla., from where he continues to broadcast his show.[7] Limbaugh’s show moved on January 1, 2014 to WABC’s cross-town rival WOR (AM), its current New York outlet.[citation needed]

By 1990, Limbaugh had been on his Rush to Excellence Tour, a series of personal appearances in cities nationwide, for two years. For the 45 shows he completed that year alone, he was estimated to make around $360,000.[13]

In December 1990, journalist Lewis Grossberger wrote in The New York Times that Limbaugh had “more listeners than any other talk show host” and described Limbaugh’s style as “bouncing between earnest lecturer and political vaudevillian.”[13] Limbaugh’s rising profile coincided with the Persian Gulf War, and his support for the war effort and his relentless ridicule of peace activists. The program was moved to stations with larger audiences, eventually being broadcast on over 650 radio stations nationwide.

In 1992, Democrat Bill Clinton was elected president of the United States. Limbaugh satirized the policies of Clinton and First Lady Hillary Clinton, as well as those of the Democratic Party. When the Republican Party won control of Congress in the 1994 midterm elections, the freshman Republican class awarded Limbaugh an honorary membership in their caucus believing he had a role in their success.[33]

2000s

Limbaugh had publicized personal difficulties in the 2000s. In late 2001, he acknowledged that he had become almost completely deaf, although he continued his show. He was able to regain much of his hearing with the help of a cochlear implant in 2001.

In 2003, Limbaugh had a brief stint as a professional football commentator with ESPN. He resigned a few weeks into the 2003 NFL season after making comments about the press coverage for quarterback Donovan McNabb that caused controversy and accusations of racism on the part of Limbaugh. His comment about McNabb was:

I don’t think he’s been that good from the get-go. I think what we’ve had here is a little social concern in the NFL. I think the media has been very desirous that a black quarterback do well. They’re interested in black coaches and black quarterbacks doing well. I think there’s a little hope invested in McNabb and he got a lot of credit for the performance of his team that he really didn’t deserve. The defense carried this team.[34]

The sportwriter Peter King construed the comment as “boneheaded”.[35] The sports analyst Allen Barra wrote Limbaugh’s viewpoint was shared by “many football fans and analysts” and “it is … absurd to say that the sports media haven’t overrated Donovan McNabb because he’s black”.[36]

In 2003, Limbaugh stated that he was addicted to pain medication, and sought treatment.[37] In April 2006, Limbaugh turned himself in to authorities, on a warrant issued by the Palm Beach County state attorney‘s office, and was arrested “on a single charge of prescription fraud“.[38] His record was later expunged.[39]

2010s

In 2013, news reports indicated that Cumulus Media, some of whose stations carried Limbaugh’s program in certain major markets, including New York, ChicagoDallasWashington D.C. and Detroit, was considering dropping his show when its contract with Limbaugh expired at the end of that year, reportedly because the company believed that its advertising revenues had been hurt by listener reaction to controversial Limbaugh comments.[40] Limbaugh himself said that the reports were overblown and that it was a matter of routine dollars-and-cents negotiations between Cumulus and his network syndication partner, Premiere Networks, a unit of Clear Channel Communications. Ultimately, the parties reached agreement on a new contract, with Limbaugh’s show moving from its long-time flagship outlet in New York, the Cumulus-owned WABC, to the latter’s cross-town rival, the Clear Channel-owned WOR, starting January 1, 2014, but remaining on the Cumulus-owned stations it was being carried on in other markets.[40]

The Rush Limbaugh Show

Limbaugh’s radio show airs for three hours each weekday beginning at noon Eastern Time on both AM and FM radio. The program is also broadcast worldwide on the Armed Forces Radio Network.

Radio broadcasting shifted from AM to FM in the late 1970s because of the opportunity to broadcast music in stereo with better fidelity. Limbaugh’s show was first nationally syndicated in August 1988, in a later stage of AM’s decline. Limbaugh’s popularity paved the way for other conservative talk radio programming to become commonplace on AM radio. The show increased its audience in the 1990s to the extent that even some FM stations picked it up, even though AM’s poor sound quality and lack of stereo make AM preferable for a talk show like Limbaugh’s. As of January 2019 about half of Limbaugh’s affiliate stations are on the FM dial.

In March 2006, WBAL in Baltimore became the first major market radio station in the country to drop Limbaugh’s nationally syndicated radio program.[41] In 2007, Talkers magazine again named him No. 1 in its “Heavy Hundred” most important talk show hosts.

Limbaugh frequently mentions the EIB (Excellence In Broadcasting) Network, trademarked in 1990. In the beginning, his show was co-owned and first syndicated by Edward F. McLaughlin, former president of ABC, who founded EFM Media in 1988, with Limbaugh’s show as his first product. In 1997, McLaughlin sold EFM to Jacor Communications, which was ultimately bought up by Clear Channel Communications. Today, Limbaugh owns a majority of the show, which is syndicated by the Premiere Radio Networks.

According to a 2001 article in U.S. News & World Report, Limbaugh had an eight-year contract, at the rate of $31.25 million a year.[42] In 2007, Limbaugh earned $33 million.[43] A November 2008 poll by Zogby International found that Rush Limbaugh was the most trusted news personality in the nation, garnering 12.5 percent of poll responses.[44]

Limbaugh signed a $400 million, eight-year contract in 2008 with what was then Clear Channel Communications, making him the highest-paid broadcaster on terrestrial radio. On August 2, 2016, Limbaugh signed a four-year extension of the 2008 contract.[45] At the announcement of the extension, Premiere Radio Networks and iHeartMedia announced that his show experienced audience growth with 18% growth in adults 25–54, 27% growth with 25–54 women, and ad revenue growth of 20% year over year.[45]

In 2018, Limbaugh was the world’s second (behind Howard Stern) highest-paid radio host, reportedly earning $84.5 million. [46]

On January 5, 2020, Limbaugh renewed his contract again. Though media reports said it was “a long-term” renewal, (with no length specified), according to Donald Trump it was a four-year deal.[47]

Television show

Limbaugh had a syndicated half-hour television show from 1992 through 1996, produced by Roger Ailes. The show discussed many of the topics on his radio show, and was taped in front of an audience. Rush Limbaugh says he loves doing his radio show,[48] but not a TV show.[49]

Other media appearances

Limbaugh’s first television hosting experience came March 30, 1990, as a guest host on Pat Sajak‘s CBS late-night talk show, The Pat Sajak Show.[50] ACT UP activists in the audience[51] heckled Limbaugh repeatedly; ultimately the entire studio audience was cleared. In 2001, Sajak said the incident was “legendary around CBS”.[52]

On December 17, 1993, Limbaugh appeared on the Late Show with David Letterman.[53] Limbaugh also guest-starred (as himself) on a 1994 episode of Hearts Afire. He appeared in the 1995 Billy Crystal film Forget Paris, and in 1998 on an episode of The Drew Carey Show.

In 2007, Limbaugh made cameo appearances on Fox News Channel‘s short-lived The 1/2 Hour News Hour in a series of parodies portraying him as the future President of the United States. In the parodies, his vice president was fellow conservative pundit Ann Coulter. That year, he also made a cameo in the Family Guy episode “Blue Harvest“, a parody of Star Wars in which Limbaugh can be heard on the radio claiming that the “liberal galactic media” were lying about climate change on the planet Hoth, and that Lando Calrissian‘s administrative position on Cloud City was a result of affirmative action. More recent Family Guy appearances have happened in the 2010 episode “Excellence in Broadcasting“, and 2011’s “Episode VI: It’s a Trap!“, a parody of Return of the Jedi.

Influence and legacy

Limbaugh has become widely recognized as one of the premiere voices of the conservative movement in the United States since the 1990s. In a 1992 letter, President Reagan thanked him, “for all you’re doing to promote Republican and conservative principles … [and] you have become the Number One voice for conservatism in our Country.”[54][55] In 1994, Republicans in the U.S. House of Representatives made Limbaugh an honorary member.[56]

In 1995, Rush Limbaugh was profiled on the PBS series Frontline in a one-hour documentary called “Rush Limbaugh’s America.” Limbaugh refused to be interviewed, but his mother, brother and many Republican supporters took part, as well as critics and opponents.[57]

Since the 1990s, Limbaugh has become known for his love of cigars, saying, “I think cigars are just a tremendous addition to the enjoyment of life.”[58] During his syndicated television program from 1992 to 1996, he also become known for wearing distinctive neckties. In response to viewer interest, Limbaugh launched a series of ties[59] designed primarily by his then-wife Marta.[60] Limbaugh is also known for using props, songs and photos to introduce his monologues on various topics. On his radio show, news about the homeless has often been preceded with the Clarence “Frogman” Henry song “Ain’t Got No Home.”[13] For a time, Dionne Warwick‘s song, “I Know I’ll Never Love This Way Again” preceded reports about people with HIV/AIDS.[61] These later became “condom updates” preceded by Fifth Dimension‘s song, “Up, Up and Away”.[13] For two weeks in 1989, on his Sacramento radio show, Limbaugh performed “caller abortions” where he would end a call suddenly to the sounds of a vacuum cleaner and a scream. He would then deny that he had “hung up” on the caller, which he had promised not to do. Limbaugh claims that he used this gag to illustrate “the tragedy of abortion” as well as to highlight the question of whether abortion constitutes murder.[62] During the Clinton administration, while filming his television program, Limbaugh referred to media coverage of Socks, the Clintons’ cat. He then stated, “But did you know there is also a White House dog?” and a picture of Chelsea Clinton was shown. When questioned about it, Limbaugh claimed that it was an accident and that without his permission some technician had put up the picture of Chelsea.[63][64]

Limbaugh was awarded the Marconi Radio Award for Syndicated Radio Personality of the Year by the National Association of Broadcasters five times – 1992, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2014 (given by the National Association of Broadcasters).[65][66] He was inducted into the National Radio Hall of Fame in 1993 and the National Association of Broadcasters Hall of Fame in 1998.[67][68] By 2001, he inked a $285 million contract for eight years, which was renewed in 2008 for another eight years at $400 million.[69] By 2017, Limbaugh was the second highest paid radio host in the United States, earning an annual salary of $84 million – second only to Howard Stern.[70] Talkers Magazine ranked him as the greatest radio talk show host of all time in 2002,[71] and in 2017, he was the most-listened-to radio host in the United States with 14 million listeners.[72]

Limbaugh was awarded the inaugural William F. Buckley Jr. Award for Media Excellence by the Media Research Center, a conservative media analysis group in 2007.[73] Conservative magazine Human Events also announced Limbaugh as their 2007 Man of the Year.[74]Later that same year, Barbara Walters featured Limbaugh as one of the most fascinating people of the year in a special that aired on December 4, 2008.[75]

On February 28, 2009, following his self-described “first address to the nation” lasting 90 minutes, carried live on CNN and Fox News and recorded for C-SPAN, Limbaugh received CPAC‘s “Defender of the Constitution Award”, a document originally signed by Benjamin Franklin, given to someone “who has stood up for the First Amendment … Rush Limbaugh is for America, exactly what Benjamin Franklin did for the Founding Fathers … the only way we will be successful is if we listen to Rush Limbaugh.”[76]

In his 2010 book, Rush Limbaugh: An Army of OneZe’ev Chafets cited Limbaugh as, “the brains and the spirit behind” the Republican Party’s resurgence in the 2010 midterm elections in the wake of the election of President Obama.[77] Chafets pointed, among others, to Sen. Arlen Specter‘s defeat, after being labeled by Limbaugh as a “Republican in Name Only”, and to Sarah Palin, whose “biggest current applause line – Republicans are not just the party of no, but the party of hell no – came courtesy of Mr. Limbaugh.” Limbaugh has argued the party-of-no Ronald Reagan conservative course for the Republicans vigorously, notably since six weeks after the Obama inauguration, and has been fundamental to, and encouraging to, the more prominently noted Tea Party movement.[78]

Rush Limbaugh was inducted into the Hall of Famous Missourians on May 14, 2012, in a secret ceremony announced only 20 minutes before it began to prevent negative media attention.[79] A bronze bust of Limbaugh is on display at the Missouri State Capitol building in Jefferson City, along with 40 other awardees. Limbaugh’s bust includes a security camera to prevent vandalism.[80][81]

Views

In his first New York Times best seller, Limbaugh describes himself as conservative, and is critical of broadcasters in many media outlets for claiming to be objective. He has criticized political centristsindependents, and moderate conservatives, claiming they are responsible for Democrat Barack Obama‘s victory over Republican John McCain in the 2008 United States presidential election and inviting them to leave the Republican Party. He calls for the adoption of core conservative philosophies in order to ensure the survival of the Republican Party.[82][83][84] Limbaugh is a proponent of American exceptionalism, and he often criticizes politicians he sees as rejecting this notion as unpatriotic or anti-American.[28]

Abortion

Limbaugh considers Roe v. Wade “bad law” and supports overturning it. He has compared support for abortion with Nazism, saying that abortion is “a modern-day holocaust” and that for feminists abortion is “a kind of sacrament for their religion/politics of alienation and bitterness”. During the 2008 Republican Party vice presidential candidate selection Limbaugh strongly opposed Tom Ridge due to his pro-abortion views.[85]

Minorities

Limbaugh is known for making controversial race-related statements with regard to African-Americans. He once opined that all newspaper composite pictures of wanted criminals resembled Jesse Jackson, and another time that “the NFL all too often looks like a game between the Bloods and the Crips without any weapons.”[86][87] While employed as what he describes as an “insult-radio” DJ, he used a derogatory racial stereotype to characterize a black caller he could not understand, telling the caller to “take that bone out of your nose and call me back,” although he expressed guilt over this when recounting it.[87] In March 2010, Limbaugh used the similarity of recently resigned Rep. Eric Massa‘s surname to the slavery-era African-American pronunciation of “master” to make a pun on the possibility that Gov. David PatersonNew York‘s first African-American governor, would pick Massa’s replacement: “Let’s assume you’re right [caller]. So, David Paterson will become the massa who gets to appoint whoever gets to take Massa’s place. So, for the first time in his life, Paterson’s gonna be a massa. Interesting, interesting.”[88]

Limbaugh has asserted that African-Americans, in contrast with other minority groups, are “left behind” socially because they have been systematically trained from a young age to hate the United States because of the welfare state.[89]

Limbaugh has argued that liberal politicians have encouraged immigration from Latin America but have discouraged their assimilation to deliberately create racial inequality to manipulate as a voter base, and that their continued admission will cause a collapse of representative democracy and rule of law in the United States. He has criticized the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 for this reason.[90]

Limbaugh, who has expressed anti-LGBT rhetoric in the past and views homosexual sexual practices as unhygienic, made serophobic statements about HIV/AIDS victims in the 1990s, and called the virus “Rock Hudson‘s disease” and “the only federally-protected virus.” Limbaugh claimed in 2007 while defending President Reagan’s response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic during the 1980s that it did not “spread to the heterosexual community.” Limbaugh, who still opposes homosexuality, has since called his statements “the single most regretful thing I have ever done.”[91][92] In 2013, Limbaugh commented on same-sex marriage by saying, “This issue is lost. I don’t care what the Supreme Court does. This is inevitable. And it’s inevitable because we lost the language on this. As far as I’m concerned, once we started talking about gay marriage, traditional marriage, opposite-sex marriage, same-sex marriage, hetero marriage, we lost. It was over.”[93][94]

Capital punishment

Limbaugh supports capital punishment. Referring to Robert Alton Harris, who was escorted to the gas chamber before receiving a fourth stay of execution, Limbaugh wrote “the only thing cruel about the death penalty is last-minute stays.”[95]

Sexual consent

Limbaugh dismisses the concept of consent in sexual relations. He views consent as “the magic key to the left.”[96] In 2014, Limbaugh criticized a policy at Ohio State University encouraging students to obtain verbal consent, saying “How many of you guys . . . have learned that ‘no’ means ‘yes’ if you know how to spot it?” The Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee used these statements to advocate a boycott of Limbaugh’s show and advertisers, claiming that the statements were tantamount to an endorsement of sexual assault. Limbaugh denied this, and his spokesman Brian Glicklick and lawyer Patricia Glaser threatened a defamation lawsuit against the DCCC .[97]

Drug policy

Limbaugh has been an outspoken critic of what he sees as leniency towards criminal drug use in America. On his television show on October 5, 1995, Limbaugh stated, “too many whites are getting away with drug use” and illegal drug trafficking. Limbaugh proposed that the racial disparity in drug enforcement could be fixed if authorities increased detection efforts, conviction rates, and jail time for whites involved in illegal drugs.[98] He defended mandatory-minimum sentencing as an effective tool against the crack cocaine epidemic of the 1980s.[99] Limbaugh has accused advocates of legalization of non-medical cannabis in the United States of hypocrisy due to their advocacy of tobacco control and backlash against electronic cigarettes, and compared the advocates for its legalization in Colorado to Big Tobacco.[100]

Environmental issues

Limbaugh is critical of environmentalism and climate science.[101] He rejects the scientific consensus on climate change, and the relationship between CFCs and depletion of the ozone layer, saying the scientific evidence does not support them.[95] Limbaugh has argued against the scientific consensus on climate change saying it is “just a bunch of scientists organized around a political proposition.”[102] He has also argued that projections of climate change are the product of ideologically-motivated computer simulations without the proper support of empirical data, a claim which has been widely debunked.[103][104] Limbaugh has used the term “environmentalist wacko” when referring to left-leaning environmental advocates.[105] As a rhetorical device, he has also used the term to refer to more mainstream climate scientists and other environmental scientists and advocates with whom he disagrees.[106] Limbaugh opposed pollution credits, including a carbon cap-and-trade system, as a way to disproportionately benefit major American investment banks, particularly Goldman Sachs, and claimed that it would destroy the American national economy.[107]

Limbaugh has written that “there are more acres of forestland in America today than when Columbus discovered the continent [sic] in 1492,” a claim that is disputed by the United States Forest Service and the American Forestry Association, which state that the precolonial forests have been reduced by about 24 percent or nearly 300 million acres.[108][109]

Limbaugh strongly opposed the proposed Green New Deal and its sponsor Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.[110]

Feminism

Limbaugh is critical of feminism, which he views as advancing only liberals and not women in general.[91] During an interview with Time magazine during the 1992 presidential election he stated that it “was established so as to allow unattractive women easier access to the mainstream of society.”[111] He has criticized Democratic congressmen calling for more women in Congress as hypocritical due to their opposition to female Republican candidates.[91] He has also regularly used the term “feminazi“, described by The New York Times in 1994 as one of his “favorite epithets for supporters of women’s rights”.[33] According to Limbaugh in 1992, for certain feminists, the “most important thing in life is ensuring that as many abortions as possible occur.”[112] He also used the term referring to the half-million large 2017 Women’s March as the “Deranged Feminazi March”.[113] He credited his friend Tom Hazlett, a professor of law and economics at George Mason University, with coining the term.[114]

Middle East

Limbaugh first rose to prominence in 1991 for his vocal support for the Persian Gulf War and criticism of opponents of the war. Limbaugh later accused the media, in particular Sam Donaldson, of deliberately overestimating in their predictions of the amount of American casualties caused by the war and overstating the Iraqi Armed Forces’s military preparedness.

Limbaugh was supportive of the Iraq War, and first suggested bombing Ba’athist Iraq in 2002 in revenge for the September 11 attacks.[115] Even after no Iraqi weapons of mass destruction were found, he supported theories that they had existed.[115] On the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal, Limbaugh said, “This is no different than what happens at the Skull and Bones initiation … And we’re going to ruin people’s lives over it and we’re going to hamper our military effort, and then we are going to really hammer them because they had a good time.”[116][117] Speaking at the 2009 Conservative Political Action Conference, Limbaugh accused Democratic congressional leaders such as Harry Reid of deliberately undermining the war effort.[118]

In 2018, Limbaugh speculated that evidence of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction had been fabricated by the U.S. intelligence community to embarrass President Bush.[119]

During the 2019-20 Persian Gulf crisis, Limbaugh praised the 2020 Baghdad International Airport drone strike that resulted in the death of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps‘s commander Major General Qasem Soleimani, and accused opponents of the strike of supporting Iran over the United States.[120] On January 6, 2020, he held an interview with President Donald Trump on his show commending him for the strike.[121]

Trade

In 1993, Limbaugh supported the North American Free Trade Agreement, joking in response to claims that it would lead to a transfer of unskilled labor to Mexico that this would only leave the United States with better jobs.[122] During a 1993 televised debate against H. Ross Perot over NAFTA, Vice President Al Gore complimented Limbaugh as one of the “distinguished Americans” who pushed NAFTA forward in spite of the intense animosity between Limbaugh and the administration of President Bill Clinton.[123] He later became more critical of NAFTA and trade agreements in general, claiming that they had reduced national sovereignty by “subordinating” America to “world tribunals, like the World Trade Organization and the International Criminal Court and this kind of thing.”[124] He also claimed that promises to stem mass migration by invigorating the Latin American economy had failed.[125][124] He supported a renegotiation of NAFTA and the eventual United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement.[124]

Limbaugh defended the Trump tariffs and the China–United States trade war as a legitimate response to predatory Chinese trade practices and its Communist command economy.[126][127]

Barack Obama

Rush Limbaugh strongly opposed Barack Obama during the 2008 presidential election. Limbaugh predicted that Obama would be unable to win the election. On January 16, 2009, Limbaugh commented on the then-upcoming Obama presidency, “I hope he fails.”[128]Limbaugh later said that he wants to see Obama’s policies fail, not the man himself.[129] Speaking of Obama, Limbaugh said, “He’s my president, he’s a human being, and his ideas and policies are what count for me.”[128] Limbaugh later discouraged efforts to impeach Barack Obama as politically unrealistic.[130]

Limbaugh accused Obama of using his race to prevent criticism of his policies, and said he was successful in his first year in office only because conservative members of the 111th Congress feared accusations of racism.[131][132] Limbaugh featured a recurring skit in which his colleague James Golden, who described himself as an “African-American-in-good-standing-and-certified-black-enough-to-criticize-Obama guy,” appeared in a cameo as the “Official EIB Obama Criticizer.”[133]

Limbaugh blamed Obama’s foreign policy, including the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq, for allowing the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.[134] Limbaugh also claimed that the 2012 Benghazi attack occurred due to a secret arms trafficking operation to the Syrian opposition authorized by Obama and coordinated by Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens, speculating that the 2016 Democratic National Committee email leak would reveal evidence of it.[135] Limbaugh also criticized the Russian reset, seeing Vladimir Putin‘s rule in the Russian Federation as a thinly-veiled continuation of the Soviet Union and Marxism–Leninism.[28] He was also critical of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, including of Obama’s decision to ratify it as an executive agreement, and claims that it was used as a pretext for surveillance against Obama’s political opponents.[136] Limbaugh argued that side agreements of the JCPOA limited transparency and would obligate the United States to militarily defend Iran against an Israeli offensive, including a preemptive strike to prevent nuclear weapons development.[137]

During the West African Ebola virus epidemic, Limbaugh blamed Obama for allowing the spread of the disease to the United States in 2014, claiming that he should have stopped air travel to West Africa. He claimed that both the media and the government, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, deliberately downplayed its symptoms, expressing skepticism over the scientific consensus that the disease could be spread only through contact with bodily fluids and was not aerosol transmissible.[138] When David Quammencriticized the idea of ending air travel to West Africa by pointing out that Liberia was founded due to slavery in the United States on Anderson Cooper 360°, Limbaugh suggested in response that the Obama administration was deliberately allowing Ebola to be transmitted to the United States due to its guilt over slavery, stating “People at the highest levels of our government say ‘Why, why shouldn’t we get it? Why should only those three nations in Africa get it? We’re no better than they are.’ And they have this attitude, ‘Well, if they have it in Africa, by God, we deserve to get it, because they’re in Africa because of us and because of slavery.'”[139][140][141]

Donald Trump

Limbaugh with President Donald Trump at the Trump International Golf Club in 2019.

