The Pronk Pops Show 764, September 27, 2016, Part 1 of 3 Story 1: The Winner of The Debate — Tie Goes To Trump — We The People Vs. Politicians, Big Lie Media and Donor Class — The Winner on Election Day — We The People — President of The United States — Donald J. Trump — Videos

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Pronk Pops Show 764: September 27, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 760: September 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 759: September 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 758: September 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 757: September 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 756: September 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 755: September 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 754: September 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 753: September 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 752: September 9, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 750: September 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 749: September 2, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 748: September 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 747: August 31, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 744: August 26, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 739: August 18, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 737: August 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 736: August 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 735: August 12, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 733: August 9, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 730: August 3, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 728: July 29, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 725: July 26, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 724: July 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 723: July 22, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 721: July 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 720: July 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 719: July 18, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 718: July 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 717: July 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 716: July 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 715: July 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 714: July 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 713: July 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 712: July 5, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 711: July 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 710: June 30, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 709: June 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 708: June 28, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 707: June 27, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 706: June 24, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 705: June 23, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 704: June 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 703: June 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 702: June 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 701: June 17, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 700: June 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 699: June 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 698: June 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 697: June 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 696: June 10, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 695: June 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 694: June 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 693: June 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 692: June 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 691: June 2, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 690: June 1, 2016

 Part 1 of 2 Story 1: The Winner of The Debate — Tie Goes To Trump — We The People Vs. Politicians, Big Lie Media and Donor Class — The Winner on Election Day — We The People — President of The United States — Donald J.  Trump — Videos

Trump: I’m Not Running to be President of the World

Reaction To Clinton vs Trump Presidential Debate – Bret Baier & Megyn Kelly

FULL: Donald Trump vs Hillary Clinton – First Presidential Debate 2016 – Hofstra University NY

Presidential Debate Analysis

Local reaction to presidential debate

SR #1216 – One Deplorable’s Response -Editorial Director Bill Still Goes-Off on Crooked Obama

Still Report #1214 – Hillary Clinton Campaign Gives Up on Ohio – Donald Trump Dominates Polls

Still Report#1213 –How Donald Trump Can Knock Out Hillary Clinton Tonight at the Presidential Debate

Why Trump’s outsider appeal can win him the working class

RUSH: TRUMP IS A ‘GENUINE OUTSIDER’

Donald Trump vs. Hillary Clinton | Presidential Debate Analysis

Media waging a war against Trump?

Image result for Lester holt and hillary clinton

Whoomp There It Is – Tag Team

Cognition: How Your Mind Can Amaze and Betray You – Crash Course Psychology #15

Trump pulled off presidential

James Robbins

Like Reagan in 1980, viewers saw a Trump who was better than the liberal talking points.

You can’t fact check leadership, and tonight Donald Trump showed himself a leader.

In the run-up to the Hofstra presidential debate, the Clinton campaign mounted a concerted effort to make fact-checking the centerpiece of the event. Campaign manager Robby Mook argued that “it’s unfair to ask that Hillary Clinton both play traffic copwith Trump, make sure that his lies are corrected, and also to present her vision for what she wants to do for the American people.” Mook said that if Trump “lied,” it was moderator Lester Holt’s responsibility to point that out.

Fact-checking has never been an accepted role for debate moderators. Janet Brown, head of the Commission on Presidential Debates, said that a moderator should not “serve as the Encyclopedia Britannica.” And moderator Candy Crowley’s ill-advised intervention against Mitt Romney in 2012 showed why fact checking on the fly is a bad idea.

It was strange that the truth-challenged Clinton would want to make an issue of facts. But there was certainly no shortage of checking. Veteran debate moderator Bob Schieffer said that “the chief fact-checkers are the candidates,” and Clinton and Trump agreed, vigorously challenging each other over facts, policies and opinions. In addition, the social media hive-mind was scrutinizing every word in real time. Anyone who needed to track down a fact had the entire connected world at their disposal.

http://www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/2016/09/26/trump-clinton-debate-hofstra-1980-reagan-carter-james-robbins-column/91141618/

 

Eight examples where ‘fact-checking’ became opinion journalism

– The Washington Times

NALYSIS/OPINION:

The media coverage on the presidential contest seems to have come down to “fact-checking,” with The New York Times, The Washington Post and Politico each doing articles depicting Donald Trump’s lies on the campaign trail.

This is dangerous territory for the profession, for as Wall Street Journal columnist James Taranto opined on Twitter: ” ‘Fact checking’ is opinion journalism pretending to be some sort of heightened objectivity.”

Why you ask? Because most “fact-checkers” are merely liberal journalists looking to prove their preconceived narrative. They cherry-pick the statements to “fact-check” and then decide which data to back it up with. Statistics can be manipulated — for every study coming out of the Brookings Institute, the Heritage Foundation can have a counter argument, depending on the methodology and surveys used. Moreover, much of what they decide to “fact-check” is subjective at best. Nothing that can be pinned down with undisputed data.

In addition, many times politicians use hyperbole to extenuate a larger point — and many times these “fact-checkers” ignore the larger point to focus on the validity of the minutia. Here are the eight most outrageous “fact-checks” used against Mr. Trump in the last few weeks, that explain why the American public’s trust in the media is at an all-time low.

The New York Times:

(1) Trumpquote: “Do people notice Hillary is copying my airplane rallies — she puts the plane behind her like I have been doing from the beginning.” (Twitter, Sept. 20)

Fact-check: “He did not invent the tarmac rally or the campaign-plane backdrop.”

(2) Trump quote/assertions: “Mrs. Clinton destroyed 13 smartphones with a hammer while she was secretary of state.” (Speeches in Florida, Sept. 15 and Sept. 19)

Fact-check: “An aide told the FBI of only two occasions in which phones were destroyed by a hammer.”

(3) Trump quote: “We have cities that are far more dangerous than Afghanistan.”

Fact-check: “No American city resembles a war zone, though crime has risen lately in some, like Chicago. Urban violence has fallen precipitously over the past 25 years.”

Of note, The New York Times wrote on Sept. 9 that “murder rates rose in a quarter of the nation’s 100 largest cities, and that “the number of cities where rates rose significantly was the largest since the height of violent crime in the early 1990s.”

Politico:

(4) Trumpquote: “We’re presiding over something the world has not seen. The level of evil is unbelievable.” (Sept. 19, Fort Myers, Florida, rally)

Fact-check: “Judging one ‘level of evil’ against another is subjective, but other groups in recent history have without any question engaged in as widespread killing of civilians as ISIS.”

(5) Trump quote: “Hillary Clinton is raising your taxes, it’s a very substantial tax increase.” (Sept. 20 High Point, North Carolina, rally, and a similar statement at least one other time)

Fact-check: “Clinton has not released the full details of her tax plan, but she has sworn off tax hikes for households earning less than $250,000 a year. The vast majority of tax increases she proposes levying affect the highest earners.”

Of note, this fact-check says Mrs. Clinton will, indeed raise taxes. Additionally, in December, when ABC News’s George Stephanopoulos asked her “Is that a rock-solid promise?” (on not raising taxes on households earning less than $250,000) she hedged. “Well,” she said, “it certainly is my goal.”

(6) Trump quote: “Hillary Clinton wants to approve the Trans-Pacific Partnership; that deal will be a disaster for North Carolina, for every state. Your state.” (Sept. 20, High Point, North Carolina, rally)

Fact-check: “CNN tracked 45 instances in which Clinton supported the TPP, including in 2012 when she called it the “gold standard” of trade deals. But facing a challenge to her left from Bernie Sanders, Clinton this year said she opposed it and would continue to as president. The trade pact’s economic impacts are hotly debated, with some arguing it will hurt domestic workers while others arguing it will spur further exports and economic growth.”

Just to be clear, Politico is calling Mr. Trump a liar for calling out Mrs. Clinton’s flip-flop on TPP. Not to mention, her vice presidential candidate Tim Kaine was a vocal advocate of the trade-agreement for the Obama administration in Virginia (before he denounced it, once jumping on her ticket).

The Washington Post

(7) Trump quote: “The policies he [Rudolph Giuliani] put into place ultimately brought down crime by 76 percent and murder in New York by 84 percent.” (Speech in Pittsburgh, Sept. 22, 2016)

Fact-check: “It’s debatable whether the stop-and-frisk policies had such a direct impact on crime, as Trump suggests. Crime is affected by many factors, and New York’s decline in crime mirrored the decline in many other major cities at the time.”

The Post, after admitting the statistics were “debatable” still gave the assertion three Pinocchios. They used their preferable statistics to justify, saying Mr. Trump‘ “cherry-picked” his.

(8) “Hillary Clinton and her campaign of 2008 started the birther controversy. I finished it. I finished it, you know what I mean. President Barack Obama was born in the United States, period.” (Donald Trump, news conference, Sept. 16, 2016)

Fact-check: “Let’s review this again: No, Clinton and her campaign did not start the “birther” controversy.”

Although Mrs. Clinton herself can’t be tied to starting or spreading the birther conspiracy, her 2008 presidential campaign can. Mrs. Clinton’s former campaign manager said they had to fire a staffer (she couldn’t remember if he or she was paid or not) for sending an email relating to Mr. Obama’s birthplace.

Moreover, the former Washington, D.C., bureau chief of McClatchy alleged Clinton ally Sidney Blumenthal asked him to investigate Mr. Obama’s birthplace, essentially starting a whisper campaign. McClatchy even sent a reporter to Kenya.

The Washington Post’s own fact-checker Michelle Ye Hee Lee admitted she heard about Mr. Blumenthal’s whisper campaign, so she called him and he said it wasn’t true (Remember: Mr. Blumenthal was responsible for spreading whisper campaigns about Monica Lewinsky in the 1990s — it’s been documented). But, The Washington Post fact-checker decided to believe Mr. Blumenthal, and gave Mr. Trump four Pinocchios instead.

http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2016/sep/26/eight-examples-where-fact-checking-became-opinion-/

 

In debate, Clinton gets no follow-up questions, Trump gets 6

Lester Holt: The Third Debater?

By Heat Street Staff|11:01 pm, September 26, 2016At tonight’s debate, Donald Trump faced off not just against Hillary Clinton, but against moderator Lester Holt.

The game of two-on-one saw Holt ask no questions about:

  • Hillary’s emails
  • Benghazi
  • The Clinton Foundation

While ignoring these issues, Holt grilled Trump on stop-and-frisk, the birther story, his comments about women, his many bankruptcies, why he hasn’t released his tax returns — and a host of other issues the media sees as unfriendly to the Republican candidate.

Holt also repeatedly attempted to “fact check” on some of Trump’s positions, such as his claim to have opposed the Iraq War from the beginning. Holt interrupted Trump several times to interject, but rarely succeeded (and may have come across as weak and impotent).

Lester Holt: The Third Debater?

CLINTON, TRUMP BATTLE FIERCELY OVER TAXES, RACE, TERROR

In a combative opening debate, Hillary Clinton emphatically denounced Donald Trump Monday night for keeping his personal tax returns and business dealings secret from voters and peddling a “racist lie” about President Barack Obama. Businessman Trump repeatedly cast Clinton as a “typical politician” as he sought to capitalize on Americans’ frustration with Washington.

Locked in an exceedingly close White House race, the presidential rivals tangled for 90-minutes over their vastly different visions for the nation’s future. Clinton called for lowering taxes for the middle class, while Trump focused more on renegotiating trade deals that he said have caused companies to move jobs out of the U.S. The Republican backed the controversial “stop-and-frisk policing” tactic as a way to bring down crime, while the Democrat said the policy was unconstitutional and ineffective.

The debate was confrontational from the start, with Trump frequently trying to interrupt Clinton and speaking over her answers. Clinton was more measured and restrained, but also needled the sometimes-thin-skinned Trump over his business record and wealth.

“There’s something he’s hiding,” she declared, scoffing at his repeated contentions that he won’t release his tax returns because he is being audited. Tax experts have said an audit is no barrier to making his records public.

Clinton said one reason Trump has refused is that he may well have paid nothing in federal taxes. He interrupted to say, “That makes me smart.”

Trump aggressively tried to turn the transparency questions around on Clinton, saying he would release his tax information when she produces more than 30,000 emails that were deleted from the personal internet server she used as secretary of state.

Trump’s criticism of Clinton turned personal in the debate’s closing moments. He said, “She doesn’t have the look, she doesn’t have the stamina” to be president. He’s made similar comments in previous events, sparking outrage from Clinton backers who accused him of leveling a sexist attack on the first woman nominated for president by a major U.S. political party.

Clinton leapt at the opportunity to remind voters of Trump’s numerous controversial comments about women, who will be crucial to the outcome of the November election.

“This is a man who has called women pigs, slobs and dogs,” she said.

The televised face-off was the most anticipated moment in an election campaign that has been both historic and unpredictable. Both sides expected a record-setting audience for the showdown at Hofstra University in suburban New York, reflecting the intense national interest in the race to become America’s 45th president.

The centerpiece of Trump’s case against Clinton was that the former senator and secretary of state is little more than a career politician who has squandered opportunities to address the domestic and international she’s now pledging to tackle as president.

“She’s got experience,” he said, “but it’s bad experience.”

Both candidates portrayed themselves as best-prepared to lead a nation where many are still struggling to benefit from a slow economic recovery and are increasingly fearful of terror threats at home and abroad. When Trump jabbed Clinton for taking time off the campaign trail to study for the debate, she said, “I prepared to be president, and that’s a good thing.”

The candidates sparred over trade, taxes and how to bring good-paying jobs back to the United States.

Clinton said her Republican rival was promoting a “Trumped-up” version of trickle-down economics – a philosophy focused on tax cuts for the wealthy. She called for increasing the federal minimum wage, spending more on infrastructure projects and guaranteeing equal pay for women.

Trump panned policies that he said have led to American jobs being moved overseas, in part because of international trade agreements that Clinton has supported. He pushed her aggressively on her past support for the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade pact while she was serving in the Obama administration. She’s since said she opposes the sweeping deal in its final form.

“You called it the gold standard of trade deals,” Trump said. “If you did win, you would approve that.”

Disputing his version of events, Clinton said, “I know you live in your own reality.”

Trump struggled to answer repeated questions about why he only recently acknowledged that Obama was born in the United States. For years, Trump has been the chief promoter of questions falsely suggesting the president was born outside of America.

“He has really started his political activity on this racist lie,” Clinton charged.

Trump also repeatedly insisted that he opposed the Iraq War before the 2003 U.S. invasion, despite evidence to the contrary. Trump was asked in September 2002 whether he supported a potential Iraq invasion in an interview with Howard Stern. He responded: “Yeah, I guess so.”

Presented with the comment during the debate, Trump responded: “I said very lightly, I don’t know, maybe, who knows.”

The Republican also appeared to contradict himself on how he might use nuclear weapons if he’s elected president. He first said he “would not do first strike” but then said he couldn’t “take anything off the table.”

Clinton said Trump was too easily provoked to serve as commander in chief and could be quickly drawn into a war involving nuclear weapons.

“A man who can be provoked by a tweet should not have his fingers anywhere near the nuclear codes,” she said.

Trump replied: “That line’s getting a little bit old.”

Some frequently hot-button issues were barely mentioned during the intense debate. Illegal immigration and Trump’s promises of a border wall were not part of the conversation. And while Clinton took some questions on her private email server, she was not grilled about her family’s foundation, Bill Clinton’s past infidelities or her struggle with trustworthiness.

http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/U/US_CAMPAIGN_2016_DEBATE?SITE=AP&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT&CTIME=2016-09-26-22-37-04

Confirmation bias

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias, is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one’s preexisting beliefs or hypotheses, while giving disproportionately less consideration to alternative possibilities.[Note 1][1] It is a type of cognitive bias and a systematic error of inductive reasoning. People display this bias when they gather or remember information selectively, or when they interpret it in a biased way. The effect is stronger for emotionally charged issues and for deeply entrenched beliefs. People also tend to interpret ambiguous evidence as supporting their existing position. Biased search, interpretation and memory have been invoked to explain attitude polarization (when a disagreement becomes more extreme even though the different parties are exposed to the same evidence), belief perseverance(when beliefs persist after the evidence for them is shown to be false), the irrational primacy effect (a greater reliance on information encountered early in a series) and illusory correlation (when people falsely perceive an association between two events or situations).

A series of experiments in the 1960s suggested that people are biased toward confirming their existing beliefs. Later work re-interpreted these results as a tendency to test ideas in a one-sided way, focusing on one possibility and ignoring alternatives. In certain situations, this tendency can bias people’s conclusions. Explanations for the observed biases include wishful thinking and the limited human capacity to process information. Another explanation is that people show confirmation bias because they are weighing up the costs of being wrong, rather than investigating in a neutral, scientific way.

