Archive for October 28th, 2016

The Pronk Pops Show 786, October 28, 2016, Breaking News –Story 1: FBI Director Sends Letter To Congress — Investigating New Emails Tied to the Hillary Clinton Case — Videos

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Pronk Pops Show 786: October 28, 2016

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Story 1: FBI Director Sends Letter To Congress — Investigating New Emails Tied to the Hillary Clinton Case  — Videos

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BOMBSHELL! Trump Announces FBI Reopening Of Clinton Email Investigation!!!

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Trump Responds to FBI Announcement of Reopening Congressional Investigation Into Hillary Clinton Emails | “Hillary Clinton’s corruption is on a scale we have never seen before. We must not let her take her criminal scheme into the Oval Office,” Trump said.

Mike Pence Tells Supporters About FBI’s Look Into New Hillary Clinton Emails | NBC News

FBI PROBE !! • FBI REOPENS INVESTIGATION ON HILLARY CLINTON

Trey Gowdy responds to reopened Clinton e-mail investigation

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Rep. Mica on reopening of Clinton case

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FBI Reopening Investigation Into Hillary Clinton’s Emails | TIM

FBI’s Comey: Bureau Re-Opening Investigation into Hillary Clinton’s Emails!! – October 28, 2016

Donald Trump Bret Baier FULL Interview – 10/28/16 – Fox News

Wikileaks Explodes! MSNBC/WSJ/NYTimes/WashPost! Media Blackout Ending! Chelsea Comes Clean!

Hillary Clinton FBI Investigation Was A BLATANT Cover Up – Agent James Comey GRILLED In Court

Trey Gowdy GRILLS James Comey On Hillary Clinton Emails 7/7/16

FBI Director James Comey Press Conference- FBI Recommends No Charges Against Hillary Clinton

Memo to the Press: What Comey’s Letter Does and Doesn’t Mean

By Benjamin Wittes

Friday, October 28, 2016, 3:31 PM

The press is full of “breaking news” stories that FBI Director James Comey has “reopened” the Clinton email investigation. It’s juicy news less than two weeks before the election. But it’s not quite right.

Here’s the text of Comey’s letter:

When the FBI wants to say it is reopening an investigation, it knows perfectly well how to say that. In this case, the investigation was actually never formally closed, so it doesn’t need to be reopened. The relevance of this letter is thus likely not that some explosive new evidence of Clinton criminality has suddenly emerged.

It is, rather, that Comey made a set of representations to Congress that have been complicated by new information, apparently from the Anthony Weiner sexting case. So he’s informing Congress of that fact before the election.

Comey represented to Congress that the Clinton email investigation was “complete.” But as the letter relates, new emails have now come to the bureau’s attention that appears relevant to the email investigation. (Weiner’s estranged wife is one Clinton’s top aides.) Comey has okayed a review of that new information to determine whether the emails contain classified material and also whether they are, in fact, relevant. And this fact renders his prior statement to Congress no longer true.

The key point here, in other words, is not that Comey is “reopening” a closed matter because of some bombshell. It is that he is amending his public testimony to Congress that the FBI is done while the bureau examines new material that may or may not have implications for investigative conclusions previously reached.

Here’s the subtext: Comey and FBI investigated Clinton hard, and when various legal and practical hurdles made it impossible to move forward with any kind of criminal case against her, Comey stated his view—quite unflattering to her—that her behavior had been “extremely careless” with highly sensitive information.

He did this in public because he made a decision that Clinton and her team deserved public scrutiny for their acts, because she is a major party candidate for president. This is why he went out of his way—maybe too far—in revealing unfiltered information so that the public had the opportunity to consider it before voting for or against her.

This summer, in short, Comey closed the investigation, stated his reasons, and took arrows both from those who thought he should have gone forward with a case and those who thought he should have said much less than he did.

And he testified before Congress that he was finished.

The trouble is that now he has learned something which he thinks may complicate his earlier judgments. And he has authorized additional investigative steps to find out. He found out that he is not finished. So the question is whether to tell Congress (and the public) or not.

Even at the risk of helping Trump, Comey has notified Congress (and the world) about it so as to clarify his prior testimony. This allows voters to judge how to consider this before the election—even though he will almost surely not be able to say anything more until after the election. It’s a way of not pretending that the investigation is “complete” when he knows there is some degree of residual issue.

If you’re inclined to be angry with Comey over this, imagine that he had not said something and it emerged after the election that, having testified that the investigation was complete, he authorized additional investigation of a new trove of emails.

Comey and the FBI are in a terrible position here, one in which they would be accused of playing politics whatever they ended up doing.

The interesting question is whether the FBI’s predicament is Comey’s own fault. It’s certainly not his fault that the email mess fell into his lap and had to be investigated in the year of an election. Nor is it his fault that the the FBI ended up investigating the DNC hack and whatever trouble Weiner has gotten himself into of late. Reasonable minds will differ, however, about whether Comey leaned too far forward in publicly disclosing information about his thinking on the email case. He can be criticized for having said and disclosed too much and thereby made his problem worse.

But what you can’t reasonably say is that Comey has been anyone’s political lackey. Over the howling objections of many Republicans, he ended the Clinton email investigation, concluding that “no reasonable prosecutor” would go forward with a case. Over the snarls of the Clinton forces, at the same time, he commented quite disparagingly about the behavior of the woman who is likely to become his boss. And now, with the election only days away, he has amended his prior resolution of the case to deal with new information.

Say what you will about the FBI, but it’s surely been independent.

https://www.lawfareblog.com/memo-press-what-comeys-letter-does-and-doesnt-mean

Here’s the Letter James Comey Sent to FBI Employees Explaining Clinton Letter

Here’s the letter FBI Director Comey wrote to explain why he reopened Clinton email investigation

FBI Director James Comey testifies during a House Judiciary hearing on File photo of FBI Director James Comey during a House Judiciary hearing on Capitol Hill in Washington Thomson Reuters

FBI Director James Comey notified Congress on Friday that the bureau is reopening its investigation into Hillary Clinton’s private email server, a decision he explained in a letter to his employees.

In the letter, obtained by The Washington Post, Comey said he felt an “obligation” to tell Congress about the investigation because he “testified repeatedly in recent months that our investigation was completed.”

The bureau made its decision to reopen the investigation after learning of “the existence of emails that appear to be pertinent to the investigation,” according to the letter Comey sent to Congress.

Here’s Comey’s full note to his employees:

“This morning I sent a letter to Congress in connection with the Secretary Clinton email investigation. Yesterday, the investigative team briefed me on their recommendation with respect to seeking access to emails that have recently been found in an unrelated case. Because those emails appear to be pertinent to our investigation, I agreed that we should take appropriate steps to obtain and review them.”

“Of course, we don’t ordinarily tell Congress about ongoing investigations, but here I feel an obligation to do so given that I testified repeatedly in recent months that our investigation was completed. I also think it would be misleading to the American people were we not to supplement the record. At the same time, however, given that we don’t know the significance of this newly discovered collection of emails, I don’t want to create a misleading impression. In trying to strike that balance, in a brief letter and in the middle of an election season, there is significant risk of being misunderstood, but I wanted you to hear directly from me about it.

Comey told Congress that the team in charge of looking into Clinton’s server briefed him Thursday on new emails it found “in connection with an unrelated case.”

The emails were uncovered after the FBI seized devices belonging to Huma Abedin and her husband, former congressman Anthony Weiner, The New York Times reported, citing law enforcement officials. Prosecutors issued a subpoena for Weiner’s cellphone and other records in late September amid allegations that he had been sexting with a 15-year-old girl.

Natasha Bertrand contributed to this report.

http://www.businessinsider.com/fbi-james-comey-letter-clinton-email-investigation-2016-10

Computer seized in Weiner probe prompts FBI to take new steps in Clinton email inquiry

October 28 at 9:32 PM
Newly discovered emails found on a computer seized during an investigation of disgraced former congressman Anthony Weiner thrust the controversy over Hillary Clinton’s use of a private server back into the presidential campaign less than two weeks before the election.

Officials said the discovery prompted a surprise announcement Friday by FBI Director James B. Comey that the agency would once again be examining emails related to Clinton’s time as secretary of state.

In a letter to lawmakers, Comey said the FBI would take “appropriate investigative steps” to determine whether the newly discovered emails contain classified information and to assess whether they are relevant to the Clinton server probe.

The emails, numbering more than 1,000, were found on a computer used by both Weiner (D-N.Y.) and his wife, top Clinton aide Huma Abedin, according to law enforcement officials with knowledge of the inquiry who spoke on the condition of anonymity.

The correspondence included emails between Abedin and Clinton, according to a law enforcement official.

Federal officials have been examining sexually suggestive online messages that Weiner allegedly exchanged with a teenage girl. The link to the Weiner investigation was first reported by the New York Times.

Comey’s announcement appears to resume the FBI’s probe of Clinton’s server, which previously ended in July with no charges.

The announcement could reshape a presidential race that Clinton, the Democratic nominee, has been leading in most public polls. It was immediately hailed by Republican nominee Donald Trump, who told supporters at a New Hampshire rally that “perhaps, finally, justice will be done.” The crowd responded with pumped fists and chants of “Lock her up! Lock her up!”

Clinton told reporters Friday night in Iowa that she learned of the newly discovered emails only after the letter to Congress was made public.

“I’m confident whatever [the emails] are will not change the conclusion reached in July,” she said. “Therefore, it’s imperative that the bureau explain this issue in question, whatever it is, without any delay.”

Asked about the connection to Weiner, Clinton said: “We’ve heard these rumors. We don’t know what to believe.”

Clinton campaign chairman John Podesta called it “extraordinary that we would see something like this just 11 days out from a presidential election.”

Officials familiar with the inquiry said it was too early to assess the significance of the newly discovered emails. It is possible, they said, that some or all of the correspondence is duplicative of the emails that were already turned over and examined by the FBI.

Comey made a similar point in his letter, sent to congressional committee chairmen, saying that the FBI “cannot yet assess whether or not this material may be significant.”

The letter, which was three paragraphs long, contained few details.

He wrote that the FBI, in connection with an “unrelated case,” had recently “learned of the existence of emails that appear to be pertinent to the Clinton investigation.”

Comey wrote that he was briefed on the new material Thursday. “I agreed that the FBI should take appropriate investigative steps designed to allow investigators to review these emails to determine whether they contain classified information, as well as to assess their importance to our investigation,” he wrote.

An FBI spokesman on Friday declined to elaborate, and a spokesman for Attorney General Loretta E. Lynch declined to comment.

Comey provided no details about the unrelated case that resulted in the discovery of the new emails.

The official said that Comey, once told about the find, felt an obligation to inform Congress, since he had previously told lawmakers that the investigation had been completed.

Abedin, who has worked for Clinton since the 1990s, is vice chairman of Clinton’s presidential campaign. She exchanged thousands of emails with Clinton while serving as her deputy chief of staff at the State Department. She, like Clinton, used an email address routed through the private server.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/fbi-to-conduct-new-investigation-of-emails-from-clintons-private-server/2016/10/28/0b1e9468-9d31-11e6-9980-50913d68eacb_story.html

Anger, disbelief in Clinton camp

That shocking development — revealed in a letter to Congress by FBI Director James Comey — pushed some of Clinton’s allies past the boiling point.

They said they were “dumbfounded” by the revelation that the new FBI review may have been spurred by a separate investigation into Anthony Weiner sending lewd texts to a minor. Weiner is separated from wife Huma Abedin, one of Clinton’s closest aides.

And they worried that Clinton’s unconventional email arrangement had finally caught up to her and might imperil her presidential bid less than two weeks before Election Day.

“I’m livid, actually,” one Clinton surrogate told The Hill. “This has turned into malpractice. It’s an unforced error at this point. I have no idea what Comey is up to but the idea this email issue is popping back up again is outrageous. It never should have occurred in the first place. Someone somewhere should have told her no. And they didn’t and now we’re all paying the price.”

Another ally called the campaign’s mood something akin to “paralysis,” and blamed Weiner’s behavior for railroading the campaign.

One strategist said the developments would further cement the notion that Clinton has something to hide.

“It’s made people think there’s always going to be something around the Clintons, some investigation, some inquiry,” the strategist said. “It never goes away.”

Campaign chairman John Podesta and other Democrats lashed out at the FBI over the timing of its announcement and for the lack of details in Comey’s letter.

They demanded clarity, fearing that the open nature of the investigation would lead speculation to run wild.

“FBI Director Comey should immediately provide the American public more information than is contained in the letter he sent to eight Republican committee chairmen,” Podesta said in a statement.

“Already, we have seen characterizations that the FBI is ‘reopening’ an investigation but Comey’s words do not match that characterization. Director Comey’s letter refers to emails that have come to light in an unrelated case, but we have no idea what those emails are and the Director himself notes they may not even be significant.

“It is extraordinary that we would see something like this just 11 days out from a presidential election,” Podesta added.

Clinton world was already on edge over Podesta’s hacked emails, which are being published by Wikileaks on a near-daily basis.

Those revelations have given new ammunition to Republican Donald Trump, who has seized on the leaked emails to accuse the Clintons of running a corrupt network of influence for personal gain.

After the FBI news broke on Friday, the campaign seemed resigned to Trump and other Republicans campaigning on the email issue in the final days of the race.

“In the short term at least, this does provide Republicans with something they can all hang their hat on, at a time when they’ve been fighting with each other so much — so that can have a salutary effect by shoring up the GOP base and distract from the daily drama around Trump himself,” one longtime Clinton adviser said.

The surrogate predicted the news would also hurt Democrats in down ballot elections.

“I assume Senate Democrats are peeing in their pants right now,” the surrogate said. “The [Republican] ads are being cut as we speak.”

At the same time, other Democrats interviewed by The Hill were taking the FBI letter in stride.