Limbaugh has been consistently supportive of the candidacy and presidency of Donald Trump, although he endorsed Ted Cruz during the 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries and took issue with Trump’s treatment of Cruz.[142] Limbaugh later criticized Cruz’s hesitance to endorse Trump after his nomination at the 2016 Republican National Convention, comparing it to Ted Kennedy’s lukewarm support of Jimmy Carter at the 1980 Democratic National Convention.[143] After the election he became supportive of deep-state conspiracy theories, claiming that the United States has entered a “Cold Civil War” in which the Democratic Party is attempting to illegitimately overturn the election results and that it is part of a trend of Democrats contesting elections beginning with the 2000 Florida election recount intended to eventually eliminate free elections in the United States.[144][145][146]

In December 2018, Limbaugh criticized Trump for preparing to accept a continuing resolution that would fund the government through February 8, 2019, but included no funding for a border wall on the Mexico–United States border, a campaign promise repeatedly emphasized by Trump.[147] Trump would subsequently make a surprise telephone call to Limbaugh announcing his intent to veto the bill, a decision that would lead to the 2018–19 United States federal government shutdown.[148] Limbaugh would go on to support the shutdown, stating “We have a president keeping promises left and right. And isn’t it interesting to see how trivial Washington thinks that is?”[149][150] After Trump declared the National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States and the 116th Congress failed in its attempt to override it, Limbaugh called on him to completely close the border with Mexico.[151]

Limbaugh has been dismissive of controversies over links between Trump associates and Russian officials. He claims that the FBI investigations of Michael Flynn and Paul Manafort as well as the subsequent Special Counsel investigation directed by Robert Mueller were orchestrated by Barack Obama and the Democratic Party to undermine the legitimacy of Trump’s presidency and constituted an illegal coup d’état.[152][153] Limbaugh claimed that George Papadopoulos was entrapped by the FBI, which he claims Joseph Mifsud was an informant for, through Stefan Halper as part of an “insurance policy” against Trump’s election by the Five Eyes intelligence alliance.[154]Limbaugh has advocated a full presidential pardon for all suspects indicted or convicted by the investigation.[151] After the release of the Mueller Report, he disputed its conclusion that WikiLeaks obtained the Democratic National Committee’s emails from the Russian government and its depiction of Donald Trump Jr.‘s Trump Tower meeting.[155] He claimed that allegations of obstruction of justice were leveled at Trump due to the Report’s conclusion that Trump did not directly collude with Russian officials and that Trump’s intent to fire Mueller and Attorney General Jeff Sessions were legitimate.[153]

Limbaugh supported the Presidential Advisory Commission on Election Integrity as well as Trump’s claims that he lost the popular vote due to voter impersonation by illegal immigrants.[156]

After the House of Representatives commenced a formal impeachment inquiry against President Trump due to the scandal over a 2019 telephone call to Ukrainian President Volodomyr Zelensky pressuring his government to prosecute Biden shortly after a freeze of military aid, Limbaugh argued that the two events were unrelated since Trump had made a decision to withhold military funds a month in advance. He additionally claimed that Trump’s desire for the Ukrainian government to prosecute Biden was legally justified by a 1999 mutual legal assistance treaty with Ukraine and “was following the law to the letter when it comes to unearthing the long-standing corruption that has swirled in Ukraine and allegedly involves powerful Democrats like Joe Biden.”[144][157]

Alleging false flag attacks

In 2010, after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, Limbaugh speculated on his show that eco-terrorists deliberately destroyed the oil well to justify President Obama’s deepwater drilling moratorium.[158] Limbaugh also claimed that the media was exaggerating the environmental effects of the disaster.[159]

After the Unite the Right rally and vehicle-ramming attack in Charlottesville, Virginia, Limbaugh defended Trump’s controversial response to the rally and claimed that the violence had been provoked by Black Lives Matter activists, Antifa, and Robert Creamer.[160] He also claimed without evidence that the police response had been deliberately restrained by Terry McAuliffe as a botched attempt to start a presidential bid in the 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries, and that it was part of a campaign by “international financiers” such as George Soros to start a second civil war in the United States to remove its status as a global superpower.[161][162][163] After attention on Trump’s comments renewed when Joe Biden criticized them in the announcement of his 2020 presidential campaign, Limbaugh again defended them by repeating claims that some of the protesters were not white supremacists and were protesting the removal of the statue of Robert E. Lee.[164]

Limbaugh claimed that the October 2018 United States mail bombing attempts were perpetuated as a false-flag operation to draw public attention away from Central American migrant caravans.[165][166] He reiterated these claims two weeks after the arrest of the primary suspect Cesar Sayoc, a registered Republican.[167][168]

On his show, Limbaugh has said that the Christchurch mosque shootings of March 2019 may have been a false-flag operation. Limbaugh described “an ongoing theory” that the shooter was actually “a leftist” trying to smear the right. Despite providing no source or evidence, Limbaugh continued: “… you can’t immediately discount this. The left is this insane, they are this crazy.”[169][170]

Controversies and claims of inaccuracy

The July–August 1994 issue of Extra!, a publication of Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR), alleges 50 different inaccuracies and distortions in Limbaugh’s commentary.[171][172] Comedian Al Franken, who later became a Senator, wrote a satirical book (Rush Limbaugh Is a Big Fat Idiot and Other Observations) in which he accused Limbaugh of distorting facts to serve his own political biases.[173]

Of Limbaugh’s controversial statements and allegations they have investigated, Politifact has rated 84% as ranging from “Mostly False” to “Pants-On-Fire” (a signification for extremely false), with 5% of Limbaugh’s contested statements rising to the level of “Mostly True” and 0% rated “True.”[174] These debunked allegations by Limbaugh include suggestions that the existence of gorillas disproves the theory of evolution, that Ted Kennedy sent a letter to Soviet General Secretary Yuri Andropov seeking to undercut President Reagan, that a recent lack of hurricanes disproves climate change, and that President Obama wanted to mandate circumcision.[175][176][177][178]

Limbaugh has been criticized for inaccuracies by the Environmental Defense Fund. A defense fund report authored by Princeton University endowed geoscience professor Michael Oppenheimer and professor of biology David Wilcove lists 14 significant scientific facts that, the authors allege, Limbaugh misrepresented in his book The Way Things Ought to Be.[179] The authors conclude that “Rush Limbaugh … allows his political bias to distort the truth about a whole range of important scientific issues.”

On October 14, 2011, Limbaugh questioned the U.S. military initiative against Joseph Kony and his Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), based on the assumption that they were Christians. “They are fighting the Muslims in Sudan. And Obama has sent troops, United States troops to remove them from the battlefield, which means kill them.” Upon learning about the accusations leveled against Kony, which included kidnapping whole schools of young children for use as child soldiers, Limbaugh stated that he would research the group.[180][181]The show’s written transcript on his website was not changed.[181][182]

Michael J. Fox

In October 2006, Limbaugh said Michael J. Fox, who suffers from Parkinson’s disease, had exaggerated the effects of his affliction in a political TV advertisement advocating for funding of stem cell research. Limbaugh said that Fox in the ad had been “shameless” in “moving all around and shaking”, and that Fox had not taken “his medication or he’s acting, one of the two”.[183] Fox said “the irony of it is I was too medicated,”[184] adding that there was no way to predict how his symptoms would manifest. Limbaugh said he would apologize to Fox “bigly, hugely … if I am wrong in characterizing his behavior on this commercial as an act.”[185] In 2012, Fox said Limbaugh in 2006 had acted on “bullying instincts” when “he said I faked it. I didn’t fake it,” and said Limbaugh’s goal was to have him marginalized and shut down for his stem cell stance.[186]

Phony soldiers

In 2007, Media Matters‘ reported that Limbaugh had categorized Iraq War veterans opposed to the war as “the phony soldiers.” Limbaugh later said that he was speaking of Jesse MacBeth, a soldier who falsely claimed to have been decorated for valor but, in fact, had never seen combat. Limbaugh said Media Matters was trying to smear him with out-of-context and selectively edited comments. After Limbaugh published what he claimed was the entire transcript of phony soldiers discussion, Media Matters said that over a minute and 30 seconds of the transcript was omitted without “notation or ellipsis to indicate that there is, in fact, a break in the transcript.”[187][188] Limbaugh said during the minute and a half gap Media Matters had pointed out, he was waiting for relevant ABC news copy on the topic, and the transcript and audio edits were “for space and relevance reasons, not to hide anything.”[189] Senator Harry Reid and 41 Democrats, including Hillary Clinton, signed a letter asking the CEO of Clear Channel to denounce Limbaugh. Instead, he gave the letter to Limbaugh to auction. It raised over $2 million for the Marine Corps-Law Enforcement Foundation.[190]

Sandra Fluke

On February 29, 2012, Limbaugh, while talking about contraceptive mandates, included remarks about law student Sandra Fluke as a “slut” and “prostitute.” Limbaugh was commenting on Fluke’s speech the previous week to House Democrats in support of mandating insurance coverage for contraceptives. Limbaugh made numerous similar statements over the next two days, leading to the loss of 45[191] to “more than 100”[192] local and national sponsors and Limbaugh’s apology on his show for some of his comments. Susan McMillan Emry co-organized a public relations campaign called Rock the Slut Vote as a response to Limbaugh’s remarks.[193]

Charitable work

Leukemia and lymphoma telethon

Limbaugh holds an annual fundraising telethon called the “EIB Cure-a-Thon”[194] for the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society.[195] In 2006, the EIB Cure-a-Thon conducted its 16th annual telethon, raising $1.7 million,[196] totaling over $15 million since the first cure-a-thon.[197]According to Leukemia and Lymphoma Society annual reports, Limbaugh personally contributed between $100,000 and $499,999 from 2000–2005 and 2007,[198] and Limbaugh said that he contributed around $250,000 in 2003, 2004 and 2005.[199] NewsMax reported Limbaugh donated $250,000 in 2006,[200] and the Society’s 2006 annual report placed him in the $500,000 to $999,999 category.[198] Limbaugh donated $320,000 during the 2007 Cure-a-Thon,[201] which the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society reported had raised $3.1 million.[202] On his radio program April 18, 2008, Limbaugh pledged $400,000 to the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society after being challenged by two listeners to increase his initial pledge of $300,000.[203]

Marine Corps–Law Enforcement Foundation

Limbaugh conducts an annual drive to help the Marine Corps–Law Enforcement Foundation collect contributions to provide scholarships for children of Marines and law enforcement officers and agents who have died in the line of duty.[204][205] The foundation was the beneficiary of a record $2.1 million eBay auction in October 2007 after Limbaugh listed for sale a letter critical of him signed by 41 Democratic senators and pledged to match the selling price.[206] With the founding of his and his wife’s company Two if by Tea, they pledged to donate at least $100,000 to the MC–LEF beginning in June 2011.[207]

Tunnel to Towers Foundation

In July 2019 Nike announced a special Fourth of July edition of their Air Max 1 Quick Strike sneaker that featured the thirteen-star Betsy Ross flag. The company withdrew the sneaker after their spokesman Colin Kaepernick raised concerns that the symbol represented an era of black enslavement.[208] In response Limbaugh’s radio program introduced a t-shirt imprinted “Stand up for Betsy Ross” with sale proceeds to benefit the Tunnel to Towers Foundation. As of December 2019 the sales have earned over $5M USD for the foundation.[209]

Personal life

Limbaugh has had four marriages, three divorces, and no children.[210] He was first married at the age of 26 to Roxy Maxine McNeely, a sales secretary at radio station WHB in Kansas City, Missouri. The couple married at the Centenary United Methodist Church in Limbaugh’s hometown of Cape Girardeau on September 24, 1977.[211] McNeely filed for divorce in March 1980, citing “incompatibility.” They were formally divorced on July 10, 1980.[7]

In 1983, Limbaugh married Michelle Sixta, a college student and usherette at the Kansas City Royals Stadium Club. They divorced in 1990, and she remarried the following year.[7]

On May 27, 1994, Limbaugh married Marta Fitzgerald, a 35-year-old aerobics instructor whom he met on the online service CompuServe in 1990.[212] They married at the house of U.S. Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, who officiated.[213] The couple separated on June 11, 2004.[214] Limbaugh announced his divorce on the air. It was finalized in December 2004.[215] In September 2004, Limbaugh became romantically involved with then-CNN news anchor Daryn Kagan; the relationship ended in February 2006.[216]

Limbaugh has lived in Palm Beach since 1996. A friend recalls that Limbaugh “fell in love with Palm Beach … after visiting her over Memorial Day weekend in 1995.”[217] Unlike New York, Florida does not tax income, the stated reason Limbaugh moved his residence and established his “Southern Command”.[218]

On December 30, 2009, while vacationing in HonoluluHawaii, Limbaugh was admitted to Queen’s Medical Center with intense chest pains. His doctors attributed the pain to angina pectoris.[219]

He dated Kathryn Rogers, a party planner from Florida, for three years[220] before he married her on June 5, 2010.[221][222] During the wedding reception after the ceremony, Elton John entertained the wedding guests for a reported $1 million fee; however, Limbaugh himself denied that the $1 million figure was accurate on his September 7, 2010, radio show.[223][224]

Through a holding company, KARHL Holdings (KARHL meaning “Kathryn and Rush Hudson Limbaugh”), Limbaugh launched a line of bottled iced tea beverages called “Two if by Tea”,[225] a play on the line from Henry Wadsworth Longfellow‘s “Paul Revere’s Ride” “one if by land, two if by sea”. KARHL Holdings features a Rush Revere website where children can send notes to Liberty, the time-traveling, talking horse.[226]

Prescription drug addiction

On October 3, 2003, the National Enquirer reported that Limbaugh was being investigated for illegally obtaining the prescription drugs oxycodone and hydrocodone. Other news outlets quickly confirmed the investigation.[227] He admitted to listeners on his radio show on October 10, 2003, that he was addicted to prescription painkillers and stated that he would enter inpatient treatment for 30 days, immediately after the broadcast.[228] Limbaugh stated his addiction to painkillers resulted from several years of severe back pain heightened by a botched surgery intended to correct those problems.

A subsequent investigation into whether Limbaugh had violated Florida’s doctor shopping laws was launched by the Palm Beach State Attorney, which raised privacy issues when investigators seized Limbaugh’s private medical records looking for evidence of crimes. Roy Black, one of Limbaugh’s attorneys, stated that “Rush Limbaugh was singled out for prosecution because of who he is. We believe the state attorney’s office is applying a double standard.”[229] On November 9, 2005, following two years of investigations, Assistant State Attorney James L. Martz requested that the court set aside Limbaugh’s doctor–patient confidentiality rights and allow the state to question his physicians.[230] Limbaugh’s attorney opposed the prosecutor’s efforts to interview his doctors on the basis of patient privacy rights, and argued that the prosecutor had violated Limbaugh’s Fourth Amendment rights by illegally seizing his medical records. The American Civil Liberties Union issued a statement in agreement and filed an amicus curiae brief in support of Limbaugh.[231][232] On December 12, 2005, Judge David F. Crow delivered a ruling prohibiting the State of Florida from questioning Limbaugh’s physicians about “the medical condition of the patient and any information disclosed to the health care practitioner by the patient in the course of the care and treatment of the patient.”[233]

On April 28, 2006, a warrant was issued for his arrest on the charge of doctor shopping. According to Teri Barbera, spokeswoman for the sheriff, during his arrest, Limbaugh was booked, photographed, and fingerprinted, but not handcuffed. He was then released after about an hour on $3,000 bail.[234][235][236] After his surrender, he filed a “not guilty” plea to the charge. Prosecutors explained that the charges were brought after they discovered he received about 2,000 painkillers, prescribed by four doctors in six months, at a pharmacy near his Palm Beach mansion. In 2009, after three years of prolonged discussion regarding a settlement, prosecutors agreed to drop the charge if Limbaugh paid $30,000 to defray the cost of the investigation, completed an 18-month therapy regimen with his physician, submitted to random drug testing, and gave up his right to own a firearm for eighteen months.[237] Limbaugh agreed to the settlement, though he continued to maintain his innocence of doctor shopping and asserted that the state’s offer resulted from a lack of evidence supporting the charge.[238]

Before his addiction became known, Limbaugh had condemned illegal drug use on his television program, stating that “Drug use, some might say, is destroying this country … And so if people are violating the law by doing drugs, they ought to be accused and they ought to be convicted and they ought to be sent up.”[239][240]

Viagra incident

In June 2006, Limbaugh was detained by drug enforcement agents at Palm Beach International Airport. Customs officials confiscated Viagra from Limbaugh’s luggage as he was returning from the Dominican Republic. The prescription was not in Limbaugh’s name.[241]After he was released with no charges filed, Limbaugh joked about the incident on his radio show, claiming that he got the Viagra at the Clinton Library and was told they were blue M&M’s. He also stated that “I had a great time in the Dominican Republic. Wish I could tell you about it.”[241]

Health issues

Rush Limbaugh has described himself as being “100 percent, totally deaf.”[242] In 2001, Limbaugh announced that he had lost most of his ability to hear: “I cannot hear television. I cannot hear music. I am, for all practical purposes, deaf – and it’s happened in three months.” He said that the condition was not genetic.[243] He was diagnosed with autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED) and medications failed to work. On December 19, 2001, doctors at the House Ear Clinic in Los Angeles were able to successfully restore a measure of his hearing through cochlear implant surgery. Limbaugh received a Clarion CII Bionic Ear.[244]

When questioned whether Limbaugh’s sudden hearing loss was caused by his addiction to opioids, his cochlear implant doctor, otolaryngologist Jennifer Derebery, said that it was possible but that there is no way to know for sure without performing tests that would destroy Limbaugh’s hearing completely. “We don’t know why some people, but apparently not most, who take large doses may lose their hearing”.[245]

In 2005, Limbaugh was forced to undergo “tuning” due to an “eye twitch,” an apparent side-effect of cochlear implants.[246]

On April 8, 2014, on his radio program, Limbaugh announced his decision to ‘go bilateral.’ “I’m going to get an implant on the right side,” he said.[247] After bilateral tuning, there was 100% improvement. “Coming from total deafness, it is miraculous! How can you not believe in God?” Limbaugh said in his national daily broadcast.[248]

Limbaugh was diagnosed with advanced lung cancer on January 20, 2020, after first experiencing shortness of breath on January 12.[249] He announced the diagnosis on air during his radio show on February 3; conceding that he would miss airtime to undergo treatment, he stated that he planned to continue the program “as normally and competently” as he could while undergoing treatment.[250]

Bibliography

In 1992, Limbaugh published his first book, The Way Things Ought to Be, followed by See, I Told You So, the following year. Both titles were number one on the New York Times Best Seller list for 24 weeks.[251] His first book was dictated by himself, and transcribed and edited by Wall Street Journal Journal writer John Fund.