Confirmation biases contribute to overconfidence in personal beliefs and can maintain or strengthen beliefs in the face of contrary evidence. Poor decisions due to these biases have been found in political and organizational contexts.[2][3][Note 2]

Types

Confirmation biases are effects in information processing. They differ from what is sometimes called the behavioral confirmation effect, commonly known as self-fulfilling prophecy, in which a person’s expectations influence their own behavior, bringing about the expected result.[4]

Some psychologists restrict the term confirmation bias to selective collection of evidence that supports what one already believes while ignoring or rejecting evidence that supports a different conclusion. Other psychologists apply the term more broadly to the tendency to preserve one’s existing beliefs when searching for evidence, interpreting it, or recalling it from memory.[5][Note 3]

Biased search for information

A drawing of a man sitting on a stool at a writing desk

Confirmation bias has been described as an internal “yes man“, echoing back a person’s beliefs like Charles Dickens‘ character Uriah Heep.[6]

Experiments have found repeatedly that people tend to test hypotheses in a one-sided way, by searching for evidence consistent with their current hypothesis.[7][8] Rather than [9]searching through all the relevant evidence, they phrase questions to receive an affirmative answer that supports their hypothesis.[10] They look for the consequences that they would expect if their hypothesis were true, rather than what would happen if it were false.[10] For example, someone using yes/no questions to find a number he or she suspects to be the number 3 might ask, “Is it an odd number?” People prefer this type of question, called a “positive test”, even when a negative test such as “Is it an even number?” would yield exactly the same information.[11] However, this does not mean that people seek tests that guarantee a positive answer. In studies where subjects could select either such pseudo-tests or genuinely diagnostic ones, they favored the genuinely diagnostic.[12][13]

The preference for positive tests in itself is not a bias, since positive tests can be highly informative.[14] However, in combination with other effects, this strategy can confirm existing beliefs or assumptions, independently of whether they are true.[15] In real-world situations, evidence is often complex and mixed. For example, various contradictory ideas about someone could each be supported by concentrating on one aspect of his or her behavior.[8] Thus any search for evidence in favor of a hypothesis is likely to succeed.[15] One illustration of this is the way the phrasing of a question can significantly change the answer.[8] For example, people who are asked, “Are you happy with your social life?” report greater satisfaction than those asked, “Are you unhappy with your social life?”[16]

Even a small change in a question’s wording can affect how people search through available information, and hence the conclusions they reach. This was shown using a fictional child custody case.[17] Participants read that Parent A was moderately suitable to be the guardian in multiple ways. Parent B had a mix of salient positive and negative qualities: a close relationship with the child but a job that would take him or her away for long periods of time. When asked, “Which parent should have custody of the child?” the majority of participants chose Parent B, looking mainly for positive attributes. However, when asked, “Which parent should be denied custody of the child?” they looked for negative attributes and the majority answered that Parent B should be denied custody, implying that Parent A should have custody.[17]

Similar studies have demonstrated how people engage in a biased search for information, but also that this phenomenon may be limited by a preference for genuine diagnostic tests. In an initial experiment, participants rated another person on the introversion–extroversion personality dimension on the basis of an interview. They chose the interview questions from a given list. When the interviewee was introduced as an introvert, the participants chose questions that presumed introversion, such as, “What do you find unpleasant about noisy parties?” When the interviewee was described as extroverted, almost all the questions presumed extroversion, such as, “What would you do to liven up a dull party?” These loaded questions gave the interviewees little or no opportunity to falsify the hypothesis about them.[18] A later version of the experiment gave the participants less presumptive questions to choose from, such as, “Do you shy away from social interactions?”[19] Participants preferred to ask these more diagnostic questions, showing only a weak bias towards positive tests. This pattern, of a main preference for diagnostic tests and a weaker preference for positive tests, has been replicated in other studies.[19]

Personality traits influence and interact with biased search processes.[20] Individuals vary in their abilities to defend their attitudes from external attacks in relation to selective exposure. Selective exposure occurs when individuals search for information that is consistent, rather than inconsistent, with their personal beliefs.[21] An experiment examined the extent to which individuals could refute arguments that contradicted their personal beliefs.[20] People with high confidence levels more readily seek out contradictory information to their personal position to form an argument. Individuals with low confidence levels do not seek out contradictory information and prefer information that supports their personal position. People generate and evaluate evidence in arguments that are biased towards their own beliefs and opinions.[22] Heightened confidence levels decrease preference for information that supports individuals’ personal beliefs.

Another experiment gave participants a complex rule-discovery task that involved moving objects simulated by a computer.[23] Objects on the computer screen followed specific laws, which the participants had to figure out. So, participants could “fire” objects across the screen to test their hypotheses. Despite making many attempts over a ten-hour session, none of the participants figured out the rules of the system. They typically attempted to confirm rather than falsify their hypotheses, and were reluctant to consider alternatives. Even after seeing objective evidence that refuted their working hypotheses, they frequently continued doing the same tests. Some of the participants were taught proper hypothesis-testing, but these instructions had almost no effect.[23]

Biased interpretation

Smart people believe weird things because they are skilled at defending beliefs they arrived at for non-smart reasons.

Michael Shermer[24]

Confirmation biases are not limited to the collection of evidence. Even if two individuals have the same information, the way they interpret it can be biased.

A team at Stanford University conducted an experiment involving participants who felt strongly about capital punishment, with half in favor and half against it.[25][26]Each participant read descriptions of two studies: a comparison of U.S. states with and without the death penalty, and a comparison of murder rates in a state before and after the introduction of the death penalty. After reading a quick description of each study, the participants were asked whether their opinions had changed. Then, they read a more detailed account of each study’s procedure and had to rate whether the research was well-conducted and convincing.[25] In fact, the studies were fictional. Half the participants were told that one kind of study supported the deterrent effect and the other undermined it, while for other participants the conclusions were swapped.[25][26]

The participants, whether supporters or opponents, reported shifting their attitudes slightly in the direction of the first study they read. Once they read the more detailed descriptions of the two studies, they almost all returned to their original belief regardless of the evidence provided, pointing to details that supported their viewpoint and disregarding anything contrary. Participants described studies supporting their pre-existing view as superior to those that contradicted it, in detailed and specific ways.[25][27] Writing about a study that seemed to undermine the deterrence effect, a death penalty proponent wrote, “The research didn’t cover a long enough period of time”, while an opponent’s comment on the same study said, “No strong evidence to contradict the researchers has been presented”.[25] The results illustrated that people set higher standards of evidence for hypotheses that go against their current expectations. This effect, known as “disconfirmation bias”, has been supported by other experiments.[28]

A large round machine with a hole in the middle, with a platter for a person to lie on so that their head can fit into the hole

An MRI scanner allowed researchers to examine how the human brain deals with unwelcome information.

Another study of biased interpretation occurred during the 2004 U.S. presidential election and involved participants who reported having strong feelings about the candidates. They were shown apparently contradictory pairs of statements, either from Republican candidate George W. Bush, Democratic candidate John Kerry or a politically neutral public figure. They were also given further statements that made the apparent contradiction seem reasonable. From these three pieces of information, they had to decide whether or not each individual’s statements were inconsistent.[29]:1948 There were strong differences in these evaluations, with participants much more likely to interpret statements from the candidate they opposed as contradictory.[29]:1951

In this experiment, the participants made their judgments while in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner which monitored their brain activity. As participants evaluated contradictory statements by their favored candidate, emotional centers of their brains were aroused. This did not happen with the statements by the other figures. The experimenters inferred that the different responses to the statements were not due to passive reasoning errors. Instead, the participants were actively reducing the cognitive dissonance induced by reading about their favored candidate’s irrational or hypocritical behavior.[29]:1956 There were strong differences in these evaluations, with participants much more likely to interpret statements from the candidate they opposed as contradictory.[29]:1951

Biases in belief interpretation are persistent, regardless of intelligence level. Participants in an experiment took the SAT test (a college admissions test used in the United States) to assess their intelligence levels. They then read information regarding safety concerns for vehicles, and the experimenters manipulated the national origin of the car. American participants provided their opinion if the car should be banned on a six-point scale, where one indicated “definitely yes” and six indicated “definitely no.” Participants firstly evaluated if they would allow a dangerous German car on American streets and a dangerous American car on German streets. Participants believed that the dangerous German car on American streets should be banned more quickly than the dangerous American car on German streets. There was no difference among intelligence levels at the rate participants would ban a car.[22]

Biased interpretation is not restricted to emotionally significant topics. In another experiment, participants were told a story about a theft. They had to rate the evidential importance of statements arguing either for or against a particular character being responsible. When they hypothesized that character’s guilt, they rated statements supporting that hypothesis as more important than conflicting statements.[30]

Biased memory

Even if people gather and interpret evidence in a neutral manner, they may still remember it selectively to reinforce their expectations. This effect is called “selective recall”, “confirmatory memory” or “access-biased memory”.[31]Psychological theories differ in their predictions about selective recall. Schema theory predicts that information matching prior expectations will be more easily stored and recalled than information that does not match.[32] Some alternative approaches say that surprising information stands out and so is memorable.[32] Predictions from both these theories have been confirmed in different experimental contexts, with no theory winning outright.[33]

In one study, participants read a profile of a woman which described a mix of introverted and extroverted behaviors.[34] They later had to recall examples of her introversion and extroversion. One group was told this was to assess the woman for a job as a librarian, while a second group were told it was for a job in real estate sales. There was a significant difference between what these two groups recalled, with the “librarian” group recalling more examples of introversion and the “sales” groups recalling more extroverted behavior.[34] A selective memory effect has also been shown in experiments that manipulate the desirability of personality types.[32][35] In one of these, a group of participants were shown evidence that extroverted people are more successful than introverts. Another group were told the opposite. In a subsequent, apparently unrelated, study, they were asked to recall events from their lives in which they had been either introverted or extroverted. Each group of participants provided more memories connecting themselves with the more desirable personality type, and recalled those memories more quickly.[36]

Changes in emotional states can also influence memory recall.[37][38] Participants rated how they felt when they had first learned that O.J. Simpson had been acquitted of murder charges.[37] They described their emotional reactions and confidence regarding the verdict one week, two months, and one year after the trial. Results indicated that participants’ assessments for Simpson’s guilt changed over time. The more that participants’ opinion of the verdict had changed, the less stable were the participant’s memories regarding their initial emotional reactions. When participants recalled their initial emotional reactions two months and a year later, past appraisals closely resembled current appraisals of emotion. People demonstrate sizable myside bias when discussing their opinions on controversial topics.[22] Memory recall and construction of experiences undergo revision in relation to corresponding emotional states.

Myside bias has been shown to influence the accuracy of memory recall.[38] In an experiment, widows and widowers rated the intensity of their experienced grief six months and five years after the deaths of their spouses. Participants noted a higher experience of grief at six months rather than at five years. Yet, when the participants were asked after five years how they had felt six months after the death of their significant other, the intensity of grief participants recalled was highly correlated with their current level of grief. Individuals appear to utilize their current emotional states to analyze how they must have felt when experiencing past events.[37] Emotional memories are reconstructed by current emotional states.

One study showed how selective memory can maintain belief in extrasensory perception (ESP).[39] Believers and disbelievers were each shown descriptions of ESP experiments. Half of each group were told that the experimental results supported the existence of ESP, while the others were told they did not. In a subsequent test, participants recalled the material accurately, apart from believers who had read the non-supportive evidence. This group remembered significantly less information and some of them incorrectly remembered the results as supporting ESP.[39]

Related effects

Polarization of opinion

Main article: Attitude polarization

When people with opposing views interpret new information in a biased way, their views can move even further apart. This is called “attitude polarization”.[40] The effect was demonstrated by an experiment that involved drawing a series of red and black balls from one of two concealed “bingo baskets”. Participants knew that one basket contained 60% black and 40% red balls; the other, 40% black and 60% red. The experimenters looked at what happened when balls of alternating color were drawn in turn, a sequence that does not favor either basket. After each ball was drawn, participants in one group were asked to state out loud their judgments of the probability that the balls were being drawn from one or the other basket. These participants tended to grow more confident with each successive draw—whether they initially thought the basket with 60% black balls or the one with 60% red balls was the more likely source, their estimate of the probability increased. Another group of participants were asked to state probability estimates only at the end of a sequence of drawn balls, rather than after each ball. They did not show the polarization effect, suggesting that it does not necessarily occur when people simply hold opposing positions, but rather when they openly commit to them.[41]

A less abstract study was the Stanford biased interpretation experiment in which participants with strong opinions about the death penalty read about mixed experimental evidence. Twenty-three percent of the participants reported that their views had become more extreme, and this self-reported shift correlated strongly with their initial attitudes.[25] In later experiments, participants also reported their opinions becoming more extreme in response to ambiguous information. However, comparisons of their attitudes before and after the new evidence showed no significant change, suggesting that the self-reported changes might not be real.[28][40][42] Based on these experiments, Deanna Kuhn and Joseph Lao concluded that polarization is a real phenomenon but far from inevitable, only happening in a small minority of cases. They found that it was prompted not only by considering mixed evidence, but by merely thinking about the topic.[40]

Charles Taber and Milton Lodge argued that the Stanford team’s result had been hard to replicate because the arguments used in later experiments were too abstract or confusing to evoke an emotional response. The Taber and Lodge study used the emotionally charged topics of gun control and affirmative action.[28] They measured the attitudes of their participants towards these issues before and after reading arguments on each side of the debate. Two groups of participants showed attitude polarization: those with strong prior opinions and those who were politically knowledgeable. In part of this study, participants chose which information sources to read, from a list prepared by the experimenters. For example, they could read the National Rifle Association‘s and the Brady Anti-Handgun Coalition‘s arguments on gun control. Even when instructed to be even-handed, participants were more likely to read arguments that supported their existing attitudes than arguments that did not. This biased search for information correlated well with the polarization effect.[28]

The backfire effect is a name for the finding that, given evidence against their beliefs, people can reject the evidence and believe even more strongly.[43][44] The phrase was first coined by Brendan Nyhan and Jason Reifler.[45]

Persistence of discredited beliefs

Main article: Belief perseverance

[B]eliefs can survive potent logical or empirical challenges. They can survive and even be bolstered by evidence that most uncommitted observers would agree logically demands some weakening of such beliefs. They can even survive the total destruction of their original evidential bases.

—Lee Ross and Craig Anderson[46]

Confirmation biases can be used to explain why some beliefs persist when the initial evidence for them is removed.[47] This belief perseverance effect has been shown by a series of experiments using what is called the “debriefing paradigm”: participants read fake evidence for a hypothesis, their attitude change is measured, then the fakery is exposed in detail. Their attitudes are then measured once more to see if their belief returns to its previous level.[46]

A common finding is that at least some of the initial belief remains even after a full debriefing.[48] In one experiment, participants had to distinguish between real and fake suicide notes. The feedback was random: some were told they had done well while others were told they had performed badly. Even after being fully debriefed, participants were still influenced by the feedback. They still thought they were better or worse than average at that kind of task, depending on what they had initially been told.[49]

In another study, participants read job performance ratings of two firefighters, along with their responses to a risk aversion test.[46] This fictional data was arranged to show either a negative or positive association: some participants were told that a risk-taking firefighter did better, while others were told they did less well than a risk-averse colleague.[50] Even if these two case studies were true, they would have been scientifically poor evidence for a conclusion about firefighters in general. However, the participants found them subjectively persuasive.[50] When the case studies were shown to be fictional, participants’ belief in a link diminished, but around half of the original effect remained.[46] Follow-up interviews established that the participants had understood the debriefing and taken it seriously. Participants seemed to trust the debriefing, but regarded the discredited information as irrelevant to their personal belief.[50]

The continued influence effect is the tendency to believe previously learned misinformation even after it has been corrected. Misinformation can still influence inferences one generates after a correction has occurred.[51]

Preference for early information

Experiments have shown that information is weighted more strongly when it appears early in a series, even when the order is unimportant. For example, people form a more positive impression of someone described as “intelligent, industrious, impulsive, critical, stubborn, envious” than when they are given the same words in reverse order.[52] This irrational primacy effect is independent of the primacy effect in memory in which the earlier items in a series leave a stronger memory trace.[52] Biased interpretation offers an explanation for this effect: seeing the initial evidence, people form a working hypothesis that affects how they interpret the rest of the information.[47]

One demonstration of irrational primacy used colored chips supposedly drawn from two urns. Participants were told the color distributions of the urns, and had to estimate the probability of a chip being drawn from one of them.[52] In fact, the colors appeared in a pre-arranged order. The first thirty draws favored one urn and the next thirty favored the other.[47] The series as a whole was neutral, so rationally, the two urns were equally likely. However, after sixty draws, participants favored the urn suggested by the initial thirty.[52]

Another experiment involved a slide show of a single object, seen as just a blur at first and in slightly better focus with each succeeding slide.[52] After each slide, participants had to state their best guess of what the object was. Participants whose early guesses were wrong persisted with those guesses, even when the picture was sufficiently in focus that the object was readily recognizable to other people.[47]

Illusory association between events

Main article: Illusory correlation

Illusory correlation is the tendency to see non-existent correlations in a set of data.[53] This tendency was first demonstrated in a series of experiments in the late 1960s.[54] In one experiment, participants read a set of psychiatric case studies, including responses to the Rorschach inkblot test. The participants reported that the homosexual men in the set were more likely to report seeing buttocks, anuses or sexually ambiguous figures in the inkblots. In fact the fictional case studies had been constructed so that the homosexual men were no more likely to report this imagery or, in one version of the experiment, were less likely to report it than heterosexual men.[53] In a survey, a group of experienced psychoanalysts reported the same set of illusory associations with homosexuality.[53][54]

Another study recorded the symptoms experienced by arthritic patients, along with weather conditions over a 15-month period. Nearly all the patients reported that their pains were correlated with weather conditions, although the real correlation was zero.[55]

This effect is a kind of biased interpretation, in that objectively neutral or unfavorable evidence is interpreted to support existing beliefs. It is also related to biases in hypothesis-testing behavior.[56] In judging whether two events, such as illness and bad weather, are correlated, people rely heavily on the number of positive-positive cases: in this example, instances of both pain and bad weather. They pay relatively little attention to the other kinds of observation (of no pain and/or good weather).[57] This parallels the reliance on positive tests in hypothesis testing.[56] It may also reflect selective recall, in that people may have a sense that two events are correlated because it is easier to recall times when they happened together.[56]

Individual differences

Myside bias was once believed to be associated with greater intelligence; however, studies have shown that myside bias can be more influenced by ability to rationally think as opposed to amount of intelligence.[58] Myside bias can cause an inability to effectively and logically evaluate the opposite side of an argument. Studies have stated that myside bias is an absence of “active open-mindedness,” meaning the active search for why an initial idea may be wrong.[59] Typically, myside bias is operationalized in empirical studies as the quantity of evidence used in support of their side in comparison to the opposite side.[60]

A study has found individual differences in myside bias. This study investigates individual differences that are acquired through learning in a cultural context and are mutable. The researcher found important individual difference in argumentation. Studies have suggested that individual differences such as deductive reasoning ability, ability to overcome belief bias, epistemological understanding, and thinking disposition are significant predictors of the reasoning and generating arguments, counterarguments, and rebuttals.[61][62][63]