They believe that the presidential race is set and will not be meaningfully impacted by Comey’s announcement. Millions of people voted early, when Clinton held about a 6-point lead nationally.

And Democrats believe scandal fatigue has set in over the emails, essentially rendering new developments meaningless.

Voters have been hearing about Clinton’s email troubles for more than a year, Democrats say, yet she’s favored to win the White House.

“This is just a distraction,” said Democratic pollster Mark Mellmann. “People had already reached their conclusions about the emails. Certainly everyone on my side of the aisle would rather be talking about something else, but I don’t think it’s sufficient to change the outcome.”

Rather than panic over Clinton’s new troubles, Democrats expressed outrage at FBI director Comey for dropping what they view as a politically motivated bombshell close to the election.

“It is extraordinary for the FBI director to do this 11 days before the election,” said Democratic strategist Steve McMahon. “It violates the Justice Department’s rules about engaging in investigations in a way that might impact our democracy. It is extraordinary and very, very surprising.”

http://thehill.com/blogs/ballot-box/presidential-races/303402-anger-disbelief-in-clinton-camp

What the new FBI letter on Hillary Clinton’s emails means — and doesn’t mean

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The Pronk Pops Show 785, October 27, 2016, Story 1: Clinton Crime Corruption Circle — Sleazy Shakedown Scheme of Top Donors — Bill Clinton, Inc. or Rich Racket, Inc. — Story 2: The October Surprise of Wikileaks And Obamacare Premium and Deductible Increases Will Elect Trump President — Story 3: Bob Dylan — It’s All Over Now, Baby Blue — It’s Alright, Ma (I’m Only Bleeding) — Bob Dylan – Like a Rolling Stone live 1966 — Videos

Posted on October 28, 2016. Filed under: 2016 Presidential Campaign, 2016 Presidential Candidates, American History, Banking System, Blogroll, Breaking News, Bribery, Budgetary Policy, Communications, Computers, Congress, Constitutional Law, Corruption, Countries, Crime, Culture, Currencies, Defense Spending, Disasters, Donald J. Trump, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, Donald Trump, Economics, Education, Elections, Empires, Employment, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, Free Trade, Government, Government Dependency, Government Spending, Health, High Crimes, Hillary Clinton, Hillary Clinton, Hillary Clinton, History, House of Representatives, Illegal Immigration, Immigration, Independence, Insurance, Investments, Iraq, IRS, Islamic Republic of Iran, Islamic State, Labor Economics, Language, Law, Legal Immigration, Libya, Life, Lying, Media, Mike Pence, Monetary Policy, News, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Polls, Qatar, Radio, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Resources, Scandals, Security, Senate, Servers, Spying, Success, Tax Policy, Taxation, Taxes, Trade Policy, Unemployment, United States Constitution, United States of America, Videos, Violence, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 785: October 27, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 784: October 26, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 783: October 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 782: October 24, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 781: October 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 780: October 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 779: October 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 778: October 18, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 777: October 17, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 776: October 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 775: October 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 774: October 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 773: October 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 772: October 10, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 771: October 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 770: October 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 769: October 5, 2016 

Pronk Pops Show 768: October 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 767: September 30, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 766: September 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 765: September 28, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 764: September 27, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 763: September 26, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 762: September 23, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 761: September 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 760: September 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 759: September 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 758: September 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 757: September 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 756: September 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 755: September 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 754: September 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 753: September 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 752: September 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 751: September 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 750: September 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 749: September 2, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 748: September 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 747: August 31, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 746: August 30, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 745: August 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 744: August 26, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 743: August 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 742: August 24, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 741: August 23, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 740: August 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 739: August 18, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 738: August 17, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 737: August 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 736: August 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 735: August 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 734: August 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 733: August 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 732: August 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 731: August 4, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 730: August 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 729: August 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 728: July 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 727: July 28, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 726: July 27, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 725: July 26, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 724: July 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 723: July 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 722: July 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 721: July 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 720: July 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 719: July 18, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 718: July 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 717: July 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 716: July 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 715: July 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 714: July 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 713: July 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 712: July 5, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 711: July 1, 2016

Story 1: Clinton Crime Corruption Circle Get Rich Sleazy Shakedown Scheme — Videos

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 WikiLeaks: Clinton Aides Fretted About Foundation’s “F***ing Problems” – 10/27/16

Hannity 10/27/16 | Newt Gingrich interview, WikiLeaks Exposes Bill Clinton’s ‘Pay-For-Play’

Wikileaks: Clinton Foundation Inside Information Raises Questions About Bill Clinton | TIME

Bill O’Reilly lays out new emails by WikiLeaks that show “the Clinton Foundation is run more like…

Morning Joe Hosts Rip Into ‘MORALLY DEFECIT,’ ‘Sleazy’ Clinton Foundation…..

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Clinton Foundation Corruption | Charles Ortel and Stefan Molyneux

Clinton Inc: Watch How’s it Pains MSM to Report Clinton Corruption

Rep. Sessions: Clinton Foundation’s fundraising tactics are criminal

Hacked emails reveal Clinton Foundation staff pressured donors

Kurtz: Clinton caught in Foundation’s tangled web

Trump: WikiLeaks Shows Clinton Foundation Corruption

Newly released emails reveal details of ‘Bill Clinton Inc’

Mook gets flustered about questions about pay-to-play Morocco donation to Clinton Foundation

More Wikileaks Bombs! Staffer “Hillary Doesn’t Seem To Know What Planet We Live On”!

Clinton Concerns – Email: Keep Tabs On Doug Band – Wikileaks Doc Dump – Fox & friends

HILLARY WIKILEAKS: Top 10 You Must Know

Former Clinton Foundation Head May Be Wikileaks Source, Not Russian Hackers

The Clinton Foundation Scandal Explained

Trump Votes Are Being Flipped To Clinton

National Enquirer Exclusive: Hillary Runs Mafia Organization

Before you Vote for Hillary Clinton. WATCH THIS!

Hillary Clinton The Movie Banned by the Courts in 2008

October Surprise: WikiLeaks to Drop Clinton Foundation Bombshell?

Inside ‘Bill Clinton Inc.’: Hacked memo reveals intersection of charity and personal income

What’s inside the memo WikiLeaks released on Bill Clinton and Teneo

A memo written by a former top aide to Bill Clinton in 2011 shows how the same organizations donating to the Clinton charity were also paying him speaking fees. (Sarah Parnass/The Washington Post)
When top Bill Clinton aide Douglas Band wrote the memo, he was a central player at the Clinton Foundation and president of his own corporate consulting firm. Over the course of 13 pages, he made a case that his multiple roles had served the interests of the Clinton family and its charity.In doing so, Band also detailed a circle of enrichment in which he raised money for the Clinton Foundation from top-tier corporations such as Dow Chemical and Coca-Cola that were clients of his firm, Teneo, while pressing many of those same donors to provide personal income to the former president.The system has drawn scrutiny from Republicans, who say it allowed corporations and other wealthy supporters to pay for entree to a popular former president and a onetime secretary of state who is now the Democratic presidential nominee.Band wrote the memo in 2011 to foundation lawyers conducting a review of the organization amid a brewing feud with the Clintons’ daughter, Chelsea Clinton, who was taking a stronger role in leading the foundation and had expressed concerns about Teneo’s operations.

From Clinton supporters, a mixed reaction to the WikiLeaks emails

Clinton supporters at a rally in Florida respond to WikiLeaks revelations. (Alice Li/The Washington Post)

The memo, made public Wednesday by the anti-secrecy group WikiLeaks, lays out the aggressive strategy behind lining up the consulting contracts and paid speaking engagements for Bill Clinton that added tens of millions of dollars to the family’s fortune, including during the years that Hillary Clinton led the State Department. It describes how Band helped run what he called “Bill Clinton Inc.,” obtaining “in-kind services for the President and his family — for personal travel, hospitality, vacation and the like.”

Band and his Teneo co-founder, former Hillary Clinton fundraiser Declan Kelly, declined to comment. But Teneo issued a statement saying that “as the memo demonstrates, Teneo worked to encourage clients, where appropriate, to support the Clinton Foundation because of the good work that it does around the world. It also clearly shows that Teneo never received any financial benefit or benefit of any kind from doing so.”

Spokesmen for Bill Clinton and Chelsea Clinton and the foundation declined to comment.

Hillary Clinton campaign spokesman Glen Caplin declined to comment on the memo, calling the material “hacked by the Russian government and weaponized by WikiLeaks.” Caplin declined to authenticate the memo, but he also did not dispute it.

Band, who grew close to Bill Clinton two decades ago as his personal aide in the White House and became the architect of his post-presidential activities, argued in the memo that he and his firm had benefited the former president and his foundation.

“We have dedicated ourselves to helping the President secure and engage in for-profit activities,” Band wrote. He also said he had “sought to leverage my activities, including my partner role at Teneo, to support and to raise funds for the foundation.”

Band’s memo provided data showing how much money each of Teneo’s 20 clients at the time had given to the Clinton Foundation, how much they had paid Bill Clinton and, in some cases, how he or Kelly had personally forged the relationships that resulted in the payments.

Band wrote that Teneo partners had raised in excess of $8 million for the foundation and $3 million in paid speaking fees for Bill Clinton. He said he had secured contracts for the former president that would pay out $66 million over the subsequent nine years if the deals remained in place.

For instance, Band wrote that Kelly arranged for the former president to meet the chief executive of Coca-Cola in January 2009 at the Clintons’ home in Washington. In all, according to Band’s memo, Coke had contributed $4.33 million to the foundation between 2004 and 2010.

A Coca-Cola spokesman said the company had supported the Clinton Foundation because it believed “in the great work that can be done when businesses, civil society and governments come together to solve problems.” He said Teneo had been hired to provide “business and communications” consulting.

Band also described how Kelly helped expand a fruitful relationship with UBS Global Wealth Management, introducing Bill Clinton to a top executive at a 2009 charity dinner. In the ensuing years, UBS upped its giving to the foundation, signed on as a Teneo client and agreed to pay Bill Clinton for speeches, Band wrote.

Records show UBS paid Clinton about $2 million in speaking fees between 2011 and 2015 for a series of appearances, generally alongside former president George W. Bush. The company also paid Hillary Clinton $225,000 for a 2013 speech.

UBS declined to comment.

Another achievement cited by Band: Laureate International Universities, a chain of for-profit international colleges, which donated to the foundation and agreed to pay Bill Clinton $3.5 million a year to serve as honorary chancellor.

Clinton has credited Band with conceiving of the Clinton Global Initiative, the glitzy annual meeting where corporate, government and nonprofit leaders gathered annually to talk about the world’s problems. Started in 2005, CGI became the best-known arm of the Clinton Foundation, which also operated education, environmental and health programs around the world. The final CGI meeting took place last month.

By 2011, the longtime Clinton aide was ready to strike out on his own.

That’s when Band and Kelly joined forces to form Teneo. At first, the firm remained closely linked to the Clinton network.

Band described in the memo how he combined his work for CGI and Teneo. He wrote that he had used a hotel room upstairs from the 2011 CGI gathering to meet with Teneo clients. He also acknowledged giving free CGI memberships to “target Teneo clients” being cultivated as potential foundation donors. Memberships generally cost $20,000 a year.

Teneo, meanwhile, named Bill Clinton its “honorary chairman.” Clinton had been initially tapped for a three-year arrangement in which he would provide advice to Teneo “regarding geopolitical, economic and social trends,” according to a separate June 2011 memo that Band wrote to the State Department seeking ethics approval for the former president’s employment.

Bill Clinton was initially paid $2 million by Teneo, according to “Man of the World,” a book written with the former president’s participation by author Joe Conason.

But Chelsea Clinton grew concerned when news leaked in late 2011 that MF Global, the hedge fund owned by former New Jersey governor Jon Corzine, had been paying the Clinton-tied firm $125,000 a month just before MF Global went bankrupt.

According to emails released by WikiLeaks, Chelsea Clinton complained in December 2011 to longtime Clinton aide John Podesta, who at the time was serving as an adviser to the Clinton Foundation, that she had been informed that a member of her father’s office staff who answered to Band had been making calls to British lawmakers “on behalf of President Clinton” for Teneo clients, particularly for the chief executive of Dow Chemical.

Chelsea Clinton wrote that the calls were occurring without her father’s knowledge and that the reactions she was hearing to them would “horrify” Bill Clinton. In another email, she wrote she feared Teneo was “hustling business at CGI.”

Chelsea Clinton’s concerns helped spark efforts at the foundation to adopt new policies governing outside consulting agreements designed to erect a more solid wall between Bill Clinton’s private and charitable activities. Emails show that Cheryl Mills, who at the time was serving as Hillary Clinton’s chief of staff at the State Department, was deeply involved in the foundation’s proceedings.

Bill Clinton also separated from Teneo, returning to the company all but $100,000 of the money he had been paid, tax returns show.

Emails show how the dispute between Chelsea Clinton and her father’s longtime aide led to personal hostility.

“I don’t deserve this from her and deserve a tad more respect or at least a direct dialogue for me to explain these things,” Band wrote to Podesta at the time. “She is acting like a spoiled brat kid who has nothing else to do but create issues to justify what she’s doing because she, as she has said, hasn’t found her way and has a lack of focus in her life.”

Band complained that no similar scrutiny was being applied to Bill Clinton himself. Band noted that he had previously signed a conflict of interest document for CGI.

“Oddly, WJC does not have to sign such a document even though he is personally paid by 3 cgi sponsors, gets many expensive gifts from them, some that are at home etc.,” he wrote.

The Band memo disclosed by WikiLeaks on Wednesday made no direct reference to Hillary Clinton.