In 2013, Limbaugh authored his first children’s book entitled, Rush Revere and the Brave Pilgrims: Time-Travel with Exceptional Americans. He received the Author of the Year Award from the Children’s Book Council for this work.[252] Limbaugh’s second children’s book was released the following year, entitled, Rush Revere and the First Patriots: Time-Travel with Exceptional Americans. This book was nominated as an author-of-the year finalist for the annual Children’s and Teen Choice Book Awards.[253] Limbaugh’s third children’s book was released later this same year, written with his wife, Kathryn, and entitled Rush Revere and the American Revolution. The Limbaugh’s dedicated this to the U.S. military and their families.[254]

References…

Sources

Further reading

  • Arkush, Michael (1993). Rush!. New York: Avon Books. ISBN 0-380-77539-5.
  • Davis, J. Bradford (1994). The Rise of Rush Limbaugh Toward the Presidency. Norcross, Ga.: MacArthur Publishing Group. ISBN 0-9642619-0-1.
  • Derych, Jim. Confessions of a Former Dittohead. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Ig Publishing. ISBN 0-9752517-8-3.
  • Evearitt, Daniel J. (1993). Rush Limbaugh and the Bible. Camp Hill, Pa.: Horizon House Publishers. ISBN 0-88965-104-3.
  • Franken, Al (1996). Rush Limbaugh Is a Big Fat Idiot and Other Observations. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-14-101841-6.
  • Jacobs, Donald Trent. The Bum’s Rush: The Selling of Environmental Backlash: Phrases and Fallacies of Rush Limbaugh. Boise, Idaho: Legendary Publishing Company. ISBN 0-9625040-5-X.
  • Keliher, Brian (1994). Flush Rush. Berkeley, Calif.: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0-89815-610-6.
  • Kelly, Charles M. (1994). The Great Limbaugh Con: And Other Right-Wing Assaults on Common Sense. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Fithian Press. ISBN 1-56474-102-8.
  • King, D. Howard (1994). Rush to Us. New York: Windsor Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7860-0082-1.
  • Layne, Tom (2006). The Assassination of Rush Limbaugh. Kirkland, Wash.: Red Ginger Publishing Company. ISBN 0-9768515-0-4.
  • Mahurin, Cecil (1993). A Public Rebuttal to Rush Limbaugh. New York: Vantage Press. ISBN 0-533-10766-0.
  • Perkins, Ray Jr (1995). Logic and Mr. Limbaugh: A Dittohead’s Guide to Fallacious Reasoning. Chicago: Open Court Publishing. ISBN 0-8126-9294-2.
  • Rahman, Michael. Why Rush Limbaugh is Wrong, or: The Demise of Traditionalism and the Rise of Progressive Sensibility as Perceived. Santa Monica, Calif.: Mighty Pen Publishing. ISBN 0-9647470-0-6.
  • Rendall, Steven; Naureckas, JimCohen, Jeff (1995). The Way Things Aren’t: Rush Limbaugh’s Reign of Error: Over 100 Outrageously False and Foolish Statements from America’s Most Powerful Radio and TV Commentator. Written for FAIR. New York: The New Press. ISBN 1-56584-260-X.
  • Seib, Philip M. (1993). Rush Hour: Talk Radio, Politics, and the Rise of Rush Limbaugh. Fort Worth, Tex.: Summit Group. ISBN 1-56530-100-5.
  • Tucker, R. K. (1997). The Rules According to Rush: The American people vs. Rush Limbaugh. Chapel Hill, NC; Bowling Green, Ohio: OptimAmerica; Professional Press. ISBN 1-57087-339-9.
  • Varon, Charles (1997). Rush Limbaugh In Night School. New York: Dramatists Play Service. ISBN 0-8222-1534-9.

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rush_Limbaugh

 

 

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‘He will not change. And you know it’: Adam Schiff pleads for Republicans to remove Donald Trump as closing arguments end in impeachment trial – but defense attorney Ken Starr says prosecution just wants to make the 2016 election ‘null and void’

  • Each side wrapped up their closing arguments in Donald Trump’s trial
  • Both sides had two hours to finish arguing before the Senate 
  • ‘You can’t trust this president to do the right thing, not for one minute,’ Adam Schiff told senators 
  • ‘President Trump’s constitutional crimes, his crimes against the American people and the nation remain in progress,’ Rep. Val Demings said 
  • Demings led the Democrats’ main argument that Trump committed the two articles of impeachment
  • Republicans charged Democrats with playing politics 
  • ‘This was the first totally partisan presidential impeachment in our nation’s history,’ Trump’s personal attorney Jay Sekulow charged 
  • ‘At the end of the day, this is an effort to overturn the results of one election and to try to interfere in the coming election’ Pat Cipollone said
  • Trump’s lawyers argued Democrats were acting in a partisan way to try and overturn the 2016 election 
  • Trump is expected to be acquitted in the Republican-controlled Senate
  • Republicans have a 53-47 advantage in the Senate, meaning there’s nowhere near the two-thirds votes needed for Trump’s conviction in the Wednesday vote 

Adam Schiff made a passionate plea for the Senate to remove Donald Trump for office, arguing to senators it was the only way to stop his abuse of power, while defense attorney Ken Starr accused the Democrats of wanting to declare the 2016 election ‘null and void.

The dueling arguments played out on the Senate floor Monday afternoon ahead of Wednesday’s vote on whether to convict or acquit President Trump of the two articles of impeachment against him.

Schiff, the lead impeachment manager who the president has dubbed ‘Shifty Schiff,’ made the final case for his side as the odds were against them.

The president is expected to be acquitted in the Republican-controlled chamber where it would take a two-thirds vote to convict him.

'You can't trust this president to do the right thing, not for one minute,' Adam Schiff told senators

Both sides made their closing arguments in Donald Trump's impeachment trial on Monday

Schiff, in his 26-minute speech, warned senators the president can’t be trusted.

‘You can’t trust this president to do the right thing, not for one minute, not for one election, not for the sake of our country. You just can’t. He will not change. And you know it,’ he said.

He warned acquittal could bring about absolute power for Trump.

‘Trump could offer Alaska to the Russians in exchange for support in the next election or decide to move to Mar-a-Lago permanently and let Jared Kushner run the country, delegating to him the decision whether to go to war. Because those things are not necessarily criminal, this argument would allow he could not be impeached for such abuses of power. Of course this would be absurd. More than absurd, it would be dangerous,’ he added.

And he warned senators they could be the president’s next victim.

‘They’ll hack your opponents’ emails, mount a social media campaign to support you, announce investigations of your opponent to help you, and all for the asking. Leave Donald Trump in office after you have found him guilty and this is the future that you will invite,’ he said.

‘History will not be kind to Donald Trump. I think we all know that. Not because it will be written by Never-Trumpers but because whenever we have departed from the values of our nation we have come to regret it, and that regret is written all over the pages of our history,’ he said in a passionate final plea to the 100 senators who decide the president’s fate.

‘Every single vote, even a single vote by a single member can change the course of history. It is said that a single man or woman of courage makes a majority. Is there one among you who will say enough?,’ he added.

‘Truth matters little to him. What’s right matters even less. And decency matters not at all. I do not ask you to convict him truth or right or decency matter matters nothing to him but because we have proven our case and it matters to you. Truth matters to you. Right matters to you. You are decent. He is not who you are,’ he told the senators.

The president’s defense team focused on the politics with deputy White House counsel Patrick Philbin calling impeachment a ‘partisan political process.’

And White House Counsel Pat Cipollone asked the Senate to ‘end the era of impeachment once and for all.’

Rep. Val Demings made the Democrats case that President Trump committed the two articles of impeachment - abuse of power and obstruction of justice

President Trump has denied all charges

President Trump has denied all charges

Trump lawyer Sekulow plays video of Dems calling for impeachment

‘This was the first totally partisan presidential impeachment in our nation’s history,’ Trump’s personal attorney Jay Sekulow charged. ‘And it should be our last. What the House Democrats have done to this nation, to the constitution, to the office of the president, to the president himself and to this body is outrageous. They have cheapened the awesome power of impeachment.’

He played a video – complete with pulsing beat of ominous music – of an array of Democratic figures calling for the president’s impeachment back in 2017, 2018, and 2019.

Sekulow went on to add: ‘The bottom line is that the president’s opponents don’t like the president and they really don’t like his policies.’

Starr echoed an argument the president and his allies have long made: Democrats were trying to overturn the last presidential election.

He said a vote for impeachment would give the message that ‘your vote in the last election is hereby declared null and void. And by the way, we are not going to allow you – the American people – to sit in judgment on this president and his record.’

Cipollone made the same point and said the only conclusion the senators could come to was to impeach the president.

‘At the end of the day, the key conclusion, we believe the only conclusion based on the evidence and based on the articles of impeachment themselves and the Constitution, is that you must vote to acquit the president,’ Cipollone said. ‘At the end of the day, this is an effort to overturn the results of one election and to try to interfere in the coming election that begins today in Iowa.’

‘Leave the choice of the president to the American people,’ he said, referring to the upcoming November election.

And deputy White House counsel Patrick Philbin warned that a vote for impeachment could upset the balance of power between the executive and legislative branches.

He argued that anything a president does that Congress doesn’t like ‘and a time they don’t like can be treated as an impeachable offense. That’s an incredibly dangerous assertion. Because if it were accepted, it would fundamentally alter the balance between the different branches of our government,’ he said.

‘This was a purely partisan political process,’ Philbin said. ‘It was imposed by partisans in the House. It was done not to persuade anyone, to get to the truth or go by past presidents. It was done to get done by Christmas on a political timetable. And it’s not something this chamber should condone. That in itself provides a sufficient and substantial reason for rejecting the articles of impeachment.’

Ken Starr
Pat Cipollone

Jay Sekulow

Patrick Phiblin

President Trump’s attorneys – Ken Starr, Pat Cipollone, Jay Sekulow and Patrick Philbin – argued Democrats were acting in a partisan way to try and overturn the 2016 election

Democratic Rep. Val Demings of Florida outlined the role Trump’s personal attorney Rudy Giuliani played in the allegations against the president.

‘Donald Trump was the central player in the corrupt scheme assisted principally by his private attorney Rudy Giuliani,’ she said.

And she said he was still doing it.

‘As I stand here today, delivering the House’s closing argument, President Trump’s constitutional crimes, his crimes against the American people and the nation remain in progress,’ Demings said.

In her 20 minute argument, Demings made the most detailed case for Democrats.

She charged the president with trying to ‘cheat in the next election’ and alleged that he ‘weaponized our government.’ She told senators that Trump ‘violated his oath of office’ and committed a ‘grave abuse of power.’

Demings led the Democrats’ main argument that Trump committed the two articles of impeachment – abuse of power and obstruction of Congress – and it warranted his conviction and removal from office.

‘The House has presented to you overwhelming and unconverted evidence that President Trump has committed grave abuses of power that harmed our national security and were intended to defraud our elections,’ she said.

She then went through the history of the Democrats’ central argument against the president – that he with held U.S. aid from the Ukraine in exchange for that country to investigate his political rivals, Joe and Hunter Biden.

She rewove the Democrats’ case, bringing together all the bits of the story that have played out over the House investigation and trial in the Senate: the freeze on aid to the Ukraine, the campaign against the U.S. ambassador, Trump’s July 25 phone call with the Ukrainian president that sparked the impeachment inquiry, and the work of Giuliani.

Demings, who was the first female police chief in Orlando before running for Congress, minced no words when it came to Giuliani’s actions in the Ukraine. The president’s personal attorney was running a shadow foreign policy with the country, State Department aides testified during the impeachment investigation, for the political benefit of the president.

She accused Giuliani of working with Ukrainians ‘to fabricate and promote phony investigations of wrongdoing’ against Joe Biden.

Schiff urges Senate to convict as he presents closing arguments
Rep. Demings didn't hold back when she talked about Rudy Giuliani's actions in the Ukraine

Rep. Demings didn’t hold back when she talked about Rudy Giuliani’s actions in the Ukraine

Demings brought up Giuliani's work with Lev Parnas, who faces charges of illegal campaign contributions to Trump

Rudy Giuliani and Lev Parnas together at the Trump International Hotel in Washington in September 2019

She retraced the House Democrats’ case, pointing out how Giuliani worked with his associates Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman to first get rid of then-U.S. Ambassador to the Ukraine Marie Yovanovitch and then how Trump tried to get Giuliani a meeting with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky. Parnas and Fruman both face charges of illegal campaign contributions.

Demings then brought up Trump’s former National Security Adviser John Bolton, who Democrats wanted to call to testify but Senate Republicans defeated that proposal in 51-49 vote on Friday. Parnas has also said he would testify.

‘According to reports about Ambassador Bolton’s account, soon to be available if not to this body, then to bookstores near you, the president also unsuccessfully tried to get Bolton to call the new Ukrainian president to ensure he would meet with Giuliani. The desire for Ukraine to announce these phony investigations was for a clear and corrupt reason. Because President Trump wanted the political benefit of a foreign country announcing that it would investigate his rival,’ she said.

In his forth coming memoir, Bolton claimed the president told him U.S. aid to the Ukraine was being held up to pressure the country into investigating the Bidens.

Trump has denied the charge.

‘The desire for Ukraine to announce these phony investigations was for a clear and corrupt reason. Because President Trump wanted the political benefit of a foreign country announcing that it would investigate his rival. That is how we know, without a doubt, that the object of the president’s scheme was to benefit his re-election campaign. In other words, to cheat in the next election,’ Demings declared.

‘President Trump weaponized our government and the vast powers entrusted to him by the American people and the constitution to target his political rival and corrupt our precious elections,’ she said.

‘He put his personal interests over those of the country,’ she continued. ‘And he violated his oath of office in the process. But the president’s grave abuse of power did not end there. In conduct unparalleled in American history, once he got caught, President Trump engaged in categorical and indiscriminate obstruction of any investigation into his wrongdoing.’

And she said he acted guilty.

‘The president’s obstruction was unlawful and unprecedented, but it also confirmed his guilt. Innocent people don’t try to hide every document and witness, especially those that would clear them. That’s what guilty people do. That’s what guilty people do,’ she said.

Trump took to Twitter during the Democrats’ closing argument to repeat his complaint he was the victim of a ‘hoax.’

‘I hope Republicans & the American people realize that the totally partisan Impeachment Hoax is exacty that, a Hoax. Read the Transcripts, listen to what the President & Foreign Minister of Ukraine said (‘No Pressure’). Nothing will ever satisfy the Do Nothing, Radical Left Dems!,’ he wrote.

Democratic Rep. Jason Crowe made a similar argument about the reputation of the Senate, quoting from the Harry Potter book series.

‘The quote is from Professor Dumbledore, who said, it is our choices that show who we truly are for more than our abilities. This trial will soon be over, but there will be many choices for all of us in the days ahead, the most pressing of which is how each of us will decide to fulfill our oath. More than our words, our choices will show the world who we really are, what type of leaders we will be and what type of nation we will be,’ he said.

Closing arguments began Monday even as President Trump is expected to be acquitted in the Republican-controlled Senate.

But there is plenty of drama in the works leading up to Wednesday afternoon’s vote on the matter that is likely to have reverberations on relations between the two ends of Pennsylvania Avenue for the remainder of President Trump’s time in the White House.

Trump told Fox News in an interview that aired Sunday he could see the ‘hatred’ from Democrats. The president had strong words for his political foes and didn’t sound a hopeful tone about future relations between the two branches of government.

‘It’s pretty hard when you think about it because it’s been such, I use the word witch hunt – I use the word hoax,’ Trump said when asked about working with Democratic leaders Nancy Pelosi and Chuck Schumer after the trial’s conclusion.

‘I see the hatred,’ he added. ‘They don’t care about fairness. They don’t care about lying.’ 

Closing arguments began Monday in Donald Trump's impeachment trial - he's seen leaving for Mar-a-Lago on Friday with first lady Melania Trump

Trump said it will be hard to work with Speaker Nancy Pelosi after the trial

The president will be in the same room with Pelosi and Schumer before his trial ends, on Tuesday evening for his annual State of the Union address. The speaker will be seated behind him in the House chamber and Schumer will be in the audience during the joint session of Congress.

It’s unclear if the president will mention his trial in his remarks.

A senior administration official wouldn’t say when asked about it during a Friday briefing at the White House.

‘I’m not going to get ahead of what the president will say,’ the person said.

And Trump told reporters during his Super Bowl party at his West Palm Beach golf club Sunday night: ‘We’re really looking to giving a very very positive message’ when he gives his speech.

Trump – the head of the executive branch – and Pelosi – the powerful speaker of the House who can make or break his legislative agenda on Capitol Hill – will have to work together when the impeachment trial concludes.

Congress must pass a budget to fund the government before the end of the fiscal year in October and both sides have expressed an interest in lower prescription drug costs and working on infrastructure.

That move signaled a rapid conclusion of the trial was on hand for the president.

There will be four hours for closing arguments – two for the prosecution and two for Trump’s defense team.

Afterward, there will be time for senators to make remarks on the Senate floor about the case.

The final vote on Wednesday will conclude the Democrats’ three-month investigation into allegations Trump with held nearly $400 million in military aid to the Ukraine in exchange for that country to investigate Joe and Hunter Biden, his political rivals.

Trump denies the charges but House Democrats vote in December to charge him with two articles of impeachment: abuse of power and obstruction of Congress.

Doug Jones

Three Democratic senators – Doug Jones of Alabama, Joe Manchin of West Virginia and Kyrsten Sinema of Arizona – all represent states the president carried in the 2016 election and have stayed quiet about how they intend to vote on impeachment

A NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll found the majority of voters believe that Trump abused his power and obstructed Congress, but they are split on whether he should be removed from office.

In the poll, released on Sunday, 46 per cent said the president should be removed from office while 49 per cent said he should remain.

Republicans have a 53-47 advantage in the Senate, meaning there’s nowhere near the two-thirds votes needed for Trump’s conviction and removal from office.

The focus of Wednesday’s vote, however, will be if the president gets a bipartisan all-clear.

Three Democratic senators – Doug Jones of Alabama, Joe Manchin of West Virginia and Kyrsten Sinema of Arizona – all represent states the president carried in the 2016 election and have stayed quiet about how they intend to vote. 

Just one Democratic voting in his favor would give the president something to crow about.

And while Trump’s trial is rolling toward a close on Wednesday, the spectra of the Ukraine may not.

Adam Schiff, the House Intelligence panel chairman and lead Democratic impeachment manager, wouldn’t rule out subpoenaing John Bolton in the future.

Democrats wanted to hear from the president’s former National Security Adviser about excerpts published from his forth coming memoir.

‘I don’t want to comment to this point on what our plans may or may not be with respect to John Bolton,’ Schiff said Sunday on CBS’ ‘Face the Nation. ‘But I will say this: whether it’s before- in testimony before the House or it’s in his book or it’s in one form or another, the truth will come out as- will continue to come out.’

Schiff also said ‘there’s nothing that I can see that we could have done differently’ in presenting their case against the president to the Senate.

Adam Schiff wouldn't rule out subpoenaing John Bolton in the future

Democrats wanted to hear from John Bolton  about excerpts published from his forth coming memoir

Meanwhile, some Democrats are already shifting their attention to their next battle with the president: the November election.

Democrats finally begin voting for their party’s nominee on Monday when Iowa holds is caucuses – the first nominating contest.

Four contenders for the Democratic nomination – Senators Bernie Sanders, Elizabeth Warren, Amy Klobuchar and Michael Bennet – have missed out on valuable campaign time due to Trump’s trial.

And all will be back in Washington D.C. on Wednesday for the final vote on the president’s fate.

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7961341/Closing-arguments-begin-TODAY-Donald-Trumps-impeachment-trial-heads-conclusion.html

 

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The Pronk Pops Show 750, September 7, 2016, Story 1: Trump Indictment of Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama’s Failed Foreign Policy of Death — Videos –Story 2: Conservative Movement Leader and Author of Updated Classic “A Choice, not an Echo”, and Defender of The Family and Life, Phyllis Schlafly Passed Way At 92, Rest In Peace — Videos — Story 3: Donald Trump in Detroit Addresses and Listens To Black Church Members of Great Faith Ministries — Calls For Civil Rights Agenda For Our Times — Videos Story 4: Clinton in Cleveland Kicks Off Campaign with A Hacking Coughing Fit — Videos — Story 5: Hillary Clinton Destroying Emails That Were Subject To Congressional Subpoena and Preservation of Evidence Order Is Obstruction of Justice! — 13 Blackberries Gone Missing –House oversight chair Jason Chaffetz asks for new investigation of deleted Clinton emails! — Videos

Posted on September 6, 2016. Filed under: 2016 Presidential Campaign, 2016 Presidential Candidates, American History, Banking System, Benghazi, Blogroll, Breaking News, Budgetary Policy, College, Communications, Congress, Constitutional Law, Corruption, Countries, Culture, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Donald Trump, Drugs, Economics, Elections, Employment, Federal Government, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, Free Trade, Government, Government Dependency, Government Spending, Hillary Clinton, History, House of Representatives, Human, Illegal Drugs, Illegal Immigration, Immigration, Impeachment, Labor Economics, Law, Legal Drugs, Legal Immigration, Life, Media, Mexico, Monetary Policy, Movies, Obama, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, President Barack Obama, Private Sector Unions, Pro Life, Progressives, Public Sector Unions, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Scandals, Security, Senate, Social Science, Success, Tax Policy, Taxation, Taxes, Terror, Terrorism, Trade Policy, Unemployment, Unions, United States of America, Videos, Violence, War, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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Pronk Pops Show 750: September 7, 2016 

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Story 1: Trump Indictment of  Barack Obama’s and Hillary Clinton’s Failed Foreign Policy of Death and Destruction! — Videos

trump-speech-defense

Watch Donald Trump’s full speech on defense spending

 

Jeff Koterba cartoon for August 15, 2014 "Obama Hillary Clinton campaign foreign policy"

clinton-email-server

TEXT: Trump’s remarks on military readiness

 

Story 2: Conservative Movement Leader and Author of Updated Classic  “A Choice, not an Echo”, and Defender of The Family and Life, Phyllis Schlafly Passed Way At 92, Rest In Peace — Videosphyllis_schlaflywho-killed-the-american-familya-choice-not-an-echo

“The most frequent complaint I hear from college students is that professors inject their leftist political comments into their courses even when they have nothing to do with the subject.”