A study by Christopher Wolfe and Anne Britt also investigated how participants’ views of “what makes a good argument?” can be a source of myside bias that influence the way a person formulates his own arguments.[60] The study investigated individual differences of argumentation schema and asked participants to write essays. The participants were randomly assigned to write essays either for or against their preferred side of an argument and were given research instructions that took either a balanced or an unrestricted approach. The balanced-research instructions directed participants to create a “balanced” argument, i.e., that included both pros and cons; the unrestricted-research instructions included nothing on how to create the argument.[60]

Overall, the results revealed that the balanced-research instructions significantly increased the incidence of opposing information in arguments. These data also reveal that personal belief is not a source of myside bias; however, that those participants, who believe that a good argument is one that is based on facts, are more likely to exhibit myside bias than other participants. This evidence is consistent with the claims proposed in Baron’s article—that people’s opinions about what makes good thinking can influence how arguments are generated.[60]

History

Informal observation

Before psychological research on confirmation bias, the phenomenon had been observed anecdotally throughout history. Beginning with the Greek historian Thucydides (c. 460 BC – c. 395 BC), who wrote of misguided treason in The Peloponnesian War; “… for it is a habit of mankind to entrust to careless hope what they long for, and to use sovereign reason to thrust aside what they do not fancy.”[64] Italian poet Dante Alighieri (1265–1321), noted it in his famous work, the Divine Comedy, in which St. Thomas Aquinas cautions Dante upon meeting in Paradise, “opinion—hasty—often can incline to the wrong side, and then affection for one’s own opinion binds, confines the mind.”[65] English philosopher and scientist Francis Bacon (1561–1626),[66] in the Novum Organumnoted that biased assessment of evidence drove “all superstitions, whether in astrology, dreams, omens, divine judgments or the like”.[67] He wrote:

The human understanding when it has once adopted an opinion … draws all things else to support and agree with it. And though there be a greater number and weight of instances to be found on the other side, yet these it either neglects or despises, or else by some distinction sets aside or rejects[.][67]

In his essay (1897) “What Is Art?“, Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy wrote,

I know that most men—not only those considered clever, but even those who are very clever, and capable of understanding most difficult scientific, mathematical, or philosophic problems—can very seldom discern even the simplest and most obvious truth if it be such as to oblige them to admit the falsity of conclusions they have formed, perhaps with much difficulty—conclusions of which they are proud, which they have taught to others, and on which they have built their lives.[68]

Wason’s research on hypothesis-testing

The term “confirmation bias” was coined by English psychologist Peter Wason.[69] For an experiment published in 1960, he challenged participants to identify a rule applying to triples of numbers. At the outset, they were told that (2,4,6) fits the rule. Participants could generate their own triples and the experimenter told them whether or not each triple conformed to the rule.[70][71]

While the actual rule was simply “any ascending sequence”, the participants had a great deal of difficulty in finding it, often announcing rules that were far more specific, such as “the middle number is the average of the first and last”.[70] The participants seemed to test only positive examples—triples that obeyed their hypothesized rule. For example, if they thought the rule was, “Each number is two greater than its predecessor”, they would offer a triple that fit this rule, such as (11,13,15) rather than a triple that violates it, such as (11,12,19).[72]

Wason accepted falsificationism, according to which a scientific test of a hypothesis is a serious attempt to falsify it. He interpreted his results as showing a preference for confirmation over falsification, hence the term “confirmation bias”.[Note 4][73] Wason also used confirmation bias to explain the results of his selection task experiment.[74] In this task, participants are given partial information about a set of objects, and have to specify what further information they would need to tell whether or not a conditional rule (“If A, then B”) applies. It has been found repeatedly that people perform badly on various forms of this test, in most cases ignoring information that could potentially refute the rule.[75][76]

Klayman and Ha’s critique

A 1987 paper by Joshua Klayman and Young-Won Ha argued that the Wason experiments had not actually demonstrated a bias towards confirmation. Instead, Klayman and Ha interpreted the results in terms of a tendency to make tests that are consistent with the working hypothesis.[77] They called this the “positive test strategy”.[8] This strategy is an example of a heuristic: a reasoning shortcut that is imperfect but easy to compute.[78] Klayman and Ha used Bayesian probability and information theory as their standard of hypothesis-testing, rather than the falsificationism used by Wason. According to these ideas, each answer to a question yields a different amount of information, which depends on the person’s prior beliefs. Thus a scientific test of a hypothesis is one that is expected to produce the most information. Since the information content depends on initial probabilities, a positive test can either be highly informative or uninformative. Klayman and Ha argued that when people think about realistic problems, they are looking for a specific answer with a small initial probability. In this case, positive tests are usually more informative than negative tests.[14] However, in Wason’s rule discovery task the answer—three numbers in ascending order—is very broad, so positive tests are unlikely to yield informative answers. Klayman and Ha supported their analysis by citing an experiment that used the labels “DAX” and “MED” in place of “fits the rule” and “doesn’t fit the rule”. This avoided implying that the aim was to find a low-probability rule. Participants had much more success with this version of the experiment.[79][80]

Within the universe of all possible triples, those that fit the true rule are shown schematically as a circle. The hypothesized rule is a smaller circle enclosed within it.

If the true rule (T) encompasses the current hypothesis (H), then positive tests (examining an H to see if it is T) will not show that the hypothesis is false.

Two overlapping circles represent the true rule and the hypothesized rule. Any observation falling in the non-overlapping parts of the circles shows that the two rules are not exactly the same. In other words, those observations falsify the hypothesis.

If the true rule (T) overlaps the current hypothesis (H), then either a negative test or a positive test can potentially falsify H.

The triples fitting the hypothesis are represented as a circle within the universe of all triples. The true rule is a smaller circle within this.

When the working hypothesis (H) includes the true rule (T) then positive tests are the only way to falsify H.

In light of this and other critiques, the focus of research moved away from confirmation versus falsification to examine whether people test hypotheses in an informative way, or an uninformative but positive way. The search for “true” confirmation bias led psychologists to look at a wider range of effects in how people process information.[81]

Explanations

Confirmation bias is often described as a result of automatic, unintentional strategies rather than deliberate deception.[15][82] According to Robert Maccoun, most biased evidence processing occurs through a combination of both “cold” (cognitive) and “hot” (motivated) mechanisms.[83]

Cognitive explanations for confirmation bias are based on limitations in people’s ability to handle complex tasks, and the shortcuts, called heuristics, that they use.[84] For example, people may judge the reliability of evidence by using the availability heuristic—i.e., how readily a particular idea comes to mind.[85] It is also possible that people can only focus on one thought at a time, so find it difficult to test alternative hypotheses in parallel.[86] Another heuristic is the positive test strategy identified by Klayman and Ha, in which people test a hypothesis by examining cases where they expect a property or event to occur. This heuristic avoids the difficult or impossible task of working out how diagnostic each possible question will be. However, it is not universally reliable, so people can overlook challenges to their existing beliefs.[14][87]

Motivational explanations involve an effect of desire on belief, sometimes called “wishful thinking“.[88][89] It is known that people prefer pleasant thoughts over unpleasant ones in a number of ways: this is called the “Pollyanna principle“.[90] Applied to arguments or sources of evidence, this could explain why desired conclusions are more likely to be believed true.[88] According to experiments that manipulate the desirability of the conclusion, people demand a high standard of evidence for unpalatable ideas and a low standard for preferred ideas. In other words, they ask, “Can I believe this?” for some suggestions and, “Must I believe this?” for others.[91][92] Althoughconsistency is a desirable feature of attitudes, an excessive drive for consistency is another potential source of bias because it may prevent people from neutrally evaluating new, surprising information.[88] Social psychologist Ziva Kunda combines the cognitive and motivational theories, arguing that motivation creates the bias, but cognitive factors determine the size of the effect.[93]

Explanations in terms of cost-benefit analysis assume that people do not just test hypotheses in a disinterested way, but assess the costs of different errors.[94] Using ideas from evolutionary psychology, James Friedrich suggests that people do not primarily aim at truth in testing hypotheses, but try to avoid the most costly errors. For example, employers might ask one-sided questions in job interviews because they are focused on weeding out unsuitable candidates.[95] Yaacov Trope and Akiva Liberman’s refinement of this theory assumes that people compare the two different kinds of error: accepting a false hypothesis or rejecting a true hypothesis. For instance, someone who underestimates a friend’s honesty might treat him or her suspiciously and so undermine the friendship. Overestimating the friend’s honesty may also be costly, but less so. In this case, it would be rational to seek, evaluate or remember evidence of their honesty in a biased way.[96] When someone gives an initial impression of being introverted or extroverted, questions that match that impression come across as more empathic.[97] This suggests that when talking to someone who seems to be an introvert, it is a sign of better social skills to ask, “Do you feel awkward in social situations?” rather than, “Do you like noisy parties?” The connection between confirmation bias and social skills was corroborated by a study of how college students get to know other people. Highly self-monitoring students, who are more sensitive to their environment and to social norms, asked more matching questions when interviewing a high-status staff member than when getting to know fellow students.[97]

Psychologists Jennifer Lerner and Philip Tetlock distinguish two different kinds of thinking process. Exploratory thought neutrally considers multiple points of view and tries to anticipate all possible objections to a particular position, while confirmatory thought seeks to justify a specific point of view. Lerner and Tetlock say that when people expect to justify their position to others whose views they already know, they will tend to adopt a similar position to those people, and then use confirmatory thought to bolster their own credibility. However, if the external parties are overly aggressive or critical, people will disengage from thought altogether, and simply assert their personal opinions without justification.[98] Lerner and Tetlock say that people only push themselves to think critically and logically when they know in advance they will need to explain themselves to others who are well-informed, genuinely interested in the truth, and whose views they don’t already know.[99] Because those conditions rarely exist, they argue, most people are using confirmatory thought most of the time.[100]

Consequences

In finance

Confirmation bias can lead investors to be overconfident, ignoring evidence that their strategies will lose money.[6][101] In studies of political stock markets, investors made more profit when they resisted bias. For example, participants who interpreted a candidate’s debate performance in a neutral rather than partisan way were more likely to profit.[102] To combat the effect of confirmation bias, investors can try to adopt a contrary viewpoint “for the sake of argument”.[103] In one technique, they imagine that their investments have collapsed and ask themselves why this might happen.[6]

In physical and mental health

Raymond Nickerson, a psychologist, blames confirmation bias for the ineffective medical procedures that were used for centuries before the arrival of scientific medicine.[104] If a patient recovered, medical authorities counted the treatment as successful, rather than looking for alternative explanations such as that the disease had run its natural course.[104] Biased assimilation is a factor in the modern appeal of alternative medicine, whose proponents are swayed by positive anecdotal evidence but treat scientific evidence hyper-critically.[105][106][107]

Cognitive therapy was developed by Aaron T. Beck in the early 1960s and has become a popular approach.[108] According to Beck, biased information processing is a factor in depression.[109] His approach teaches people to treat evidence impartially, rather than selectively reinforcing negative outlooks.[66] Phobias and hypochondria have also been shown to involve confirmation bias for threatening information.[110]

In politics and law

A woman and a man reading a document in a courtroom

Mock trials allow researchers to examine confirmation biases in a realistic setting.

Nickerson argues that reasoning in judicial and political contexts is sometimes subconsciously biased, favoring conclusions that judges, juries or governments have already committed to.[111] Since the evidence in a jury trial can be complex, and jurors often reach decisions about the verdict early on, it is reasonable to expect an attitude polarization effect. The prediction that jurors will become more extreme in their views as they see more evidence has been borne out in experiments with mock trials.[112][113] Both inquisitorial and adversarial criminal justice systems are affected by confirmation bias.[114]

Confirmation bias can be a factor in creating or extending conflicts, from emotionally charged debates to wars: by interpreting the evidence in their favor, each opposing party can become overconfident that it is in the stronger position.[115] On the other hand, confirmation bias can result in people ignoring or misinterpreting the signs of an imminent or incipient conflict. For example, psychologists Stuart Sutherland and Thomas Kida have each argued that US Admiral Husband E. Kimmel showed confirmation bias when playing down the first signs of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.[75][116]

A two-decade study of political pundits by Philip E. Tetlock found that, on the whole, their predictions were not much better than chance. Tetlock divided experts into “foxes” who maintained multiple hypotheses, and “hedgehogs” who were more dogmatic. In general, the hedgehogs were much less accurate. Tetlock blamed their failure on confirmation bias—specifically, their inability to make use of new information that contradicted their existing theories.[117]

In the 2013 murder trial of David Camm, the defense argued that Camm was charged for the murders of his wife and two children solely because of confirmation bias within the investigation.[118] Camm was arrested three days after the murders on the basis of faulty evidence. Despite the discovery that almost every piece of evidence on the probable cause affidavit was inaccurate or unreliable, thecharges were not dropped against him.[119][120] A sweatshirt found at the crime was subsequently discovered to contain the DNA of a convicted felon, his prison nickname, and his department of corrections number.[121]Investigators looked for Camm’s DNA on the sweatshirt, but failed to investigate any other pieces of evidence found on it and the foreign DNA was not run through CODIS until 5 years after the crime.[122][123] When the secondsuspect was discovered, prosecutors charged them as co-conspirators in the crime despite finding no evidence linking the two men.[124][125] Camm was acquitted of the murders.[126]

In the paranormal

One factor in the appeal of alleged psychic readings is that listeners apply a confirmation bias which fits the psychic’s statements to their own lives.[127] By making a large number of ambiguous statements in each sitting, the psychic gives the client more opportunities to find a match. This is one of the techniques of cold reading, with which a psychic can deliver a subjectively impressive reading without any prior information about the client.[127]Investigator James Randi compared the transcript of a reading to the client’s report of what the psychic had said, and found that the client showed a strong selective recall of the “hits”.[128]

As a striking illustration of confirmation bias in the real world, Nickerson mentions numerological pyramidology: the practice of finding meaning in the proportions of the Egyptian pyramids.[129] There are many different length measurements that can be made of, for example, the Great Pyramid of Giza and many ways to combine or manipulate them. Hence it is almost inevitable that people who look at these numbers selectively will find superficially impressive correspondences, for example with the dimensions of the Earth.[129]

In science

A distinguishing feature of scientific thinking is the search for falsifying as well as confirming evidence.[130] However, many times in the history of science, scientists have resisted new discoveries by selectively interpreting or ignoring unfavorable data.[130] Previous research has shown that the assessment of the quality of scientific studies seems to be particularly vulnerable to confirmation bias. It has been found several times that scientists rate studies that report findings consistent with their prior beliefs more favorably than studies reporting findings inconsistent with their previous beliefs.[82][131][132] However, assuming that the research question is relevant, the experimental design adequate and the data are clearly and comprehensively described, the found results should be of importance to the scientific community and should not be viewed prejudicially, regardless of whether they conform to current theoretical predictions.[132]

In the context of scientific research, confirmation biases can sustain theories or research programs in the face of inadequate or even contradictory evidence;[75][133] the field of parapsychology has been particularly affected.[134]

An experimenter’s confirmation bias can potentially affect which data are reported. Data that conflict with the experimenter’s expectations may be more readily discarded as unreliable, producing the so-called file drawer effect. To combat this tendency, scientific training teaches ways to prevent bias.[135] For example, experimental design of randomized controlled trials (coupled with their systematic review) aims to minimize sources of bias.[135][136] The social process of peer review is thought to mitigate the effect of individual scientists’ biases,[137] even though the peer review process itself may be susceptible to such biases.[132][138] Confirmation bias may thus be especially harmful to objective evaluations regarding nonconforming results since biased individuals may regard opposing evidence to be weak in principle and give little serious thought to revising their beliefs.[131] Scientific innovators often meet with resistance from the scientific community, and research presenting controversial results frequently receives harsh peer review.[139]

In self-image

Social psychologists have identified two tendencies in the way people seek or interpret information about themselves. Self-verification is the drive to reinforce the existing self-image and self-enhancement is the drive to seek positive feedback. Both are served by confirmation biases.[140] In experiments where people are given feedback that conflicts with their self-image, they are less likely to attend to it or remember it than when given self-verifying feedback.[141][142][143] They reduce the impact of such information by interpreting it as unreliable.[141][144][145] Similar experiments have found a preference for positive feedback, and the people who give it, over negative feedback.[140]

See also

Notes

  1. Jump up^ David Perkins, a geneticist, coined the term “myside bias” referring to a preference for “my” side of an issue. (Baron 2000, p. 195)
  2. Jump up^ Tuchman (1984) described a form of confirmation bias at work in the process of justifying policies to which a government has committed itself: “Once a policy has been adopted and implemented, all subsequent activity becomes an effort to justify it” (p. 245). In the context of a discussion of the policy that drew the United States into war in Vietnam and kept the U.S. military engaged for 16 years despite countless evidences that it was a lost cause from the beginning, Tuchman argued:

    Wooden-headedness, the source of self-deception is a factor that plays a remarkably large role in government. It consists in assessing a situation in terms of preconceived fixed notions while ignoring or rejecting any contrary signs. It is acting according to wish while not allowing oneself to be deflected by the facts. It is epitomized in a historian’s statement about Philip II of Spain, the surpassing wooden head of all sovereigns: “no experience of the failure of his policy could shake his belief in essential excellence.” (p.7)

    Folly, she argued, is a form of self-deception characterized by “insistence on a rooted notion regardless of contrary evidence” (p.209)

  3. Jump up^ “Assimilation bias” is another term used for biased interpretation of evidence. (Risen & Gilovich 2007, p. 113)
  4. Jump up^ Wason also used the term “verification bias”. (Poletiek 2001, p. 73)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confirmation_bias

 