But Band outlined that Kelly, his Teneo co-founder, had served simultaneously between 2009 and 2011 as an unpaid economic envoy to Northern Ireland appointed by then-Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and as head of a separate consulting company whose clients included Coke, UBS and Dow. Band wrote that the arrangement was consistent with Kelly’s State Department ethics agreement.

Kelly’s multiple roles came together during one State Department event in 2010, when then-Secretary Clinton recognized Dow, among other companies, for creating jobs in Northern Ireland and thanked Kelly for his work on the issue.

Dow became one of Teneo’s first major clients. According to Band’s memo, Dow chief executive Andrew Liveris had been introduced to Bill Clinton over a round of golf with Kelly in August 2009.

The company then increased its Clinton Foundation support, contributing $705,000 in 2010 and 2011. A Dow spokeswoman said that the company’s participation in the foundation dated to 2007 and that the charity was “aligned to core business and citizenship strategies that have positively leveraged the resources and capabilities of our company.”

Dow paid Teneo $2.8 million in 2011, payments that then jumped to $19.4 million in 2012, according to internal Dow documents made public as part of a whistleblower complaint. The company later said in public filings that the increase reflected a cost-saving decision to consolidate several consulting contracts with one firm.

But the spike raised red flags for an internal company fraud investigator, who expressed alarm that it may be linked to Bill Clinton’s work with a charity founded by Liveris — a charge the company denied.

“It appears Dow is paying Teneo for connections with Clinton,” the investigator wrote.

Anu Narayanswamy and Alice Crites contributed to this report.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/inside-bill-clinton-inc-hacked-memo-reveals-intersection-of-charity-and-personal-income/2016/10/26/3bf84bba-9b92-11e6-b3c9-f662adaa0048_story.html

The Cold Clinton Reality

Why isn’t the IRS investigating the Clinton Foundation?

Main Street Columnist Bill McGurn on how the former president used his foundation as a vehicle for personal enrichment. Photo credit: Zuma Press.

Hillary and Bill Clinton are asking for a third term in the White House, and voters who want to know what this portends should examine the 12-page memo written by a Clinton insider that was hacked and published Wednesday by WikiLeaks. This is the cold, hard reality of the Clinton political-business model.

Longtime Clinton aide Doug Band wrote the memo in 2011 to justify himself to lawyers at Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett who were reviewing his role and conducting a governance review of the Clinton Foundation at the insistence of Chelsea Clinton. In an email two weeks earlier, also published on WikiLeaks, Ms. Clinton said her father had been told that Mr. Band’s firm Teneo was “hustling” business at the Clinton Global Initiative, a regular gathering of the wealthy and powerful that is ostensibly about charitable activity.

Poor innocent Chelsea. Bill and Hillary must never have told her what business they’re in. If she had known, she would never have hired a blue-chip law firm to sweep through the hallways of the Clinton Foundation searching for conflicts of interest. Instead of questioning Mr. Band’s compensation, she would have pleaded with him never to reveal the particulars of his job in writing.

But she didn’t, and so Mr. Band went ahead and described the “unorthodox nature” of his work while emphasizing his determination to help “protect the 501(c)3 status of the Foundation.” That’s the part of the tax code that has allowed the Clinton Foundation to remain tax-exempt on the premise that it is dedicated to serving humanity.

Mr. Band graciously copied John Podesta, then adviser to the board, who would eventually become Hillary’s campaign chief. His helpful reply was to suggest that Mr. Band “strip the defensive stuff out” and later “go through the details and how they have helped WJC” [ William Jefferson Clinton].

The Band memo reveals exactly what critics of the Clintons have long said: They make little distinction between the private and public aspects of their lives, between the pursuit of personal enrichment, the operation of a nonprofit, and participation in U.S. politics.

Mr. Band writes that he and his colleague Justin Cooper “have, for the past ten years, served as the primary contact and point of management for President Clinton’s activities—which span from political activity (e.g., campaigning on behalf of candidates for elected office), to business activity (e.g., providing advisory services to business entities with which he has a consulting arrangement), to Foundation activity.”

This excerpt and all the potential conflicts it describes, plus Chelsea’s warning about business “hustling” at foundation events, would seem more than ample cause to trigger an IRS audit of the foundation. For that matter, why aren’t the IRS and prosecutors already on the case? Any normal foundation has to keep records to show it is separating its nonprofit activity from any for-profit business.

Mr. Band’s memo confirms that donors were not seeking merely to help the sick and the poor. He explains that the Clinton Foundation had “engaged an array of fundraising consultants” over the past decade but “these engagements have not resulted in significant new dollars for the Foundation.” In other words, it wasn’t working as a conventional charity.

Mr. Band then explains how he and his Teneo partner Declan Kelly had to carry the fundraising load, and did so by packaging foundation solicitations with other services such as a meeting with Bill Clinton, $450,000 speeches or strategic advice. Many of the donations, from U.S. companies like Coca-Cola and Dow Chemical and foreign firms like UBS and Barclays, occurred while Hillary Clinton was Secretary of State.

Why exactly were donors writing checks? The Band memo makes clear that donations untied to additional Clinton or Teneo services weren’t all that appealing to potential supporters. This is significant, because the large grant-making foundations in the U.S. are almost entirely run by Clinton voters. So you know they weren’t turned off by the brand name. They’d contribute more if they thought they were also buying goodwill and influence with a current Secretary of State and a potential future President.

We don’t applaud WikiLeaks or the theft of information, and these hacks deserve a firm U.S. government response. But the emails are public and they will confirm for many Americans their worst suspicions about the people who run their government.

It’s also worth noting that in the vast digital trove of Mr. Podesta’s stolen emails we haven’t noticed emails from Mrs. Clinton. Perhaps they don’t exist. But American voters shouldn’t worry merely about the emails released before the election. What emails or memos exist that these hackers, Russian or not, could be withholding for leverage after the election with another President Clinton?

The Clinton campaign has suggested that Donald Trump has praised Vladimir Putinbecause the Russian has something on the Republican. The question is what do any number of possible bad actors know about Bill and Hillary Clinton’s mixing of business, charity and politics?

http://www.wsj.com/articles/the-cold-clinton-reality-1477608696

Clinton Foundation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Clinton Foundation
Clinton Foundation logo.png
Founded 1997 (19 years ago)[1]
Founder Bill Clinton
Purpose Humanitarian
Location
  • New York City
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Bill Clinton (2001–present)
Hillary Clinton (2013–15)
Chelsea Clinton (2011–present)
Donna Shalala (president, 2015–present)
Eric Braverman (president, 2013–2015)
Bruce Lindsey (president, 2004–2011)
Ira Magaziner (head of Clinton Health Access Initiative)
Doug Band (originator of Clinton Global Initiative)
Revenue
$223 million (2015)[1]
Employees
2,000 (2015)[1]
Mission “To bring people together to take on the biggest challenges of the 21st century”
Website www.clintonfoundation.org

The Clinton Foundation (founded in 1997 as the William J. Clinton Foundation,[2] and called beginning in 2013 the Bill, Hillary & Chelsea Clinton Foundation[3]) is a nonprofit corporation under section 501(c)(3) of the U.S. tax code. It was established by former President of the United States Bill Clinton with the stated mission to “strengthen the capacity of people in the United States and throughout the world to meet the challenges of global interdependence.”[4] Its offices are located in New York City and Little Rock, Arkansas.

Through 2016 the foundation had raised an estimated $2 billion from U.S. corporations, foreign governments and corporations, political donors, and various other groups and individuals.[5] The acceptance of funds from wealthy donors has been a source of controversy.[5][6] The foundation “has won accolades from philanthropy experts and has drawn bipartisan support”.[5]

Charitable grants are not a major focus of the Clinton Foundation, which instead keeps most of its money in house and hires staff to carry out its own humanitarian programs.[7] The charity watchdog group Charity Navigator gave the Foundation its highest possible rating, four out of four stars, after its customary review of the Foundation’s financial records and tax statements.[8] A different charity monitor, CharityWatch, says that 88% of the foundation’s money goes toward its charitable mission and gave the foundation an A rating for 2016. In 2015, based on revenue of $223 million and an expense ratio of 12% the foundation spent in excess of $26 million to complete its mission.[9]

This foundation is a public organization to which anyone may donate and is distinct from the Clinton Family Foundation, a private organization for personal Clinton family philanthropy.[10][11]

Neither Bill Clinton, nor his daughter Chelsea Clinton (both board members), draws any salary or receives any income from the Foundation. When Hillary Clinton was a board member she received no income from the Foundation either.[12]

History

The origins of the foundation go back to 1997, when then-president Bill Clinton was focused mostly on fundraising for the future Clinton Presidential Center in Little Rock, Arkansas.[1]

Bill founded the William J. Clinton Foundation in 2001 following the completion of his presidency.[13] Longtime Clinton advisor, Bruce Lindsey, became the CEO in 2004.[14][15] Later, Lindsey moved from being CEO to being chair, largely for health reasons.[14]Other Clinton hands who played an important early role included Doug Band,[16] and Ira Magaziner. Additional Clinton associates who have had senior positions at the foundation include John Podesta and Laura Graham.[13]

Most of the foundation’s successes came from Bill’s worldwide fame and his ability to bring together corporate executives, celebrities, and government officials.[13] Similarly, the foundation areas of involvement have often corresponded to whatever Bill suddenly felt an interest in.[13]

Preceding Barack Obama‘s 2009 nomination of Hillary Clinton as U.S. Secretary of State, Bill Clinton agreed to accept a number of conditions and restrictions regarding his ongoing activities and fundraising efforts for the Clinton Presidential Center and the Clinton Global Initiative.[17] Accordingly, a list of donors was released in December 2008.[18]

By 2011, Chelsea Clinton was taking a dominant role in the foundation and had a seat on its board.[13][19] To raise money for the Foundation, she gave paid speeches, such as her $65,000 2014 address at the University of Missouri in Kansas City for the opening of the Starr Women’s Hall of Fame.[20]

In 2013, Hillary Clinton joined the foundation following her tenure as Secretary of State. She planned to focus her work on issues regarding women and children,[21][22] as well as economic development.[14] Accordingly, at that point, it was renamed the “Bill, Hillary & Chelsea Clinton Foundation”.[13] Extra attention was paid to the foundation due to the 2016 United States presidential election.[13][14]

In July 2013, Eric Braverman was named CEO of the foundation.[15] He is a friend and former colleague of Chelsea Clinton from McKinsey & Company.[13][14] At the same time, Chelsea Clinton was named vice chair of the foundation’s board.[13][15] The foundation was also in the midst of a move to two floors of the Time-Life Building in Midtown Manhattan.[13]

Chelsea Clinton moved the organization to an outside review, conducted by the firm of Simpson Thacher & Bartlett. Its conclusions were made public in mid-2013.[14] The main focus was to determine how the foundation could achieve firm financial footing that was not dependent upon the former president’s fundraising abilities, how it could operate more like a permanent entity rather than a start-up organization, and thus how it could survive and prosper beyond Bill Clinton’s lifetime.[13][14]Dennis Cheng, a former Hillary Clinton campaign official and State Department deputy chief, was named to oversee a $250 million endowment drive.[13] The review also found the management and structure of the foundation needed improvements, including an increase in the size of its board of directors that would have a more direct involvement in planning and budget activities.[14] Additionally, the review said that all employees needed to understand the foundation’s conflict of interest policies and that expense reports needed a more formal review process.[14]

In January 2015, Braverman announced his resignation. Politico attributed the move to being “partly from a power struggle inside the foundation between and among the coterie of Clinton loyalists who have surrounded the former president for decades and who helped start and run the foundation.”[23] He was succeeded at first in an acting capacity by former deputy assistant secretary, Maura Pally.[24]

On February 18, 2015, The Washington Post reported that, “the foundation has won accolades from philanthropy experts and has drawn bipartisan support, with members of the George W. Bush administration often participating in its programs.”[5]

In March 2015, former Secretary of Health and Human Services in the Clinton administration, Donna Shalala, was selected to run the Clinton Foundation.[25]

In August 2016 The Boston Globe‘s editorial board suggested that the Clinton Foundation cease accepting donations. The Globe’s editorial board offered praise for the foundation’s work but added that “as long as either of the Clintons are in public office, or actively seeking it, they should not operate a charity, too” because it represents a conflict of interest and a political distraction.[26]

In 2016, the Reuters wire news service reported that the Clinton Foundation suspected that it had been the target of a cyber security breach. As a consequence of the suspected cyber security breach, Clinton Foundation officials retained a security firm, FireEye, to evaluate its data systems. The cyber security breach has been described as sharing similarities with cyberattacks that targeted other institutions, such as the Democratic National Committee.[27]

Board of directors

As of October 2016, the board members are:[28]

Programs and initiatives

Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI)

As of January 1, 2010, the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative, an initiative of the Clinton Foundation, became a separate nonprofit organization called the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI).[13][29] Organizations such as the Clinton Foundation continue to supply anti-malarial drugs to Africa and other affected areas; according to director Inder Singh, in 2011 more than 12 million individuals will be supplied with subsidized anti-malarial drugs.[30]

In May 2007, CHAI and UNITAID announced agreements that help middle-income and low-income countries save money on second-line drugs. The partnership also reduced the price of a once-daily first-line treatment to less than $1 per day.[31]

The Clinton Foundation HIV/AIDS Initiative’s work on the ground has been subject of some criticism. The American Enterprise Institute, a conservative think tank, wrote that governments and organizations in Africa and Asia that partnered with the Foundation expressed caution and alarm at the Foundation’s focus on treating a large number of patients with less regard for the importance of adherence, follow-up and quality of care.[32]

CHAI was spun off into a separate organization in 2010; Ira Magaziner became its CEO (he had been a key figure in the Clinton health care plan of 1993).[13] Chelsea Clinton joined its board in 2011, as did Tachi Yamada, former President of the Global Health Program at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.[13]

Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) and CGI U

The Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) was founded in 2005 by Bill Clinton. Doug Band, counselor to Bill, was also heavily involved in the formation.[16] Clinton has credited Band with being the originator of CGI and has noted that “Doug had the idea to do this.”[33] Band left his paid position at CGI in 2010,[13] preferring to emphasize his Teneo business and family pursuits, but remains on the CGI advisory board.[14] The overlap between CGI and Teneo, of which Bill was a paid advisor, drew criticism.[13] One of its major donors is Norway’s government—20 million Norwegian kroner per year as of 2013.[34]

President of Brazil Dilma Rousseffopens Clinton Global Initiative Latin America in Rio de Janeiro, 2013

President Clinton with Alonzo Mourning during CGI University Day of Service in Miami, Florida.