“Our public school system is our country’s biggest and most inefficient monopoly, yet it keeps demanding more and more money.”

~Phyllis Schlafly

Conservative Icon Phyllis Schlafly Dead at 92

Conservative Icon Phyllis Schlafly Dies at 92

Phyllis Schlafly: The Lost Interview

The Liberalization of America | Phyllis Schlafly and Stefan Molyneux

Rise of the Left, Death of the Family | Phyllis Schlafly and Stefan Molyneux

Phyllis Schlafly Remembered

In Honor of Phyllis Schlafly (Jesse Lee Peterson)

Phyllis Schlafly: The Passing of a Patriot

Phyllis Schlafly on The Sean Hannity Radio Show (4/22/2016)

Phyllis Schlafly Endorses Donald Trump at Rally in St. Louis, MO (3-11-16)

A Message from Phyllis Schlafly

CPAC 2013 – Phyllis Schlafly, Founder, Eagle Forum (Emcee: Steven Crowder)

Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr. “The Equal Rights Amendment”

Phyllis Schlafly Speaks Out, 5-15-08

Phyllis Schlafly on Trump vs. Republican Kingmakers

Phyllis Schlafly Defends ‘Right To Life’ (1995) | NBC News

Schlafly: Trump Only Hope To Beat The Kingmakers

 

TRUMP IN MEXICO RECALLS REAGAN IN GENEVA

Phyllis Schlafly recalls Gipper’s no-surrender issue that led to end of Cold War

Read more at http://www.wnd.com/2016/09/trump-in-mexico-recalls-reagan-in-geneva/#YcetWG7BuTo6YFKo.99

 

Donald Trump’s surprise visit to Mexico, where he met the Mexican president and discussed the many contentious issues between our two countries, reminds me of President Reagan’s important trip to Geneva in 1985. Reagan was more than willing to sit down with the Communist leader of the USSR in an effort to build a personal connection between the two men without sacrificing America’s vital interests in the Cold War.

The 1985 Geneva summit was highly advertised as a potential showdown between Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev, the supposedly reasonable new Soviet leader. When it was over, Americans realized that behind Reagan’s genial affability was a steely determination to protect our country against the threat from Soviet nuclear missiles.

Just as today’s mainstream media are bent on undermining Trump’s call to put Americans first in our dealings with Mexico, the media of the 1980s (led by ABC’s Sam Donaldson and CBS’ Dan Rather) were overwhelmingly pro-Gorbachev and anti-Reagan in their daily coverage.

Left-wing celebrities from around the world converged on Geneva to support the media narrative that a stubborn President Reagan was refusing to consider Gorbachev’s reasonable proposals for world peace. Rep. Bella Abzug, actress Jane Alexander and the inevitable Jesse Jackson were giving daily interviews.

I led a delegation of 25 distinguished women leaders to Geneva to support Reagan and American nuclear superiority. The media didn’t give us much coverage, but President Reagan telephoned me afterward from the White House to thank me for our support.

Reagan had been elected on a promise to “win” the Cold War against the Communist forces arrayed against America. Before Reagan, our country’s foreign policy was controlled by men like Henry Kissinger, who thought victory was impossible and that his job, as he famously told Adm. Zumwalt, was “to negotiate the most acceptable second-best position” for the United States.

After three decades of steady deterioration of America’s place in the world, Trump is the first candidate since Reagan who is comfortable using Reagan’s vocabulary of winning. Trump has pledged to make America “win” again, instead of being cheated and outmaneuvered by our adversaries and even our so-called allies.

Trump’s visit to Mexico recalls Reagan’s trip to Geneva in other ways, too. At both meetings, there was one signature position on which the American refused to budge.

Reagan’s no-surrender pledge was his unwavering commitment to the Strategic Defense Initiative, that is, to build and deploy a system to shoot down Soviet nuclear missiles headed for our cities. With Trump, it’s his rock-solid promise to build “an impenetrable physical wall” on our southern border.

Both Reagan’s and Trump’s signature ideas were purely defensive weapons to which no country could have any legitimate complaint. Reagan’s SDI was a non-nuclear weapon whose only function was to destroy or deflect incoming nuclear missiles.

Reagan stuck to that non-negotiable position at the summit with Gorbachev the following year in Reykjavik, Iceland. As we now know, that’s when Gorby realized he could never win an open competition with the United States, so that his “acceptable second-best position” was the dissolution of the USSR over the next five years.

Likewise, Donald Trump’s wall is not a provocative, but a neighborly idea to stop the rampant illegality that harms both nations along the U.S.-Mexico border. With no legitimate objection to erecting a fence, wall or other physical barrier between our two countries, Mexico should be grateful for Trump’s leadership and even agree to help pay for it.

The value of a wall begins with stopping “murderers” and “rapists” from freely entering and re-entering our country with impunity, as Trump mentioned when he announced the start of his campaign last year, but it doesn’t stop there. Felony assault by motor vehicle is another deadly crime that seems to be rampant by illegal aliens driving recklessly without the licenses or insurance law-abiding Americans take for granted.

The wall would also stop the plague of heroin that has exploded during the last few years of the Obama administration. Deaths from heroin overdoses surpassed deaths from car crashes last year and will hit a new record this year. Most U.S. heroin is delivered by Mexicans working for the drug cartels.

Of course, most Mexican immigrants are not murderers, rapists, drunk drivers or drug dealers. But even the good, hardworking people who come here from south of the border, both legally and illegally, have such low education and skills that they can’t survive economically without massive public subsidies to provide for the care, food, shelter, health care, education and welfare of their children.

Voters finally have the opportunity to choose a president who will make America first by securing our border and ending one-sided trade deals that favor foreign workers rather than our own. Trump’s strong stance in his meeting with the Mexican president demonstrates that Donald Trump is the “choice, not an echo.”

Attacked, debased, maligned and vilified: This foundational institution is fighting for its life. Order Phyllis Schlafly’s latest book, “Who Killed the American Family?” along with her updated classic, “A Choice, not an Echo”

 http://www.wnd.com/2016/09/trump-in-mexico-recalls-reagan-in-geneva/#YcetWG7BuTo6YFKo.99

 

Phyllis Schlafly

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phyllis Schlafly
Phyllis Schlafly by Gage Skidmore.jpg

Schlafly in 2011
Born Phyllis McAlpin Stewart
August 15, 1924
St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.[1]
Died September 5, 2016 (aged 92)
Ladue, Missouri, U.S.
Other names Phyllis Stewart Schlafly
Alma mater Washington University
Harvard University
Political party Republican
Religion Roman Catholicism
Spouse(s) John Schlafly (deceased)
Children Six, including Andrew

Phyllis McAlpin Stewart Schlafly (/ˈfɪls ˈʃlæfli/; August 15, 1924 – September 5, 2016) was an American constitutional lawyer and conservative activist. She was known for her staunch social and political views, her opposition to modern feminism, and her successful campaign against the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Her 1964 book A Choice, Not an Echo, a push-back against liberal Republican leader Nelson Rockefeller and the powerful eastern Republican establishment, sold more than three million copies. She co-authored books on national defense and was highly critical of arms-control agreements with the former Soviet Union.[2] Schlafly founded the Eagle Forum in 1972 and the Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund. She was the Eagle Forum board chairman and CEO and maintained a presence on the lecture circuit until her death. Starting in 1967, she published a newsletter, The Phyllis Schlafly Report.

Family

Schlafly’s great-grandfather Stewart, a Presbyterian, emigrated from Scotland to New York in 1851 and moved westward through Canada before settling in Michigan.[3] Her grandfather, Andrew F. Stewart, was a master mechanic with the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway.[4] Schlafly’s father, John Bruce Stewart, was a machinist and salesman of industrial equipment, principally for Westinghouse. He became unemployed in 1932 during the Great Depression and could not find permanent work until World War II.[5] He was granted a patent in 1944 for a rotary engine.[6]

Schlafly’s mother, the former Odile Dodge,[7] was the daughter of attorney Ernest C. Dodge. She attended college and graduate school. Before her marriage, she worked as a teacher at a private girls’ school in St. Louis.[8]During the Depression, Schlafly’s mother went back to work as a librarian and a school teacher to support her family.[citation needed]

Personal life

Schlafly was christened Phyllis McAlpin Stewart, and born and raised in St. Louis. During the Depression, Schlafly’s father faced long-term unemployment, and her mother entered the labor market. Mrs. Stewart was able to keep the family afloat and maintained Phyllis in a Catholic girls’ school.[9]

Schlafly started college early and worked as a model for a time. In 1944, she earned her Bachelor of ArtsPhi Beta Kappa from Washington University in St. Louis. In 1945, she received a Master of Arts degree in government from Radcliffe College (then a female coordinate institution for the all-male Harvard). In her 1966 book Strike From Space (1965), Schlafly notes that during World War II, she worked as “a ballistics gunner and technician at the largest ammunition plant in the world”. She earned a J.D. from Washington University Law School in St. Louis in 1978.[5]

On October 20, 1949, when she was twenty-five years old, Phyllis married attorney John Fred Schlafly, Jr., a member of a wealthy St. Louis family; he died in 1993. His grandfather, August, immigrated in 1854 from Switzerland. In the late 1870s, the three brothers founded the firm of Schlafly Bros., which dealt in groceries, Queensware (dishes made by Wedgwood), hardware, and agricultural implements.[10] These Schlafly brothers later sold that business and concentrated on banking and other enterprises that made them wealthy.[11][citation needed] Fred and Phyllis Schlafly were both active Catholics. They linked Catholicism to Americanism and often exhorted Catholics to join the anti-communist crusade.[12]

Fred and Phyllis Schlafly moved across the Mississippi River to Alton, Illinois, and had six children: John, Bruce, Roger, Liza, Andrew, and Anne S. Cori.[13] In 1992, their eldest son, John, was outed as homosexual by Queer Week magazine.[14][15] Schlafly acknowledged that John is gay, but stated that he embraces his mother’s views.[14][16]

Schlafly was the aunt of conservative anti-feminist author Suzanne Venker; together they wrote The Flipside of Feminism: What Conservative Women Know—and Men Can’t Say.[17] Schlafly was also the aunt of lawyer and businessman Thomas Schlafly, who owns the Saint Louis Brewery. Since 2014, Phyllis opposed Thomas’s company’s trademark application to use the Schlafly name on their commercial microbrews because of potential damage to her reputation; her representative stated that alcohol has “a connotation that is the opposite of conservative values”.[18][19] The legal basis for the challenge, however, was that the proposed trademark consisted primarily of a surname.[20] On August 14, 2016, the United States Patent and Trademark Office dismissed this argument.[21]

Schafly died on September 5, 2016, at her home in Ladue, Missouri, at the age of 92.[22][23]

Activism and political efforts

Among Schlafly’s early experiences in politics was working in the successful 1946 campaign of CongressmanClaude I. Bakewell.

In 1946, Schlafly became a researcher for the American Enterprise Institute and worked in the successful United States House of Representatives’ campaign of Republican Claude I. Bakewell.[24]

In 1952, Schlafly ran for Congress as a Republican in the majority Democratic24th congressional district of Illinois and lost to Charles Melvin Price.[25] Schlafly’s campaign was low-budget and promoted heavily through the local print media, and local entrepreneurs John M. and Spencer Olin as well as Texas oil billionaire H. L. Hunt.[26] She also attended her first Republican National Convention that year and continued to attend each following convention.[14] As part of the Illinois delegation of the 1952 Republican convention, Schlafly endorsed U.S. Senator Robert A. Taft ofOhio to be the party nominee for the presidential election.[27] At the 1960 Republican National Convention, Schlafly helped lead a revolt of “moral conservatives” who opposed Richard Nixon‘s stance (as The New York Times puts it) “against segregation and discrimination.”[28]

She came to national attention when millions of copies of her self-published book, A Choice Not an Echo, were distributed in support of Goldwater’s 1964 presidential campaign, especially inCalifornia‘s hotly fought winner-take-all-delegates GOP primary.[29] In it, Schlafly denounced the Rockefeller Republicans in the Northeast, accusing them of corruption and globalism. Critics called the book a conspiracy theory about “secret kingmakers” controlling the Republican Party.[30]

In 1967, Schlafly lost a bid for the presidency of the National Federation of Republican Women against the more moderate candidate Gladys O’Donnell of California. Outgoing NFRW president and future United States TreasurerDorothy Elston of Delaware worked against Schlafly in the campaign.[31][32]

Schlafly joined the John Birch Society, but quit because she thought that the main communist threats to the nation were external rather than internal. In 1970, she ran unsuccessfully for a House of Representatives seat in Illinois against Democratic incumbent George E. Shipley. This was midway in Nixon’s first term as president.[citation needed]

Opposition to Equal Rights Amendment

Symbol used on signs and buttons of ERA opponents

Schlafly became an outspoken opponent of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) during the 1970s as the organizer of the “STOP ERA” campaign. STOP was an acronym for “Stop Taking Our Privileges.” Schlafly argued that the ERA would take away gender-specific privileges currently enjoyed by women, including “dependent wife” benefits under Social Security, separate restrooms for males and females, and exemption from the Selective Service (the Army draft).[33][34] She was opposed by groups such as the National Organization for Women (NOW) and the ERAmerica coalition.[35] The Homemakers’ Equal Rights Association was also formed to counter Schlafly’s campaign.[36]

In 1972, when Schlafly began her campaign against the Equal Rights Amendment, it had already been ratified by 28 of the required 38 states. Five more states ratified the amendment after Schlafly began organizing opposition, but another five states rescinded their ratifications. The last state to ratify the ERA was Indiana, where State Senator Wayne Townsend cast the tie-breaking vote in January 1977.

The Equal Rights Amendment was narrowly defeated, having only achieved ratification in 35 states, five of which had subsequently rescinded their ratification.[5] Experts agree that Schlafly was a key player. Political scientist Jane J. Mansbridge concluded in her history of the ERA:

Many people who followed the struggle over the ERA believed—rightly in my view—that the Amendment would have been ratified by 1975 or 1976 had it not been for Phyllis Schlafly’s early and effective effort to organize potential opponents.[37]

Joan Williams argues, “ERA was defeated when Schlafly turned it into a war among women over gender roles.”[38] Historian Judith Glazer-Raymo argues:

As moderates, we thought we represented the forces of reason and goodwill but failed to take seriously the power of the family values argument and the single-mindedness of Schlafly and her followers. The ERA’s defeat seriously damaged the women’s movement, destroying its momentum and its potential to foment social change … Eventually, this resulted in feminist dissatisfaction with the Republican Party, giving the Democrats a new source of strength that when combined with overwhelming minority support, helped elect Bill Clinton to the presidency in 1992 and again in 1996.[39]

Critics of Schlafly saw her advocacy against equal rights and her role as a working professional as a contradiction. Gloria Steinem and author Pia de Solenni, among others, noted what they considered the irony in Schlafly’s role as an advocate for the full-time mother and wife, while being herself a lawyer, editor of a monthly newsletter, regular speaker at anti-liberal rallies, and political activist.[31][40][41]

Broadcast media

In broadcast media, Schlafly provided commentaries on Chicago news radio station WBBM from 1973 to 1975, the CBS Morning News from 1974 to 1975, and then on CNN from 1980 to 1983. In 1983, she began creating syndicated daily 3-minute commentaries for radio. In 1989, she began hosting a weekly radio talk show, Eagle Forum Live.[42]

Viewpoints

Equal Rights Amendment

Schlafly focused opposition to the ERA on traditional gender roles, such as that only men should do the fighting in wartime. She pointed out that the amendment would eliminate the men-only draft requirement and guarantee the possibility that women would be subject to conscription and be required to have military combat roles in future wars. Defense of traditional gender roles proved to be a useful tactic. In Illinois her activists used traditional symbols of the American housewife. They took homemade bread, jams, and apple pies to the state legislators, with the slogans, “Preserve us from a congressional jam; Vote against the ERA sham” and “I am for Mom and apple pie.”[43]

According to historian Lisa Levenstein, who works largely in fields pertaining to women’s history,[44] the feminist movement in the late 1970s briefly attempted a program to help older divorced and widowed women. Many widows were ineligible for Social Security benefits, few divorcees actually received any alimony, and after a career as a housewife, few had skills to enter the labor force. The program, however, encountered sharp criticism from young activists who gave priority to poor minority women rather than the middle class. By 1980, NOW downplayed the program as it focused almost exclusively on the ERA. Schlafly moved into the vacuum. She denounced the feminists for abandoning older middle-class widows and divorcees in need and warned that ERA would equalize the laws for the benefit of man, stripping protections that older women urgently needed.[45] She said the ERA was designed for the benefit of young career women and warned that if men and women had to be treated identically it would threaten the security of middle-aged housewives with no current job skills. The ERA would repeal protections such as alimony and eliminate the tendency for mothers to obtain custody over their children in divorce cases.[46] Her argument that protective laws would be lost resonated with working-class women.[47]

Women’s issues

Schlafly with Ronald Reagan in 1987

Schlafly told Time magazine in 1978, “I have cancelled speeches whenever my husband thought that I had been away from home too much.”[48]

In March 2007, Schlafly said in a speech at Bates College in Lewiston, Maine, “By getting married, the woman has consented to sex, and I don’t think you can call it rape.”[49]

In a March 30, 2006, interview, Schlafly attributed improvement in women’s lives during the last decades of the 20th century to labor-saving devices such as the indoor clothes dryer and disposable diapers.[50]

She called Roe v. Wade “the worst decision in the history of the U.S. Supreme Court” and said that it “is responsible for the killing of millions of unborn babies”.[51]

In 2007, while working to defeat a new version of the Equal Rights Amendment, she warned it would force courts to approve same-sex marriages and deny Social Security benefits for housewives and widows.[34]

United Nations and international relations

In college in 1945, Schlafly applauded[how?] the establishment of the United Nations. Over the years, however, she disdained the UN. On the 50th anniversary of the United Nations in 1995, Schlafly referred to it as “a cause for mourning, not celebration. It is a monument to foolish hopes, embarrassing compromises, betrayal of our servicemen, and a steady stream of insults to our nation. It is a Trojan Horse that carries the enemy into our midst and lures Americans to ride under alien insignia to fight and die in faraway lands.” She opposed President Bill Clinton‘s decision in 1996 to send 20,000 American troops to Bosnia. Schlafly noted that Balkan nations have fought one another for 500 years and that the U.S. military should not be “policemen” of world trouble spots.[52]

Prior to the 1994 Congressional elections, Schlafly condemned globalization through the World Trade Organization as a “direct attack on American sovereignty, independence, jobs, and economy … any country that must change its laws to obey rulings of a world organization has sacrificed its sovereignty.”[53]

In late 2006, Schlafly collaborated with Jerome Corsi and Howard Phillips to create a website in opposition to the idea of a “North American Union“, under which the United States, Mexico, and Canada would share a currency and be integrated in a structure similar to the European Union.[54]

During the Cold War, Schlafly opposed arms control agreements with the Soviet Union. In 1961, she wrote that “[arms control] will not stop Red aggression any more than disarming our local police will stop murder, theft, and rape.”[55]

Judicial system

Schlafly was an outspoken critic of what she terms “activist judges“, particularly on the Supreme Court. In 2005, Schlafly made headlines at a conference for the Judeo-Christian Council for Constitutional Restoration by suggesting that “Congress ought to talk about impeachment” of Justice Anthony Kennedy, citing as specific grounds Justice Kennedy’s deciding vote to abolish the death penalty for minors.[56] In April 2010, shortly after John Paul Stevens announced his retirement as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, Schlafly called for the appointment of a military veteran to the Court, since Stevens had been a veteran and, with his retirement, the court was “at risk of being left without a single military veteran.”[57]

Presidential elections

Schlafly did not endorse a candidate for the 2008Republican presidential nomination, but she spoke out against Mike Huckabee, who, she says, as governor left the Republican Party in Arkansas “in shambles”. At the Eagle Forum, she has hosted U.S. RepresentativeTom Tancredo of Colorado, known for his opposition to illegal immigration. Before his election, she criticized Barack Obama as “an elitist who worked with words”.[58] During the election, she endorsed John McCain in an interview by saying: “Well, I’m a Republican, I’m supporting McCain”. When asked about criticism of John McCain from Rush Limbaugh, she said: “Well, there are problems, we are trying to teach him”.[59]

Schlafly endorsed Michele Bachmann in December 2011 for the Iowa caucus of the 2012 Republican presidential primaries, citing Bachmann’s work against “ObamaCare” and deficit spending and her (Bachmann’s) support of “traditional values.”[60]

On February 3 Schlafly announced that she would be voting for Rick Santorum in the 2012 Missouri Republican primary.[61]

In 2016, Schlafly endorsed Donald Trump‘s candidacy for president.[62] The endorsement soon led to a breach in the Eagle Forum board. Schlafly broke with six dissident members, including her own daughter, Anne Corie,[63]and Cathie Adams, the former short-term state chairman of the Texas Republican Party. Adams instead supported U.S. Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, Trump’s principal challenger whom Adams considered a more conservative choice. Schlafly claimed that Adams attended a rogue board meeting with the intention of taking control of Eagle Forum. Schlafly hence called upon Corie, Adams, and the four other dissidents, all but one of whom support Cruz, to resign from the board. Schlafly further withdrew her support for Adams’ current bid for vice chairman of the Republican Party of Texas at the pending state convention. Schlafly called Adams “disloyal” and claimed that Adams declined to return Schlafly’s telephone call regarding the dispute.[64]