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The Pronk Pops Show 763, September 26, 2016, Story 1: The Boxers: Horizontal Hillary vs. Towering Trump? The Winner is The American People — Closing Time For Trump — Videos — Story 2: Arnold Palmer — The King of Golf — Dies At 87 — Videos

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 763: September 26, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 762: September 23, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 761: September 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 760: September 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 759: September 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 758: September 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 757: September 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 756: September 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 755: September 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 754: September 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 753: September 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 752: September 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 751: September 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 750: September 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 749: September 2, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 748: September 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 747: August 31, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 746: August 30, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 745: August 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 744: August 26, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 743: August 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 742: August 24, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 741: August 23, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 740: August 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 739: August 18, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 738: August 17, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 737: August 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 736: August 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 735: August 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 734: August 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 733: August 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 732: August 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 731: August 4, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 730: August 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 729: August 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 728: July 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 727: July 28, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 726: July 27, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 725: July 26, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 724: July 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 723: July 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 722: July 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 721: July 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 720: July 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 719: July 18, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 718: July 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 717: July 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 716: July 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 715: July 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 714: July 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 713: July 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 712: July 5, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 711: July 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 710: June 30, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 709: June 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 708: June 28, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 707: June 27, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 706: June 24, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 705: June 23, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 704: June 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 703: June 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 702: June 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 701: June 17, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 700: June 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 699: June 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 698: June 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 697: June 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 696: June 10, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 695: June 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 694: June 8, 2016

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Pronk Pops Show 692: June 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 691: June 2, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 690: June 1, 2016

Story 1: The Boxers: Horizontal Hillary vs. Towering Trump? The Winner is The American People — Closing Time For Trump —  Videos — 

Image result for hofstra univresity stage for debateImage result for hofstra univresity stage for debateImage result for hofstra univresity stage for debateImage result for hofstra univresity stage for debate

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Image result for cartoons debate clinton and trump

Image result for hofstra univresity stage for debate

Image result for cartoons debate trump

Image result for cartoons debate HILLARY CLINTON

Image result for cartoons debate clinton and trump

Image result for cartoons debate clinton and trump

Image result for cartoons debate HILLARY CLINTON

Image result for cartoons debate clinton and trump

 

Presidential Debate September 26, 2016

Simon & Garfunkel – The Boxer

am just a poor boy
Though my story’s seldom told
I have squandered my resistance
For a pocketful of mumbles
Such are promises
All lies and jest
Still, a man hears what he wants to hear
And disregards the rest

When I left my home and my family
I was no more than a boy
In the company of strangers
In the quiet of the railway station,
Running scared
Laying low, seeking out the poorer quarters
Where the ragged people go
Looking for the places only they would know

Lie-la-lie …

Asking only workman’s wages
I come looking for a job
But I get no offers
Just a come-on from the whores on Seventh Avenue
I do declare, there were times when I was so lonesome
I took some comfort there

Lie-la-lie …

Now the years are rolling by me
They are rocking evenly
And I am older than I once was
And younger than I’ll be
But that’s not unusual
No, it isn’t strange
After changes upon changes
We are more or less the same
After changes we are
More or less the same

Then I’m laying out my winter clothes
And wishing I was gone
Going home
Where the New York City winters aren’t bleeding me
Leading me
Going home

In the clearing stands a boxer
And a fighter by his trade
And he carries the reminders
Of every glove that laid him down
And cut him till he cried out
In his anger and his shame
“I am leaving, I am leaving”
But the fighter still remains

Lie-la-lie …

Trump vs Clinton First Debate Prep

Special Report ; Presidential Debate Strategy :Trump VS Clinton – For Answers House Oversight Cmte

Trump Team Skips Mock Debate Practice – Clinton Team Struggles w/ Email Questions

 Reince Priebus on Donald Trump’s debate preparation

Clinton and Trump in dead heat ahead of first debate

Trump, Clinton Leave Campaign Trail for Debate Prep

Clinton, Trump diverge on debate preparation

Clinton prepares for Trump in first debate

Debate Moderator Says He Won’t Call Trump & Hillary On Their Lies

Trump and Hillary Debate Prep: A Closer Look

Semisonic – Closing Time

Closing time
Open all the doors and let you out into the world
Closing time
Turn the lights up over every boy and every girl.
Closing time
One last call for alcohol so finish your whiskey or beer.
Closing time
You don’t have to go home but you can’t stay here.

I know who I want to take me home.
I know who I want to take me home.
I know who I want to take me home.
Take me home

Closing time
Time for you to go out to the places you will be from.
Closing time
This room won’t be open ’til your brothers or you sisters come.
So gather up your jackets, and move it to the exits
I hope you have found a friend.

Closing time
Every new beginning comes from some other beginning’s end.

Yeah, I know who I want to take me home.
I know who I want to take me home.
I know who I want to take me home.
Take me home

Closing time
Time for you to go out to the places you will be from

I know who I want to take me home.
I know who I want to take me home.
I know who I want to take me home.
Take me home

I know who I want to take me home.
I know who I want to take me home.
I know who I want to take me home.
Take me home

Closing time
Every new beginning comes from some other beginning’s end

Image result for cartoons debate clinton and trump

Most Important Problem

Trend: What do you think is the most important problem facing this country today? (open-ended) Percentage mentioning economic issues

Trend: What do you think is the most important problem facing this country today? (open-ended)

http://www.gallup.com/poll/1675/most-important-problem.aspx

General Election: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein

(2-Way Race)

Polling Data

Poll Date Sample MoE
Clinton (D)
Trump (R)
Johnson (L)
Stein (G)
Spread
RCP Average 9/15 – 9/25 43.1 41.5 7.4 2.4 Clinton +1.6
Bloomberg 9/21 – 9/24 1002 LV 3.1 41 43 8 4 Trump +2
Quinnipiac 9/22 – 9/25 1115 LV 2.9 44 43 8 2 Clinton +1
Monmouth 9/22 – 9/25 729 LV 3.6 46 42 8 2 Clinton +4
Economist/YouGov 9/22 – 9/24 948 RV 3.8 44 41 5 2 Clinton +3
NBC News/SM 9/19 – 9/25 13598 LV 1.1 45 40 10 3 Clinton +5
ABC News/Wash Post 9/19 – 9/22 651 LV 4.5 46 44 5 1 Clinton +2
Rasmussen Reports 9/20 – 9/21 1000 LV 3.0 39 44 8 2 Trump +5
Gravis 9/20 – 9/20 1560 LV 2.5 44 40 5 2 Clinton +4
Reuters/Ipsos 9/15 – 9/19 1111 LV 3.4 37 39 7 2 Trump +2
McClatchy/Marist 9/15 – 9/20 758 LV 3.6 45 39 10 4 Clinton +6

All General Election: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson vs. Stein Polling Data

CBS News/New York Times Poll. Sept. 9-13, 2016. N=1,433 registered voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“In deciding who you would like to see elected president this year, which one of the following issues will be most important to you: national security and terrorism, the economy and jobs, health care, immigration, or something else?Issues rotated

 
      %      
 

Economy and jobs

32      
 

National security, terrorism

29      
 

Health care

16      
 

Immigration

8      
 

Something else

9      
 

All are important (vol.)

3      
 

Unsure/No answer

3      

 

ABC News/Washington Post Poll. Sept. 5-8, 2016. N=1,002 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.5.

“Which of these is the single most important issue in your choice for president? Is it the economy and jobs, immigration issues, terrorism and national security, law and order, or corruption in government?” Options rotated

 
      %      
 

Economy, jobs

35      
 

Terrorism, national security

19      
 

Corruption in government

16      
 

Immigration issues

8      
 

Law and order

6      
 

Other (vol.)

2      
 

Any 2 or more (vol.)

11      
 

None (vol.)

2      

 

NBC News/Wall Street Journal Poll conducted by Hart Research Associates (D) and Public Opinion Strategies (R). May 15-19, 2016. N=1,000 registered voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.1.

“Let me list some issues that have been proposed for the federal government to address. Please tell me which ONE OR TWO of these items you think should be the top priority for the federal government: Job creation and economic growth. National security and terrorism. The deficit and government spending. Health care. Climate change. Immigration. Religious and moral values.” Options rotated

 
      %      
 

Job, economic growth

26      
 

National security, terrorism

21      
 

Deficit, government spending

16      
 

Health care

15      
 

Climate change

8      
 

Immigration

6      
 

Religious, moral values

5      
 

Other (vol.)

1      
 

All equally (vol.)

1      
 

Unsure

1      

 

CBS News Poll. April 8-12, 2016. N=1,320 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“What do you think is the most important problem facing this country today?” Open-ended

 
      %      
 

The economy, jobs

19      
 

Terrorism, Islamic extremism, ISIS

7      
 

Immigration, illegal immigrants

5      
 

Racism, race relations

4      
 

Education, school loans

3      
 

Health care, health insurance

3      
 

Poverty, homelessness

3      
 

Budget, national debt

3      
 

Income gap, plight of middle class

3      
 

Other (vol.)

45      
 

Unsure/No answer

5      

 

ABC News/Washington Post Poll. Nov. 16-19, 2015. N=1,004 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.5.

“Which of these is the single most important issue in your choice for president? Is it the economy, health care, immigration issues, tax policy, or the threat of terrorism?” Options rotated

 
      %      
 

Economy

33      
 

Terrorism

28      
 

Health care

13      
 

Immigration

10      
 

Tax policy

5      
 

Other (vol.)

1      
 

Any 2 or more (vol.)

9      
 

None (vol.)

1      
 

Unsure

1      

 

Quinnipiac University. July 23-28, 2015. N=1,644 registered voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 2.4.

“Which of these is the most important issue in deciding your vote in the 2016 general election for president: the economy and jobs, terrorism, immigration, the federal deficit, health care, foreign policy, climate change, or taxes?”

 
      %      
 

Economy and jobs

37      
 

Health care

13      
 

Terrorism

12      
 

Foreign policy

9      
 

Immigration

9      
 

Climate change

6      
 

Federal deficit

6      
 

Taxes

3      
 

Unsure/No answer

4      

 

CNN/ORC Poll. July 22-25, 2015. N=898 registered voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.5.

“Which of the following issues will be MOST important to you when you decide how to vote for president: foreign policy, illegal immigration, health care, terrorism, or the economy?” Options rotated

 
      %      
 

The economy

44      
 

Health care

20      
 

Terrorism

12      
 

Illegal immigration

11      
 

Foreign policy

10      
 

Other (vol.)

3      
 

Unsure

1      

 

CBS News/New York Times Poll. April 30-May 3, 2015. N=1,027 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“What do you think is the most important problem facing this country today?” Open-ended

 
      %      
 

The economy, jobs

20      
 

Misc. social issues

7      
 

Racism, race relations

5      
 

Misc. government issues

4      
 

Income gap/disparity

4      
 

Immigration, illegal immigrants

3      
 

Barack Obama, the president

3      
 

Religious values, school prayer

3      
 

Police problems, corruption

3      
 

Other (vol.)

44      
 

Unsure/No answer

4      

 

George Washington University Battleground Poll conducted by the Tarrance Group (R) and Lake Research Partners (D). Dec. 7-11, 2014. N=1,000 registered voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.1.

“What do think is the most important issue that Congress should be dealing with next year? Would you say it is jobs, the economy, health care, illegal immigration, or foreign threats?”

 
      %      
 

The economy

29      
 

Illegal immigration

15      
 

Jobs

14      
 

Health care

12      
 

Foreign threats

9      
 

Combination/Other (vol.)

18      
 

None (vol.)

2      
 

Unsure/Refused

1      

 

CBS News Poll. Oct. 23-27, 2014. N=1,079 registered voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 4.

“Which ONE of the following issues will be/was MOST important in deciding your vote for Congress this November: the economy, health care, terrorism, immigration, the federal budget deficit, or international conflicts?” Options rotated

 
      10/23-27/14 10/3-6/14 9/12-15/14  
      % % %  
 

The economy

38 34 38  
 

Health care

23 17 16  
 

Terrorism

11 16 17  
 

Immigration

9 13 10  
 

Federal budget deficit

8 9 8  
 

International conflicts

7 7 6  
 

Something else (vol.)

2 2 1  
 

Unsure/No answer

2 3 3  

 

USA Today Poll conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International. Oct. 23-26, 2014. N=1,210 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.2.

“If Congress could pass just one major piece of legislation next year, what would you want it to be: immigration reform; overhaul of the tax code; national security, including terrorism; medical threats, such as Ebola; or job creation?”

 
      %      
 

Job creation

29      
 

National security

21      
 

Immigration reform

16      
 

Overhaul tax code

15      
 

Medical threats

11      
 

Other (vol.)

5      
 

Unsure/Refused

4      

 

CNN/ORC Poll. Sept. 25-28, 2014. N=1,055 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“Thinking ahead to the elections for Congress this November, if you had to choose, which of the following issues will be more important to your vote: economic conditions in the U.S., or the military action against ISIS forces in Iraq and Syria?”

 
    Economic
conditions
Military action
against ISIS
Both (vol.) Neither
(vol.)
Unsure
    % % % % %
 

9/25-28/14

65

29

5

1

1


 

CNN/ORC Poll. Sept. 5-7, 2014. N=1,014 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“Which of the following is the most important issue facing the country today? The economy. Terrorism. Illegal immigration. Health care. Education. The federal budget deficit. The situation in Iraq and Syria. Energy and environmental policies.”

 
      %      
 

The economy

30      
 

Terrorism

14      
 

Illegal immigration

12      
 

Health care

11      
 

Education

11      
 

The federal budget deficit

8      
 

The situation in Iraq and Syria

7      
 

Energy and environmental policies

4      
 

Other (vol.)

2      
 

Unsure

1      

 

NBC News/Wall Street Journal Poll conducted by Hart Research Associates (D) and Public Opinion Strategies (R). Sept. 3-7, 2014. N=approx. 500 registered voters nationwide.

“Which is more important to you in your vote for Congress this November: domestic issues such as the economy, health care, and immigration, or international issues such as Iraq, Russia, and terrorism?”

 
    Domestic
issues
International
issues
Both
equally (vol.)
Unsure  
    % % % %  
 

9/3-7/14

64

22

13

1

 

 

CBS News Poll. July 29-Aug. 4, 2014. N=1,344 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“What do you think is the most important problem facing this country today?” Open-ended

 
      %      
 

Economy/Jobs

22      
 

Immigration/Illegal immigrants

13      
 

Health care/Health insurance

5      
 

Partisan politics

4      
 

Barack Obama/The president

4      
 

Misc. government issues

4      
 

Other

43      
 

Unsure/No answer

5      

 

Bloomberg National Poll conducted by Selzer & Company. June 6-9, 2014. N=1,005 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.1.

“Which of the following do you see as the most important issue facing the country right now? Immigration. Health care. The federal deficit. Terrorism. Taxes. A decline in real income for American workers. Climate change. Unemployment and jobs.” Options rotated

 
      %      
 

Unemployment and jobs

28      
 

Health care

17      
 

Decline in real income

16      
 

Federal deficit

13      
 

Immigration

6      
 

Climate change

5      
 

Taxes

4      
 

Terrorism

4      
 

Other (vol.)

3      
 

None of these (vol.)

1      
 

Unsure

3      

 

CNN/ORC Poll. May 29-June 1, 2014. N=1,003 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“Which of the following is the most important issue facing the country today? The economy. Health care. Foreign policy. The federal budget deficit. The environment. Gun policy. Immigration.” Options rotated

 
      5/29 –
6/1/14
1/14-15/13    
      % %    
 

The economy

40 46    
 

Health care

19 14    
 

The federal budget deficit

15 23    
 

The environment

8 2    
 

Gun policy

6 6    
 

Foreign policy

5 4    
 

Immigration

5 3    
 

Other (vol.)

1 1    
 

Unsure

1    

 

Kaiser Family Foundation Health Tracking Poll. May 13-19, 2014. N=1,279 registered voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“Thinking about the campaigns for the U.S. House and Senate this fall, what two issues would you most like to hear your congressional candidates talk about?” If respondent gives one issue, probe: “Is there another issue you’d like to hear about?” Open-ended. Up to two responses.

 
      %      
 

Economy/Jobs

34      
 

Health care

25      
 

Education

8      
 

Energy/Environment

8      
 

Debt/Deficit/Gov’t spending

8      
 

Immigration/Border security

7      
 

Gov’t/Congress/Politics

6      
 

Defense/War

5      
 

Taxes/Tax reform

5      
 

Foreign policy

3      
 

Other

30      
 

Unsure/Refused

20      

 

Quinnipiac University Poll. Jan. 4-7, 2014. N=1.487 registered voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 2.5.

“Which of the following do you think should be the most important priority for President Obama and Congress in 2014: the economy, the federal budget deficit, health care, taxes, gun policy, immigration issues, or something else?”

 
      %      
 

The economy

39      
 

The federal budget deficit

23      
 

Health care

16      
 

Immigration issues

5      
 

Taxes

4      
 

Gun policy

3      
 

Something else

9      
 

Unsure

2      

 

CBS News Poll. Nov. 15-18, 2013. N=1,010 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“What do you think is the most important problem facing this country today?” Open-ended

 
      %      
 

Economy/Jobs

31      
 

Health care

15      
 

Budget

7      
 

Partisan politics

5      
 

President Obama

4      
 

Misc. government issues

3      
 

Family values/Moral values

3      
 

Other

28      
 

Unsure/No answer

4      

 

CBS News Poll. Oct. 18-21, 2013. N=1,007 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“What do you think is the most important problem facing this country today?” Open-ended

 
      %      
 

Economy/Jobs

26      
 

Budget

12      
 

Health care

8      
 

Partisan politics

8      
 

Misc. government issues

5      
 

Immigration

3      
 

President Obama

3      
 

Other

33      
 

Unsure/No answer

2      

 

CBS News Poll. July 18-22, 2013. N=1,036 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“Which ONE of the following do you think is the most important thing for Congress to concentrate on right now: the economy, the federal budget deficit, illegal immigration, health care, education, the environment, abortion, or something else?”