In 2007, Bill started CGI U, which expanded the model of CGI to students, universities, and national youth organizations. CGI U has been held at Tulane University, the University of Texas at Austin, the University of Miami, the University of California, San Diego, The George Washington University, Washington University in St. Louis, Arizona State University, and University of California, Berkeley. Panelists and speakers have included Jon Stewart, Madeleine Albright, Vandana Shiva, Bill and Chelsea Clinton, Stephen Colbert, Jack Dorsey, Greg Stanton, U.S. Rep. Gabrielle Giffords, Shane Battier, Salman Khan (founder of Khan Academy), and U.S. Rep. John Lewis.[35][36][37][38][39]

Clinton Global Citizen Awards

The Clinton Global Citizen Awards are a set of awards which have been given by the Clinton Global Initiative every year since 2007.[40] The awards are given to individuals who, in the opinion of the Clinton Foundation, are “outstanding individuals who exemplify global citizenship through their vision and leadership”.[40] Past recipients of the award include Mexican businessman and philanthropist Carlos Slim,[40] Irish billionaire Denis O’Brien,[41] Moroccan entrepreneur Mohammad Abbad Andaloussi,[42] Rwandan President Paul Kagame,[43] Afghan women’s rights activist Suraya Pakzad,[44]Dominican Republic President Leonel Fernández,[45] and Pakistani labor rights activist Syeda Ghulam Fatima.[46]

Clinton Climate Initiative (CCI)

President Clinton started a program to fight climate change, the Clinton Foundation’s Climate Initiative (CCI) in August 2006.[47]

On August 1, 2006, the Foundation entered into a partnership with the Large Cities Climate Leadership Group, agreeing to provide resources to allow the participating cities to enter into an energy-saving product purchasing consortium and to provide technical and communications support.[48]

In May 2007, CCI announced its first project which will help some large cities cut greenhouse gas emissions by facilitating retrofitting of existing buildings. Five large banks committed $1 billion each to help cities and building owners make energy-saving improvements aimed at lowering energy use and energy costs.[49]

At the 2007 Clinton Global Initiative, President Clinton announced the 1Sky campaign to accelerate bold federal policy on global warming.[50] The 1Sky campaign supports at least an 80% reduction in climate pollution levels by 2050.

On May 19, 2009, CCI announced the global Climate Positive Development Program where it will work with the U.S. Green Building Council to promote “climate positive” city growth.[51]

Clinton Development Initiative (CDI)

The Clinton Development Initiative, originally the Clinton Hunter Development Initiative, was formed in 2006 as a partnership with Scottish philanthropist Sir Tom Hunter‘s Hunter Foundation to target the root causes of poverty in Africa and promote sustainable economic growth.[52]

The Alliance for a Healthier Generation

The Alliance for a Healthier Generation is a partnership between the Clinton Foundation and the American Heart Association that was working to end the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States by 2010.

The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, which provided an initial $8 million to start the Healthy Schools Program, awarded a $20 million grant to expand the program to over 8,000 schools in states with the highest obesity rates.[53]

At the industry level, the Alliance struck agreements with major food and beverage manufacturers to provide kids with nutritional options, and established nutrition guidelines for school vending machines, stores and cafeterias to promote healthy eating. Some of the companies involved in these efforts are Coca-Cola, Cadbury plc, Campbell Soup Company, Groupe Danone, Kraft Foods, Mars and PepsiCo.[54][55]

Clinton Giustra Sustainable Growth Initiative

Established in 2007 with Canadian mining executive Frank Giustra — founder of the petroleum company Pacific Rubiales (renamed Pacific Exploration & Production in 2015) — CGSGI describes itself as “pioneering an innovative approach to poverty alleviation.”[56] Giustra’s involvement with the Clinton Foundation has been criticized by the International Business Times, the Washington Post, and the American Media Institutebecause it was accompanied by a sudden reversal in Hillary Clinton’s position while Secretary of State concerning the United States–Colombia Free Trade Agreement, an agreement which she had previously opposed “as bad for labor rights.”[57][58][59][60]

Clinton Health Matters Initiative (CHMI)

In November 2012, Bill Clinton announced the launch of the Clinton Health Matters Initiative (CHMI). CHMI is a national initiative, building on the Clinton Foundation’s work on global health and childhood obesity, that works to improve the health and well-being of people across the United States by activating individuals, communities, and organizations to make meaningful contributions to the health of others. CHMI holds an annual Health Matters conference every January in the Coachella Valley.[61]

Disaster relief

President Clinton and Secretary Clinton Pose for a Photo With Workers at Caracol Industrial Park. Photo: Kendra Helmer/USAID

The Foundation has funded extensive disaster relief programs following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Shortly after Hurricane Katrina hit, President George W. Bush asked former Presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton to raise funds to help rebuild the Gulf Coast region. The two Presidents, having worked together to assist victims of the Indian Ocean tsunami, established the Bush-Clinton Katrina Fund to identify and meet the unmet needs in the region, foster economic opportunity, and to improve the quality of life of those affected.[62] In the first month after the hurricane, the Fund collected over 42,000 online donations alone; approximately $128.4 million has been received to date from all 50 states and $30.9 million from foreign countries. The foundation has been involved in Haiti both before and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[63][13]

No Ceilings project

In 2013, Hillary Clinton established a partnership between the foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to gather and study data on the progress of women and girls around the world since the United Nations Fourth World Conference On Women in Beijing in 1995.[64][65] This is called “No Ceilings: The Full Participation Project.”[64][65]The Project released a report in March 2015.[66]

Transparency

Around 2007, the Clinton Foundation was criticized for a lack of transparency. Although U.S. law did not require nonprofit charities — including presidential foundations — to disclose the identities of their contributors, critics said that the names of donors should be disclosed because Hillary was running to be the Democratic nominee for President of the United States. Commentator Matthew Yglesias wrote in a Los Angeles Timesop-ed that the Clintons should make public the names of foundation donors to avoid any appearance of impropriety.[67]

A lengthy donors list was then released by the Foundation in December 2008,[18] which included several politically sensitive donors, such as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Blackwater Worldwide.[68] The Foundation stated that the disclosures would ensure that “not even the appearance of a conflict of interest” would exist once Hillary Clinton was Secretary of State.[68]

The ethics agreement between the State Department and the Clinton Foundation that was put into force at the beginning of the Secretary of State Clinton’s tenure came under scrutiny from the news media during February 2015. A Wall Street Journal report found that the Clinton Foundation had resumed accepting donations from foreign governments once Secretary Clinton’s tenure had ended.[69] Contributions from foreign donors who are prohibited by law from contributing to political candidates in the U.S. constitute a major portion of the foundation’s income. The foundation’s chief communications officer Craig Minassian explained that it is a “false choice to suggest that people who may be interested in supporting political causes wouldn’t also support philanthropic work.”[5] A Washington Post inquiry into donations by foreign governments to the Clinton Foundation during the secretary’s tenure found six cases where such governments continued making donations at the same level they had before Clinton became secretary, which was permissible under the agreement, but also one instance of a new donation, $500,000 from Algeria for earthquake relief in Haiti, that was outside the bounds of the continuation provision and should have received a special ethics review, but did not.[70] Foundation officials said that if the former secretary decided to run for president in 2016, they would again consider what steps to take in reference to foreign donations.[70] But in general, they stressed that, “As with other global charities, we rely on the support of individuals, organizations, corporations and governments who have the shared goal of addressing critical global challenges in a meaningful way. When anyone contributes to the Clinton Foundation, it goes towards foundation programs that help save lives.”[70] State Department spokesperson Jen Psaki attested that the foundation’s commitment to the ethics agreement in question “has been over and above the letter of the law”.[71] In August 2016, with less than 90 days before the upcoming presidential election, the Clinton Foundation announced that it will stop accepting foreign donations if Clinton is elected.[72]

In March 2015, Reuters reported that the Clinton Foundation had broken its promise to publish all of its donors, as well as its promise to let the State Department review all of its donations from foreign governments.[73] In April 2015, the New York Times reported that when Hillary Clinton was Secretary of State, the State Department had approved a deal to sell American uranium to a Russian state-owned enterprise Uranium One whose chairman had donated to the Clinton Foundation, and that Clinton had broken her promise to publicly identify such donations.[74] The State Department “was one of nine government agencies, not to mention independent federal and state nuclear regulators, that had to sign off on the deal.”[75]FactCheck.org notes that there is “no evidence” that the donations influenced Clinton’s official actions or that she was involved in the State Department’s decision to approve the deal,[76] and PolitiFact concluded that any “suggestion of a quid pro quo is unsubstantiated.”[75]

After her January 2009 appointment as Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton proposed hiring long-time Clinton friend and confidant Sidney Blumenthal as an advisor, however, Obama’s chief of staff, Rahm Emanuel, blocked Blumenthal’s appointment at the State Department.[77] Blumenthal was subsequently hired by the Clinton Foundation and after the 2011 uprising in Libya against Muammar Gaddafi, Blumenthal prepared, from public and other sources, about 25 memos which he sent as emails to Clinton in 2011 and 2012 with advice regarding Libyan matters.[78][79]

2015 State Department subpoena

In February 2016, The Washington Post reported that the United States Department of State issued a subpoena to the foundation in the fall of 2015. According to the report, the subpoena focused on “documents about the charity’s projects that may have required approval from federal government during Hillary Clinton’s term as secretary of state” and “also asked for records related to Huma Abedin, longtime Clinton aide who for six months in 2012 was employed simultaneously by the State Department, the foundation, Clinton’s personal office, and a private consulting firm with ties to the Clintons.”[80]

Private philanthropy

The Clinton Foundation is a public organization to which anyone may donate. Due to their similar names, the public foundation has sometimes been confused with the Clinton Family Foundation, which is reserved for the Clintons’ private philanthropy. The two foundations have sometimes been conflated by news sources.[10] The significantly smaller Clinton Family Foundation is a traditional private foundation that serves as the vehicle for their personal charitable giving.[11] Headquartered in Chappaqua, New York, it received nearly all of the approximately $14 million the Clintons gave to charity from 2007–13.[10]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinton_Foundation

The Man at the Center of ‘Bill Clinton Inc.’

Doug Band helped everyone get rich in the post-presidential empire, but his re-emergence in the WikiLeaks hack is another headache for Hillary.

Patrick Semansky / AP

Who is Doug Band, and what did he do for Bill Clinton?

A little bit of everything, it turns out.

He helped launch the Clinton Foundation, came up with the idea for the Clinton Global Initiative, brokered deals for paid speeches that enriched Clinton, and then started a private consulting firm called Teneo that made the Foundation, Bill Clinton, and Band himself even wealthier.

All of that became clear in the latest batch of hacked emails released by WikiLeaks, which include messages from Band and a 12-page memo that he wrote both explaining and defending his and his company’s work on Clinton’s behalf. For Hillary Clinton’s campaign, the publication of the Band memo is yet another WikiLeaks-induced headache, as it provides even more detail into the unsavory-if-not-illegal intersection of interests at the heart of her family’s philanthropic work.

Band, now 44, was to Bill Clinton what Huma Abedin has been to Hillary. He started as a junior staffer in the White House straight out of college in the 1990s, and once the Clintons left office in 2001, he never left Bill’s side.

Here’s how one Clinton loyalist describes Band:

Doug turned down a lucrative job at Goldman Sachs to help the President transition into private life, even in the midst of a difficult time when President Clinton’s approval rating was lower than it had ever been, and many had left the President’s side for greener pastures. The decision Doug made to stick with the President was made out of loyalty, and I always admired that.

But in a very short period of time, and at an astonishingly young age, Doug not only helped build and guide the Clinton Foundation, he also traveled the world with the President, came up with the idea for the Clinton Global Initiative, and worked to turn it into an entity that has helped literally hundreds of millions of people across the globe.

Those were Band’s own not-so-modest words, taken from a reference letter he wrote for John Podesta to send out in his name in 2013, at a time when news stories were painting a negative portrait of Band’s influence in Hillaryland. The most damaging was a profile by Alec MacGillis in the New Republic that was headlined “Scandal at Clinton Inc.” and identified Band as the cause of the turmoil. The crux of the piece was that after helping to build the Clintons’ philanthropic empire, he was now using it to amass riches for himself through Teneo, the consulting firm he started in 2011 with the Irish businessman Declan Kelly. And the unseemly way in which he was going about it risked tarnishing both Hillary Clinton’s future presidential run and Bill Clinton’s post-presidential brand.

Wrote MacGillis:

Bill Clinton now leads a sprawling philanthropic empire like no other. The good it achieves is undeniable. It has formed partnerships with multinationals and wealthy individuals to distribute billions of dollars all over the globe. Its many innovative projects include efforts to lower the costs of medicines in developing nations and reduce greenhouse-gas emissions in major cities. And yet it’s hard to shake the sense that it’s not all about saving the world. There’s an undertow of transactionalism in the glittering annual dinners, the fixation on celebrity, and a certain contingent of donors whose charitable contributions and business interests occupy an uncomfortable proximity. More than anyone else except Clinton himself, Band is responsible for creating this culture. And not only did he create it; he has thrived in it.