Same-sex marriage

Schlafly opposed same-sex marriage and civil unions: “[a]ttacks on the definition of marriage as the union of one man and one woman come from the gay lobby seeking social recognition of their lifestyle.”[65] Linking the Equal Rights Amendment to LGBT rights and same-sex marriage played a role in Schlafly’s opposition to the ERA.[66][67]

Immigration proposals

Schlafly believed the Republican Party should reject immigration reform proposals; she told Focus Today that it is a “great myth” that the GOP needs to reach out to Latinos in the United States. “The people the Republicans should reach out to are the white votes, the white voters who didn’t vote in the last election. The propagandists are leading us down the wrong path,” she said. “There’s not any evidence at all that these Hispanics coming in from Mexico will vote Republican.”[68][69]

Honorary degree and protests

On May 1, 2008, the trustees of Washington University in St. Louis announced that Schlafly would receive an honorary degree at the school’s 2008 commencement ceremony. This was immediately met with objection by some students and faculty at the university who accused her of being anti-feminist and criticized her work on defeating the equal rights amendment.[70] Fourteen university law professors wrote in a complaint letter that Schlafly’s career demonstrated “anti-intellectualism in pursuit of a political agenda.”[71] While the trustees’ honorary degree committee approved the honorees unanimously, five student members of the committee wrote to complain that they had to vote on the five honorees as a slate, in the final stage of the voting and felt the selection of Schlafly was a mistake though she may have well been the famous WU graduate.[72][73] In the days leading up to the commencement ceremony, Washington University Chancellor Mark S. Wrighton explained the trustees’ decision to award Schlafly’s degree with the following statement:

In bestowing this degree, the University is not endorsing Mrs. Schlafly’s views or opinions; rather, it is recognizing an alumna of the University whose life and work have had a broad impact on American life and have sparked widespread debate and controversies that in many cases have helped people better formulate and articulate their own views about the values they hold.[74]

At the May 16, 2008, commencement ceremony, Schlafly was awarded a Doctor of Humane Letters degree. A protest to rescind Schlafly’s honorary degree received support from faculty and students. During the ceremony, hundreds of the 14,000 attendees, including one third of the graduating students and some faculty, silently stood and turned their backs to Schlafly in protest.[75] In the days leading up to the commencement there were several protests regarding her degree award; Schlafly described these protesters as “a bunch of losers.”[70] In addition, she stated after the ceremony that the protesters were “juvenile” and that, “I’m not sure they’re mature enough to graduate.”[75] As planned, Schlafly did not give any speech during the commencement ceremony, nor did any of the other honorees except for commencement speaker, liberal commentator Chris Matthews of MSNBC.[76]

Death

Schlafly died of cancer in her St. Louis home on Sept. 5, 2016. She was 92.[77]

Published works

Schlafly was the author of twenty-four books on subjects ranging from child care to phonics education. She wrote a syndicated weekly newspaper column for Creators Syndicate.[78][79]

Schlafly’s published works include:

  • The Conservative Case for Trump – posthumously, with Ed Martin and Brett M. Decker (Regnery Publishing, 2016) ISBN 978-1-62157-628-0
  • How the Republican Party Became Pro-Life (Dunrobin Publishing, 2016) ISBN 978-0-9884613-9-0
  • A Choice Not an Echo: Updated and Expanded 50th Anniversary Edition (Regnery Publishing, 2014) ISBN 978-1621573159
  • Who Killed the American Family? (WND Books, 2014) ISBN 978-1938067525
  • No Higher Power: Obama’s War on Religious Freedom (Regnery Publishing, 2012) ISBN 978-1621570127
  • The Flipside of Feminism: What Conservative Women Know—and Men Can’t Say (WorldNetDaily, 2011) ISBN 978-1935071273
  • Judicial Tyranny: The New Kings of America? – contributing author (Amerisearch, 2005) ISBN 0-9753455-6-7
  • The Supremacists: The Tyranny of Judges And How to Stop It (Spence Publishing Company, 2004) ISBN 1-890626-55-4
  • Feminist Fantasies, foreword by Ann Coulter (Spence Publishing Company, 2003) ISBN 1-890626-46-5
  • Turbo Reader (Pere Marquette Press, 2001) ISBN 0-934640-16-5
  • First Reader (Pere Marquette Press, 1994) ISBN 0-934640-24-6
  • Who Will Rock the Cradle?: The Battle for Control of Child Care in America (World Publications, 1989) ISBN 978-0849931987
  • Pornography’s Victims (Crossway Books, 1987) ISBN 0-89107-423-6
  • Child Abuse in the Classroom (Crossway Books, 1984) ISBN 0-89107-365-5
  • Equal Pay for UNequal Work (Eagle Forum, 1984) ISBN 99950-3-143-4
  • The End of an Era (Regnery Publishing, 1982) ISBN 0-89526-659-8
  • The Power of the Christian Woman (Standard Pub, 1981) ISBN B0006E4X12
  • The Power of the Positive Woman (Crown Pub, 1977) ISBN 0-87000-373-9
  • Ambush at Vladivostok, with Chester Ward (Pere Marquette Press, 1976) ISBN 0-934640-00-9
  • Kissinger on the Couch (Arlington House Publishers, 1974) ISBN 0-87000-216-3
  • Mindszenty the Man (with Josef Vecsey) (Cardinal Mindszenty Foundation, 1972) ISBN B00005WGD6
  • The Betrayers (Pere Marquette Press, 1968) ISBN B0006CY0CQ
  • Safe Not Sorry (Pere Marquette Press, 1967) ISBN 0-934640-06-8
  • Strike from Space: A Megadeath Mystery (Pere Marquette Press, 1965) ISBN 80-7507-634-6
  • Grave Diggers (with Chester Ward) (Pere Marquette Press, 1964) ISBN 0-934640-03-3
  • A Choice Not an Echo (Pere Marquette Press, 1964) ISBN 0-686-11486-8

See also

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phyllis_Schlafly

Story 3: Donald Trump in Detroit Addresses and Listens To Black Church Members of Great Faith Ministries — Calls For Civil Rights Agenda For Our Times — Videos

General Election: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein

Polling Data

Poll Date Sample MoE
Clinton (D)
Trump (R)
Johnson (L)
Stein (G)
Spread
RCP Average 8/25 – 9/4 41.4 39.0 8.1 3.0 Clinton +2.4
CNN/ORC 9/1 – 9/4 786 LV 3.5 43 45 7 2 Trump +2
NBC News/SM 8/29 – 9/4 32226 RV 1.0 41 37 12 4 Clinton +4
IBD/TIPP 8/26 – 9/1 861 LV 3.4 39 39 12 3 Tie
Rasmussen Reports 8/29 – 8/30 1000 LV 3.0 39 40 7 3 Trump +1
FOX News 8/28 – 8/30 1011 RV 3.0 41 39 9 4 Clinton +2
Economist/YouGov 8/27 – 8/29 1119 RV 4.0 42 37 7 3 Clinton +5
Reuters/Ipsos 8/25 – 8/29 1404 LV 3.0 40 38 6 2 Clinton +2
PPP (D) 8/26 – 8/28 881 LV 3.3 42 37 6 4 Clinton +5
Monmouth 8/25 – 8/28 689 LV 3.7 46 39 7 2 Clinton +7

All General Election: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Polling Data

FULL SPEECH: Donald Trump Addresses Black Church Great Faith Ministries Event, Detroit MI 09/03/2016

FULL SPEECH: Donald Trump Addresses Black Church Great Faith Ministries Event, Detroit MI 09/03/2016

Streamed live on Sep 3, 2016

Donald Trump Is Addressing African American Church in Detroit, Michigan Saturday. In the weeks since Donald Trump began making an overt appeal to African-Americans, one of the greatest criticisms he has received is that his appeals are made before largely white audiences. This weekend, Trump is addressing those concerns head-on, traveling to Detroit, Michigan, to attend a black church service and interview with the presiding bishop.

He will attend the Saturday service at Great Faith International Ministries and will also participate in an interview with Bishop Wayne Jackson that will air on Jackson’s Impact Network. This is the first time that Trump has attended a black church during this cycle. Conversely, his Democratic rival Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Tim Kaine, have visited several Sunday services at various black churches.

Pastor Mark Burns, a frequent introducer at Trump rallies, will be meeting Trump in Detroit. A vociferous supporter of Trump who has long proclaimed that Trump would be better for African-Americans than any Democrat, Burns says that Trump will deliver brief remarks that echo his economic message.

Trump ‘Deserves Credit’ for African-American Outreach, Campaign Manager Says
Trump Says GOP ‘Must Do Better’ for African-Americans
Donald Trump Aims to Build On What Little Black Support He Has
“Well I think you’ll be able to see how Mr. Trump really does care and can relate to the African-American community more so than has Trump at a majority African-American congregation,” Burns said. “This is just the beginning.”

Trump first began making his heavy-handed appeals to black voters earlier in August, asking black voters, “What the hell do you have to lose?” and at times citing misleading statistics about how many African-Americans live in abject poverty and are unemployed.

Today, Trump began the first of his weekend’s outreach, traveling to Philadelphia to meet with 14 business and religious leaders in the black community. He also met with a diverse group of members of the Republican Leadership Initiative, a program sponsored by the Republican National Committee.

But with this address, Trump places himself in unfamiliar territory with a potentially wary crowd. To account for such uncharted circumstances, the Trump campaign, in concert with African-American advisers and black Republicans, developed a script for Trump, with Jackson providing a list of questions for which the candidate could prepare, as first reported by The New York Times.

Jackson said, during an interview on CNN, that he also submitted a prayer beforehand when Vice President Joe Biden was in town and pushed back against reports that the campaign had edit rights.

“That’s not true. That’s not true. That is not true. That — then it would be tainted. It would be tainted and it would not be good. No. This has never been discussed with me,” Jackson said.

Plans have also been discussed to have Trump tour an impoverished neighborhood with supporter and former candidate Dr. Ben Carson.

“The reason that Donald Trump is willing to go into this territory is because he’s not necessarily trying to cultivate votes like your typical politician does,” Carson told ABC News in a recent interview. “He recognizes that there is no way we can have a strong country if we have big pockets of weakness. And he also realizes that in this election cycle he probably won’t get the majority of their votes.”

Special Report 9/5/16 – Hillary Clinton Coughing Fit, Donald Trump vs Hillary Debate Prep, G20

Donald Trump Called Anointed By Black Pastor In Detroit and Crowd Cheers

HILARIOUS – Donald Trump DANCING at Detroit Church Event (9-3-16)

Dilbert Creator Talks Hillary Threats/ Trump Landslide

Confirmation Bias

Confirmation Bias and Politics

What is PRE-SUASION?

Robert Cialdini- The 6 Principles of Influence

BX2015: Words that matter

Dilbert’s Scott Adams: Robert Cialdini Likely Advising Hillary Clinton

Cartoonist-turned-pundit Scott Adams, of Dilbert fame, told Breitbart News in an interview on Sunday that the mysterious “Godzilla” of persuasion, to whom he ascribes Hillary Clinton’s polling success, is behavioral psychologist Robert Cialdini.

by JOEL B. POLLAK 16 Aug 2016

Cialdini, who refers to himself as the “Godfather of Influence,” is a professor andbestselling author who specializes in the art — or, perhaps, the science — of persuasion. In 2012, he was part of a “dream team” of behavioral psychologists that advised President Barack Obama’s re-election campaign, and helped propel that effort to victory despite slow economic growth, high unemployment, turmoil in world affairs, new terror attacks, and a motivated (though IRS-crippled) Tea Party opposition.

The New York Times reported in November 2012, after Obama’s victory — which stunned his rivals, who expected to win:

This election season the Obama campaign won a reputation for drawing on the tools of social science …

Less well known is that the Obama campaign also had a panel of unpaid academic advisers. The group — which calls itself the “consortium of behavioral scientists,” or COBS — provided ideas on how to counter false rumors, like one that President Obama is a Muslim. It suggested how to characterize the Republican opponent, Mitt Romney, in advertisements. It also delivered research-based advice on how to mobilize voters.

In addition to Dr. [Craig] Fox, the consortium included Susan T. Fiske of Princeton University; Samuel L. Popkin of the University of California, San Diego; Robert Cialdini, a professor emeritus at Arizona State University; Richard H. Thaler, a professor of behavioral science and economics at the University of Chicago’s business school; and Michael Morris, a psychologist at Columbia.

“A kind of dream team, in my opinion,” Dr. Fox said.

In recent blog posts on the election — followed increasingly closely by news junkies, and Trump supporters seeking consolation — Adams has referred to a “Godzilla” of persuasion who may have started working for the Clinton campaign.

That Godzilla, Adams says, is Cialdini.

Adams told Breitbart News that he believes that Cialdini may have sat out the Democratic Party primary — or perhaps worked for Sen. Bernie Sanders — then joined the Clinton effort once it became clear she would be the party’s nominee.

While Trump had been more effective at using persuasion techniques, he said, “the Clinton persuasion game went from non-existent, which I reported on for months, to solid-gold, weapons-grade, almost instantly, as soon as Bernie Sanders dropped out.”

Sanders had been outperforming expectations, and Clinton had been underperforming expectations. “Wherever you see somebody exceed expectations by that much, either they are a persuader, like Trump is, or they have somebody helping them,” Adams concluded.

That stopped, as soon as Sanders yielded to Clinton.

Adams explained: “Clinton stopped talking about her boring policies, and details, and her experience, and she went to pure persuasion. She went to the bigger scare,” which was the image of Donald Trump with his finger on the nuclear button.

The result, he said, was a lift in her poll numbers, and the ongoing slump in Donald Trump’s performance.

It would be “surprising,” he said, if Cialdini, or one of his students, weren’t helping Clinton, given his past involvement in the Obama campaign.

“His fingerprints are all over this.”

 

Breitbart News reached out to Cialdini’s office Sunday and Monday but requests for comment were unreturned.

Joel B. Pollak is Senior Editor-at-Large at Breitbart News. His new book, See No Evil: 19 Hard Truths the Left Can’t Handle, is available from Regnery through Amazon.

http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2016/08/16/dilbert-scott-adams-robert-cialdini-advising-hillary-clinton/

Confirmation bias

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias, is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one’s preexisting beliefs or hypotheses, while giving disproportionately less consideration to alternative possibilities.[Note 1][1] It is a type of cognitive bias and a systematic error of inductive reasoning. People display this bias when they gather or remember information selectively, or when they interpret it in a biased way. The effect is stronger for emotionally charged issues and for deeply entrenched beliefs. People also tend to interpret ambiguous evidence as supporting their existing position. Biased search, interpretation and memory have been invoked to explain attitude polarization (when a disagreement becomes more extreme even though the different parties are exposed to the same evidence), belief perseverance(when beliefs persist after the evidence for them is shown to be false), the irrational primacy effect (a greater reliance on information encountered early in a series) and illusory correlation (when people falsely perceive an association between two events or situations).

A series of experiments in the 1960s suggested that people are biased toward confirming their existing beliefs. Later work re-interpreted these results as a tendency to test ideas in a one-sided way, focusing on one possibility and ignoring alternatives. In certain situations, this tendency can bias people’s conclusions. Explanations for the observed biases include wishful thinking and the limited human capacity to process information. Another explanation is that people show confirmation bias because they are weighing up the costs of being wrong, rather than investigating in a neutral, scientific way.

Confirmation biases contribute to overconfidence in personal beliefs and can maintain or strengthen beliefs in the face of contrary evidence. Poor decisions due to these biases have been found in political and organizational contexts.[2][3][Note 2]

Types

Confirmation biases are effects in information processing. They differ from what is sometimes called the behavioral confirmation effect, commonly known as self-fulfilling prophecy, in which a person’s expectations influence their own behavior, bringing about the expected result.[4]

Some psychologists restrict the term confirmation bias to selective collection of evidence that supports what one already believes while ignoring or rejecting evidence that supports a different conclusion. Other psychologists apply the term more broadly to the tendency to preserve one’s existing beliefs when searching for evidence, interpreting it, or recalling it from memory.[5][Note 3]

Biased search for information[edit]

A drawing of a man sitting on a stool at a writing desk

Confirmation bias has been described as an internal “yes man“, echoing back a person’s beliefs like Charles Dickens‘ character Uriah Heep.[6]

Experiments have found repeatedly that people tend to test hypotheses in a one-sided way, by searching for evidence consistent with their current hypothesis.[7][8] Rather than searching through all the relevant evidence, they phrase questions to receive an affirmative answer that supports their hypothesis.[9] They look for the consequences that they would expect if their hypothesis were true, rather than what would happen if it were false.[9] For example, someone using yes/no questions to find a number he or she suspects to be the number 3 might ask, “Is it an odd number?” People prefer this type of question, called a “positive test”, even when a negative test such as “Is it an even number?” would yield exactly the same information.[10] However, this does not mean that people seek tests that guarantee a positive answer. In studies where subjects could select either such pseudo-tests or genuinely diagnostic ones, they favored the genuinely diagnostic.[11][12]

The preference for positive tests in itself is not a bias, since positive tests can be highly informative.[13] However, in combination with other effects, this strategy can confirm existing beliefs or assumptions, independently of whether they are true.[14] In real-world situations, evidence is often complex and mixed. For example, various contradictory ideas about someone could each be supported by concentrating on one aspect of his or her behavior.[8] Thus any search for evidence in favor of a hypothesis is likely to succeed.[14] One illustration of this is the way the phrasing of a question can significantly change the answer.[8] For example, people who are asked, “Are you happy with your social life?” report greater satisfaction than those asked, “Are you unhappy with your social life?”[15]

Even a small change in a question’s wording can affect how people search through available information, and hence the conclusions they reach. This was shown using a fictional child custody case.[16] Participants read that Parent A was moderately suitable to be the guardian in multiple ways. Parent B had a mix of salient positive and negative qualities: a close relationship with the child but a job that would take him or her away for long periods of time. When asked, “Which parent should have custody of the child?” the majority of participants chose Parent B, looking mainly for positive attributes. However, when asked, “Which parent should be denied custody of the child?” they looked for negative attributes and the majority answered that Parent B should be denied custody, implying that Parent A should have custody.[16]

Similar studies have demonstrated how people engage in a biased search for information, but also that this phenomenon may be limited by a preference for genuine diagnostic tests. In an initial experiment, participants rated another person on the introversion–extroversion personality dimension on the basis of an interview. They chose the interview questions from a given list. When the interviewee was introduced as an introvert, the participants chose questions that presumed introversion, such as, “What do you find unpleasant about noisy parties?” When the interviewee was described as extroverted, almost all the questions presumed extroversion, such as, “What would you do to liven up a dull party?” These loaded questions gave the interviewees little or no opportunity to falsify the hypothesis about them.[17] A later version of the experiment gave the participants less presumptive questions to choose from, such as, “Do you shy away from social interactions?”[18] Participants preferred to ask these more diagnostic questions, showing only a weak bias towards positive tests. This pattern, of a main preference for diagnostic tests and a weaker preference for positive tests, has been replicated in other studies.[18]

Personality traits influence and interact with biased search processes.[19] Individuals vary in their abilities to defend their attitudes from external attacks in relation to selective exposure. Selective exposure occurs when individuals search for information that is consistent, rather than inconsistent, with their personal beliefs.[20] An experiment examined the extent to which individuals could refute arguments that contradicted their personal beliefs.[19] People with high confidence levels more readily seek out contradictory information to their personal position to form an argument. Individuals with low confidence levels do not seek out contradictory information and prefer information that supports their personal position. People generate and evaluate evidence in arguments that are biased towards their own beliefs and opinions.[21] Heightened confidence levels decrease preference for information that supports individuals’ personal beliefs.

Another experiment gave participants a complex rule-discovery task that involved moving objects simulated by a computer.[22] Objects on the computer screen followed specific laws, which the participants had to figure out. So, participants could “fire” objects across the screen to test their hypotheses. Despite making many attempts over a ten-hour session, none of the participants figured out the rules of the system. They typically attempted to confirm rather than falsify their hypotheses, and were reluctant to consider alternatives. Even after seeing objective evidence that refuted their working hypotheses, they frequently continued doing the same tests. Some of the participants were taught proper hypothesis-testing, but these instructions had almost no effect.[22]

Biased interpretation

Smart people believe weird things because they are skilled at defending beliefs they arrived at for non-smart reasons.

Michael Shermer[23]

Confirmation biases are not limited to the collection of evidence. Even if two individuals have the same information, the way they interpret it can be biased.

A team at Stanford University conducted an experiment involving participants who felt strongly about capital punishment, with half in favor and half against it.[24][25]Each participant read descriptions of two studies: a comparison of U.S. states with and without the death penalty, and a comparison of murder rates in a state before and after the introduction of the death penalty. After reading a quick description of each study, the participants were asked whether their opinions had changed. Then, they read a more detailed account of each study’s procedure and had to rate whether the research was well-conducted and convincing.[24] In fact, the studies were fictional. Half the participants were told that one kind of study supported the deterrent effect and the other undermined it, while for other participants the conclusions were swapped.[24][25]

The participants, whether supporters or opponents, reported shifting their attitudes slightly in the direction of the first study they read. Once they read the more detailed descriptions of the two studies, they almost all returned to their original belief regardless of the evidence provided, pointing to details that supported their viewpoint and disregarding anything contrary. Participants described studies supporting their pre-existing view as superior to those that contradicted it, in detailed and specific ways.[24][26] Writing about a study that seemed to undermine the deterrence effect, a death penalty proponent wrote, “The research didn’t cover a long enough period of time”, while an opponent’s comment on the same study said, “No strong evidence to contradict the researchers has been presented”.[24] The results illustrated that people set higher standards of evidence for hypotheses that go against their current expectations. This effect, known as “disconfirmation bias”, has been supported by other experiments.[27]

A large round machine with a hole in the middle, with a platter for a person to lie on so that their head can fit into the hole

An MRI scanner allowed researchers to examine how the human brain deals with unwelcome information.