 
      %      
 

The economy

40      
 

The federal budget deficit

16      
 

Health care

15      
 

Education

12      
 

Illegal immigration

8      
 

The environment

3      
 

Abortion

2      
 

Something else

3      
 

Unsure/No answer

2      

 

Gallup Poll. June 20-24, 2013. N=2,048 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“Looking ahead, what is your greatest worry or concern about the future of the United States?”Open-ended

 
      %      
 

The economy

17      
 

Debt/Deficit/Nation’s finances

11      
 

Employment/Jobs

6      
 

Wars/Conflicts in other countries

5      
 

Gov’t not working for betterment of the people

4      
 

Health care/Cost of health care

4      
 

Country is getting worse/Won’t get better

4      
 

Losing freedom/Civil liberties

4      
 

National security/Defense

3      
 

Government overreach/power

3      
 

Education/Cost of education

3      
 

Other

30      
 

Nothing

3      
 

Unsure

3      

 

CBS News/New York Times Poll. May 31-June 4, 2013. N=1,022 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“What do you think is the most important problem facing this country today?” Open-ended

 
      %      
 

Economy/Jobs

34      
 

Budget/National debt

6      
 

Health care

5      
 

Immigration

3      
 

Religious values

3      
 

Partisan politics

3      
 

Big government

3      
 

Values

3      
 

Other

37      
 

Unsure/No answer

3      

 

Quinnipiac University Poll. Jan. 30-Feb. 4, 2013. N=1,772 registered voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 2.3.

“As President Obama prepares to deliver his State of the Union address, please tell me which one of the following issues you are most interested in hearing him address: the economy, the federal budget deficit, health care, gun policy, foreign policy, immigration, or the environment?”

 
      %      
 

The economy

35      
 

The federal budget deficit

20      
 

Gun policy

15      
 

Health care

12      
 

Foreign policy

5      
 

Immigration

4      
 

The environment

3      
 

Unsure

6      

 

CNN/ORC Poll. Jan. 14-15, 2013. N=814 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.5.

“Which of the following is the most important issue facing the country today? The economy. The federal budget deficit. Health care. Gun policy. Foreign policy. Immigration. The environment.”Options rotated

 
      %      
 

The economy

46      
 

The federal budget deficit

23      
 

Health care

14      
 

Gun policy

6      
 

Foreign policy

4      
 

Immigration

3      
 

The environment

2      
 

Other (vol.)

1      

 

Bloomberg National Poll conducted by Selzer & Company. Dec. 7-10, 2012. N=1,000 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.1.

“Which of the following do you see as the most important issue facing the country right now?Immigration. Health care. The federal deficit. Terrorism. Taxes. The situation in the Middle East. Entitlement spending on Social Security and Medicare. Unemployment and jobs.” Options rotated

 
      %      
 

Unemployment and jobs

34      
 

Federal deficit

19      
 

Social Security, Medicare spending

11      
 

Health care

9      
 

Taxes

7      
 

Situation in the Middle East

5      
 

Immigration

4      
 

Terrorism

2      
 

Other (vol.)

3      
 

None of these (vol.)

1      
 

Unsure

5      

 

National Public Radio poll conducted by Democracy Corps (D) and Resurgent Republic (R). Oct. 23-25, 2012. N=1,000 likely voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.1.

“Which of the following types of issues are most likely to affect your vote for president and Congress this year: economic issues like jobs and unemployment; fiscal issues like taxes, spending, deficits, and debt; social issues like abortion and gay marriage; or national security issues like terrorism, Afghanistan, and Libya?” Options rotated

 
      %      
 

Economic issues

57      
 

Fiscal issues

16      
 

Social issues

14      
 

National security issues

8      
 

None/Other/Unsure

5      

 

NBC News/Wall Street Journal Poll conducted by the polling organizations of Peter Hart (D) and Bill McInturff (R). Sept. 26-30, 2012. N=832 likely voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.4.

“There are many important issues in this presidential campaign. When it comes to deciding for whom you will vote for president, which one of the following is the single most important issue in deciding for whom you will vote? The economy. Social issues and values. Social Security and Medicare. Health care. The federal deficit. Foreign policy and the Middle East. Terrorism.” If “all”:“Well, if you had to choose the most important issue, which would you choose?”

 
      %      
 

The economy

46      
 

Social issues and values

15      
 

Social Security and Medicare

12      
 

Health care

10      
 

The federal deficit

7      
 

Foreign policy and the Middle East

6      
 

Terrorism

1      
 

None/Other (vol.)

1      
 

Unsure

1      

 

Bloomberg National Poll conducted by Selzer & Company. Sept. 21-24, 2012. N=1,007 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.1.

“Which of the following do you see as the most important issue facing the country right now?Unemployment and jobs. The federal deficit. Health care. Gas prices. The situation in the Middle East. Taxes. Immigration. Terrorism.” Options rotated

 
      %      
 

Unemployment and jobs

43      
 

Federal deficit

14      
 

Health care

11      
 

Gas prices

7      
 

Situation in the Middle East

6      
 

Taxes

4      
 

Immigration

3      
 

Terrorism

3      
 

Other (vol.)

4      
 

None of these (vol.)

1      
 

Unsure

4      

 

CBS News/New York Times Poll. Sept. 8-12, 2012. N=1,170 registered voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“What is the most important issue to you in deciding how you will vote for president this year?”Open-ended

 
      %      
 

Economy and jobs

37      
 

Health care

11      
 

Budget deficit/National debt

4      
 

The President/Barack Obama

4      
 

Education

3      
 

Taxes/IRS

3      
 

Abortion

2      
 

Medicare/Medicaid

2      
 

Women’s issues

2      
 

Misc. social issues

2      
 

Other

20      
 

Unsure/No answer

10      

 

CBS News Poll. Aug. 22-26, 2012. N=1,218 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“What do you think is the most important problem facing this country today?” Open-ended

 
      %      
 

Economy/Jobs

50      
 

Budget deficit/National debt

7      
 

Health care

5      
 

Immigration

2      
 

Education

2      
 

War/Peace

2      
 

Politicians/Government

2      
 

Partisan politics

2      
 

Misc. social issues

2      
 

Other

21      
 

Unsure/No answer

5      

 

Pew Research Center. June 7-17, 2012. N=1,563 registered voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 2.9.

“Which ONE of the following issues matters most to you in deciding your vote for president this year: jobs, the budget deficit, health care, Social Security, immigration, or gay marriage?” Options rotated

 
      %      
 

Jobs

35      
 

Budget deficit

23      
 

Health care

19      
 

Social Security

11      
 

Immigration

5      
 

Gay marriage

4      
 

Other (vol.)

2      
 

Unsure

2      

 

CNN/ORC Poll. May 29-31, 2012. N=1,009 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“Which of the following is the most important issue facing the country today? The economy. The federal budget deficit. Health care. The situation in Afghanistan. Illegal immigration. Terrorism. Policies toward gays and lesbians.” Options rotated

 
      5/29-31/12 3/24-25/12 12/16-18/11  
      % % %  
 

The economy

52 53 57  
 

The federal budget deficit

18 20 16  
 

Health care

14 11 13  
 

Terrorism

5 2 4  
 

Illegal immigration

4 4 5  
 

Afghanistan

3 6 3  
 

Policies toward gays, lesbians

1 2 1  
 

Other (vol.)

2 1 2  
 

Unsure

1 1  

 

ABC News/Washington Post Poll. May 17-20, 2012. N=1,004 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.5.

“What is the single most important issue in your choice for president?” Open-ended

 
      %      
 

Economy/Jobs

52      
 

Health care/Repeal of Obamacare

7      
 

Morals/Family values

5      
 

Ethics/Honesty/Gov’t corruption

4      
 

Other

27      
 

Unsure

4      

 

Reuters/Ipsos Poll conducted by Ipsos Public Affairs. April 12-15, 2012. N=891 registered voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.3.

“Which one of these issues would you say is most important when thinking about the current presidential election campaign? Jobs and the economy. Health care. Family values. Leadership. National security. Taxes. Foreign policy. Representing change.”

 
      %      
 

Jobs and the economy

53      
 

Health care

14      
 

Family values

9      
 

Leadership

8      
 

National security

5      
 

Taxes

3      
 

Foreign policy

3      
 

Representing change

2      
 

None

1      
 

Unsure

1      

 

CBS News/New York Times Poll. Feb. 8-13, 2012. N=1,197 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“Which one issue would you most like to hear the candidates for president discuss during the 2012 presidential campaign?” Open-ended

 
      %      
 

Economy and jobs

44      
 

Health care

8      
 

Budget deficit/National debt

4      
 

Education

3      
 

Taxes/IRS

3      
 

Immigration

2      
 

Politicians/Government

2      
 

Partisan politics

2      
 

Other

21      
 

Unsure/No answer

11      

 

CBS News/New York Times Poll. Jan. 12-17, 2012. N=1,154 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“In deciding who you would like to see elected president this year, which one of the following issues will be most important to you: abortion, or the federal budget deficit, or the economy, or health care, or illegal immigration, or something else?” Options rotated

 
      %      
 

Economy

56      
 

Federal budget deficit

15      
 

Health care

14      
 

Illegal immigration

5      
 

Abortion

3      
 

Something else

6      
 

Unsure/No answer

1      

 

Bloomberg National Poll conducted by Selzer & Company. June 17-20, 2011. N=1,000 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.1.

“Which of the following do you see as the most important issue facing the country right now? Unemployment and jobs. Government spending. The federal deficit. Health care. The war in Afghanistan. Gas prices. Immigration. Taxes.”  Options rotated

 
      %      
 

Unemployment and jobs

42      
 

Government spending

17      
 

The federal deficit

13      
 

Health care

10      
 

War in Afghanistan

5      
 

Gas prices

4      
 

Immigration

3      
 

Taxes

1      
 

Other (vol.)

2      
 

Unsure

3      

 

Fox News Poll conducted by Anderson Robbins Research (D) and Shaw & Company Research (R). May 15-17, 2011. N=910 registered voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“Which one of the following issues do you think the president and Congress should focus
on right now? The economy and jobs. The deficit and government spending. Health care. Terrorism and national security. Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Immigration.”
Options rotated

 
      %      
 

Economy and jobs

50      
 

Deficit and government spending

22      
 

Health care

8      
 

Terrorism and national security

5      
 

Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan

4      
 

Immigration

2      
 

All (vol.)

7      
 

None/Other (vol.)

1      
 

Unsure

1      

 

Bloomberg National Poll conducted by Selzer & Company. March 4-7, 2011. N=1,001 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.1.

“Which of the following do you see as the most important issue facing the country right now? Immigration. Health care. The federal deficit and government spending. The war in Afghanistan. Unemployment and jobs.”  Options rotated

 
      3/11 12/10    
      % %    
 

Unemployment and jobs

43 50    
 

Federal deficit and spending

29 25    
 

Health care

12 9    
 

War in Afghanistan

7 7    
 

Immigration

3 5    
 

Other (vol.)

4 1    
 

Unsure

2 3    

 

CBS News/New York Times Poll. Jan. 15-19, 2011. N=1,036 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“Which of the following do you think is the most important thing for Congress to concentrate on right now: job creation, the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the federal budget deficit, illegal immigration, health care, or something else?”

 
      %      
 

Job creation

43      
 

Health care

18      
 

Federal budget deficit

14      
 

Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan

12      
 

Illegal immigration

7      
 

Something else

3      
 

Unsure/No answer

3      

 

CBS News Poll. Nov. 7-10, 2010. N=1,137 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“Of all the problems facing this country today, which one do you most want the new Congress to concentrate on first when it begins in January?” Open-ended

 
      %      
 

Economy and jobs

56      
 

Health care

14      
 

Budget deficit/National debt

4      
 

Immigration

2      
 

Education

2      
 

War/Iraq/Afghanistan

2      
 

Taxes/IRS

2      
 

Other

9      
 

Unsure/No answer

9      

 

USA Today/Gallup Poll. Oct. 28-31, 2010. N=1,140 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 4.

“Looking ahead, which of the following should be the highest priority for Congress after the election: repealing the new healthcare law, passing a new economic stimulus bill designed to create jobs, cutting federal spending, or extending all the federal income tax cuts enacted during the Bush administration?” Options rotated

 
      %      
 

Passing new stimulus bill

38      
 

Cutting federal spending

24      
 

Repealing health care law

23      
 

Extending all income tax cuts

8      
 

Other (vol.)

4      
 

Unsure

3      

 

Reuters/Ipsos Poll conducted by Ipsos Public Affairs. Oct. 28-31, 2010. N=1,075 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“I’d like you to think now about what Congress should focus on next year in 2011. For each issue, please tell me if you think it is crucial, important, or not important for Congress to focus on as a key issue in 2011. . . .”

 
    Crucial Important Not important Unsure  
    % % % %  
 

“Jobs”

 

10/28-31/10

72

25

2

 
 

10/7-11/10

65

32

3

1

 
 
 

“The budget deficit”

 

10/28-31/10

57

38

5

1

 
 

10/7-11/10

56

35

7

2

 
 
 

“Health care”

 

10/28-31/10

53

41

6

 
 

10/7-11/10

48

43

9

 
 
 

“Taxes”

 

10/28-31/10

44

47

7

2

 
 

10/7-11/10

37

52

9

2

 
 
 

“Energy”

 

10/28-31/10

36

53

10

1

 
 

10/7-11/10

30

58

11

2

 
 
 

“The environment”

 

10/28-31/10

31

53

15

1

 
 

10/7-11/10

26

56

17

1

 
 
 

“Afghanistan”

 

10/28-31/10

37

46

13

3

 
 

10/7-11/10

35

44

17

4

 

 

Pew Research Center survey. Oct. 27-30, 2010. N=2,373 registered voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 2.5.

“Of the following six issues, which ONE would you say is MOST important to your vote for Congress this year: the job situation, health care, the deficit, immigration, the situation in Afghanistan, or terrorism?” Options rotated

 
      %      
 

The job situation

39      
 

Health care

25      
 

The deficit

17      
 

Immigration

6      
 

The situation in Afghanistan

5      
 

Terrorism

3      
 

Other (vol.)

2      
 

None of these (vol.)

1      
 

Unsure

3      

 

Bloomberg National Poll conducted by Selzer & Company. Oct. 7-10, 2010. N=721 likely voters nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.7.

“Which of the following do you see as the most important issue facing the country right now: unemployment and jobs, the federal deficit and government spending, health care, the war in Afghanistan, or immigration?” Options rotated

 
      %      
 

Unemployment, jobs

49      
 

Federal deficit, spending

27      
 

Health care

10      
 

War in Afghanistan

7      
 

Immigration

5      
 

Other (vol.)

1      
 

Unsure

1      

 

CBS News Poll. Oct. 1-5, 2010. N=1,129 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 3.

“What do you think is the most important problem facing this country today?” Open-ended

 
      %      
 

Economy/Jobs

54      
 

Health care

7      
 

Budget deficit/National debt

3      
 

Immigration

3      
 

Education

2      
 

Moral values/Family values

2      
 

The President/Barack Obama

2      
 

Other

22      
 

Unsure/No answer

5      

 

USA Today/Gallup Poll. Aug. 27-30, 2010. N=1,021 adults nationwide. Margin of error ± 4.

“How important will each of the following issues be to your vote for Congress this year? Will it be extremely important, very important, moderately important, or not that important? How about . . . ?”

 
    Extremely
important
Very
important
Moderately
important
Not that
important
Unsure
    % % % % %
 

“The economy”

 

8/27-30/10

62

31

6

1

 
 

“Jobs”

 

8/27-30/10

60

32

6

1

 
 

“Federal spending”

 

8/27-30/10

51

30

15

3

1

 
 

“Corruption in government”

 

8/27-30/10

51

30

14

4

1

 
 

“Health care”

 

8/27-30/10

49

30

15

5

1

 
 

“Terrorism”

 

8/27-30/10

47

28

17

6

1

 
 

“Immigration”

 

8/27-30/10

38

27

23

11

1

 
 

“The situation in Afghanistan”

 

8/27-30/10

35

33

24

6

2

 
 

“The environment”

 

8/27-30/10

28

32

29

12


 

FOX News/Opinion Dynamics Poll. June 29-30, 2010. N=900 registered voters nationwide. MoE ± 3.

“Which ONE of the following do you think is most important for the president to be working on right now? The economy and jobs. The oil spill in the Gulf. The deficit and government spending. Health care. Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Immigration. Terrorism and national security. Taxes.Options rotated

 
      %      
 

Economy and jobs

32      
 

Gulf oil spill

14      
 

Deficit and government spending

12      
 

Health care

6      
 

Iraq and Afghanistan

6      
 

Immigration

4      
 

Terrorism and national security

4      
 

Taxes

1      
 

All (vol.)

20      
 

None/Other (vol.)

1      
 

Unsure

1      

 

Kaiser Family Foundation Kaiser Health Tracking Poll. June 17-22, 2010. N=1,066 registered voters nationwide.

“Thinking ahead to the November 2010 congressional elections, how important will each of the following issues be to your vote for Congress this year? [See below.] Will that be extremely important, very important, somewhat important, or not too important to your vote for Congress this year?”

 
    Extremely
important
Very
important
Somewhat
important
Not too
important
Unsure/
Refused
    % % % % %
 

“The economy”

 

6/17-22/10

52

39

7

2

 
 

“The Gulf Coast oil spill”

 

6/17-22/10

45

35

13

6

1

 
 

“The budget deficit”

 

6/17-22/10

44

35

15

5

1

 
 

“Health care”

 

6/17-22/10

42

36

13

7

1

 
 

“Unemployment”

 

6/17-22/10

40

41

14

4

 
 

“The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan”

 

6/17-22/10

37

38

17

8

 
 

“Dissatisfaction with government”

 

6/17-22/10

37

32

20

9

2

 
 

“Energy policy”

 

6/17-22/10

26

39

24

8

2


 

NBC News/Wall Street Journal Poll conducted by the polling organizations of Peter Hart (D) and Bill McInturff (R). June 17-21, 2010. N=1,000 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.1.