MacGillis’s reporting proved prescient, right down to the use of the phrase “Clinton Inc.” Questions about the ethics of the Clinton Foundation have hovered like a cloud around Hillary’s campaign from the start, never quite turning into a storm but never quite going away, either. Did the Clintons trade access to themselves for donations to the charity? Yes. Did Band mix his work raising money for the foundation with his business interests? Yes. But the revelations have thus far stopped at the government’s door. Neither the emails about a deal with the king of Morocco to host a CGI conference nor Band’s memo about Teneo and his work for Bill Clinton suggest that Hillary Clinton took actions as secretary of state to benefit donors to the Clinton Foundation.

The WikiLeaks hack has confirmed tensions between Chelsea Clinton, who stepped into to try to overhaul and “professionalize” the operation of the foundation, and Band, who bristled at her interference and at one point referred to her as “a spoiled brat.” In one email, Band defends himself against accusations of “a conflict of interest” with Teneo by pointing out that Bill Clinton had also received compensation and gifts from donors to the foundation. And in his 12-page memo, Band argues that through his company and his “unique role” in an “unorthodox” arrangement, he has helped both Bill Clinton and the foundation, in part by soliciting donations from his Teneo corporate clients. The section that stands out the most is the one titled, “For-Profit Activity of President Clinton (i.e. Bill Clinton Inc.).” Band writes of himself and another Clinton aide, Justin Cooper:

Independent of our fundraising and decision-making activities on behalf of the Foundation, we have dedicated ourselves to helping the President secure and engage in for-profit activities – including speeches, books, and advisory service engagements. In that context, we have in effect served as agents, lawyers, managers and implementers to secure speaking, business and advisory service deals. In support of the President’s for-profit activity, we also have solicited and obtained, as appropriate, in-kind services for the President and his family – for personal travel, hospitality, vacation and the like. Neither Justin nor I are separately compensated for these activities (e.g., we do not receive a fee for, or percentage11 of, the more than $50 million in for-profit activity we have personally helped to secure for President Clinton to date or the $66 million in future contracts, should he
choose to continue with those engagements).

With respect to business deals for his advisory services, Justin and I found, developed and brought to President Clinton multiple arrangements for him to accept or reject. Of his current 4 arrangements, we secured all of them; and, we have helped manage and maintain all of his for-profit business relationships. Since 2001, President Clinton’s business arrangements have yielded more than $30 million for him personally, with $66 million to be paid out over the next nine years should he choose to continue with the current engagements.

How does this all affect Hillary Clinton, the Clinton who is actually running for president? Mostly, it just doesn’t look good. (And thanks to Donald Trump’s endless antics, it probably won’t stop her from winning the election.) Both Clintons have vigorously defended the charitable work they have done over the last 16 years, and while that work may be admirable, the WikiLeaks hack has exposed that the former president’s philanthropy, his personal enrichment, and the business interests of perhaps his closest aide were too closely tied.

The Clinton campaign has made a policy of not commenting on the specific WikiLeaks revelations other than to accuse Russia of stealing Podesta’s emails and suggest that the Trump campaign was involved. In an appearance Thursday on MSNBC, spokeswoman Jennifer Palmieri said the campaign doesn’t believe “that this is something that voters are going to focus on or voters are going to care about.”“The foundation, as is known, has done great work,” Palmieri said. “The State Department has looked at this. They have said that there is no decision that Hillary Clinton made as Secretary of State that was based on people who donated to the Clinton Foundation.”Teneo issued its own statement on Thursday: “As the memo demonstrates, Teneo worked to encourage clients, where appropriate, to support the Clinton Foundation because of the good work that it does around the world. It also clearly shows that Teneo never received any financial benefit or benefit of any kind from doing so.”The Band memo does not directly involve Hillary, but to Republicans it makes no difference. They have already seized on the WikiLeaks revelations to promise “years” more of hearings and investigations if she wins the presidency.“The more e-mails Wikileaks releases, the more the lines between the Clinton Foundation, the Secretary of State’s office, and the Clintons’ personal finances are blurred,” Trump said. “Mr. Band called the arrangement ‘unorthodox.’ The rest of us call it outright corruption.”http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/10/the-man-at-the-center-of-bill-clinton-inc/505661/

 

Story 2: The October Surprise of Wikileaks And Obamacare Premium and Deductible Increases Will Elect Trump President — Videos

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Story 3: Bob Dylan — It’s All Over Now, Baby Blue — It’s Alright, Ma (I’m Only Bleeding) — Bob Dylan – Like a Rolling Stone live 1966 — Videos

Bob Dylan – It’s All Over Now, Baby Blue

It’s All Over Now, Baby Blue
You must leave now
Take what you need you think will last
But whatever you wish to keep
You better grab it fast
Yonder stands your orphan with his gun
Crying like a fire in the sun
Look out, the saints are coming through
And it’s all over now, baby blue
The highway is for gamblers
Better use your sense
Take what you have gathered
From coincidence
The empty handed painter from your streets
Is drawing crazy patterns on your sheets
This sky, too, is folding under you
And it’s all over now, baby blue
All your seasick sailors
They are rowing home
Your empty handed army
Is all going home
Your lover, who just walked out the door
Has taken all his blankets from the floor
The carpet too, is moving under you
And it’s all over now, baby blue
Leave your stepping stones behind
Now, something that calls for you
Forget the dead you’ve left
They will not follow you
The vagabond who’s rapping at your door
Is standing in the clothes that you once wore
Strike another match, go start anew
And it’s all over now, baby blue

It’s Alright, Ma (I’m Only Bleeding)

Bob Dylan

Darkness at the break of noon
Shadows even the silver spoon
The handmade blade, the child’s balloon
Eclipses both the sun and moon
To understand you know too soon
There is no sense in trying.
Pointed threats, they bluff with scorn
Suicide remarks are torn
From the fools gold mouthpiece
The hollow horn plays wasted words
Proved to warn
That he not busy being born
Is busy dying.
Temptation’s page flies out the door
You follow, find yourself at war
Watch waterfalls of pity roar
You feel to moan but unlike before
You discover
That you’d just be
One more person crying.
So don’t fear if you hear
A foreign sound to you ear
It’s alright, Ma, I’m only sighing.
As some warn victory, some downfall
Private reasons great or small
Can be seen in the eyes of those that call
To make all that should be killed to crawl
While others say don’t hate nothing at all
Except hatred.
Disillusioned words like bullets bark
As human gods aim for their marks
Made everything from toy guns that sparks
To flesh-colored Christs that glow in the dark
It’s easy to see without looking too far
That not much
Is really sacred.
While preachers preach of evil fates
Teachers teach that knowledge waits
Can lead to hundred-dollar plates
Goodness hides behind its gates
But even the President of the United States
Sometimes must have
To stand naked.
An’ though the rules of the road have been lodged
It’s only people’s games that you got to dodge
And it’s alright, Ma, I can make it.
Advertising signs that con you
Into thinking you’re the one
That can do what’s never been done
That can win what’s never been won
Meantime life outside goes on
All around you.
You loose yourself, you reappear
You suddenly find you got nothing to fear
Alone you stand without nobody near
When a trembling distant voice, unclear
Startles your sleeping ears to hear
That somebody thinks
They really found you.
A question in your nerves is lit
Yet you know there is no answer fit to satisfy
Insure you not to quit
To keep it in your mind and not forget
That it is not he or she or them or it
That you belong to.
Although the masters make the rules
For the wise men and the fools
I got nothing, Ma, to live up to.
For them that must obey authority
That they do not respect in any degree
Who despite their jobs, their destinies
Speak jealously of them that are free
Cultivate their flowers to be
Nothing more than something
They invest in.
While some on principles baptized
To strict party platforms ties
Social clubs in drag disguise
Outsiders they can freely criticize
Tell nothing except who to idolize
And then say God Bless him.
While one who sings with his tongue on fire
Gargles in the rat race choir
Bent out of shape from society’s pliers
Cares not to come up any higher
But rather get you down in the hole
That he’s in.
But I mean no harm nor put fault
On anyone that lives in a vault
But it’s alright, Ma, if I can’t please him.
Old lady judges, watch people in pairs
Limited in sex, they dare
To push fake morals, insult and stare
While money doesn’t talk, it swears
Obscenity, who really cares
Propaganda, all is phony.
While them that defend what they cannot see
With a killer’s pride, security
It blows the minds most bitterly
For them that think death’s honesty
Won’t fall upon them naturally
Life sometimes
Must get lonely.
My eyes collide head-on with stuffed graveyards
False gods, I scuff
At pettiness which plays so rough
Walk upside-down inside handcuffs
Kick my legs to crash it off
Say okay, I have had enough
What else can you show me ?
And if my thought-dreams could been seen
They’d probably put my head in a guillotine
But it’s alright, Ma, it’s life, and life only.

Bob Dylan – Like a Rolling Stone live 1966

Like a Rolling Stone
Once upon a time you dressed so fine
Threw the bums a dime in your prime, didn’t you?
People call say ‘beware doll, you’re bound to fall’
You thought they were all kidding you
You used to laugh about
Everybody that was hanging out
Now you don’t talk so loud
Now you don’t seem so proud
About having to be scrounging your next meal
How does it feel, how does it feel?
To be without a home
Like a complete unknown, like a rolling stone
Ahh you’ve gone to the finest schools, alright Miss Lonely
But you know you only used to get juiced in it
Nobody’s ever taught you how to live out on the street
And now you’re gonna have to get used to it
You say you never compromise
With the mystery tramp, but now you realize
He’s not selling any alibis
As you stare into the vacuum of his eyes
And say do you want to make a deal?
How does it feel, how does it feel?
To be on your own, with no direction home
A complete unknown, like a rolling stone
Ah you never turned around to see the frowns
On the jugglers and the clowns when they all did tricks for you
You never understood that it ain’t no good
You shouldn’t let other people get your kicks for you
You used to ride on a chrome horse with your diplomat
Who carried on his shoulder a Siamese cat
Ain’t it hard when you discovered that
He really wasn’t where it’s at
After he took from you everything he could steal
How does it feel, how does it feel?
To have on your own, with no direction home
Like a complete unknown, like a rolling stone
Ahh princess on a steeple and all the pretty people
They’re all drinking, thinking that they’ve got it made
Exchanging all precious gifts
But you better take your diamond ring, you better pawn it babe
You used to be so amused
At Napoleon in rags and the language that he used
Go to him he calls you, you can’t refuse
When you ain’t got nothing, you got nothing to lose
You’re invisible now, you’ve got no secrets to conceal
How does it feel, ah how does it feel?
To be on your own, with no direction home
Like a complete unknown, like a rolling stone

Bob Dylan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the musician. For his debut album, see Bob Dylan (album).
Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan plays a guitar and sings into a microphone

Bob Dylan at Azkena Rock Festival in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, in June 2010
Born Robert Allen Zimmerman
May 24, 1941 (age 75)
Duluth, Minnesota, U.S.
Residence Malibu, California, U.S.
Other names
  • Elston Gunnn
  • Blind Boy Grunt
  • Bob Landy
  • Robert Milkwood Thomas
  • Tedham Porterhouse
  • Lucky Wilbury
  • Boo Wilbury
  • Jack Frost
  • Sergei Petrov
Occupation
  • Singer-songwriter
  • artist
  • writer
Years active 1959–present[1]
Home town Hibbing, Minnesota, U.S.
Religion
  • Judaism
  • Christianity
Spouse(s) Sara Dylan (m. 1965;div. 1977)
Carolyn Dennis (m. 1986;div. 1992)
Children
Awards Nobel Prize in Literature(2016)
(For others, see List)
Musical career
Genres
Instruments
  • Vocals
  • guitar
  • keyboards
  • harmonica
Labels
Associated acts
Website bobdylan.com

Bob Dylan (/ˈdɪlən/; born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American songwriter, singer, artist, and writer. He has been influential in popular music and culture for more than five decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s when his songs chronicled social unrest. Early songs such as “Blowin’ in the Wind” and “The Times They Are a-Changin’” became anthems for the American civil rights and anti-war movements. Leaving behind his initial base in the American folk music revival, his six-minute single “Like a Rolling Stone“, recorded in 1965, enlarged the range of popular music.

Dylan’s lyrics incorporate a wide range of political, social, philosophical, and literary influences. They defied existing pop music conventions and appealed to the burgeoningcounterculture. Initially inspired by the performances of Little Richard and the songwriting of Woody Guthrie, Robert Johnson, and Hank Williams, Dylan has amplified and personalized musical genres. His recording career, spanning more than 50 years, has explored the traditions in American song—from folk, blues, and country to gospel, rock and roll, and rockabilly to English, Scottish, and Irish folk music, embracing even jazz and the Great American Songbook. Dylan performs with guitar, keyboards, and harmonica. Backed by a changing lineup of musicians, he has toured steadily since the late 1980s on what has been dubbed the Never Ending Tour. His accomplishments as a recording artist and performer have been central to his career, but songwriting is considered his greatest contribution.