Another study of biased interpretation occurred during the 2004 U.S. presidential election and involved participants who reported having strong feelings about the candidates. They were shown apparently contradictory pairs of statements, either from Republican candidate George W. Bush, Democratic candidate John Kerry or a politically neutral public figure. They were also given further statements that made the apparent contradiction seem reasonable. From these three pieces of information, they had to decide whether or not each individual’s statements were inconsistent.[28]:1948 There were strong differences in these evaluations, with participants much more likely to interpret statements from the candidate they opposed as contradictory.[28]:1951

In this experiment, the participants made their judgments while in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner which monitored their brain activity. As participants evaluated contradictory statements by their favored candidate, emotional centers of their brains were aroused. This did not happen with the statements by the other figures. The experimenters inferred that the different responses to the statements were not due to passive reasoning errors. Instead, the participants were actively reducing the cognitive dissonance induced by reading about their favored candidate’s irrational or hypocritical behavior.[28]:1956 There were strong differences in these evaluations, with participants much more likely to interpret statements from the candidate they opposed as contradictory.[28]:1951

Biases in belief interpretation are persistent, regardless of intelligence level. Participants in an experiment took the SAT test (a college admissions test used in the United States) to assess their intelligence levels. They then read information regarding safety concerns for vehicles, and the experimenters manipulated the national origin of the car. American participants provided their opinion if the car should be banned on a six-point scale, where one indicated “definitely yes” and six indicated “definitely no.” Participants firstly evaluated if they would allow a dangerous German car on American streets and a dangerous American car on German streets. Participants believed that the dangerous German car on American streets should be banned more quickly than the dangerous American car on German streets. There was no difference among intelligence levels at the rate participants would ban a car.[21]

Biased interpretation is not restricted to emotionally significant topics. In another experiment, participants were told a story about a theft. They had to rate the evidential importance of statements arguing either for or against a particular character being responsible. When they hypothesized that character’s guilt, they rated statements supporting that hypothesis as more important than conflicting statements.[29]

Biased memory

Even if people gather and interpret evidence in a neutral manner, they may still remember it selectively to reinforce their expectations. This effect is called “selective recall”, “confirmatory memory” or “access-biased memory”.[30]Psychological theories differ in their predictions about selective recall. Schema theory predicts that information matching prior expectations will be more easily stored and recalled than information that does not match.[31] Some alternative approaches say that surprising information stands out and so is memorable.[31] Predictions from both these theories have been confirmed in different experimental contexts, with no theory winning outright.[32]

In one study, participants read a profile of a woman which described a mix of introverted and extroverted behaviors.[33] They later had to recall examples of her introversion and extroversion. One group was told this was to assess the woman for a job as a librarian, while a second group were told it was for a job in real estate sales. There was a significant difference between what these two groups recalled, with the “librarian” group recalling more examples of introversion and the “sales” groups recalling more extroverted behavior.[33] A selective memory effect has also been shown in experiments that manipulate the desirability of personality types.[31][34] In one of these, a group of participants were shown evidence that extroverted people are more successful than introverts. Another group were told the opposite. In a subsequent, apparently unrelated, study, they were asked to recall events from their lives in which they had been either introverted or extroverted. Each group of participants provided more memories connecting themselves with the more desirable personality type, and recalled those memories more quickly.[35]

Changes in emotional states can also influence memory recall.[36][37] Participants rated how they felt when they had first learned that O.J. Simpson had been acquitted of murder charges.[36] They described their emotional reactions and confidence regarding the verdict one week, two months, and one year after the trial. Results indicated that participants’ assessments for Simpson’s guilt changed over time. The more that participants’ opinion of the verdict had changed, the less stable were the participant’s memories regarding their initial emotional reactions. When participants recalled their initial emotional reactions two months and a year later, past appraisals closely resembled current appraisals of emotion. People demonstrate sizable myside bias when discussing their opinions on controversial topics.[21] Memory recall and construction of experiences undergo revision in relation to corresponding emotional states.

Myside bias has been shown to influence the accuracy of memory recall.[37] In an experiment, widows and widowers rated the intensity of their experienced grief six months and five years after the deaths of their spouses. Participants noted a higher experience of grief at six months rather than at five years. Yet, when the participants were asked after five years how they had felt six months after the death of their significant other, the intensity of grief participants recalled was highly correlated with their current level of grief. Individuals appear to utilize their current emotional states to analyze how they must have felt when experiencing past events.[36] Emotional memories are reconstructed by current emotional states.

One study showed how selective memory can maintain belief in extrasensory perception (ESP).[38] Believers and disbelievers were each shown descriptions of ESP experiments. Half of each group were told that the experimental results supported the existence of ESP, while the others were told they did not. In a subsequent test, participants recalled the material accurately, apart from believers who had read the non-supportive evidence. This group remembered significantly less information and some of them incorrectly remembered the results as supporting ESP.[38]

Related effects

Polarization of opinion

Main article: Attitude polarization

When people with opposing views interpret new information in a biased way, their views can move even further apart. This is called “attitude polarization”.[39] The effect was demonstrated by an experiment that involved drawing a series of red and black balls from one of two concealed “bingo baskets”. Participants knew that one basket contained 60% black and 40% red balls; the other, 40% black and 60% red. The experimenters looked at what happened when balls of alternating color were drawn in turn, a sequence that does not favor either basket. After each ball was drawn, participants in one group were asked to state out loud their judgments of the probability that the balls were being drawn from one or the other basket. These participants tended to grow more confident with each successive draw—whether they initially thought the basket with 60% black balls or the one with 60% red balls was the more likely source, their estimate of the probability increased. Another group of participants were asked to state probability estimates only at the end of a sequence of drawn balls, rather than after each ball. They did not show the polarization effect, suggesting that it does not necessarily occur when people simply hold opposing positions, but rather when they openly commit to them.[40]

A less abstract study was the Stanford biased interpretation experiment in which participants with strong opinions about the death penalty read about mixed experimental evidence. Twenty-three percent of the participants reported that their views had become more extreme, and this self-reported shift correlated strongly with their initial attitudes.[24] In later experiments, participants also reported their opinions becoming more extreme in response to ambiguous information. However, comparisons of their attitudes before and after the new evidence showed no significant change, suggesting that the self-reported changes might not be real.[27][39][41] Based on these experiments, Deanna Kuhn and Joseph Lao concluded that polarization is a real phenomenon but far from inevitable, only happening in a small minority of cases. They found that it was prompted not only by considering mixed evidence, but by merely thinking about the topic.[39]

Charles Taber and Milton Lodge argued that the Stanford team’s result had been hard to replicate because the arguments used in later experiments were too abstract or confusing to evoke an emotional response. The Taber and Lodge study used the emotionally charged topics of gun control and affirmative action.[27] They measured the attitudes of their participants towards these issues before and after reading arguments on each side of the debate. Two groups of participants showed attitude polarization: those with strong prior opinions and those who were politically knowledgeable. In part of this study, participants chose which information sources to read, from a list prepared by the experimenters. For example, they could read the National Rifle Association‘s and the Brady Anti-Handgun Coalition‘s arguments on gun control. Even when instructed to be even-handed, participants were more likely to read arguments that supported their existing attitudes than arguments that did not. This biased search for information correlated well with the polarization effect.[27]

The backfire effect is a name for the finding that, given evidence against their beliefs, people can reject the evidence and believe even more strongly.[42][43] The phrase was first coined by Brendan Nyhan and Jason Reifler.[44]

Persistence of discredited beliefs

Main article: Belief perseverance

[B]eliefs can survive potent logical or empirical challenges. They can survive and even be bolstered by evidence that most uncommitted observers would agree logically demands some weakening of such beliefs. They can even survive the total destruction of their original evidential bases.

—Lee Ross and Craig Anderson[45]

Confirmation biases can be used to explain why some beliefs persist when the initial evidence for them is removed.[46] This belief perseverance effect has been shown by a series of experiments using what is called the “debriefing paradigm”: participants read fake evidence for a hypothesis, their attitude change is measured, then the fakery is exposed in detail. Their attitudes are then measured once more to see if their belief returns to its previous level.[45]

A common finding is that at least some of the initial belief remains even after a full debriefing.[47] In one experiment, participants had to distinguish between real and fake suicide notes. The feedback was random: some were told they had done well while others were told they had performed badly. Even after being fully debriefed, participants were still influenced by the feedback. They still thought they were better or worse than average at that kind of task, depending on what they had initially been told.[48]

In another study, participants read job performance ratings of two firefighters, along with their responses to a risk aversion test.[45] This fictional data was arranged to show either a negative or positive association: some participants were told that a risk-taking firefighter did better, while others were told they did less well than a risk-averse colleague.[49] Even if these two case studies were true, they would have been scientifically poor evidence for a conclusion about firefighters in general. However, the participants found them subjectively persuasive.[49] When the case studies were shown to be fictional, participants’ belief in a link diminished, but around half of the original effect remained.[45] Follow-up interviews established that the participants had understood the debriefing and taken it seriously. Participants seemed to trust the debriefing, but regarded the discredited information as irrelevant to their personal belief.[49]

The continued influence effect is the tendency to believe previously learned misinformation even after it has been corrected. Misinformation can still influence inferences one generates after a correction has occurred.[50]

Preference for early information

Experiments have shown that information is weighted more strongly when it appears early in a series, even when the order is unimportant. For example, people form a more positive impression of someone described as “intelligent, industrious, impulsive, critical, stubborn, envious” than when they are given the same words in reverse order.[51] This irrational primacy effect is independent of the primacy effect in memory in which the earlier items in a series leave a stronger memory trace.[51] Biased interpretation offers an explanation for this effect: seeing the initial evidence, people form a working hypothesis that affects how they interpret the rest of the information.[46]

One demonstration of irrational primacy used colored chips supposedly drawn from two urns. Participants were told the color distributions of the urns, and had to estimate the probability of a chip being drawn from one of them.[51] In fact, the colors appeared in a pre-arranged order. The first thirty draws favored one urn and the next thirty favored the other.[46] The series as a whole was neutral, so rationally, the two urns were equally likely. However, after sixty draws, participants favored the urn suggested by the initial thirty.[51]

Another experiment involved a slide show of a single object, seen as just a blur at first and in slightly better focus with each succeeding slide.[51] After each slide, participants had to state their best guess of what the object was. Participants whose early guesses were wrong persisted with those guesses, even when the picture was sufficiently in focus that the object was readily recognizable to other people.[46]

Illusory association between events

Main article: Illusory correlation

Illusory correlation is the tendency to see non-existent correlations in a set of data.[52] This tendency was first demonstrated in a series of experiments in the late 1960s.[53] In one experiment, participants read a set of psychiatric case studies, including responses to the Rorschach inkblot test. The participants reported that the homosexual men in the set were more likely to report seeing buttocks, anuses or sexually ambiguous figures in the inkblots. In fact the fictional case studies had been constructed so that the homosexual men were no more likely to report this imagery or, in one version of the experiment, were less likely to report it than heterosexual men.[52] In a survey, a group of experienced psychoanalysts reported the same set of illusory associations with homosexuality.[52][53]

Another study recorded the symptoms experienced by arthritic patients, along with weather conditions over a 15-month period. Nearly all the patients reported that their pains were correlated with weather conditions, although the real correlation was zero.[54]

This effect is a kind of biased interpretation, in that objectively neutral or unfavorable evidence is interpreted to support existing beliefs. It is also related to biases in hypothesis-testing behavior.[55] In judging whether two events, such as illness and bad weather, are correlated, people rely heavily on the number of positive-positive cases: in this example, instances of both pain and bad weather. They pay relatively little attention to the other kinds of observation (of no pain and/or good weather).[56] This parallels the reliance on positive tests in hypothesis testing.[55] It may also reflect selective recall, in that people may have a sense that two events are correlated because it is easier to recall times when they happened together.[55]

Individual differences

Myside bias was once believed to be associated with greater intelligence; however, studies have shown that myside bias can be more influenced by ability to rationally think as opposed to amount of intelligence.[57] Myside bias can cause an inability to effectively and logically evaluate the opposite side of an argument. Studies have stated that myside bias is an absence of “active open-mindedness,” meaning the active search for why an initial idea may be wrong.[58] Typically, myside bias is operationalized in empirical studies as the quantity of evidence used in support of their side in comparison to the opposite side.[59]

A study has found individual differences in myside bias. This study investigates individual differences that are acquired through learning in a cultural context and are mutable. The researcher found important individual difference in argumentation. Studies have suggested that individual differences such as deductive reasoning ability, ability to overcome belief bias, epistemological understanding, and thinking disposition are significant predictors of the reasoning and generating arguments, counterarguments, and rebuttals.[60][61][62]

A study by Christopher Wolfe and Anne Britt also investigated how participants’ views of “what makes a good argument?” can be a source of myside bias that influence the way a person formulates his own arguments.[59] The study investigated individual differences of argumentation schema and asked participants to write essays. The participants were randomly assigned to write essays either for or against their preferred side of an argument and were given research instructions that took either a balanced or an unrestricted approach. The balanced-research instructions directed participants to create a “balanced” argument, i.e., that included both pros and cons; the unrestricted-research instructions included nothing on how to create the argument.[59]

Overall, the results revealed that the balanced-research instructions significantly increased the incidence of opposing information in arguments. These data also reveal that personal belief is not a source of myside bias; however, that those participants, who believe that a good argument is one that is based on facts, are more likely to exhibit myside bias than other participants. This evidence is consistent with the claims proposed in Baron’s article—that people’s opinions about what makes good thinking can influence how arguments are generated.[59]

History

Informal observation

Before psychological research on confirmation bias, the phenomenon had been observed anecdotally throughout history. Beginning with the Greek historian Thucydides (c. 460 BC – c. 395 BC), who wrote of misguided treason in The Peloponnesian War; “… for it is a habit of mankind to entrust to careless hope what they long for, and to use sovereign reason to thrust aside what they do not fancy.”[63] Italian poet Dante Alighieri (1265–1321), noted it in his famous work, the Divine Comedy, in which St. Thomas Aquinas cautions Dante upon meeting in Paradise, “opinion—hasty—often can incline to the wrong side, and then affection for one’s own opinion binds, confines the mind.”[64] English philosopher and scientist Francis Bacon (1561–1626),[65] in the Novum Organumnoted that biased assessment of evidence drove “all superstitions, whether in astrology, dreams, omens, divine judgments or the like”.[66] He wrote:

The human understanding when it has once adopted an opinion … draws all things else to support and agree with it. And though there be a greater number and weight of instances to be found on the other side, yet these it either neglects or despises, or else by some distinction sets aside or rejects[.][66]

In his essay “What Is Art?“, Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy wrote,

I know that most men—not only those considered clever, but even those who are very clever, and capable of understanding most difficult scientific, mathematical, or philosophic problems—can very seldom discern even the simplest and most obvious truth if it be such as to oblige them to admit the falsity of conclusions they have formed, perhaps with much difficulty—conclusions of which they are proud, which they have taught to others, and on which they have built their lives.[67]

Wason’s research on hypothesis-testing

The term “confirmation bias” was coined by English psychologist Peter Wason.[68] For an experiment published in 1960, he challenged participants to identify a rule applying to triples of numbers. At the outset, they were told that (2,4,6) fits the rule. Participants could generate their own triples and the experimenter told them whether or not each triple conformed to the rule.[69][70]

While the actual rule was simply “any ascending sequence”, the participants had a great deal of difficulty in finding it, often announcing rules that were far more specific, such as “the middle number is the average of the first and last”.[69] The participants seemed to test only positive examples—triples that obeyed their hypothesized rule. For example, if they thought the rule was, “Each number is two greater than its predecessor”, they would offer a triple that fit this rule, such as (11,13,15) rather than a triple that violates it, such as (11,12,19).[71]

Wason accepted falsificationism, according to which a scientific test of a hypothesis is a serious attempt to falsify it. He interpreted his results as showing a preference for confirmation over falsification, hence the term “confirmation bias”.[Note 4][72] Wason also used confirmation bias to explain the results of his selection task experiment.[73] In this task, participants are given partial information about a set of objects, and have to specify what further information they would need to tell whether or not a conditional rule (“If A, then B”) applies. It has been found repeatedly that people perform badly on various forms of this test, in most cases ignoring information that could potentially refute the rule.[74][75]

Klayman and Ha’s critique

A 1987 paper by Joshua Klayman and Young-Won Ha argued that the Wason experiments had not actually demonstrated a bias towards confirmation. Instead, Klayman and Ha interpreted the results in terms of a tendency to make tests that are consistent with the working hypothesis.[76] They called this the “positive test strategy”.[8] This strategy is an example of a heuristic: a reasoning shortcut that is imperfect but easy to compute.[77] Klayman and Ha used Bayesian probability and information theory as their standard of hypothesis-testing, rather than the falsificationism used by Wason. According to these ideas, each answer to a question yields a different amount of information, which depends on the person’s prior beliefs. Thus a scientific test of a hypothesis is one that is expected to produce the most information. Since the information content depends on initial probabilities, a positive test can either be highly informative or uninformative. Klayman and Ha argued that when people think about realistic problems, they are looking for a specific answer with a small initial probability. In this case, positive tests are usually more informative than negative tests.[13] However, in Wason’s rule discovery task the answer—three numbers in ascending order—is very broad, so positive tests are unlikely to yield informative answers. Klayman and Ha supported their analysis by citing an experiment that used the labels “DAX” and “MED” in place of “fits the rule” and “doesn’t fit the rule”. This avoided implying that the aim was to find a low-probability rule. Participants had much more success with this version of the experiment.[78][79]

Within the universe of all possible triples, those that fit the true rule are shown schematically as a circle. The hypothesized rule is a smaller circle enclosed within it.

If the true rule (T) encompasses the current hypothesis (H), then positive tests (examining an H to see if it is T) will not show that the hypothesis is false.

Two overlapping circles represent the true rule and the hypothesized rule. Any observation falling in the non-overlapping parts of the circles shows that the two rules are not exactly the same. In other words, those observations falsify the hypothesis.

If the true rule (T) overlaps the current hypothesis (H), then either a negative test or a positive test can potentially falsify H.

The triples fitting the hypothesis are represented as a circle within the universe of all triples. The true rule is a smaller circle within this.

When the working hypothesis (H) includes the true rule (T) then positive tests are the only way to falsify H.