“Let me list some issues that have been proposed for the federal government to address. Please tell me which one of these items you think should be the top priority for the federal government. Job creation and economic growth. The Gulf Coast oil spill and energy. The deficit and government spending. National security and terrorism. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Health care. Social issues such as abortion and same-sex marriage.” If more than one: “Well, if you had to choose just one, which do you think should be the top priority?” Options rotated

 
      %      
 

Job creation and economic growth

33      
 

Gulf Coast oil spill and energy

22      
 

Deficit and government spending

15      
 

National security and terrorism

9      
 

Iraq and Afghanistan

9      
 

Health care

7      
 

Social issues

2      
 

All equally (vol.)

3

http://www.pollingreport.com/prioriti.htm

Frenzy builds for epic debate

By Niall Stanage

Buckle up: Debate day is finally here

The anticipation for Monday night’s face-off between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton has reached a fever pitch, with many expecting a defining moment in one of the wildest elections of modern times.

Trump needs a big win on Monday if he is to get on a path to the White House, with polls showing a narrow but meaningful lead for Clinton.

But Clinton’s edge could be gone in an instant if Trump puts in a strong performance in the first debate or if she makes a disastrous misstep. Conversely, Trump’s chances of victory could plummet if he fails to convince voters he’s presidential material.

The clash, which will be held at Hofstra University in this Long Island town just outside New York City, is expected to draw the largest TV audience of any presidential debate in history.

The record is currently 80.6 million viewers, which was reached during a debate in 1980 between President Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan. Speculation is rife that the Clinton-Trump clash could draw a U.S. audience of 100 million or more.

The anticipation was tangible ;Sunday, with cable news networks already broadcasting from the site, a cavernous media center filling with hordes of reporters from the U.S. and beyond and tight security.

The debate takes place against a backdrop of racial tension, with police killings of black men in Tulsa, Okla., and Charlotte, N.C., sparking protests in recent days.

Clinton had planned to visit Charlotte on the eve of the debate but later canceled the trip, with her campaign citing a desire not to stretch the city’s resources. Trump took to Twitter to accuse her of “bad judgement” in the episode.

Beyond that issue, the debate is likely to take in conventional subjects such as jobs, the economy and national security — the final topic an especially pertinent one in the wake of the bombings in New Jersey and New York.

The themes of the debate, selected by moderator Lester Holt of NBC News, will be “America’s Direction,” “Achieving Prosperity” and “Securing America.”

For the candidates, however, the real goal will be damaging the opponent while avoiding disaster during the 90 minutes at the podium.

In the modern era, debates have tended to be memorable as much for missteps or odd moments as for standout performances. The worst example may have been President Gerald Ford’s head-scratching assertion in 1976 that “there is no Soviet domination of Eastern Europe.”

Then-Vice President Al Gore’s ostentatious sighing during his first debate in 2000 with George W. Bush hurt him, as did President Obama’s oddly lifeless performance during his initial clash with Mitt Romney in 2012.

A gaffe along similar lines to Ford’s would hurt either candidate but especially Trump, whose readiness to serve is questioned by many voters.

In a New York Times/CBS News poll earlier this month, 67 percent of registered voters said Trump would be a “risky choice” to lead the nation, and 64 percent said he did not have “the right kind of temperament and personality to be a good president.”

On the plus side for Trump, Clinton has her own vulnerabilities, especially on questions of honesty. Her inability so far to give a succinct and persuasive explanation of her use of a private email address and server while secretary of State has frustrated even many Democrats.

The issue is another one sure to come up on Monday, especially after more documents related to the matter were released by the FBI on Friday and it emerged that top Clinton aide Cheryl Mills was given an immunity deal during the investigation.

Clinton has been reported to be working on a more deft answer on the topic, but Trump will surely try to knock her off balance — though whether he will repeat his epithet of “Crooked Hillary,” no one knows.

Clinton’s preparations have featured several different people playing the role of Trump, most notably longtime aide Philippe Reines. A key challenge, according to Clinton aides, is readying their candidate for all of the different demeanors Trump exhibited on the debate stage during the GOP primary process — combative in one clash, relatively restrained in another.

Trump has one important advantage, which is that expectations for him are lower than they are for Clinton. Despite his stunning victory in the Republican nomination battle, he is a political novice who has never before run for office. Clinton’s career in public life has spanned a quarter-century, including stints as U.S. senator and first lady as well as secretary of State.

If Trump surpasses expectations, he could expand the number of voters who see him as a plausible commander in chief — a shift that could reshape the race in fundamental ways.

But any gaffe or overly fractious moment could renew those doubts once again.

It’s game on for both candidates — and the stakes could not be higher.

http://thehill.com/homenews/campaign/297716-debate-day-dawns-with-big-expectations-for-clinton-trump

 

Story 2: The King of Golf Arnold Palmer Dies At 87 — Videos

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Arnold Palmer The King and Golf on Television

Arnold Palmer Dies at 87 | Remembering The King of Golf

Legendary pro golfer Arnold Palmer dies at 87

Golf legend Arnold Palmer dies at 87

Golf legend Arnold Palmer dead

Arnold Palmer Remembered | Golf Digest

Arnold Palmer’s Remarkable Legacy | Golf Digest

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Trending on TOUR | Sports world reacts to Arnold Palmer’s passing

Arnold Palmer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the PGA Tour golf tournament, see Arnold Palmer Invitational. For the drink, see Arnold Palmer (drink).
Arnold Palmer
— Golfer —
Arnold Palmer (cropped).jpg

Palmer in September 2009
Personal information
Full name Arnold Daniel Palmer
Nickname The King
Born September 10, 1929
Latrobe, Pennsylvania
Died September 25, 2016 (aged 87)
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Height 5 ft 10 in (178 cm)
Weight 185 lb (84 kg)
Nationality  United States
Residence Latrobe, Pennsylvania
Orlando, Florida
Spouse Winifred Walzer Palmer
(1934–99)
(m. 1954–99, her death)
Kathleen Gawthrop
(m. 2005–16, his death)
Career
College Wake Forest College
Turned professional 1954
Retired 2006
Former tour(s) PGA Tour
Champions Tour
Professional wins 95
Number of wins by tour
PGA Tour 62 (5th all time)
European Tour 2
PGA Tour of Australasia 2
Champions Tour 10
Best results in major championships
(wins: 7)
Masters Tournament Won: 1958, 1960, 1962, 1964
U.S. Open Won: 1960
The Open Championship Won: 1961, 1962
PGA Championship T2: 1964, 1968, 1970
Achievements and awards
World Golf Hall of Fame 1974 (member page)
PGA Tour
leading money winner
1958, 1960, 1962, 1963
PGA Player of the Year 1960, 1962
Vardon Trophy 1961, 1962, 1964, 1967
Sports Illustrated
Sportsman of the Year
1960
Bob Jones Award 1971
Old Tom Morris Award 1983
PGA Tour Lifetime
Achievement Award
1998
Payne Stewart Award 2000
Presidential Medal
of Freedom
2004
Congressional Gold Medal 2009

Arnold Daniel Palmer (September 10, 1929 – September 25, 2016) was an American professional golfer, who is generally regarded as one of the greatest players in professional golf history. He won numerous events on both the PGA Tour and Champions Tour, dating back to 1955. Nicknamed “The King“, he was one of golf’s most popular stars and its most important trailblazer, because he was the first superstar of the sport’s television age, which began in the 1950s.

Palmer’s social impact on behalf of golf was perhaps unrivaled among fellow professionals; his humble background and plain-spoken popularity helped change the perception of golf as an elite, upper-class pastime to a more populist sport accessible to middle and working classes.[1] Palmer was part of “The Big Three” in golf during the 1960s, along with Jack Nicklaus and Gary Player, who are widely credited with popularizing and commercializing the sport around the world.

Palmer won the PGA Tour Lifetime Achievement Award in 1998, and in 1974 was one of the 13 original inductees into the World Golf Hall of Fame.

Early life

Twenty-three-year-old Arnold Palmer in the United States Coast Guard in 1953

Palmer in 1953

Palmer was born in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, the son of Doris (Morrison) and Milfred Jerome “Deacon” Palmer.[2][3] He learned golf from his father, who had suffered from polioat a young age and was head professional and greenskeeper at Latrobe Country Club, allowing young Arnold to accompany his father as he maintained the course.[4]

Palmer attended Wake Forest College on a golf scholarship. He left upon the death of close friend Bud Worsham and enlisted in the United States Coast Guard, where he served for three years and had some time to continue to hone his golf skills. Palmer returned to college and competitive golf. His win in the 1954 U.S. Amateur made him decide to try the pro tour for a while, and he and new bride Winifred Walzer (whom he had met at a Pennsylvania tournament) traveled the circuit for 1955.[citation needed]

Career

Palmer’s first tour win (in his rookie season) was the 1955 Canadian Open, where he earned $2,400 for his efforts. He raised his game status for the next several seasons. Palmer’s charisma was a major factor in establishing golf as a compelling television event in the 1950s and 1960s, setting the stage for the popularity it enjoys today. His first major championship win at the 1958 Masters Tournament cemented his position as one of the leading stars in golf, and by 1960 he had signed up as pioneering sports agent Mark McCormack‘s first client.[citation needed]

In later interviews, McCormack listed five attributes that made Palmer especially marketable: his good looks; his relatively modest background (his father was a greenskeeper before rising to be club professional and Latrobe was a humble club); the way he played golf, taking risks and wearing his emotions on his sleeve; his involvement in a string of exciting finishes in early televised tournaments; and his affability.[5]

Palmer is also credited by many for securing the status of The Open Championship (British Open) among U.S. players. Before Ben Hogan won that championship in 1953, few American professionals had traveled to play in The Open, due to its travel requirements, relatively small prize purses, and the style of its links courses (radically different from most American courses). Palmer was convinced by his business partner Mark McCormack that success in the Open—to emulate the feats of Bobby Jones, Walter Hagen, Sam Snead and Hogan before him—would truly make him a global sporting star, not simply a leading American golfer. In particular, Palmer traveled to Scotland in 1960, having already won both the Masters and U.S. Open, to try to emulate Hogan’s feat of 1953, of winning all three in a single year. He failed, losing out to Kel Nagle by a single shot, but his subsequent Open wins in the early 1960s convinced many American pros that a trip to Britain would be worth the effort, and certainly secured Palmer’s popularity among British and European fans, not just American ones.[citation needed]

Palmer won seven major championships:

Palmer’s most prolific years were 1960–1963, when he won 29 PGA Tour events, including five major tournament victories, in four seasons. In 1960, he won the Hickok Beltas the top professional athlete of the year and Sports Illustrated magazine’s “Sportsman of the Year” award. He built up a wide fan base, often referred to as “Arnie’s Army”, and in 1967 he became the first man to reach one million dollars in career earnings on the PGA Tour. By the late 1960s Jack Nicklaus and Gary Player had both acquired clear ascendancy in their rivalry, but Palmer won a PGA Tour event every year from 1955 to 1971 inclusive, and in 1971 he enjoyed a revival, winning four events.[citation needed]

Palmer won the Vardon Trophy for lowest scoring average four times: 1961, 1962, 1964, and 1967. He played on six Ryder Cup teams: 1961, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1971, and 1973. He was the last playing captain in 1963, and captained the team again in 1975.[citation needed]

Palmer was eligible for the Senior PGA Tour (now the Champions Tour) from its first season in 1980, and he was one of the marquee names who helped it to become successful. He won ten events on the tour, including five senior majors.[citation needed]

Palmer won the first World Match Play Championship in England, an event which was originally organized by McCormack to showcase his stable of players. Their partnership was one of the most significant in the history of sports marketing. Long after he ceased to win tournaments, Palmer remained one of the highest earners in golf due to his appeal to sponsors and the public.[citation needed]

Palmer gives President Bush golf tips before being awarded thePresidential Medal of Freedom

In 2004, he competed in The Masters for the last time, marking his 50th consecutive appearance in that event. After missing the cut at the 2005 U.S. Senior Open by 21 shots, he announced that he would not enter any more senior majors.[citation needed]

Since 2007, Palmer has served as the honorary starter for the Masters.[7] He retired from tournament golf on October 13, 2006, when he withdrew from the Champions Tours’ Administaff Small Business Classic after four holes due to dissatisfaction with his own play. He played the remaining holes but did not keep score.[8] Palmer’s legacy was reaffirmed by an electrifying moment during the 2004 Bay Hill Invitational. Standing over 200 yards from the water-guarded 18th green, Palmer, who is known for his aggressive play, lashed his second shot onto the green with a driver. The shot thrilled his loyal gallery and energized the excitable Palmer. He turned to his grandson and caddie, Sam Saunders, and gave him a prolonged shimmy and playful jeering in celebration of the moment.[citation needed]

Golf businesses

Palmer has had a diverse golf-related business career, including owning the Bay Hill Club and Lodge, which is the venue for the PGA Tour’s Arnold Palmer Invitational (renamed from the Bay Hill Invitational in 2007), helping to found The Golf Channel,[9] and negotiating the deal to build the first golf course in the People’s Republic of China. This led to the formation of Palmer Course Design in 1972, which was renamed Arnold Palmer Design Company when the company moved to Orlando, Florida, in 2006. Palmer’s design partner was Ed Seay. The Palmer–Seay team has designed over 200 courses around the world. Since 1971, he has owned Latrobe Country Club, where his father used to be the club professional. The licensing, endorsements, spokesman associations and commercial partnerships built by Palmer and McCormack are managed by Arnold Palmer Enterprises. Palmer is also a member of theAmerican Society of Golf Course Architects.[citation needed]

A case was initiated in 1997 by Palmer and fellow golfer Tiger Woods, in an effort to stop the unauthorized sale of their images and alleged signatures in the memorabilia market, against Bruce Matthews, the owner of Gotta Have It Golf, Inc. and others. Matthews and associated parties counter-claimed that Palmer and associated businesses committed several acts, including breach of contract, breach of implied duty of good faith and violations of Florida’s Deceptive and Unfair Trade Practices Act.[10] Woods was also named in the counter-suit, accused of violating the same licensing agreement.[citation needed]

On March 12, 2014, a Florida jury found in favor of Gotta Have It on its breach of contract and other related claims, rejected Palmer’s and Woods’s counterclaims, and awarded Gotta Have It $668,346 in damages.[11][12] The award may end up exceeding $1 million once interest has been factored in, though the ruling may be appealed.[citation needed]

One of Palmer’s most recent products (mass-produced starting in 2001) is a branded use of the beverage known as the Arnold Palmer, which combines sweet iced tea with lemonade.[13]

Legacy

In 2000, Palmer was ranked the sixth greatest player of all time in Golf Digest magazine’s rankings.[14]

According to Golf Digest, Palmer made $1,861,857 in 734 PGA Tour career starts over 53 years; he earned an estimated $30 million off the course in 2008.[15]

Palmer was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2004 and the Congressional Gold Medal in 2009.[16][17] He was the first golfer to be awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the second golfer, after Byron Nelson, to be awarded the Congressional Gold Medal.[citation needed]

In addition to Palmer’s impressive list of awards, he was bestowed the honor of kicking off the Masters Tournament beginning in 2007. From 2007 to 2009, Palmer was the sole honorary starter. In 2010, longtime friend and competitor Jack Nicklaus was appointed by Augusta National to join Palmer.[18] In 2012, golf’s The Big Three reunited as South African golfer Gary Player joined for the ceremonial tee shots as honorary starters for the 76th playing of the Masters Tournament.[19]

In popular culture

Arnold Palmer’s name has been mentioned in passing many times various television shows and movies over the years. One of the more memorable instances is in Episode 2 of Season Three (46th overall), of MacGyver, also entitled Lost Love : Part Two, in which Angus MacGyver and Jack Dalton have to break into a secure glass case to steal a Ming Dynasty era jade dragon. The combination, set by Mac’s friend Pete Thornton, happens to be 9-10-29, which is the way an American would enter Arnold Palmer’s birthday (September 10, 1929), this being so because Pete was said to be a great fan of Arnold Palmer’s.[citation needed]

Personal life

Palmer resided in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, during spring and summer months, and wintered in La Quinta, California.[20]

Palmer’s grandson, Sam Saunders, is a professional golfer. Saunders grew up playing at Bay Hill, and won the Club Championship there at age 15. He attended Clemson University on a golf scholarship and turned pro in 2008. Saunders stated that Palmer’s family nickname is “Dumpy”.[21]

Palmer was married to Winnie Palmer for 45 years. She died at age 65 on November 20, 1999, from complications due to ovarian cancer.[22] Palmer remarried in 2005 to Kathleen Gawthrop.[23]

Palmer appears on the cover of Tiger Woods PGA Tour 14 alongside Tiger Woods.

He was a member of the Freemasons since 1958.[24] He was raised to the sublime degree of Master Mason at Loyalhanna Lodge No. 275 in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, where he remained an active member until his death.

Pilot

An avid pilot for over 50 years, Palmer thought he would pilot a plane for the last time on January 31, 2011. He flew from Palm Springs, California, to Orlando, Florida, in his Cessna Citation X.[25] His pilot’s medical certificateexpired that day and he chose not to renew it. However, public FAA records show he was issued a new third-class medical in May 2011.

Arnold Palmer Regional Airport in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, is named for him. According to their website: “[The airport] started as the Longview Flying Field in 1924. It became J.D. Hill Airport in 1928, Latrobe Airport in 1935 and Westmoreland County Airport in 1978. Complimenting a rich history rooted in some of the earliest pioneers of aviation, the name was changed to Arnold Palmer Regional in 1999 to honor the Latrobe native golf legend who grew up less than a mile from the runway where he watched the world’s first official airmail pickup in 1939 and later learned to fly himself.”[26] There is a statue of Palmer holding a golf club in front of the airport’s entrance, unveiled in 2007.