Since 1994, Dylan has published six books of drawings and paintings, and his work has been exhibited in major art galleries. As a musician, Dylan has sold more than 100 million records, making him one of the best-selling artists of all time. He has also received numerous awards including eleven Grammy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, and an Academy Award. Dylan has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Minnesota Music Hall of Fame, Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, and Songwriters Hall of Fame. The Pulitzer Prize jury in 2008 awarded him a special citation for “his profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power.” In May 2012, Dylan received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama. In October 2016, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, the second to receive this honor for songwriting.[2]

Life and career

Origins and musical beginnings

The Zimmerman family home in Hibbing, Minnesota

Bob Dylan was born Robert Allen Zimmerman (Hebrew name שבתאי זיסל בן אברהם [Shabtai Zisl ben Avraham])[3][4] in St. Mary’s Hospital on May 24, 1941, in Duluth, Minnesota,[5][6] and raised in Hibbing, Minnesota, on the Mesabi Range west of Lake Superior. He has a younger brother, David. Dylan’s paternal grandparents, Zigman and Anna Zimmerman, emigrated fromOdessa, in the Russian Empire (now Ukraine), to the United States following the anti-Semitic pogroms of 1905.[7] His maternal grandparents, Ben and Florence Stone, were Lithuanian Jews who arrived in the United States in 1902.[7] In his autobiography, Chronicles: Volume One, Dylan wrote that his paternal grandmother’s maiden name was Kirghiz and her family originated from Kağızman district of Kars Province in northeastern Turkey.[8]

Dylan’s parents, Abram Zimmerman and Beatrice “Beatty” Stone, were part of a small, close-knit Jewish community. They lived in Duluth until Robert was six, when his father had polio and the family returned to his mother’s hometown, Hibbing, where they lived for the rest of Robert’s childhood. In his early years he listened to the radio—first to blues and country stations fromShreveport, Louisiana, and later, when he was a teenager, to rock and roll.[9] He formed several bands while attending Hibbing High School. In the Golden Chords, he performed covers of songs by Little Richard[10] and Elvis Presley.[11] Their performance of Danny & the Juniors‘ “Rock and Roll Is Here to Stay” at their high school talent show was so loud that the principal cut the microphone.[12] In 1959, his high school yearbook carried the caption “Robert Zimmerman: to join ‘Little Richard’.”[10][13] The same year, as Elston Gunnn [sic], he performed two dates with Bobby Vee, playing piano and clapping.[14][15][16]

Zimmerman moved to Minneapolis in September 1959 and enrolled at the University of Minnesota. His focus on rock and roll gave way to American folk music. In 1985, he said:

The thing about rock’n’roll is that for me anyway it wasn’t enough… There were great catch-phrases and driving pulse rhythms… but the songs weren’t serious or didn’t reflect life in a realistic way. I knew that when I got into folk music, it was more of a serious type of thing. The songs are filled with more despair, more sadness, more triumph, more faith in the supernatural, much deeper feelings.[17]

He began to perform at the Ten O’Clock Scholar, a coffeehouse a few blocks from campus, and became involved in the Dinkytown folk music circuit.[18][19]

During his Dinkytown days, Zimmerman began introducing himself as “Bob Dylan”.[20][a 1] In his memoir, Dylan said he hit upon using this less common variant for Dillon – a surname he had considered adopting – when he unexpectedly saw some poems by Dylan Thomas.[21] Explaining his change of name in a 2004 interview, Dylan remarked, “You’re born, you know, the wrong names, wrong parents. I mean, that happens. You call yourself what you want to call yourself. This is the land of the free.”[22]

1960s

Relocation to New York and record deal

In May 1960, Dylan dropped out of college at the end of his first year. In January 1961, he traveled to New York City, to perform there and visit his musical idol Woody Guthrie,[23] who was seriously ill with Huntington’s disease inGreystone Park Psychiatric Hospital.[24] Guthrie had been a revelation to Dylan and influenced his early performances. Describing Guthrie’s impact, he wrote: “The songs themselves had the infinite sweep of humanity in them… [He] was the true voice of the American spirit. I said to myself I was going to be Guthrie’s greatest disciple.”[25] As well as visiting Guthrie in hospital, Dylan befriended Guthrie’s acolyte Ramblin’ Jack Elliott. Much of Guthrie’s repertoire was channeled through Elliott, and Dylan paid tribute to Elliott in Chronicles: Volume One.[26]

From February 1961, Dylan played at clubs around Greenwich Village. He befriended and picked up material from folk singers there, including Dave Van Ronk, Fred Neil, Odetta, the New Lost City Ramblers, and Irish musiciansthe Clancy Brothers and Tommy Makem.[27] In September, Dylan gained public recognition when Robert Shelton wrote a review in The New York Times of a show at Gerde’s Folk City.[28] The same month Dylan played harmonica on folk singer Carolyn Hester‘s third album, which brought his talents to the attention of the album’s producer, John Hammond.[29] Hammond signed Dylan to Columbia Records in October. The performances on his first Columbia album, Bob Dylan, in March 1962,[30] consisted of familiar folk, blues and gospel with two original compositions. The album sold only 5,000 in its first year, just enough to break even.[31] Within Columbia Records, some referred to the singer as “Hammond’s Folly”[32] and suggested dropping his contract, but Hammond defended Dylan and was supported by Johnny Cash.[31] In March 1962, Dylan contributed harmonica and back-up vocals to the album Three Kings and the Queen, accompanying Victoria Spivey and Big Joe Williams on a recording for Spivey Records.[33] While working for Columbia, Dylan recorded under the pseudonym Blind Boy Grunt[34] forBroadside, a folk magazine and record label.[35] Dylan used the pseudonym Bob Landy to record as a piano player on The Blues Project, a 1964 anthology album by Elektra Records.[34] As Tedham Porterhouse, Dylan played harmonica on Ramblin’ Jack Elliott‘s 1964 album Jack Elliott.[34]

Dylan is seated, singing and playing guitar. Seated to his right is a woman gazing upwards and singing with him.

Dylan with Joan Baez during the civil rights “March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom“, August 28, 1963

Dylan with his guitar onstage, laughing and looking downwards.

Bob Dylan in November 1963

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Blowin’ in the Wind” was, according to critic Andy Gill, “the song with which Dylan’s name is most inextricably linked, and safeguarded his reputation as a civil libertarian through any number of changes in style and attitude”.[36]

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Dylan made two important career moves in August 1962: he legally changed his name to Robert Dylan,[37] and he signed a management contract with Albert Grossman.[38] (In June 1961, Dylan had signed an agreement with Roy Silver. In 1962, Grossman paid Silver $10,000 to become sole manager.)[39] Grossman remained Dylan’s manager until 1970, and was notable for his sometimes confrontational personality and for protective loyalty.[40] Dylan said, “He was kind of like a Colonel Tom Parker figure … you could smell him coming.”[19] Tensions between Grossman and John Hammond led to Hammond’s being replaced as producer of Dylan’s second album by the young African-American jazz producer, Tom Wilson.[41]

Dylan made his first trip to the United Kingdom from December 1962 to January 1963.[42] He had been invited by TV director Philip Saville to appear in a drama, Madhouse on Castle Street, which Saville was directing for BBC Television.[43] At the end of the play, Dylan performed “Blowin’ in the Wind”, one of its first public performances.[43] The film recording ofMadhouse on Castle Street was destroyed by the BBC in 1968.[43] While in London, Dylan performed at London folk clubs, including the Troubadour, Les Cousins, and Bunjies.[42] He also learned material from UK performers, including Martin Carthy.[43]

By the time of Dylan’s second album, The Freewheelin’ Bob Dylan, in May 1963, he had begun to make his name as a singer and a songwriter. Many songs on this album were labeledprotest songs, inspired partly by Guthrie and influenced by Pete Seeger‘s passion for topical songs.[44] “Oxford Town”, for example, was an account of James Meredith‘s ordeal as the first black student to risk enrollment at the University of Mississippi.[45]

The first song on the Freewheelin album, “Blowin’ in the Wind“, partly derived its melody from the traditional slave song, “No More Auction Block”,[46] while its lyrics questioned the social and political status quo. The song was widely recorded by other artists and became a hit for Peter, Paul and Mary.[47] Another Freewheelin’ song, “A Hard Rain’s a-Gonna Fall” was based on the folk ballad “Lord Randall“. With veiled references to an impending apocalypse, the song gained more resonance when the Cuban Missile Crisis developed a few weeks after Dylan began performing it.[48][a 2] Like “Blowin’ in the Wind”, “A Hard Rain’s a-Gonna Fall” marked a new direction in songwriting, blending a stream-of-consciousness, imagist lyrical attack with traditional folk form.[49]

Dylan’s topical songs enhanced his early reputation, and he came to be seen as more than just a songwriter. Janet Maslin wrote of Freewheelin: “These were the songs that established [Dylan] as the voice of his generation—someone who implicitly understood how concerned young Americans felt about nuclear disarmament and the growing movement for civil rights: his mixture of moral authority and nonconformity was perhaps the most timely of his attributes.”[50][a 3] Freewheelin also included love songs and surreal talking blues. Humor was an important part of Dylan’s persona,[51] and the range of material on the album impressed listeners, including the Beatles. George Harrison said of the album, “We just played it, just wore it out. The content of the song lyrics and just the attitude—it was incredibly original and wonderful.”[52]

The rough edge of Dylan’s singing was unsettling to some but an attraction to others. Joyce Carol Oates wrote: “When we first heard this raw, very young, and seemingly untrained voice, frankly nasal, as if sandpaper could sing, the effect was dramatic and electrifying.”[53] Many early songs reached the public through more palatable versions by other performers, such as Joan Baez, who became Dylan’s advocate as well as his lover.[54] Baez was influential in bringing Dylan to prominence by recording several of his early songs and inviting him on stage during her concerts.[55]

Others who had hits with Dylan’s songs in the early 1960s included the Byrds, Sonny & Cher, the Hollies, Peter, Paul and Mary, the Association, Manfred Mann and the Turtles. Most attempted a pop feel and rhythm, while Dylan and Baez performed them mostly as sparse folk songs. The covers became so ubiquitous that CBS promoted him with the slogan “Nobody Sings Dylan Like Dylan.”[56]

Mixed-Up Confusion“, recorded during the Freewheelin’ sessions with a backing band, was released as a single and then quickly withdrawn. In contrast to the mostly solo acoustic performances on the album, the single showed a willingness to experiment with a rockabilly sound. Cameron Crowe described it as “a fascinating look at a folk artist with his mind wandering towards Elvis Presley and Sun Records.”[57]

Protest and Another Side

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Dylan said of “The Times They Are a-Changin'”: “This was definitely a song with a purpose. I wanted to write a big song, some kind of theme song, with short concise verses that piled up on each other in a hypnotic way. The civil rights movement and the folk music movement were pretty close and allied together at that time.”[17]

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In May 1963, Dylan’s political profile rose when he walked out of The Ed Sullivan Show. During rehearsals, Dylan had been told by CBS television’s head of program practices that “Talkin’ John Birch Paranoid Blues” was potentially libelous to the John Birch Society. Rather than comply with censorship, Dylan refused to appear.[58]

By this time, Dylan and Baez were prominent in the civil rights movement, singing together at the March on Washington on August 28, 1963.[59] Dylan’s third album, The Times They Are a-Changin’, reflected a more politicized and cynical Dylan.[60] The songs often took as their subject matter contemporary stories, with “Only A Pawn In Their Game” addressing the murder of civil rights worker Medgar Evers; and the BrechtianThe Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll” the death of black hotel barmaid Hattie Carroll, at the hands of young white socialite William Zantzinger.[61] On a more general theme, “Ballad of Hollis Brown” and “North Country Blues” addressed despair engendered by the breakdown of farming and mining communities. This political material was accompanied by two personal love songs, “Boots of Spanish Leather” and “One Too Many Mornings”.[62]

By the end of 1963, Dylan felt both manipulated and constrained by the folk and protest movements.[63] Accepting the “Tom Paine Award” from the National Emergency Civil Liberties Committee shortly after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, an intoxicated Dylan questioned the role of the committee, characterized the members as old and balding, and claimed to see something of himself and of every man in Kennedy’s assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald.[64]

A spotlight shines on Dylan as he performs onstage.

Bobby Dylan, as the college yearbook lists him: St. Lawrence University, upstate New York, November 1963

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Another Side of Bob Dylan, recorded on a single evening in June 1964,[66] had a lighter mood. The humorous Dylan reemerged on “I Shall Be Free No. 10” and “Motorpsycho Nightmare”. “Spanish Harlem Incident” and “To Ramona” are passionate love songs, while “Black Crow Blues” and “I Don’t Believe You (She Acts Like We Never Have Met)” suggest the rock and roll soon to dominate Dylan’s music. “It Ain’t Me Babe“, on the surface a song about spurned love, has been described as a rejection of the role of political spokesman thrust upon him.[67] His newest direction was signaled by two lengthy songs: the impressionisticChimes of Freedom“, which sets social commentary against a metaphorical landscape in a style characterized by Allen Ginsberg as “chains of flashing images,”[68] and “My Back Pages“, which attacks the simplistic and arch seriousness of his own earlier topical songs and seems to predict the backlash he was about to encounter from his former champions as he took a new direction.[69]

In the latter half of 1964 and 1965, Dylan moved from folk songwriter to folk-rock pop-music star. His jeans and work shirts were replaced by a Carnaby Street wardrobe, sunglasses day or night, and pointed “Beatle boots“. A London reporter wrote: “Hair that would set the teeth of a comb on edge. A loud shirt that would dim the neon lights of Leicester Square. He looks like an undernourished cockatoo.”[70] Dylan began to spar with interviewers. Appearing on the Les Crane television show and asked about a movie he planned, he told Crane it would be a cowboy horror movie. Asked if he played the cowboy, Dylan replied, “No, I play my mother.”[71]

Going electric

Bob Dylan making an impromptu guest appearance with the Byrds atCiro’s nightclub, March 26, 1965