In light of this and other critiques, the focus of research moved away from confirmation versus falsification to examine whether people test hypotheses in an informative way, or an uninformative but positive way. The search for “true” confirmation bias led psychologists to look at a wider range of effects in how people process information.[80]

Explanations

Confirmation bias is often described as a result of automatic, unintentional strategies rather than deliberate deception.[14][81] According to Robert Maccoun, most biased evidence processing occurs through a combination of both “cold” (cognitive) and “hot” (motivated) mechanisms.[82]

Cognitive explanations for confirmation bias are based on limitations in people’s ability to handle complex tasks, and the shortcuts, called heuristics, that they use.[83] For example, people may judge the reliability of evidence by using the availability heuristic—i.e., how readily a particular idea comes to mind.[84] It is also possible that people can only focus on one thought at a time, so find it difficult to test alternative hypotheses in parallel.[85] Another heuristic is the positive test strategy identified by Klayman and Ha, in which people test a hypothesis by examining cases where they expect a property or event to occur. This heuristic avoids the difficult or impossible task of working out how diagnostic each possible question will be. However, it is not universally reliable, so people can overlook challenges to their existing beliefs.[13][86]

Motivational explanations involve an effect of desire on belief, sometimes called “wishful thinking“.[87][88] It is known that people prefer pleasant thoughts over unpleasant ones in a number of ways: this is called the “Pollyanna principle“.[89] Applied to arguments or sources of evidence, this could explain why desired conclusions are more likely to be believed true.[87] According to experiments that manipulate the desirability of the conclusion, people demand a high standard of evidence for unpalatable ideas and a low standard for preferred ideas. In other words, they ask, “Can I believe this?” for some suggestions and, “Must I believe this?” for others.[90][91] Althoughconsistency is a desirable feature of attitudes, an excessive drive for consistency is another potential source of bias because it may prevent people from neutrally evaluating new, surprising information.[87] Social psychologist Ziva Kunda combines the cognitive and motivational theories, arguing that motivation creates the bias, but cognitive factors determine the size of the effect.[92]

Explanations in terms of cost-benefit analysis assume that people do not just test hypotheses in a disinterested way, but assess the costs of different errors.[93] Using ideas from evolutionary psychology, James Friedrich suggests that people do not primarily aim at truth in testing hypotheses, but try to avoid the most costly errors. For example, employers might ask one-sided questions in job interviews because they are focused on weeding out unsuitable candidates.[94] Yaacov Trope and Akiva Liberman’s refinement of this theory assumes that people compare the two different kinds of error: accepting a false hypothesis or rejecting a true hypothesis. For instance, someone who underestimates a friend’s honesty might treat him or her suspiciously and so undermine the friendship. Overestimating the friend’s honesty may also be costly, but less so. In this case, it would be rational to seek, evaluate or remember evidence of their honesty in a biased way.[95] When someone gives an initial impression of being introverted or extroverted, questions that match that impression come across as more empathic.[96] This suggests that when talking to someone who seems to be an introvert, it is a sign of better social skills to ask, “Do you feel awkward in social situations?” rather than, “Do you like noisy parties?” The connection between confirmation bias and social skills was corroborated by a study of how college students get to know other people. Highly self-monitoring students, who are more sensitive to their environment and to social norms, asked more matching questions when interviewing a high-status staff member than when getting to know fellow students.[96]

Psychologists Jennifer Lerner and Philip Tetlock distinguish two different kinds of thinking process. Exploratory thought neutrally considers multiple points of view and tries to anticipate all possible objections to a particular position, while confirmatory thought seeks to justify a specific point of view. Lerner and Tetlock say that when people expect to justify their position to others whose views they already know, they will tend to adopt a similar position to those people, and then use confirmatory thought to bolster their own credibility. However, if the external parties are overly aggressive or critical, people will disengage from thought altogether, and simply assert their personal opinions without justification.[97] Lerner and Tetlock say that people only push themselves to think critically and logically when they know in advance they will need to explain themselves to others who are well-informed, genuinely interested in the truth, and whose views they don’t already know.[98] Because those conditions rarely exist, they argue, most people are using confirmatory thought most of the time.[99]

Consequences

In finance

Confirmation bias can lead investors to be overconfident, ignoring evidence that their strategies will lose money.[6][100] In studies of political stock markets, investors made more profit when they resisted bias. For example, participants who interpreted a candidate’s debate performance in a neutral rather than partisan way were more likely to profit.[101] To combat the effect of confirmation bias, investors can try to adopt a contrary viewpoint “for the sake of argument”.[102] In one technique, they imagine that their investments have collapsed and ask themselves why this might happen.[6]

In physical and mental health

Raymond Nickerson, a psychologist, blames confirmation bias for the ineffective medical procedures that were used for centuries before the arrival of scientific medicine.[103] If a patient recovered, medical authorities counted the treatment as successful, rather than looking for alternative explanations such as that the disease had run its natural course.[103] Biased assimilation is a factor in the modern appeal of alternative medicine, whose proponents are swayed by positive anecdotal evidence but treat scientific evidence hyper-critically.[104][105][106]

Cognitive therapy was developed by Aaron T. Beck in the early 1960s and has become a popular approach.[107] According to Beck, biased information processing is a factor in depression.[108] His approach teaches people to treat evidence impartially, rather than selectively reinforcing negative outlooks.[65] Phobias and hypochondria have also been shown to involve confirmation bias for threatening information.[109]

In politics and law

A woman and a man reading a document in a courtroom

Mock trials allow researchers to examine confirmation biases in a realistic setting.

Nickerson argues that reasoning in judicial and political contexts is sometimes subconsciously biased, favoring conclusions that judges, juries or governments have already committed to.[110] Since the evidence in a jury trial can be complex, and jurors often reach decisions about the verdict early on, it is reasonable to expect an attitude polarization effect. The prediction that jurors will become more extreme in their views as they see more evidence has been borne out in experiments with mock trials.[111][112] Both inquisitorial and adversarial criminal justice systems are affected by confirmation bias.[113]

Confirmation bias can be a factor in creating or extending conflicts, from emotionally charged debates to wars: by interpreting the evidence in their favor, each opposing party can become overconfident that it is in the stronger position.[114] On the other hand, confirmation bias can result in people ignoring or misinterpreting the signs of an imminent or incipient conflict. For example, psychologists Stuart Sutherland and Thomas Kida have each argued that US Admiral Husband E. Kimmel showed confirmation bias when playing down the first signs of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.[74][115]

A two-decade study of political pundits by Philip E. Tetlock found that, on the whole, their predictions were not much better than chance. Tetlock divided experts into “foxes” who maintained multiple hypotheses, and “hedgehogs” who were more dogmatic. In general, the hedgehogs were much less accurate. Tetlock blamed their failure on confirmation bias—specifically, their inability to make use of new information that contradicted their existing theories.[116]

In the 2013 murder trial of David Camm, the defense argued that Camm was charged for the murders of his wife and two children solely because of confirmation bias within the investigation.[117] Camm was arrested three days after the murders on the basis of faulty evidence. Despite the discovery that almost every piece of evidence on the probable cause affidavit was inaccurate or unreliable, thecharges were not dropped against him.[118][119] A sweatshirt found at the crime was subsequently discovered to contain the DNA of a convicted felon, his prison nickname, and his department of corrections number.[120]Investigators looked for Camm’s DNA on the sweatshirt, but failed to investigate any other pieces of evidence found on it and the foreign DNA was not run through CODIS until 5 years after the crime.[121][122] When the secondsuspect was discovered, prosecutors charged them as co-conspirators in the crime despite finding no evidence linking the two men.[123][124] Camm was acquitted of the murders.[125]

In the paranormal

One factor in the appeal of alleged psychic readings is that listeners apply a confirmation bias which fits the psychic’s statements to their own lives.[126] By making a large number of ambiguous statements in each sitting, the psychic gives the client more opportunities to find a match. This is one of the techniques of cold reading, with which a psychic can deliver a subjectively impressive reading without any prior information about the client.[126]Investigator James Randi compared the transcript of a reading to the client’s report of what the psychic had said, and found that the client showed a strong selective recall of the “hits”.[127]

As a striking illustration of confirmation bias in the real world, Nickerson mentions numerological pyramidology: the practice of finding meaning in the proportions of the Egyptian pyramids.[128] There are many different length measurements that can be made of, for example, the Great Pyramid of Giza and many ways to combine or manipulate them. Hence it is almost inevitable that people who look at these numbers selectively will find superficially impressive correspondences, for example with the dimensions of the Earth.[128]

In science

A distinguishing feature of scientific thinking is the search for falsifying as well as confirming evidence.[129] However, many times in the history of science, scientists have resisted new discoveries by selectively interpreting or ignoring unfavorable data.[129] Previous research has shown that the assessment of the quality of scientific studies seems to be particularly vulnerable to confirmation bias. It has been found several times that scientists rate studies that report findings consistent with their prior beliefs more favorably than studies reporting findings inconsistent with their previous beliefs.[81][130][131] However, assuming that the research question is relevant, the experimental design adequate and the data are clearly and comprehensively described, the found results should be of importance to the scientific community and should not be viewed prejudicially, regardless of whether they conform to current theoretical predictions.[131]

In the context of scientific research, confirmation biases can sustain theories or research programs in the face of inadequate or even contradictory evidence;[74][132] the field of parapsychology has been particularly affected.[133]

An experimenter’s confirmation bias can potentially affect which data are reported. Data that conflict with the experimenter’s expectations may be more readily discarded as unreliable, producing the so-called file drawer effect. To combat this tendency, scientific training teaches ways to prevent bias.[134] For example, experimental design of randomized controlled trials (coupled with their systematic review) aims to minimize sources of bias.[134][135] The social process of peer review is thought to mitigate the effect of individual scientists’ biases,[136] even though the peer review process itself may be susceptible to such biases.[131][137] Confirmation bias may thus be especially harmful to objective evaluations regarding nonconforming results since biased individuals may regard opposing evidence to be weak in principle and give little serious thought to revising their beliefs.[130] Scientific innovators often meet with resistance from the scientific community, and research presenting controversial results frequently receives harsh peer review.[138]

In self-image

Social psychologists have identified two tendencies in the way people seek or interpret information about themselves. Self-verification is the drive to reinforce the existing self-image and self-enhancement is the drive to seek positive feedback. Both are served by confirmation biases.[139] In experiments where people are given feedback that conflicts with their self-image, they are less likely to attend to it or remember it than when given self-verifying feedback.[140][141][142] They reduce the impact of such information by interpreting it as unreliable.[140][143][144] Similar experiments have found a preference for positive feedback, and the people who give it, over negative feedback.[139]

See also

Notes

  1. Jump up^ David Perkins, a geneticist, coined the term “myside bias” referring to a preference for “my” side of an issue. (Baron 2000, p. 195)
  2. Jump up^ Tuchman (1984) described a form of confirmation bias at work in the process of justifying policies to which a government has committed itself: “Once a policy has been adopted and implemented, all subsequent activity becomes an effort to justify it” (p. 245). In the context of a discussion of the policy that drew the United States into war in Vietnam and kept the U.S. military engaged for 16 years despite countless evidences that it was a lost cause from the beginning, Tuchman argued:

    Wooden-headedness, the source of self-deception is a factor that plays a remarkably large role in government. It consists in assessing a situation in terms of preconceived fixed notions while ignoring or rejecting any contrary signs. It is acting according to wish while not allowing oneself to be deflected by the facts. It is epitomized in a historian’s statement about Philip II of Spain, the surpassing wooden head of all sovereigns: “no experience of the failure of his policy could shake his belief in essential excellence.” (p.7)

    Folly, she argued, is a form of self-deception characterized by “insistence on a rooted notion regardless of contrary evidence” (p.209)

  3. Jump up^ “Assimilation bias” is another term used for biased interpretation of evidence. (Risen & Gilovich 2007, p. 113)
  4. Jump up^ Wason also used the term “verification bias”. (Poletiek 2001, p. 73)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confirmation_bias

 Story 4: Clinton in Cleveland Kicks Off Campaign with A Hacking Coughing Fit — Videos

Hillary Clinton Coughing Attack in Cleveland- FULL VERSION (REALLY BAD!)

Hillary Clinton is caught up in a marathon coughing fit and struggles to speak in Cleveland but tries to play it off as an ‘allergic reaction’ to Trump

  • Clinton caught a case of dry mouth during Labor Day speech in Cleveland
  • ‘Every time I think about Trump I get allergic,’ Clinton quipped afterwards 
  • She and her VP nominee Tim Kaine stressed importance of winning Ohio
  • Clinton’s critics have raised questions about her alleged health problems
  •  Said today that she doesn’t ‘pay attention’ to those conspiracy theories

Hillary Clinton caught a case of dry mouth on Monday afternoon that caused her to choke and cough through the first few minutes of her stump speech at a Labor Day event.

Clinton welled up as the coughing fit continued and told a park full of people in Cleveland, Ohio, that it was an ‘allergic reaction’ to Donald Trump.

‘Every time I think about Trump I get allergic,’ she whispered before  she whipped out a glass of water from behind the podium and took a big gulp.

She tried again.

‘Boy we have 63 days to go.’ The coughing persisted.

The crowd could sense she was struggling and chanted her name as she waited for it to pass. Running mate Tim Kaine was sitting on stage behind her but didn’t attempt to assist her. He clapped along with the crowd as she pushed ahead.

She moved on to plan B and popped in a throat lozenge. ‘Woah,’ she said, grabbing and gulping the water again.

The Democratic presidential nominee regained enough strength to finish the speech. ‘Now, as I get over my allergic reaction,’ she said, moving on from her introductory statement.

At a critical moment, though, her first public remarks on Trump’s trip to Mexico, her voice gave way again.

‘He can’t even go to a foreign country without getting into a public feud with the president,’ she said.

As she charged that he is ‘temperamentally unfit’ and ‘totally unqualified’ to be president, her cough got the best of her for a second time – blunting what may have otherwise been an effective attack on her opponent.

Her voice raw and strained, Clinton ran down her regular list of complaints about Trump in the speech and stressed the importance of winning Ohio, something Kaine did in his remarks, as well.

‘You guys have a habit of being there,’ he told Ohioans at the afternoon event.

Pointing out that Labor Day is the unofficial kick-off of the general election, Kaine said, ‘This is a big day.’

We’re ‘battle tested,’ he said, and ‘ready for the home stretch.’

Kaine met Clinton at the airport in Cleveland. The Virginia senator, who hadn’t been seen with her since a bus trip at the end of the July, boarded the plane while Clinton was still on it, then deplaned with her minutes later.

He appeared at an event earlier in the day with Vice President Joe Biden.

Warming up the crowd for Clinton in Cleveland Kaine bashed Donald Trump for saying at his Labor Day event that she doesn’t look ‘presidential, fellas.’

‘Can I tell you something that made me mad today? Donald Trump put out a tweet today about our nominee for president and the tweet essentially said, “She doesn’t look presidential, does she fellas?”‘ Kaine said, misidentifying the place Trump made the remark.

He told the crowd, ‘Listen to that again. Listen to that again. This is what he said, “She does not look presidential, does she, fellas?” Does she, fellas? Does she, fellas?’

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3774941/Clinton-says-coughing-fit-allergic-reaction-Trump.html#ixzz4JVpVsRPx
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Questions about Hillary’s health

ANALYSIS/OPINION:

When questions were raised about Barack Obama’s birth, and whether he was actually eligible to be president of the United States, he brushed the questions aside as if answering them was beneath the dignity of a prince of the crown. He let the questions fester for years before putting them to rest.

It’s still not clear why he did that. He preferred to accuse inquiring minds that wanted to know of racism and bigotry, as if the peasants had no right to ask questions about the crown prince. The presidency is the most precious honor Americans can bestow on one of their own, but Mr. Obama treated the gift as nothing more than a trinket he was entitled to, and who were these uppity people to question him?

Only racists, bigots, mean-spirited zealots, right-wing fanatics and white Christians who couldn’t appreciate the heavenly music of the call to evening prayer at the mosque would do that. Even the mildest criticism, of the sort that every president before him had to endure, was dismissed as disrespect, even racism.


 


Hillary Clinton is trying a similar tactic, portraying criticism of her vulgarity, her greed and her intolerance as hatred of women, and envy of a woman finally breaking through a crystal ceiling. It’s not working, in part because men have a reputation built over the centuries for mortgaging their lives to provide for their women, and in part because nobody knows better than women themselves that the accusation is silly. Is there a woman anywhere who wants a reputation for ethics, character and feminine grace like Hillary‘s?

She, like candidates before her, may not like the questions, but voters have the right to ask candidates, and particularly candidates for president, any question they please. It’s what democracy and democratic elections are about. “If you can’t stand the heat,” as Harry S. Truman reminded everyone, “stay out of the kitchen.”

The questions the Hillary campaign are trying to put off limits now are the legitimate questions about Hillary’s health. She has a well-documented record of coughing fits, fainting, stumbling up and down stairs, and uncontrolled giggling and snorting at inappropriate times. There may be good and sufficient reasons for all that, but it’s not against anybody’s rules to ask what they are.

Hillary Clinton is trying a similar tactic, portraying criticism of her vulgarity, her greed and her intolerance as hatred of women, and envy of a woman finally breaking through a crystal ceiling. It’s not working, in part because men have a reputation built over the centuries for mortgaging their lives to provide for their women, and in part because nobody knows better than women themselves that the accusation is silly. Is there a woman anywhere who wants a reputation for ethics, character and feminine grace like Hillary‘s?

She, like candidates before her, may not like the questions, but voters have the right to ask candidates, and particularly candidates for president, any question they please. It’s what democracy and democratic elections are about. “If you can’t stand the heat,” as Harry S. Truman reminded everyone, “stay out of the kitchen.”

The questions the Hillary campaign are trying to put off limits now are the legitimate questions about Hillary’s health. She has a well-documented record of coughing fits, fainting, stumbling up and down stairs, and uncontrolled giggling and snorting at inappropriate times. There may be good and sufficient reasons for all that, but it’s not against anybody’s rules to ask what they are.

http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2016/sep/5/questions-about-hillary-clintons-health/

clinton-blackberry

hillary_clinton_email_cartoonhillary-constitution

hillary-email-cartoon-colehillary-emails

Jim Jordan: Clinton Is Either Lying, Incompetent or Both

Congress is back in session, and House Oversight Committee Chairman Jason Chaffetz is pushing for an investigation into whether Hillary Clinton and her aides destroyed evidence and obstructed justice in the scandal over her use of a private email server.

Rep. Jim Jordan (R-OH), who serves on the House Oversight Committee, told Martha MacCallum today that it’s important to “keep digging” into Clinton’s mishandling of classified information.

He pointed out the FBI’s notes on the agency’s investigation into Clinton’s private server reveal that a Clinton staffer deleted her emails with an online program called BleachBit and physically destroyed her mobile devices with a hammer, despite preservation orders and a congressional subpoena.

Jordan added that the deletion of Clinton’s emails occurred after a conference between Clinton’s legal team and Platte River Networks, the IT company that handled some of the server work for Clinton.

“That calls for more investigation, more looking into this, because that is just absolutely wrong,” Jordan said.

“No other American could get away with this,” Jordan said. “Just because you’re secretary of state, major nominee for president, former first lady, former senator, you shouldn’t get away with it either.”

The cloud over Clinton’s email server

Labor Day Bombshell! ➡ HILlARY Guilty As HELL, She’s Going Down Nov. 8

America’s Election HQ 9/2/16 – Breaking: FBI releases Hillary Clinton email report, interview notes

FBI releases documents in Clinton email investigation

Assange: “Tick Tock” Most Damaging Hillary Email

Julian Assange – Hillary’s October Surprise

Gutfeld: Here’s why Hillary is in hiding

Why the Clinton email story won’t go away

Eyebrows raised after FBI discovers 15K new Clinton emails

Hillary Clinton CAUGHT Lying To CONGRESS Under Oath of THE UNITED STATES

MM157 – Backup Server for Clinton Emails?

MM164 – Who Wiped the Server?

 

House oversight chair asks for new investigation of deleted Clinton emails

September 6 at 4:52 PM
House Oversight Committee Chairman Jason Chaffetz on Tuesday requested yet another Justice Department investigation of Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton — this one focused on emails that a tech company staffer deleted in spite of a congressional committee’s request that they be preserved.

In the letter — addressed to the U.S. attorney for the District of Columbia, Channing D. Phillips, and copied to Attorney General Loretta E. Lynch and FBI Director James B. Comey — the Utah Republican asks for an investigation to determine whether “Secretary Clinton or her employees and contractors violated statutes that prohibit destruction of records, obstruction of congressional inquiries, and concealment or cover up of evidence material to a congressional investigation.”

The request is based on an incident in which an employee for Platte River Networks — the company that at one time managed Clinton’s private email server — deleted an archive of Clinton emails, even though he had been asked to preserve them by the House Select Committee on Benghazi. The episode was revealed last week in documents made public by the FBI about its investigation into Clinton’s use of a private email server while she was secretary of state.

The FBI concluded in that case that while Clinton and her staffers were careless in how they handled classified information, no reasonable prosecutor would bring charges against them. Republican legislators have questioned that determination, waging an aggressive campaign to get the FBI to release more information about the probe while requesting new investigations.

Chaffetz and Rep. Bob Goodlatte (R-Va.), for example, earlier asked the U.S. attorney in D.C.whether Clinton committed perjury when she testified before a congressional committee about her use of a private email server.

A Justice Department spokeswoman declined to comment on Chaffetz’s latest request.

Clinton, speaking to reporters Tuesday on her plane en route to Tampa, said of Chaffetz’s latest request: “The FBI resolved all of this. Their report answered all the questions. The findings included debunking his latest conspiracy theories.”

“I believe I have created so many jobs in the sort of conspiracy-theory machine factory, because, honestly, they never quit,” she added. “They keep coming back. And here’s another one. It’s been debunked. If that’s how they want to spend their time instead of looking to address the problems of the American people, that’s their choice.”

A spokesman for Platte River declined to address the FBI’s report specifically but said in a statement “Platte River Networks did not, at any time, treat the server belonging to the Clintons differently than we did any other client. We maintain all security precautions were in place, and continued to be so, throughout our service to said client.”

From what is known publicly, another investigation would seem unlikely to produce any significantly damaging revelations for Clinton or those close to her. According to an FBI summary of its investigation, Cheryl Mills, a top Clinton aide, sent the Platte River employee an email referencing the preservation request weeks before he made the deletions, and Mills and Clinton told investigators they were unaware of what the employee had done.

Some details of the episode, though, remain murky. According to the FBI summary, Mills and another Clinton aide asked the Platte River employee, whose name is redacted, to delete emails in December 2014 or January 2015 and also to modify the period in which emails were retained. The employee, though, did not do so immediately, according to the summary.

On March 2, 2015, the New York Times revealed that Clinton used a personal email account as secretary of state, and the following day, the Benghazi committee requested documents related to it be preserved. On March 25, Platte River, which then managed Clinton’s private server, had a conference call with staffers of former president Bill Clinton, according to the summary. (A private server in the Clintons’ home was initially set up to be used by the former president and his staff.)

The Platte River employee told FBI agents that sometime in the week that followed, he realized he had not made the changes Mills requested months earlier — though he gave varying stories as to what happened next. The employee first said he did not recall making deletions based upon his realization, but in a later interview said he had an “Oh, s—” moment and deleted a Hillary Clinton email archive using a program called BleachBit, which is designed to prevent recovery.

Mills had — on March 9 — sent the employee an email referencing the Benghazi committee’s preservation request. But the employee gave varying accounts to the FBI as to his receipt and comprehension of the document. He first told investigators he did not recall seeing it, then later said he was aware of it and the fact that it meant he should not disturb Clinton’s email data when he made the deletions, according to the FBI summary.

The employee said he did not receive guidance from Platte River, including the company’s attorney, about the meaning of the request, according to the FBI summary. FBI investigators found a Platte River work ticket that referenced a conference call between the company, Mills and David Kendall, Clinton’s attorney, on March 31, though the Platte River employee was advised not to comment on it, because it was protected by attorney-client privilege, according to the FBI summary.