Palmer’s early “fear of flying” was what led him to pursue his airman certificate. After almost 55 years, he logged nearly 20,000 hours of flight time in various aircraft.[27]

Death

Palmer died in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on September 25, 2016.[28][29]

Amateur wins (26)

  • 1946 WPIAL Championship, PIAA Championship
  • 1947 WPIAL Championship, PIAA Championship, Western Pennsylvania Junior, Western Pennsylvania Amateur
  • 1948 Southern Conference Championship, Sunnehanna Invitational, Western Pennsylvania Junior
  • 1950 Southern Intercollegiate, Western Pennsylvania Amateur, Greensburg Invitational
  • 1951 Western Pennsylvania Amateur, Worsharn Memorial
  • 1952 Western Pennsylvania Amateur, Greensburg Invitational
  • 1953 Ohio Amateur, Cleveland Amateur, Greensburg Invitational, Mayfield Heights Open, Evergreen Pitch and Putt Invitational
  • 1954 U.S. Amateur, Ohio Amateur, All-American Amateur, Atlantic Coast Conference Championship, Bill Waite Memorial

Amateur major wins (1)

Year Championship Winning score Runner-up
1954 U.S. Amateur 1 up United States Robert Sweeny Jr.

Results timeline

Tournament 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954
U.S. Amateur R256 R64 R256 DNP DNP R16 1

DNP = Did not play
R256, R128, R64, R32, R16, QF, SF = Round in which player lost in match play
Green background for wins. Yellow background for top-10

Source:[30]

Professional wins (95)

PGA Tour wins (62)

No. Date Tournament Winning score Margin of
victory
Runner(s)-up
1 Aug 20, 1955 Canadian Open −23 (64-67-64-70=265) 4 strokes United StatesJack Burke, Jr.
2 Jul 1, 1956 Insurance City Open −10 (66-69-68-71=274) Playoff United StatesTed Kroll
3 Jul 29, 1956 Eastern Open −11 (70-66-69-72=277) 2 strokes United StatesDow Finsterwald
4 Feb 25, 1957 Houston Open −9 (67-72-71-69=279) 1 stroke United StatesDoug Ford
5 Mar 31, 1957 Azalea Open Invitational −6 (70-67-70-75=282) 1 stroke United StatesDow Finsterwald
6 Jun 9, 1957 Rubber City Open Invitational −12 (71-66-67-68=272) Playoff United StatesDoug Ford
7 Nov 3, 1957 San Diego Open Invitational −17 (65-68-68-70=271) 1 stroke CanadaAl Balding
8 Mar 23, 1958 St. Petersburg Open Invitational −8 (70-69-72-65=276) 1 stroke United StatesDow Finsterwald, United StatesFred Hawkins
9 Apr 6, 1958 Masters Tournament −4 (70-73-68-73=284) 1 stroke United StatesDoug Ford, United StatesFred Hawkins
10 Jun 29, 1958 Pepsi Championship −11 (66-69-67-71=273) 5 strokes United StatesJay Hebert
11 Jan 25, 1959 Thunderbird Invitational −18 (67-70-67-62=266) 3 strokes United StatesJimmy Demaret, United StatesKen Venturi
12 May 11, 1959 Oklahoma City Open Invitational −15 (73-64-67-69=273) 2 strokes United StatesBob Goalby
13 Nov 29, 1959 West Palm Beach Open Invitational −7 (72-67-66-76=281) Playoff United StatesGay Brewer, United StatesPete Cooper
14 Feb 7, 1960 Palm Springs Desert Golf Classic −20 (67-73-67-66-65=338) 3 strokes United StatesFred Hawkins
15 Feb 28, 1960 Texas Open Invitational −12 (69-65-67-75=276) 2 strokes United StatesDoug Ford, United StatesFrank Stranahan
16 Mar 6, 1960 Baton Rouge Open Invitational −9 (71-71-69-68=279) 7 strokes United StatesJay Hebert, United StatesRon Reif,
United StatesDoug Sanders
17 Mar 13, 1960 Pensacola Open Invitational −15 (68-65-73-67=273) 1 stroke United StatesDoug Sanders
18 Apr 10, 1960 Masters Tournament −6 (67-73-72-70=282) 1 stroke United StatesKen Venturi
19 Jun 18, 1960 U.S. Open −4 (72-71-72-65=280) 2 strokes United StatesJack Nicklaus (amateur)
20 Aug 7, 1960 Insurance City Open Invitational −14 (70-68-66-66=270) Playoff United StatesBill Collins, United StatesJack Fleck
21 Nov 27, 1960 Mobile Sertoma Open Invitational −14 (68-67-74-65=274) 2 strokes United StatesJohnny Pott
22 Jan 15, 1961 San Diego Open Invitational −13 (69-68-69-65=271) Playoff CanadaAl Balding
23 Feb 13, 1961 Phoenix Open Invitational −10 (69-65-66-70=270) Playoff United StatesDoug Sanders
24 Feb 26, 1961 Baton Rouge Open Invitational −14 (65-67-68-66=266) 7 strokes United StatesWes Ellis
25 Apr 30, 1961 Texas Open Invitational −14 (67-63-72-68=270) 1 stroke CanadaAl Balding
26 Jun 25, 1961 Western Open −13 (65-70-67-69=271) 2 strokes United StatesSam Snead
27 Jul 15, 1961 The Open Championship −4 (70-73-69-72=284) 1 stroke WalesDai Rees
28 Feb 4, 1962 Palm Springs Golf Classic −17 (69-67-66-71-69=342) 3 strokes United StatesJay Hebert, United StatesGene Littler
29 Feb 11, 1962 Phoenix Open Invitational −15 (64-68-71-66=269) 12 strokes United StatesBilly Casper, United StatesDon Fairfield,
United StatesBob McCallister, United StatesJack Nicklaus
30 Apr 9, 1962 Masters Tournament −8 (70-66-69-75=280) Playoff South AfricaGary Player (2nd),
United StatesDow Finsterwald (3rd)
31 Apr 29, 1962 Texas Open Invitational −11 (67-69-70-67=273) 1 stroke United StatesJoe Campbell, United StatesGene Littler,
United StatesMason Rudolph, United StatesDoug Sanders
32 May 6, 1962 Tournament of Champions −12 (69-70-69-68=276) 1 stroke United StatesBilly Casper
33 May 14, 1962 Colonial National Invitation +1 (67-72-66-76=281) Playoff United StatesJohnny Pott
34 Jul 13, 1962 The Open Championship −12 (71-69-67-69=276) 6 strokes AustraliaKel Nagle
35 Aug 12, 1962 American Golf Classic −4 (67-69-70-70=276) 5 strokes United StatesMason Rudolph
36 Jan 7, 1963 Los Angeles Open −10 (69-69-70-66=274) 3 strokes CanadaAl Balding, South AfricaGary Player
37 Feb 12, 1963 Phoenix Open Invitational −15 (68-67-68-70=273) 1 stroke South AfricaGary Player
38 Mar 10, 1963 Pensacola Open Invitational −15 (69-68-69-67=273) 2 strokes United StatesHarold Kneece, South AfricaGary Player
39 Jun 16, 1963 Thunderbird Classic Invitational −11 (67-70-68-72=277) Playoff United StatesPaul Harney
40 Jul 1, 1963 Cleveland Open Invitational −11 (71-68-66-68=273) Playoff United StatesTommy Aaron, United StatesTony Lema
41 Jul 29, 1963 Western Open −4 (73-67-67-73=280) Playoff United StatesJulius Boros, United StatesJack Nicklaus
42 Oct 6, 1963 Whitemarsh Open Invitational −7 (70-71-66-74=281) 1 stroke United StatesLionel Hebert
43 Apr 12, 1964 Masters Tournament −12 (69-68-69-70=276) 6 strokes United StatesDave Marr, United StatesJack Nicklaus
44 May 18, 1964 Oklahoma City Open Invitational −11 (72-69-69-67=277) 2 strokes United StatesLionel Hebert
45 May 2, 1965 Tournament of Champions −11 (66-69-71-71=277) 2 strokes United StatesChi Chi Rodriguez
46 Jan 9, 1966 Los Angeles Open −11 (72-66-62-73=273) 3 strokes United StatesMiller Barber, United StatesPaul Harney
47 Apr 18, 1966 Tournament of Champions −5 (74-70-70-69=283) Playoff United StatesGay Brewer
48 Nov 20, 1966 Houston Champions International −9 (70-68-68-69=275) 1 stroke United StatesGardner Dickinson
49 Jan 29, 1967 Los Angeles Open −15 (70-64-67-68=269) 5 strokes United StatesGay Brewer
50 Feb 19, 1967 Tucson Open Invitational −15 (66-67-67-73=273) 1 stroke United StatesChuck Courtney
51 Aug 13, 1967 American Golf Classic −4 (70-67-72-67=276) 3 strokes United StatesDoug Sanders
52 Sep 24, 1967 Thunderbird Classic −5 (71-71-72-69=283) 1 stroke United StatesCharles Coody, United StatesJack Nicklaus,
United StatesArt Wall, Jr.
53 Feb 4, 1968 Bob Hope Desert Classic −12 (72-70-67-71-68=348) Playoff United StatesDeane Beman
54 Sep 15, 1968 Kemper Open −12 (69-70-70-67=276) 4 strokes AustraliaBruce Crampton, United StatesArt Wall, Jr.
55 Nov 30, 1969 Heritage Golf Classic −1 (68-71-70-74=283) 3 strokes United StatesDick Crawford, United StatesBert Yancey
56 Dec 7, 1969 Danny Thomas-Diplomat Classic −18 (68-67-70-65=270) 2 strokes United StatesGay Brewer
57 Jul 26, 1970 National Four-Ball Championship
PGA Players
(with United StatesJack Nicklaus)
−25 (61-67-64-67=259) 3 strokes AustraliaBruce Crampton & United StatesOrville Moody,
United StatesGardner Dickinson & United StatesSam Snead,
United StatesGeorge Archer & United StatesBobby Nichols
58 Feb 14, 1971 Bob Hope Desert Classic −18 (67-71-66-68-70=342) Playoff United StatesRaymond Floyd
59 Mar 14, 1971 Florida Citrus Invitational −18 (66-68-68-68=270) 1 stroke United StatesJulius Boros
60 Jul 25, 1971 Westchester Classic −18 (64-70-68-68=270) 5 strokes United StatesGibby Gilbert, United StatesHale Irwin
61 Aug 1, 1971 National Team Championship
(with United StatesJack Nicklaus)
−27 (62-64-65-66=257) 6 strokes United StatesJulius Boros & United StatesBill Collins,
New ZealandBob Charles & AustraliaBruce Devlin
62 Feb 11, 1973 Bob Hope Desert Classic −17 (71-66-69-68-69=343) 2 strokes United StatesJack Nicklaus, United StatesJohnny Miller

PGA Tour playoff record (14–10)

No. Year Tournament Opponent(s) Result
1 1956 Insurance City Open United StatesTed Kroll Won with birdie on second extra hole
2 1957 Rubber City Open Invitational United StatesDoug Ford Won with birdie on sixth extra hole
3 1958 Azalea Open United StatesHowie Johnson Lost 18-hole playoff (Johnson:77, Palmer:78)
4 1959 West Palm Beach Open United StatesGay Brewer, United StatesPete Cooper Won with par on fourth extra hole
5 1960 Houston Classic United StatesBill Collins Lost 18-hole playoff (Collins:69, Palmer:71)
6 1960 Insurance City Open United StatesBill Collins, United StatesJack Fleck Palmer won with birdie on third extra hole
Collins eliminated with birdie on first hole
7 1961 San Diego Open Invitational CanadaAl Balding Won with birdie on first extra hole
8 1961 Phoenix Open Invitational United StatesDoug Sanders Won 18-hole playoff (Palmer:67 Sanders:70)
9 1961 500 Festival Open Invitation United StatesDoug Ford Lost to birdie on second extra hole
10 1962 Masters Tournament South AfricaGary Player (2nd),
United StatesDow Finsterwald (3rd)
Won 18-hole playoff (Palmer:68, Player:71, Finsterwald:77)
11 1962 Colonial National Invitation United StatesJohnny Pott Won 18-hole playoff (Palmer:69, Pott:73)
12 1962 U.S. Open United StatesJack Nicklaus Lost 18-hole playoff (Nicklaus:71, Palmer:74)
13 1963 Thunderbird Classic United StatesPaul Harney Won with par on first extra hole
14 1963 U.S. Open United StatesJulius Boros, United StatesJacky Cupit Lost 18-hole playoff (Boros:70, Cupit:73, Palmer:76)
15 1963 Cleveland Open United StatesTommy Aaron, United StatesTony Lema Won 18-hole playoff (Palmer:67, Aaron:70, Lema:70)
16 1963 Western Open United StatesJulius Boros, United StatesJack Nicklaus Won 18-hole playoff (Palmer:70, Boros:71, Nicklaus:73)
17 1964 Pensacola Open United StatesMiller Barber, South AfricaGary Player Lost 18-hole playoff (Player:71, Palmer:72, Barber:74)
18 1964 Cleveland Open United StatesTony Lema Lost to birdie on first extra hole
19 1966 Bob Hope Desert Classic United StatesDoug Sanders Lost to birdie on first extra hole
20 1966 Tournament of Champions United StatesGay Brewer Won 18-hole playoff (Palmer:69, Brewer:73)
21 1966 U.S. Open United StatesBilly Casper Lost 18-hole playoff (Casper:69, Palmer:73)
22 1968 Bob Hope Desert Classic United StatesDeane Beman Won with par on second extra hole
23 1970 Byron Nelson Golf Classic United StatesJack Nicklaus Lost to birdie on first extra hole
24 1971 Bob Hope Desert Classic United StatesRaymond Floyd Won with birdie on second extra hole

Source:[31]

Other wins (18)

Senior PGA Tour wins (10)

No. Date Tournament Winning score Margin of
victory
Runner(s)-up
1 Dec 7, 1980 PGA Seniors Championship +1 (72-69-73-75=289) Playoff United StatesPaul Harney
2 Jul 12, 1981 U.S. Senior Open +9 (72-76-68-73=289) Playoff United StatesBilly Casper, United StatesBob Stone
3 Jun 13, 1982 Marlboro Classic −8 (68-70-69-69=276) 4 strokes United StatesBilly Casper, United StatesBob Rosburg
4 Aug 15, 1982 Denver Post Champions of Golf −5 (68-67-73-67=275) 1 stroke United StatesBob Goalby
5 Dec 4, 1983 Boca Grove Seniors Classic −17 (65-69-70-67=271) 3 strokes United StatesBilly Casper
6 Jan 22, 1984 General Foods PGA Seniors’ Championship −12 (66-66-72=204) 2 strokes United StatesDon January
7 Jun 24, 1984 Senior Tournament Players Championship −6 (69-63-79-71=282) 3 strokes AustraliaPeter Thomson
8 Dec 2, 1984 Quadel Seniors Classic −11 (67-71-67=205) 1 stroke United StatesLee Elder, United StatesOrville Moody
9 Jun 23, 1985 Senior Tournament Players Championship −14 (67-71-68-68=274) 11 strokes United StatesMiller Barber, United StatesLee Elder,
United StatesGene Littler, United StatesCharles Owens
10 Sep 18, 1988 Crestar Classic −13 (65-68-70=203) 4 strokes United StatesLee Elder, United StatesJim Ferree, United StatesLarry Mowry

Senior PGA Tour playoff record (2–1)

No. Year Tournament Opponent(s) Result
1 1980 PGA Seniors’ Championship United StatesPaul Harney Won with birdie on first extra hole
2 1981 U.S. Senior Open United StatesBilly Casper, United StatesBob Stone Won 18-hole playoff (Palmer:70, Stone:74, Casper:77)
3 1984 Daytona Beach Seniors Golf Classic United StatesOrville Moody, United StatesDan Sikes Moody won with birdie on second extra hole

Senior majors are shown in bold.

Other senior wins (5)

Major championships

Wins (7)

Year Championship 54 holes Winning score Margin Runner(s)-up
1958 Masters Tournament Tied for lead −4 (70-73-68-73=284) 1 stroke United StatesDoug Ford, United StatesFred Hawkins
1960 Masters Tournament(2) 1 shot lead −6 (67-73-72-70=282) 1 stroke United StatesKen Venturi
1960 U.S. Open 7 shot deficit −4 (72-71-72-65=280) 2 strokes United StatesJack Nicklaus
1961 The Open Championship 1 shot lead −4 (70-73-69-72=284) 1 stroke WalesDai Rees
1962 Masters Tournament(3) 2 shot lead −8 (70-66-69-75=280) Playoff 1 South AfricaGary Player (2nd),
United StatesDow Finsterwald (3rd)
1962 The Open Championship(2) 5 shot lead −12 (71-69-67-69=276) 6 strokes AustraliaKel Nagle
1964 Masters Tournament(4) 5 shot lead −12 (69-68-69-70=276) 6 strokes United StatesDave Marr, United States Jack Nicklaus

1 Defeated Player (2nd) and Finsterwald (3rd) in an 18-hole playoff – Palmer (68), Player (71) and Finsterwald (77). 1st, 2nd and 3rd places awarded in this playoff.