Dylan’s late March 1965 album Bringing It All Back Home was another leap,[72] featuring his first recordings with electric instruments. The first single, “Subterranean Homesick Blues“, owed much to Chuck Berry‘s “Too Much Monkey Business“;[73] its free association lyrics described as harkening back to the energy of beat poetry and as a forerunner of rap and hip-hop.[74] The song was provided with an early video, which opened D. A. Pennebaker‘s cinéma vérité presentation of Dylan’s 1965 tour of Great Britain, Dont Look Back.[75] Instead of miming, Dylan illustrated the lyrics by throwing cue cards containing key words from the song on the ground. Pennebaker said the sequence was Dylan’s idea, and it has been imitated in music videos and advertisements.[76]

The second side of Bringing It All Back Home contained four long songs on which Dylan accompanied himself on acoustic guitar and harmonica.[77]Mr. Tambourine Man” became one of his best known songs when the Byrds recorded an electric version that reached number one in the US and UK .[78][79]It’s All Over Now, Baby Blue” and “It’s Alright Ma (I’m Only Bleeding)” were two of Dylan’s most important compositions.[77][80]

In 1965, heading the Newport Folk Festival, Dylan performed his first electric set since high school with a pickup group mostly from the Paul Butterfield Blues Band, featuring Mike Bloomfield (guitar), Sam Lay (drums) and Jerome Arnold (bass), plus Al Kooper (organ) and Barry Goldberg (piano).[81] Dylan had appeared at Newport in 1963 and 1964, but in 1965 met with cheering and booing and left the stage after three songs. One version has it that the boos were from folk fans whom Dylan had alienated by appearing, unexpectedly, with an electric guitar. Murray Lerner, who filmed the performance, said: “I absolutely think that they were booing Dylan going electric.”[82] An alternative account claims audience members were upset by poor sound and a short set. This account is supported by Kooper and one of the directors of the festival, who reports his recording proves the only boos were in reaction to the MC’s announcement that there was only enough time for a short set.[83][84]

Nevertheless, Dylan’s performance provoked a hostile response from the folk music establishment.[85][86] In the September issue of Sing Out!, Ewan MacColl wrote: “Our traditional songs and ballads are the creations of extraordinarily talented artists working inside disciplines formulated over time …’But what of Bobby Dylan?’ scream the outraged teenagers … Only a completely non-critical audience, nourished on the watery pap of pop music, could have fallen for such tenth-rate drivel.”[87] On July 29, four days after Newport, Dylan was back in the studio in New York, recording “Positively 4th Street“. The lyrics contained images of vengeance and paranoia,[88] and it has been interpreted as Dylan’s put-down of former friends from the folk community—friends he had known in clubs along West 4th Street.[89]

Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde

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Dylan’s 1965 hit single, which appeared on the album Highway 61 Revisited. In 2004, it was chosen as the greatest song of all time by Rolling Stonemagazine.[90]

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In July 1965, the single “Like a Rolling Stone” peaked at two in the U.S. and at four in the UK charts. At over six minutes, the song altered what a pop single could convey. Bruce Springsteen, in his speech for Dylan’s inauguration into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, said that on first hearing the single, “that snare shot sounded like somebody’d kicked open the door to your mind”.[91] In 2004 and in 2011, Rolling Stone listed it as number one of “The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time“.[90][92] The song opened Dylan’s next album,Highway 61 Revisited, named after the road that led from Dylan’s Minnesota to the musical hotbed of New Orleans.[93] The songs were in the same vein as the hit single, flavored by Mike Bloomfield‘s blues guitar and Al Kooper‘s organ riffs. “Desolation Row“, backed by acoustic guitar and understated bass,[94] offers the sole exception, with Dylan alluding to figures in Western culture in a song described by Andy Gill as “an 11-minute epic of entropy, which takes the form of a Fellini-esque parade of grotesques and oddities featuring a huge cast of celebrated characters, some historical (Einstein, Nero), some biblical (Noah, Cain and Abel), some fictional (Ophelia, Romeo, Cinderella), some literary (T.S. Eliot and Ezra Pound), and some who fit into none of the above categories, notably Dr. Filth and his dubious nurse.”[95]

In support of the album, Dylan was booked for two U.S. concerts with Al Kooper and Harvey Brooks from his studio crew and Robbie Robertson and Levon Helm, former members of Ronnie Hawkins‘s backing band the Hawks.[96] On August 28 at Forest Hills Tennis Stadium, the group was heckled by an audience still annoyed by Dylan’s electric sound. The band’s reception on September 3 at the Hollywood Bowl was more favorable.[97]

From September 24, 1965, in Austin, Texas, Dylan toured the U.S. and Canada for six months, backed by the five musicians from the Hawks who became known as the Band.[98] While Dylan and the Hawks met increasingly receptive audiences, their studio efforts floundered. Producer Bob Johnston persuaded Dylan to record in Nashville in February 1966, and surrounded him with top-notch session men. At Dylan’s insistence, Robertson and Kooper came from New York City to play on the sessions.[99] The Nashville sessions produced the double album Blonde on Blonde (1966), featuring what Dylan called “that thin wild mercury sound”.[100] Kooper described it as “taking two cultures and smashing them together with a huge explosion”: the musical world of Nashville and the world of the “quintessential New York hipster” Bob Dylan.[101]

On November 22, 1965, Dylan secretly married 25-year-old former model Sara Lownds.[102] Some of Dylan’s friends, including Ramblin’ Jack Elliott, say that, immediately after the event, Dylan denied he was married.[102]Journalist Nora Ephron made the news public in the New York Post in February 1966 with the headline “Hush! Bob Dylan is wed.”[103]

Dylan toured Australia and Europe in April and May 1966. Each show was split in two. Dylan performed solo during the first half, accompanying himself on acoustic guitar and harmonica. In the second, backed by the Hawks, he played electrically amplified music. This contrast provoked many fans, who jeered and slow handclapped.[104] The tour culminated in a raucous confrontation between Dylan and his audience at the Manchester Free Trade Hall in England on May 17, 1966.[105] A recording of this concert was released in 1998: The Bootleg Series Vol. 4: Bob Dylan Live 1966. At the climax of the evening, a member of the audience, angered by Dylan’s electric backing, shouted: “Judas!” to which Dylan responded, “I don’t believe you … You’re a liar!” Dylan turned to his band and said, “Play it fucking loud!”[106] as they launched into the final song of the night—”Like a Rolling Stone”.

During his 1966 tour, Dylan was described as exhausted and acting “as if on a death trip”.[107] D. A. Pennebaker, the film maker accompanying the tour, described Dylan as “taking a lot of amphetamine and who-knows-what-else.”[108] In a 1969 interview with Jann Wenner, Dylan said, “I was on the road for almost five years. It wore me down. I was on drugs, a lot of things … just to keep going, you know?”[109] In 2011, BBC Radio 4 reported that, in an interview that Robert Shelton taped in 1966, Dylan said he had kicked heroin in New York City: “I got very, very strung out for a while … I had about a $25-a-day habit and I kicked it.”[110] Some journalists questioned the validity of this confession, pointing out that Dylan had “been telling journalists wild lies about his past since the earliest days of his career.”[111][112]

Motorcycle accident and reclusion

After his tour, Dylan returned to New York, but the pressures increased. ABC Television had paid an advance for a TV show.[113] His publisher, Macmillan, was demanding a manuscript of the poem/novel Tarantula. ManagerAlbert Grossman had scheduled a concert tour for the latter part of the year.

On July 29, 1966, Dylan crashed his 500cc Triumph Tiger 100 motorcycle near his home in Woodstock, New York, and was thrown to the ground. Though the extent of his injuries was never disclosed, Dylan said that he broke several vertebrae in his neck.[114] Mystery still surrounds the circumstances of the accident since no ambulance was called to the scene and Dylan was not hospitalized.[114][115] Dylan’s biographers have written that the crash offered Dylan the chance to escape the pressures around him.[114][116] Dylan confirmed this interpretation in his autobiography: “I had been in a motorcycle accident and I’d been hurt, but I recovered. Truth was that I wanted to get out of the rat race.”[117] Dylan withdrew from public and, apart from a few appearances, did not tour again for almost eight years.[118]

Once Dylan was well enough to resume creative work, he began to edit D. A. Pennebaker‘s film of his 1966 tour. A rough cut was shown to ABC Television and rejected as incomprehensible to a mainstream audience.[119] The film was subsequently titled Eat the Document on bootleg copies, and it has been screened at a handful of film festivals.[120][121] In 1967 he began recording with the Hawks at his home and in the basement of the Hawks’ nearby house, “Big Pink”.[122] These songs, initially demos for other artists to record, provided hits for Julie Driscoll and the Brian Auger Trinity (“This Wheel’s on Fire“), The Byrds (“You Ain’t Goin’ Nowhere“, “Nothing Was Delivered”), and Manfred Mann (“Mighty Quinn“). Columbia released selections in 1975 as The Basement Tapes. Over the years, more songs recorded by Dylan and his band in 1967 appeared on bootleg recordings, culminating in a five-CD set titled The Genuine Basement Tapes, containing 107 songs and alternative takes.[123] In the coming months, the Hawks recorded the album Music from Big Pink using songs they worked on in their basement in Woodstock, and renamed themselves the Band,[124] beginning a long recording and performing career of their own.

In October and November 1967, Dylan returned to Nashville.[125] Back in the studio after 19 months, he was accompanied by Charlie McCoy on bass,[125] Kenny Buttrey on drums,[125] and Pete Drake on steel guitar.[125] The result was John Wesley Harding, a contemplative record of shorter songs, set in a landscape that drew on the American West and the Bible. The sparse structure and instrumentation, with lyrics that took the Judeo-Christiantradition seriously, departed from Dylan’s own work and from the psychedelic fervor of the 1960s.[126] It included “All Along the Watchtower“, with lyrics derived from the Book of Isaiah (21:5–9). The song was later recorded byJimi Hendrix, whose version Dylan acknowledged as definitive.[17] Woody Guthrie died on October 3, 1967, and Dylan made his first live appearance in twenty months at a Guthrie memorial concert held at Carnegie Hall on January 20, 1968, where he was backed by the Band.[127]

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Lay Lady Lay“, on the country albumNashville Skyline, has been one of Dylan’s biggest hits, reaching No. 7 in the U.S.[128]

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Dylan’s next release, Nashville Skyline (1969), was mainstream country featuring Nashville musicians, a mellow-voiced Dylan, a duet with Johnny Cash, and the hit single “Lay Lady Lay“.[129] Variety wrote, “Dylan is definitely doing something that can be called singing. Somehow he has managed to add an octave to his range.”[130] Dylan and Cash also recorded a series of duets, but only their recording of Dylan’s “Girl from the North Country” was used on the album.

In May 1969, Dylan appeared on the first episode of Johnny Cash’s television show, duetting with Cash on “Girl from the North Country“, “I Threw It All Away”, and “Living the Blues”. Dylan next traveled to England to top the bill at the Isle of Wight festival on August 31, 1969, after rejecting overtures to appear at the Woodstock Festival closer to his home.[131]

1970s

In the early 1970s, critics charged that Dylan’s output was varied and unpredictable. Rolling Stone writer Greil Marcus asked “What is this shit?” on first listening to Self Portrait, released in June 1970.[132][133] It was a double LP including few original songs, and was poorly received.[134] In October 1970, Dylan released New Morning, considered a return to form.[135] This album included “Day of the Locusts”, a song in which Dylan gave an account of receiving an honorary degree from Princeton University on June 9, 1970.[136] In November 1968, Dylan had co-written “I’d Have You Anytime” with George Harrison;[137] Harrison recorded “I’d Have You Anytime” and Dylan’s “If Not for You” for his 1970 solo triple album All Things Must Pass. Dylan’s surprise appearance at Harrison’s 1971 Concert for Bangladesh attracted media coverage, reflecting that Dylan’s live appearances had become rare.[138]

Between March 16 and 19, 1971, Dylan reserved three days at Blue Rock, a small studio in Greenwich Village to record with Leon Russell. These sessions resulted in “Watching the River Flow” and a new recording of “When I Paint My Masterpiece“.[139] On November 4, 1971, Dylan recorded “George Jackson“, which he released a week later. For many, the single was a surprising return to protest material, mourning the killing of Black Panther George Jackson in San Quentin State Prison that year.[140] Dylan contributed piano and harmony to Steve Goodman‘s album, Somebody Else’s Troubles, under the pseudonym Robert Milkwood Thomas (referencing the play Under Milk Wood by Dylan Thomas and his own previous name) in September 1972.[141]

In 1972, Dylan signed to Sam Peckinpah‘s film Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid, providing songs and backing music for the movie, and playing “Alias”, a member of Billy’s gang with some historical basis.[142] Despite the film’s failure at the box office, the song “Knockin’ on Heaven’s Door” became one of Dylan’s most covered songs.[143][144]

Return to touring

Dylan together with three musicians from The Band onstage. Dylan is third from left, wearing a black jacket and pants. He is singing and playing an electric guitar.

Bob Dylan and the Band touring in Chicago, 1974

Dylan began 1973 by signing with a new label, David Geffen‘s Asylum Records (and Island in the UK), when his contract with Columbia Records expired. On his next album, Planet Waves, he used the Band as backing group, while rehearsing for a tour. The album included two versions of “Forever Young”, which became one of his most popular songs.[145] As one critic described it, the song projected “something hymnal and heartfelt that spoke of the father in Dylan”,[146] and Dylan himself commented: “I wrote it thinking about one of my boys and not wanting to be too sentimental.”[17]

Columbia Records simultaneously released Dylan, a collection of studio outtakes (almost exclusively covers), widely interpreted as a churlish response to Dylan’s signing with a rival record label.[147] In January 1974, Dylan returned to touring after seven years; backed by the Band, he embarked on a North American tour of 40 concerts. A live double album, Before the Flood, was on Asylum Records. Soon, according to Clive Davis, Columbia Records sent word they “will spare nothing to bring Dylan back into the fold”.[148] Dylan had second thoughts about Asylum, miffed that while there had been millions of unfulfilled ticket requests for the 1974 tour, Geffen had sold only 700,000 copies of Planet Waves.[148] Dylan returned to Columbia Records, which reissued his two Asylum albums.