John Wagner in Tampa contributed to this report.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/house-oversight-chair-asks-for-new-investigation-of-deleted-clinton-emails/2016/09/06/357c5052-7445-11e6-8149-b8d05321db62_story.html

 

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Posted on May 12, 2011. Filed under: American History, Budgetary Policy, Climate Change, Coal, College, Economics, Education, Energy, European History, Federal Government, Fiscal Policy, Government, Government Spending, Labor Economics, Monetary Policy, Oil, Philosophy, Politics, Private Sector Unions, Public Sector Unions, Radio, Resources, Sports, Tax Policy, Unions, Videos, Violence, War, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 27

 

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Pronk Pops Show 27

May 11, 2011 10:13 AM PDT

Pronk Pops Show 27, May 10, 2011

Segment 1: Bureau of Labor Statistics Official Unemployment Rate (U-3) Increased To 9.0% With 13.7 Million Americans Unemployed and Total Unemployment Rate (U-6) Increased To 15.9% With 24.4 Million Americans Seeking Full Time Job–Economy Adds 244,000 Jobs But Initial Unemployment Claims Hit Eight Month High of 474,000!–Videos

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/05/09/pronk-pops-show-27-may-9-2011-segment-1-bureau-of-labor-statistics-offical-unemployment-rate-u-3-increased-to-9-0-with-13-7-million-americans-unemployed-and-total-unemployment-rate-u-6-increas/

Segment 2: OMI-Obama Misery Index–U.S. Misery Index Is Rising As Both The Unemployment Rate and Inflation Rate Increase!–Videos

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/05/10/pronk-pops-show-27-may-10-2011-segment-2-omi-obama-misery-index-u-s-misery-index-is-rising-as-both-the-unemployment-rate-and-inflation-rate-increase-vidoes/

Segment 3: Segment 3: Speaker Boehner’s Address to the Economic Club of New York on Jobs, Debt, Gas Prices–Videos

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/05/10/pronk-pops-show-27-may-10-2011-segment-3-speaker-boehners-address-to-the-economic-club-of-new-york-on-jobs-debt-gas-prices/

 

 

Pronk Pops Show 26

April 27, 2011 11:28 AM PDT

Pronk Pops Show 25, April 26, 2011

Segment 0: Eva Cassidy–A Singer’s Singer

Segment 1: Ron Paul Is Running For President of The United States In 2012!–The Third Time Is The Charm–A Man Of Integrity–A Candidate For Peace and Prosperity–Neither A Big Government Warfare Republican Nor A Massive Government Welfare Democrat–A Man Of And For The American People–A Tea Party Patriot–Ron Paul–Videos

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/04/26/pronk-pops-show-25-april-26-2011-segment-0-eva-cassidy-a-singers-singer-segment-1-ron-paul-is-running-for-president-of-the-united-states-in-2012%E2%80%93the-third-time-is-the-charm%E2%80%93a/?preview=true&preview_id=808&preview_nonce=d3d9842e9a

Segment 3: President Obama Is The Reason Your Gasoline Prices Are Going Up!–American People Favor Drilling For Oil and Gas!–Drill Baby Drill–Videos

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/04/26/pronk-pops-show-25-april-26-2011-segment-3-president-obama-is-the-reason-your-gasoline-prices-are-going-up-american-people-favor-drilling-for-oil-and-gas-drill-baby-drill-videos/

Pronk Pops Show 24

April 20, 2011 12:47 PM PDT

Pronk Pops Show 24: April 19, 2011

Segment 0: S&P Rating Outlook Changed From “Stable” To “Negative” For U.S. Treasury Debt–Videos

Segment 1: Who is John Galt? Who is Ayn Rand–Videos

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/04/17/pronk-pops-show-24-april-19-2011-segment-1-who-is-john-galt-who-is-ayn-rand-videos/

Segment 2: President Obama’s Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Speech Of April 13, 2011–Eat The Rich And Killing The American Dream Class Warfare–Cuts National Security Spending and Raise Taxes On The Rich–Produces Massive Deficits, National Debt, and Higher Unemployment For 12 More Years–Progressive Radical Socialist Economic Stagflation–Videos

For additional information and videos:
https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/04/18/pronk-pops-show-24-april-18-2011-segment-2-president-obamas-fiscal-year-2012-budget-speech-of-april-13-2011-eat-the-rich-and-killing-the-american-dream-class-warfare-cuts-national-security-sp/

Segment 3: The FairTax (National Consumption Sales Tax) vs. The Flat Tax (One Rate Federal Income Tax)–Who Pays The Most Federal Individual Income Tax? Videos

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/04/18/pronk-pops-show-24-april-19-2011-segment-3-the-fairtax-national-consumption-sales-tax-vs-the-flat-tax-one-rate-federal-income-tax-who-pays-the-most-federal-individual-income-tax-videos/

Pronk Pops Show 23

April 13, 2011 10:31 AM PDT

Pronk Pops Show 23: April 12, 2011

Segment 0: Sidney Lumet–Rest In Peace–Videos

Segment 1: Tea Party Movement Demands Passage of Balanced Budget Amendment and The FairTax As The Price For Raising The National Statutory Debt Limit of $ 14,294,000,000 One Last Time By $1,000,000,000,000!–Videos

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/04/11/tea-party-movement-demands-passage-of-balance-budget-amendment-and-balanced-budget-rule-as-the-price-for-raising-the-national-debt-ceiling-one-last-time-by-1000000000000-videos/?preview=true&preview_id=701&preview_nonce=5e679dbc1d

Segment 2: The FairTax (National Consumption Sales Tax) vs. The Flat Tax (One Rate Federal Income Tax)–Who Pays The Most Federal Individual Income Tax? Videos

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/04/11/pronk-pops-show-23-april-12-2011-segment-2the-fairtax-national-consumption-sales-tax-vs-the-flat-tax-one-rate-federal-income-tax-who-pays-the-most-federal-individual-income-tax-videos/

Pronk Pops Show 22 (Part 2)

April 08, 2011 11:16 AM PDT

Pronk Pops Show 22, April 7, 2011

Segment 1: 3,500,000 Million Americans Unemployed in March 2011 Still Exceeds Great Depression High of 13,000,000 In March 1933–The Obama Depressions Continues–Bureau of Labor Statistics: 8.8% Official Unemployment Rate (U-3) vs. Gallup Unemployment Rate of 10.0%–Nonfarm Payroll Increased By 216,000–The Government Makes The Depression Worse!–Videos

Segment 2: Obama’s Anti-American, Anti-Capitalist, Anti-Growth, Anti-Jobs, and Anti-Security Energy Policy–Videos

Segment 3: Republican Establishment Will Propose A Ten Year $6,200 Billion Cut In Spending Over Ten Years–The Problem Is It Does Not Balance The Budget For Another Five Years At The Earliest–Tea Party Movement Demands Balanced Budgets Starting In 2012 For The Next Ten Years!–A Jet Plane To Prosperity Not A Path To Prosperity–Videos

Segment 4: Just One More Thing Congressman Ryan: When Does The Republican’s Path To Prosperity Balance The Budget?–The Twelth of Never!–Videos

For additional information and videos on the above segments:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/04/04/pronk-pops-show-22-april-5-2011-segment-113500000-million-americans-unemployed-in-march-2011-still-exceeds-great-depression-high-of-13000000-in-march-1933%E2%80%93the-obama-depressions-contin/

Pronk Pops Show 22 (Part 1)

April 07, 2011 10:41 AM PDT

Pronk Pops: Show 22, April 7, 2011

Segment 0: Glenn Beck Ending His Show At Fox News

Segment 1: 3,500,000 Million Americans Unemployed in March 2011 Still Exceeds Great Depression High of 13,000,000 In March 1933–The Obama Depressions Continues–Bureau of Labor Statistics: 8.8% Official Unemployment Rate (U-3) vs. Gallup Unemployment Rate of 10.0%–Nonfarm Payroll Increased By 216,000–The Government Makes The Depression Worse!–Videos

Segment 2: Obama’s Anti-American, Anti-Capitalist, Anti-Growth, Anti-Jobs, and Anti-Security Energy Policy–Videos

Segment 3: Republican Establishment Will Propose A Ten Year $6,200 Billion Cut In Spending Over Ten Years–The Problem Is It Does Not Balance The Budget For Another Five Years At The Earliest–Tea Party Movement Demands Balanced Budgets Starting In 2012 For The Next Ten Years!–A Jet Plane To Prosperity Not A Path To Prosperity–Videos

Segment 4: Just One More Thing Congressman Ryan: When Does The Republican’s Path To Prosperity Balance The Budget?–The Twelth of Never!–Videos

For additional information and videos on the above segments:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/04/04/pronk-pops-show-22-april-5-2011-segment-113500000-million-americans-unemployed-in-march-2011-still-exceeds-great-depression-high-of-13000000-in-march-1933%E2%80%93the-obama-depressions-contin/

Pronk Pops Show 21

March 29, 2011 03:41 PM PDT

Pronk Pops Show 21, March 29, 2010

Segment 1: The Truth And Consequences About Undeclared Wars–Real Strange Bedfellows–Obama Allies U.S. with Libyan Rebels Including Islamic Jihadists, Moslem Brotherhood, and Al-Qaeda!–Give Peace A Chance–AC-130 Gunship–A-10 Warthogs–F-15E Strike Eagles and Special Operation Smash Squads

For Additional Information and Videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/03/29/pronk-pops-show-21-march-29-2011-the-truth-and-consequences-about-undeclared-wars%E2%80%93real-strange-bedfellows%E2%80%93obama-allies-u-s-with-libyan-rebels-including-islamic-jihadists-moslem-b/

Pronk Pops Show 20

March 23, 2011 12:02 PM PDT

Pronk Pops Show 20: March 22, 2011

Segment 1:F-15 Crashes In Libya

Segment 2surprisedne Unconstitutional and Undeclared War Too Many: The Great Pretender, Peace Candidate And Noble Peace Prize Winner, President Barack Obama Undeclared War On Libya’s Muammar Ghaddafi In Defense Of Libyian Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG) Rebels Linked To al-Qaeda and The BP Libyian Oil Deal Linked To Obama Campaign Contributions–A Political Payoff!–Obama Has To Go In 2012–Videos

Segment 3:Earthquake Damages Japanese Nuclear Plant At Fukushima Daiichi, Four Explosions and Four Nuclear Reactors Flooded With Seawater To Contain Release Of Radioactive Material and Plant Released Radioactive Materials To Stop Pressure Buildup–Partial Meltdown Of Nuclear Core Feared–Radioactive Material Escaping From Plant–Over 250,000 Ordered Evacuated From 20 Kilometer (12.4 Miles) Radius From Plant–Videos

For Additional Information and Videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/03/22/pronk-pops-show-20-march-22-2011-segment-1-f-15-crashes-in-libya-segment-2-videos/?preview=true&preview_id=569&preview_nonce=40500c814b

Pronk Pops Show 19

March 09, 2011 10:57 AM PST

Pronk Pops Show 19: March 8, 2011

Segment 1: The Washington Political Elites of Both Parties Are Not Serious About Balancing The Federal Budget And Funding Entitlement Liabilities–Send In The Clowns–Don’t Bother There Here–Videos

Segment 2, Gallup–U.S. Unemployment Hits 10.3% In February 2011 Vs. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) U.S. Unemployment Rate Declined By .1% To 8.9% in February 2011 With Job Creation of 192,000 In February 2011–Over 13.7 Million Americans Unemployed More Than Worse Month of Great Depression!

For more information and videos related to this show click on links below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/03/08/pronk-pops-show-19-march-8-2011segment-1-the-washington-political-elites-of-both-parties-are-not-serious-about-balancing-the-federal-budget-and-funding-entitlement-liabilities-send-in-the-clowns/

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/03/08/pronk-pops-show-19-march-8-2010-segment-2-gallup-u-s-unemployment-hits-10-3-in-february-2011-vs-bureau-of-labor-statistics-bls-u-s-unemployment-rate-declined-by-1-to-8-9-in-february-2011-wi/

Pronk Pops Show 18

March 03, 2011 03:35 PM PST

Pronk Pops Show 18: March 3, 2011

Segment 1: Remembering The Brooklyn Dodgers and Duke Snider

Segment 2: The National Debt Will Hit $20,000,000,000,000 By 2020!

Segment 3 Public Sector Unions vs. The America People: Replacing The American Dream With The Socialist Union Nightmare

For additional information and videos on the above segments:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/03/01/pronk-pops-show-18-march-1-2011-remembering-the-brooklyn-dodgers-and-duke-snider-the-union-corruption-of-government-delusion-of-the-unconstrained-vision-of-unlimited-government-and-the-2000000/

Pronk Pop Show 17

February 22, 2011 03:47 PM PST

Pronk Pops Show 17: February 22, 2011

Black History Month–Progressives–Eugenics–Black Population Control–Abortion–Black Genocide–Planned Parenthood–Barack Obama

For more information and videos relating to the show:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/02/22/pronk-pops-show-17-february-22-2011-black-history-month-progressives-eugenics-black-population-control-abortion-black-genocide-planned-parenthood-barack-obama-videos/

Pronk Pops Show 16

February 15, 2011 03:49 PM PST

Pronk Pops Show 16: February 15, 2011

Conservative Political Action Conference 2011

President Obama’s Saint Valentine’s Massacre of The American People–Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Buster–Spending $3,729 Billion–Taxes $2,627 Billion–Deficit $1,101 Billion–Dead On Arrival–DOA– 3 Million Tea Party Patriots To March On Washington D.C. On Friday, April 15, 2011 In Protest!

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/02/15/pronk-pops-show-16-february-15-2011-conservative-political-action-conference-cpac-2011-and-president-obamas-saint-valentines-massacre-of-the-american-people-fiscal-year-2012-budget-buster-s/

Pronk Pops Show 15: Hour 3

February 10, 2011 03:32 PM PST

Pronk Pops Show 15:February 8,2011, Hour 3

Lies, Damn Lies, Statistics, and Obama’s Unbelievable Unemployment Numbers

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/02/08/pronk-pops-show-15-february-8-2011-from-texas-snow-storm-to-washington-snow-job-lies-damn-lies-statistics-and-obamas-unbelievable-unemployment-numbers-obama-care-unconstitutional-and-void-pa-2/

Pronk Pops Show 15: Hour 2

February 10, 2011 03:23 PM PST

Pronk Pops Show 15: February 8, 2011 Hour 2

Rolling Power Outages in Texas

Obama Care Declared Unconstitutional and Void By Federal Judge

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/02/08/pronk-pops-show-15-february-8-2011-from-texas-snow-storm-to-washington-snow-job-lies-damn-lies-statistics-and-obamas-unbelievable-unemployment-numbers-obama-care-unconstitutional-and-void-pa/

Pronk Pops Show 15: Hour 1

February 10, 2011 03:10 PM PST

Pronk Pops Show 15: February 8,2011, Hour 1

Super Storm and Super Bowl In Dallas, Texas

Man-Made Carbon Dioxide Emission and Global Warming–Science vs. Politics

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/02/08/pronk-pops-show-15-february-8-2011-from-texas-snow-storm-to-washington-snow-job-lies-damn-lies-statistics-and-obamas-unbelievable-unemployment-numbers-obama-care-unconstitutional-and-void-pa/

Pronk Pops Show 14

January 28, 2011 02:10 PM PST

Pronk Pops Show 14: January 27, 2011

The Big Lie and Free Speech

President Obama’s State of the Union Campaign Speech

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/01/27/pronk-pops-show-14-january-27-2011-the-big-lie-and-free-speech-and-president-obamas-state-of-the-union-campaign-speech-videos/

Pronk Pops Show 13

December 09, 2010 01:22 PM PST

Pronk Pops Show 13: December 9, 2010

Latest News Update on WikiLeaks

Federal Reserve Unconventional Monetary Policy

President Obama and Republicans Agree To Two Year Tax Rate Extension and

One Year Unemployment Benefit Extension–More Deficit Spending and Debt!

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2010/12/09/pronk-pops-show-december-9-2010-president-obama-and-republican-cut-tax-and-spend-deal-time-for-serious-spending-cuts-balance-budgets-and-the-flat-tax/

Pronk Pops Show 12

December 08, 2010 04:18 PM PST

Pronk Pops Show 12: December 8, 2010

News Update On WikiLeaks and Julian Assange

The Chairman of The Federal Reserve and Quantitative Easing 2

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2010/12/08/pronk-pops-show-12-december-8-2010-news-update-on-julian-assange-wikileaks-ben-benanke-the-fed-barack-obama-tax-and-spend-democrats-videos/

Pronk Pops Show 11

December 03, 2010 02:18 PM PST

Pronk Pops Show 11: December 3, 2010

News and Commentary On November 2010 Unemployment Rate and Level Statistics

WikiLeaks

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2010/12/03/pronk-pops-show-11-december-3-2010-news-unemployment-rate-up-to-9-8-with-over-15-million-unemployed-wikileaks-food-prices-rising-the-fairtax-videos-2/?preview=true&preview_id=245&preview_nonce=e49c7ff2d2

Pronk Pops Show 10

December 02, 2010 12:35 PM PST

Pronk Pops Show 10: December 1, 2010

Update on new TSA Airport Screening Procedures

Portland, Oregon Terrorist Bomber Arrested by F.B.I.

WikiLeaks Posts Department of State Cables

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:
https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2010/11/24/pronk-pops-show-10-november-24-2010-food-prices-rising-fairtax-updates-on-tsa-and-quantitative-easing-money-printing-videos/

Pronk Pops Show 9

November 19, 2010 02:23 PM PST

Pronk Pops Show 9: November 19, 2010

Federal Reserve Chairman Bernanke Responds To Critics of Monetary Policy

Transportation Security Administration or TSA New Screening Procedures:
Full Body Scanners and Extended Pat-Downs

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2010/11/15/pronk-pops-show-9-november-17-2010-quantitative-easing-2-update-g-20-summit-a-bust-tsa-tyrants-scanning-americans-videos/

Pronk Pops Commentary 1

November 11, 2010 03:42 PM PST

Pronk Pops Commentary 1: November 11, 2010

Stop Federal Reserve Quantitative Easing or Money Printing

Pronk Pops Show 8

November 10, 2010 04:24 PM PST

Pronk Pops Show 8: November 10, 2010

Tea Party Major Issues: Jobs, Spending, Deficits, Debt, Taxes, Health Care and Illegal Immigration

Tea Party Stars: Senators: Rand Paul and Marco Rubio

Republican Tea Party Test: Cutting Federal Spending By Over $1,000 Billion To Balance The Budget For Fiscal Years 2011, 2012, and 2013.

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2010/11/10/pronk-pops-show-8-november-10-2010-fiscal-policy-cut-spending-balanced-budgets-no-new-taxes-monetary-policy-no-quantitative-easing-or-printing-money-hidden-tax-videos/

Pronk Pops Show 7

November 09, 2010 02:45 PM PST

Pronk Pops Show 7: November 9, 2010

Unemployment News

Tea Party Effect On 2010 Elections

Key Issues: Federal Budget Deficits and National Debt

Cutting Federal Government Spending and Balancing The Federal Budget

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2010/11/05/pronk-pops-show-7-november-8-2010-the-tea-party-effect-what-is-next-and-update-on-feds-qe2/

Pronk Pops Show 6

November 03, 2010 03:58 PM PDT

Pronk Pops Show 6: November 3, 2010

Winning Elections With MOMMA (Money, Organization, Message, Momentum, Ambition) and The Tea Party Movement Effect

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2010/11/03/pronk-pops-show-6-november-3-2010-winning-elections-with-momma-money-organization-message-momentum-ambition-and-the-tea-party-movement-effect-videos/

Pronk Pops Show 5

October 28, 2010 03:49 PM PDT

Pronk Pops Show 5: October 27, 2010

Democratic Party’s National Attack Ad Campaign on Candidates and the Flat Tax

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2010/10/28/pronk-pops-show-5-october-27-2010-democratic-party-national-attack-ad-campaign-on-fairtax-videos/

Pronk Pops Show 4

October 28, 2010 03:43 PM PDT

Pronk Pops Show 4: October 20, 2010

Money, Quantitative Easing and Inflation in the United States Economy

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2010/10/20/pronk-pops-number-4-videosquantitive-easying-ii-printing-money-to-finance-federal-govenment/

Pronk Pops Show 3

October 28, 2010 03:32 PM PDT

Pronk Pops Show 3: October 14, 2010

Unemployment and inflation in the United States economy

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2010/10/28/pronk-pops-show-3-october-14-2010unemployment-and-inflation/

Pronk Pops Show 2

October 28, 2010 03:27 PM PDT

Pronk Pops Show 2: October 13, 2010

The 10:10 carbon emission ad campaign on climate change

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wliC2Eiwoyw

http://www.1010global.org/uk

Secretary of State Hillary Clinton replacing Vice President Joseph Biden on the 2010 Democratic Party ticket

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2010/10/05/pronk-pops-number-2-october-6-2010-1010-campaign-the-progressive-radical-socialists-method-of-cutting-carbon-emissions-kill-those-who-disagree-with-you-no-pressure-your-choice-the-big-lie-v/

Pronk Pops Show 1

October 28, 2010 03:01 PM PDT

Pronk Pops Show 1: September 29, 2010

University of Texas at Austin shooting/suicide

The Tea Party Movement in the United States

For more information and videos related to this show click on link below:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2010/09/29/pronk-pops-program-number-1-september-29-2010-clips-and-notes-videos/

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 27

 

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 22 (Part 2)-26

 

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 16-22 (Part 1)

 

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 10-15

 

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 1-9

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