Results timeline

Tournament 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959
Masters Tournament DNP DNP T10 21 T7 1 3
U.S. Open CUT CUT T21 7 CUT T23 T5
The Open Championship DNP DNP DNP DNP DNP DNP DNP
PGA Championship DNP DNP DNP DNP DNP T40 T14
Tournament 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969
Masters Tournament 1 T2 1 T9 1 T2 T4 4 CUT 27
U.S. Open 1 T14 2 T2 T5 CUT 2 2 59 T6
The Open Championship 2 1 1 T26 DNP 16 T8 DNP T10 DNP
PGA Championship T7 T5 T17 T40 T2 T33 T6 T14 T2 WD
Tournament 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
Masters Tournament T36 T18 T33 T24 T11 T13 CUT T24 T37 CUT
U.S. Open T54 T24 3 T4 T5 T9 T50 T19 CUT T59
The Open Championship 12 DNP T7 T14 DNP T16 T55 7 T34 DNP
PGA Championship T2 T18 T16 CUT T28 T33 T15 T19 CUT CUT
Tournament 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
Masters Tournament T24 CUT 47 T36 CUT CUT CUT CUT CUT CUT
U.S. Open 63 CUT CUT T60 DNP DNP DNP DNP DNP DNP
The Open Championship CUT T23 T27 T56 CUT DNP DNP CUT DNP CUT
PGA Championship T72 76 CUT T67 CUT T65 CUT T65 CUT T63
Tournament 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Masters Tournament CUT CUT CUT CUT CUT CUT CUT CUT CUT CUT
U.S. Open DNP DNP DNP DNP CUT DNP DNP DNP DNP DNP
The Open Championship CUT DNP DNP DNP DNP CUT DNP DNP DNP DNP
PGA Championship CUT CUT CUT CUT CUT DNP DNP DNP DNP DNP
Tournament 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Masters Tournament CUT CUT CUT CUT CUT
U.S. Open DNP DNP DNP DNP DNP
The Open Championship DNP DNP DNP DNP DNP
PGA Championship DNP DNP DNP DNP DNP

DNP = Did not play
WD = Withdrew
CUT = missed the half-way cut
“T” indicates a tie for a place
Green background for wins. Yellow background for top-10.

Summary

Tournament Wins 2nd 3rd Top-5 Top-10 Top-25 Events Cuts made
Masters Tournament 4 2 1 9 12 19 50 25
U.S. Open 1 4 1 10 13 18 33 24
The Open Championship 2 1 0 3 7 12 23 17
PGA Championship 0 3 0 4 6 13 37 24
Totals 7 10 2 26 38 62 143 90
  • Most consecutive cuts made – 26 (1958 Masters – 1965 Masters)
  • Longest streak of top-10s – 6 (1966 Masters – 1967 U.S. Open)

Champions Tour major championships

Wins (5)

Year Championship Winning score Margin Runner(s)-up
1980 PGA Seniors’ Championship +1 (72-69-73-75=289) Playoff1 United StatesPaul Harney
1981 U.S. Senior Open +9 (72-76-68-73=289) Playoff2 United StatesBilly Casper, United StatesBob Stone
1984a General Foods PGA Seniors’ Championship(2) −6 (69-63-79-71=282) 2 strokes United StatesDon January
1984 Senior Players Championship −12 (72-68-67-69=276) 3 strokes AustraliaPeter Thomson
1985 Senior Players Championship(2) −14 (67-71-68-68=274) 11 strokes United StatesMiller Barber, United StatesLee Elder,
United StatesGene Littler, United StatesCharles Owens

a This was the January edition of the tournament.
1 Palmer won this with a birdie on the first playoff hole.
2 Won in an 18-hole playoff, Palmer shot a (70) to Stone’s (74) and Casper’s (77).

U.S. national team appearances

Professional

  • Ryder Cup: 1961 (winners), 1963 (winners, playing captain), 1965 (winners), 1967 (winners), 1971 (winners), 1973 (winners), 1975 (winners, non-playing captain)
  • World Cup: 1960 (winners), 1962 (winners), 1963 (winners), 1964 (winners), 1966 (winners), 1967 (winners, individual winner)
  • Presidents Cup: 1996 (winners, non-playing captain)

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Reilly, Rick (June 17, 2013). “Sunday might never be the same”. ESPN. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
  2. Jump up^ Baggs, Mercer (September 10, 2014). “Arnie: Palmer’s father an imposing, lasting figure”. Golf Channel.
  3. Jump up^ “A Country Club As His Backyard”.
  4. Jump up^ Stewart, Wayne, ed. (2007). The Gigantic Book of Golf Quotations.Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60239-072-0.
  5. Jump up^ Sounes, Howard (2004). The Wicked Game: Arnold Palmer, Jack Nicklaus, Tiger Woods and the Story of Modern Golf. William Morrow. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-06-051386-3.
  6. Jump up^ “1961 Arnold Palmer”. The Open. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
  7. Jump up^ “Palmer still gets thrill”. Augusta.com. April 10, 2009. Retrieved June 1,2012.
  8. Jump up^ “‘Arnie’s Army’ Gets Last Look at Legend”. The New York Times. October 14, 2006.
  9. Jump up^ Palmer, Arnold (2004). Arnold Palmer: Memories, Stories, and Memorabilia from a Life on and Off the Course. Stewart, Tabori and Chang. p. 73.ISBN 978-1-58479-330-4.
  10. Jump up^ “Palmer v. Gotta Have It Golf Collectibles, Inc.”. 106 F.Supp.2d 1289 (2000) United States District Court, S.D. Florida. June 22, 2000. RetrievedMay 24, 2014.
  11. Jump up^ Batterman, L. Robert; Cardozo, Michael; Freeman, Robert E.; Ganz, Howard L.; Katz, Wayne D.; Leccese, Joseph M. (May 17, 2014). “Tiger Woods Misses the Cut in Golf Memorabilia Dispute”. National Law Review. Proskauer Rose LLP. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
  12. Jump up^ “Gotta Have It Golf, Inc. v. Arnold Palmer Enterprises, Inc., No. 03-19490 (Fla. Cir. Ct. Jury Verdict)”. March 12, 2014.
  13. Jump up^ “Arnold Palmer Enterprises”. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
  14. Jump up^ Yocom, Guy (July 2000). “50 Greatest Golfers of All Time: And What They Taught Us”. Golf Digest. Retrieved December 5, 2007.[dead link]
  15. Jump up^ Callahan, Tom (September 2009). “Palmer in his Prime”. Golf Digest. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
  16. Jump up^ Dulac, Gerry (September 30, 2009). “Arnold Palmer joining exclusive gold club”. Pittsburg Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
  17. Jump up^ “Arnold Palmer receives Congressional Gold Medal”. PGA Tour. September 12, 2012. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
  18. Jump up^ “Nicklaus to join Palmer as honorary starter at Masters”. USA Today. August 31, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
  19. Jump up^ “Player to Join Palmer, Nicklaus as Honorary Starter at 2012 Masters”. Masters.com. July 5, 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
  20. Jump up^ “Arnold Palmer… A Biography”. Arnold Palmer. Retrieved August 20,2014.
  21. Jump up^ “Arnold Palmer’s Grandson Makes Cut for US Open”. The New York Times. June 14, 2011. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
  22. Jump up^ “Arnold Palmer’s Wife Dies”. CBS News. Associated Press. RetrievedMarch 26, 2013.
  23. Jump up^ “Arnold Palmer marries again”. Golf Today. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
  24. Jump up^ “Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania F. & A. M. website”.
  25. Jump up^ “Arnold Palmer in cockpit for last time”. ESPN. February 1, 2011. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
  26. Jump up^ “Arnold Palmer Regional Airport – About the Airport (LBE)”. RetrievedOctober 22, 2012.
  27. Jump up^ “Capt. Arnie’s Final Flight”. Flying. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
  28. Jump up^ Anderson, Dave (September 26, 2016). “Arnold Palmer, the Magnetic Face of Golf in the ’60s, Dies at 87”. The New York Times. RetrievedSeptember 26, 2016.
  29. Jump up^ Schupak, Adam (September 26, 2016). “Golf’s most beloved figure, Arnold Palmer, dies at 87”. Golfweek. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
  30. Jump up^ “USGA Championship Database”. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
  31. Jump up^ Barkow, Al (1989). The History of the PGA TOUR. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-26145-4.

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnold_Palmer

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The Pronk Pops Show 648, March 30, 2016, Story 1: Republican Candidates Revoke Pledges — Take The Pledge To Support A Trump/Cruz Republican Unity Ticket — Defeat Hillary Clinton — United We Win — Divided The People Lose — Listen To Laura Ingraham — Guess who’s coming to dinner? Videos

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Republican Senator Ted Cruz Kicks Off Presidential Campaign

U.S. Senator Ted Cruz, a Republican from Texas, stands with his wife Heidi Nelson Cruz and daughters Catherine Cruz, left, and Caroline Cruz, right, as he marks the start of his presidential campaign by giving the convocation address at Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia, U.S., on Monday, March 23, 2015. By kicking off his campaign at the Virginia Christian college founded by the late evangelist Jerry Falwell, rather than a venue in his home state, Cruz is signaling he’ll court religious conservatives as well as small-government tea-party activists as he competes to become the lead anti-establishment candidate in the party contest. Photographer: Jay Paul/Bloomberg *** Local Caption *** Ted Cruz; Heidi Nelson Cruz; Catherine Cruz; Caroline Cruz

Party Affiliation

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Copyright www.flags.net/UNST.htm Republican Convention
Presidential Nominating Process
Debate –  Fox – Cleveland, Ohio: Thursday 6 August 2015
Debate – CNN – Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, Simi Valley, California: Wednesday 16 September 2015
Debate – CNBC – Boulder, Colorado: Wednesday 28 October 2015
Debate – Fox Business News – Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Tuesday 10 November 2015
Debate – CNN – Las Vegas, Nevada: Tuesday 15 December 2015
Debate – Fox Business Channel, Charleston, South Carolina: Thursday 14 January 2016
Debate – Fox – Iowa: Thursday 28 January 2016
Debate – CBS – South Carolina: February 2016 (presumably)
Debate – NBC/Telemundo – Texas: Friday 26 February 2016
Debate – CNN – TBD: March 2016 (presumably)
Debate – Salt Lake City, Utah (announced 20 February 2016): Monday 21 March 2016
41st Republican National Convention: Monday 18 July – Thursday 21 July 2016
Republicans
Candidate Popular
Vote
Delegate Votes
Soft
Pledged
Soft
Unpledged
Soft
Total
Hard Total
Trump, Donald John, Sr. 7,861,671  37.11% 752  31.78%   752  30.42% 752  30.42%
Cruz, Rafael Edward “Ted” 5,779,837  27.28% 463  19.57% 1   0.94% 464  18.77% 463  18.73%
Rubio, Marco A. 3,469,278  16.38% 173   7.31%   173   7.00% 173   7.00%
Kasich, John Richard 2,821,264  13.32% 144   6.09%   144   5.83% 144   5.83%
Carson, Benjamin Solomon “Ben”, Sr. 692,693   3.27% 8   0.34%   8   0.32% 8   0.32%
Bush, John Ellis “Jeb” 254,515   1.20% 4   0.17%   4   0.16% 4   0.16%
Uncommitted 66,044   0.31% 11   0.46% 17  16.04% 28   1.13% 32   1.29%
Paul, Randal H. “Rand” 56,451   0.27% 1   0.04%   1   0.04% 1   0.04%
Christie, Christopher James “Chris” 52,679   0.25%        
Huckabee, Michael Dale “Mike” 47,263   0.22% 1   0.04%   1   0.04% 1   0.04%
Fiorina, Carleton Sneed “Carly” 35,287   0.17% 1   0.04%   1   0.04% 1   0.04%
Santorum, Richard John “Rick” 15,774   0.07%        
No Preference 9,249   0.04%        
Graham, Lindsey Olin 5,684   0.03%        
Gray, Elizabeth 5,455   0.03%        
(others) 3,116   0.01%        
Gilmore, James Stuart “Jim”, III 2,671   0.01%        
Pataki, George E. 2,007   0.01%        
Others 1,586   0.01%        
Cook, Timothy “Tim” 513   0.00%        
Jindal, Piyush “Bobby” 221   0.00%        
Martin, Andy 202   0.00%        
Witz, Richard P.H. 109   0.00%        
Lynch, James P. “Jim”, Sr. 100   0.00%        
Messina, Peter 79   0.00%        
Cullison, Brooks Andrews 56   0.00%        
Lynch, Frank 47   0.00%        
Robinson, Joe 44   0.00%        
Comley, Stephen Bradley, Sr. 32   0.00%        
Prag, Chomi 16   0.00%        
Dyas, Jacob Daniel “Daniel”, Sr. 15   0.00%        
McCarthy, Stephen John 12   0.00%        
Iwachiw, Walter N. 9   0.00%        
Huey, Kevin Glenn 8   0.00%        
Drozd, Matt 6   0.00%        
Mann, Robert Lawrence 5   0.00%        
Hall, David Eames          
(available)   808  34.15% 88  83.02% 896  36.25% 893  36.12%
Total 21,183,998 100.00% 2,366 100.00% 106 100.00% 2,472 100.00% 2,472 100.00%

Latest Polls

Wednesday, March 30
Race/Topic   (Click to Sort) Poll Results Spread
Wisconsin Republican Presidential Primary Marquette Cruz 40, Trump 30, Kasich 21 Cruz +10
Wisconsin Democratic Presidential Primary Marquette Clinton 45, Sanders 49 Sanders +4
Wisconsin Senate – Johnson vs. Feingold Marquette Feingold 47, Johnson 44 Feingold +3
Tuesday, March 29
Race/Topic   (Click to Sort) Poll Results Spread
Wisconsin Republican Presidential Primary 0ptimus (R)* Cruz 27, Trump 31, Kasich 29 Trump +2
New York Republican Presidential Primary 0ptimus (R)* Trump 50, Kasich 24, Cruz 16 Trump +26
2016 Republican Presidential Nomination PPP (D) Trump 42, Cruz 32, Kasich 22 Trump +10
2016 Democratic Presidential Nomination PPP (D) Clinton 54, Sanders 36 Clinton +18
California Senate – Open Primary LA Times Harris 30, Sanchez 15, Del Beccaro 10, Sundheim 8 Harris +15
Monday, March 28
Race/Topic   (Click to Sort) Poll Results Spread
California Democratic Presidential Primary LA Times Clinton 47, Sanders 36 Clinton +11
Sunday, March 27
Race/Topic   (Click to Sort) Poll Results Spread
California Republican Presidential Primary LA Times Trump 36, Cruz 35, Kasich 14, Rubio Trump +1

http://www.realclearpolitics.com/epolls/latest_polls/elections/

Bette Midler – The Glory of Love

Trump: No Pledge to Support Republican Nominee

Laura Ingraham Weighs In Donald Trump, Ted Cruz & Race For The White House – Hannity

Sean Hannity: If GOP Steals Nomination from Trump or Cruz, I will Walk

LIMBAUGH: If GOP Denies Trump Or Cruz, JEB BUSH Will WIN The Nomination

Rush Limbaugh on the Split in the GOP and Brokered Convention Possibility

Limbaugh blasts GOP establishment: You created Trump

Limbaugh on Trump-Cruz “Dream Ticket”

Behind closed doors, GOP strategizes on how to block Trump

Senior GOP official Curly Haugland “We choose the nominee, not the voters”

How Trump Will Stop The Election Steal

Ron Paul: GOP getting what it deserves for instituting “Ron Paul rule”

Ron Paul: Republican or Democrat, The People Lose

UNSTOPPABLE: THE DONALD TRUMP PHENOMENON – EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW WITH ROGER STONE

Donald Trump, Ted Cruz Bring Wives Into the Presidential Fight

Donald Trump-Ted Cruz fight gets ugly

Ted Cruz talks about possible UNITY TICKET, also eviscerates Trump on FLIP-FLOPS

Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner (1/8) Movie CLIP – Pleased to Meet You (1967) HD

Sidney Poitier “predicts” Barack Obama (1967)

Guess who’s coming to dinner speech

Jimmy Durante The Glory of Love

Ingraham: Cruz, Trump Need To Meet And Work Together; “Could Be Heroes, If Not They Could Be Zeroes”

Laura Ingraham calls for Cruz and Trump “to put the country in the front seat, put your egos in the backseat” to form a coalition to fight for what is best for the country. Ingraham appeared on Tuesday night’s broadcast of Hannity.

INGRAHAM: We are not going to get there if we let the establishment continue to pull the strings like everyone’s a bunch of marinettes and just sit there and the establishment sits back. By the way, these candidates have no audience, they have no supporters. Nobody wants open borders. The Republican party, the voters are united against the stupid Trans-Pacific Partnership and they’re against this stuff. There is no audience.

Jeb Bush and Marco Rubio were obliterated in their home states and they’re going to call the show for the GOP? Ted Cruz and Donald Trump better — they’ve got to have some kind of a meeting of the minds at some point. Maybe it’s not now but maybe in a couple weeks where they sit down and say, ‘Look, the liberals hates us, and the media hates us and the GOP establishment both hate us. I don’t care what endorsements they get, they hate us. Let’s find a way to work together. We could be heroes.’ And if not they could be zeroes.

http://www.realclearpolitics.com/video/2016/03/30/ingraham_cruz_trump_need_to_meet_and_work_together_could_be_heroes_if_not_they_could_be_zeroes.html

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The Pronk Pops Show 607, January 20, 2016, Story 1: Tea Party Patriot Palin Endorses Donald J. Trump — Make America Great Again — Stump for Trump — George Carlin – The big club — You Not In It! — Videos

Posted on January 20, 2016. Filed under: 2016 Presidential Campaign, 2016 Presidential Candidates, American History, Ben Carson, Ben Carson, Bernie Sanders, Blogroll, Breaking News, Chris Christie, Communications, Countries, Defense Spending, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Donald Trump, Education, Elections, Employment, Federal Government, Foreign Policy, Government, Government Spending, Hillary Clinton, Hillary Clinton, Hillary Clinton, History, Illegal Immigration, Jeb Bush, Marco Rubio, Medicare, National Security Agency, News, Obama, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, President Barack Obama, Progressives, Radio, Rand Paul, Rand Paul, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Regulation, Scandals, Second Amendment, Security, Social Security, Success, Taxation, Taxes, Ted Cruz, Ted Cruz, Terror, Terrorism, Unemployment, United States Constitution, United States of America, Videos, Violence, War, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 607: January 20, 2015

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