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Dylan said of the opening song fromBlood on the Tracks: “I was trying to deal with the concept of time, and the way the characters change from the first person to the third person, and you’re never sure if the first person is talking or the third person. But as you look at the whole thing it really doesn’t matter.”[17]

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After the tour, Dylan and his wife became estranged. He filled a small red notebook with songs about relationships and ruptures, and recorded an album entitled Blood on the Tracks in September 1974.[149] Dylan delayed the release and re-recorded half the songs at Sound 80 Studios in Minneapolis with production assistance from his brother, David Zimmerman.[150]

Released in early 1975, Blood on the Tracks received mixed reviews. In the NME, Nick Kent described “the accompaniments [as] often so trashy they sound like mere practice takes.”[151] In Rolling Stone, Jon Landau wrote that “the record has been made with typical shoddiness.”[151] Over the years critics came to see it as one of Dylan’s greatest achievements. In Salon.com, Bill Wyman wrote: “Blood on the Tracks is his only flawless album and his best produced; the songs, each of them, are constructed in disciplined fashion. It is his kindest album and most dismayed, and seems in hindsight to have achieved a sublime balance between the logorrhea-plagued excesses of his mid-1960s output and the self-consciously simple compositions of his post-accident years.”[152] Novelist Rick Moody called it “the truest, most honest account of a love affair from tip to stern ever put down on magnetic tape.”[153]

Dylan, wearing a hat and leather coat, plays guitar and sings, seated. Crouched next to him is a bearded man, listening to him with head bent.

Bob Dylan with Allen Ginsberg on the Rolling Thunder Revue in 1975. Photo: Elsa Dorfman

In the middle of that year, Dylan wrote a ballad championing boxer Rubin “Hurricane” Carter, imprisoned for a triple murder in Paterson, New Jersey, in 1966. After visiting Carter in jail, Dylan wrote “Hurricane“, presenting the case for Carter’s innocence. Despite its length—over eight minutes—the song was released as a single, peaking at 33 on the U.S. Billboard chart, and performed at every 1975 date of Dylan’s next tour, the Rolling Thunder Revue.[a 4][154] The tour featured about one hundred performers and supporters from the Greenwich Village folk scene, including T-Bone Burnett, Ramblin’ Jack Elliott, Joni Mitchell,[155][156] David Mansfield, Roger McGuinn, Mick Ronson, Joan Baez, and Scarlet Rivera, whom Dylan discovered walking down the street, her violin case on her back.[157] Allen Ginsberg accompanied the troupe, staging scenes for the film Dylan was shooting. Sam Shepard was hired to write the screenplay, but ended up accompanying the tour as informal chronicler.[158]

Running through late 1975 and again through early 1976, the tour encompassed the release of the album Desire, with many of Dylan’s new songs featuring a travelogue-like narrative style, showing the influence of his new collaborator, playwright Jacques Levy.[159][160] The 1976 half of the tour was documented by a TV concert special, Hard Rain, and the LP Hard Rain; no concert album from the better-received and better-known opening half of the tour was released until 2002’s Live 1975.[161]

Dylan performing in the Feyenoord Football Club Stadium, Rotterdam, June 23, 1978

The 1975 tour with the Revue provided the backdrop to Dylan’s nearly four-hour film Renaldo and Clara, a sprawling narrative mixed with concert footage and reminiscences. Released in 1978, the movie received poor, sometimes scathing, reviews.[162][163] Later in that year, a two-hour edit, dominated by the concert performances, was more widely released.[164]

In November 1976, Dylan appeared at the Band’s “farewell” concert, with Eric Clapton, Joni Mitchell, Muddy Waters, Van Morrison and Neil Young. Martin Scorsese‘s cinematic chronicle, The Last Waltz, in 1978 included about half of Dylan’s set.[165] In 1976, Dylan wrote and duetted on “Sign Language” for Eric Clapton‘s No Reason To Cry.[166]

In 1978, Dylan embarked on a year-long world tour, performing 114 shows in Japan, the Far East, Europe and the US, to a total audience of two million. Dylan assembled an eight piece band and three backing singers. Concerts in Tokyo in February and March were released as the live double album, Bob Dylan At Budokan.[167] Reviews were mixed. Robert Christgau awarded the album a C+ rating, giving the album a derisory review,[168] while Janet Maslin defended it in Rolling Stone, writing: “These latest live versions of his old songs have the effect of liberating Bob Dylan from the originals.”[169] When Dylan brought the tour to the U.S. in September 1978, the press described the look and sound as a ‘Las Vegas Tour’.[170] The 1978 tour grossed more than $20 million, and Dylan told the Los Angeles Times that he had debts because “I had a couple of bad years. I put a lot of money into the movie, built a big house … and it costs a lot to get divorced in California.”[167]

In April and May 1978, Dylan took the same band and vocalists into Rundown Studios in Santa Monica, California, to record an album of new material: Street-Legal.[171] It was described by Michael Gray as, “after Blood On The Tracks, arguably Dylan’s best record of the 1970s: a crucial album documenting a crucial period in Dylan’s own life”.[172] However, it had poor sound and mixing (attributed to Dylan’s studio practices), muddying the instrumental detail until a remastered CD release in 1999 restored some of the songs’ strengths.[173]

Christian period

Further information: Slow Train Coming
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Dylan took five months off at the beginning of 1979 to attend Bible school.[17] His subsequent album Slow Train Coming reached No. 3 on the U.S.Billboard 200 chart and included thisGrammy-winning song.

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In the late 1970s, Dylan became a born again Christian[174][175][176] and released two albums of contemporary gospel music. Slow Train Coming (1979) featured the guitar accompaniment of Mark Knopfler (of Dire Straits) and was produced by veteran R&B producer Jerry Wexler. Wexler said that Dylan had tried to evangelize him during the recording. He replied: “Bob, you’re dealing with a 62-year-old Jewish atheist. Let’s just make an album.”[177] Dylan won the Grammy Award for Best Male Rock Vocal Performance for the song “Gotta Serve Somebody“. His second Christian-themed album, Saved (1980), received mixed reviews, described by Michael Gray as “the nearest thing to a follow-up album Dylan has ever made, Slow Train Coming II and inferior”[178] When touring in late 1979 and early 1980, Dylan would not play his older, secular works, and he delivered declarations of his faith from the stage, such as:

Years ago they … said I was a prophet. I used to say, “No I’m not a prophet” they say “Yes you are, you’re a prophet.” I said, “No it’s not me.” They used to say “You sure are a prophet.” They used to convince me I was a prophet. Now I come out and say Jesus Christ is the answer. They say, “Bob Dylan’s no prophet.” They just can’t handle it.[179]

Dylan’s Christianity was unpopular with some fans and musicians.[180] Shortly before his murder, John Lennon recorded “Serve Yourself” in response to Dylan’s “Gotta Serve Somebody”.[181] By 1981, Stephen Holden wrote in the New York Times that “neither age (he’s now 40) nor his much-publicized conversion to born-again Christianity has altered his essentially iconoclastic temperament.”[182]

1980s

Dylan, onstage and with eyes closed, plays a chord on an electric guitar.

Dylan in Toronto April 18, 1980

In late 1980, Dylan briefly played concerts billed as “A Musical Retrospective”, restoring popular 1960s songs to the repertoire. Shot of Love, recorded early the next year, featured his first secular compositions in more than two years, mixed with Christian songs. “Every Grain of Sand” reminded some of William Blake‘s verses.[183]

In the 1980s, reception of Dylan’s recordings varied, from the well-regarded Infidels in 1983 to the panned Down in the Groove in 1988. Michael Gray condemned Dylan’s 1980s albums for carelessness in the studio and for failing to release his best songs.[184] As an example of the latter, the Infidels recording sessions, which again employed Knopfler on lead guitar and also as the album’s producer, resulted in several notable songs that Dylan left off the album. Best regarded of these were “Blind Willie McTell“, a tribute to the dead blues musician and an evocation of African American history,[185] “Foot of Pride” and “Lord Protect My Child“. These three songs were released on The Bootleg Series Volumes 1–3 (Rare & Unreleased) 1961–1991.[186]

Between July 1984 and March 1985, Dylan recorded Empire Burlesque.[187] Arthur Baker, who had remixed hits for Bruce Springsteen and Cyndi Lauper, was asked to engineer and mix the album. Baker said he felt he was hired to make Dylan’s album sound “a little bit more contemporary”.[187]

Dylan sang on USA for Africa‘s famine relief single “We Are the World“. On July 13, 1985, he appeared at the climax at the Live Aid concert at JFK Stadium, Philadelphia. Backed by Keith Richards and Ronnie Wood, he performed a ragged version of “Hollis Brown”, his ballad of rural poverty, and then said to the worldwide audience exceeding one billion people: “I hope that some of the money … maybe they can just take a little bit of it, maybe … one or two million, maybe … and use it to pay the mortgages on some of the farms and, the farmers here, owe to the banks.”[188] His remarks were widely criticized as inappropriate, but they did inspire Willie Nelson to organize a series of events, Farm Aid, to benefit debt-ridden American farmers.[189]

In April 1986, Dylan made a foray into rap music when he added vocals to the opening verse of “Street Rock”, featured on Kurtis Blow‘s album Kingdom Blow.[190] Dylan’s next studio album, Knocked Out Loaded, in July 1986 contained three covers (by Little Junior Parker, Kris Kristofferson and the gospel hymn “Precious Memories“), plus three collaborations with (Tom Petty, Sam Shepard and Carole Bayer Sager), and two solo compositions by Dylan. One reviewer commented that “the record follows too many detours to be consistently compelling, and some of those detours wind down roads that are indisputably dead ends. By 1986, such uneven records weren’t entirely unexpected by Dylan, but that didn’t make them any less frustrating.”[191] It was the first Dylan album since Freewheelin’ (1963) to fail to make the Top 50.[192] Since then, some critics have called the 11-minute epic that Dylan co-wrote with Sam Shepard, “Brownsville Girl“, a work of genius.[193]

In 1986 and 1987, Dylan toured with Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers, sharing vocals with Petty on several songs each night. Dylan also toured with the Grateful Dead in 1987, resulting in a live album Dylan & The Dead. This received negative reviews: Allmusic said, “Quite possibly the worst album by either Bob Dylan or the Grateful Dead.”[194] Dylan then initiated what came to be called the Never Ending Tour on June 7, 1988, performing with a back-up band featuring guitarist G. E. Smith. Dylan continued to tour with a small, evolving band for the next 20 years.[195]

Dylan plays his guitar and sings into a microphone onstage.

Dylan in Barcelona, Spain, 1984

In 1987, Dylan starred in Richard Marquand‘s movie Hearts of Fire, in which he played Billy Parker, a washed-up rock star turned chicken farmer whose teenage lover (Fiona) leaves him for a jaded English synth-pop sensation played by Rupert Everett.[196] Dylan also contributed two original songs to the soundtrack—”Night After Night”, and “I Had a Dream About You, Baby”, as well as a cover of John Hiatt‘s “The Usual”. The film was a critical and commercial flop.[197] Dylan was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in January 1988, with Bruce Springsteen’s introduction declaring, “Bob freed your mind the way Elvis freed your body. He showed us that just because music was innately physical did not mean that it was anti-intellectual.”[198]

The album Down in the Groove in May 1988 sold even more unsuccessfully than his previous studio album.[199] Michael Gray wrote: “The very title undercuts any idea that inspired work may lie within. Here was a further devaluing of the notion of a new Bob Dylan album as something significant.”[200] The critical and commercial disappointment of that album was swiftly followed by the success of the Traveling Wilburys. Dylan co-founded the band with George Harrison, Jeff Lynne, Roy Orbison, and Tom Petty, and in late 1988 their multi-platinum Traveling Wilburys Vol. 1reached three on the US album chart,[199] featuring songs that were described as Dylan’s most accessible compositions in years.[201] Despite Orbison’s death in December 1988, the remaining four recorded a second album in May 1990 with the title Traveling Wilburys Vol. 3.[202]

Dylan finished the decade on a critical high note with Oh Mercy produced by Daniel Lanois. Michael Gray wrote that the album was: “Attentively written, vocally distinctive, musically warm, and uncompromisingly professional, this cohesive whole is the nearest thing to a great Bob Dylan album in the 1980s.”[200][203] The track “Most of the Time”, a lost love composition, was later prominently featured in the film High Fidelity, while “What Was It You Wanted?” has been interpreted both as a catechism and a wry comment on the expectations of critics and fans.[204] The religious imagery of “Ring Them Bells” struck some critics as a re-affirmation of faith.[205]

1990s

Dylan’s 1990s began with Under the Red Sky (1990), an about-face from the serious Oh Mercy. The album contained several apparently simple songs, including “Under the Red Sky” and “Wiggle Wiggle”. The album was dedicated to “Gabby Goo Goo”, a nickname for the daughter of Dylan and Carolyn Dennis, Desiree Gabrielle Dennis-Dylan, who was four.[206] Sidemen on the album included George Harrison, Slash from Guns N’ Roses, David Crosby, Bruce Hornsby, Stevie Ray Vaughan, and Elton John. Despite the line-up, the record received bad reviews and sold poorly.[207]

In 1991, Dylan received a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award from American actor Jack Nicholson.[208] The event coincided with the start of the Gulf War against Saddam Hussein, and Dylan performed “Masters of War“. Dylan then made a short speech, saying “My daddy once said to me, he said, ‘Son, it is possible for you to become so defiled in this world that your own mother and father will abandon you. If that happens, God will believe in your ability to mend your own ways.'”[209] This sentiment was subsequently revealed to be a quote from 19th-century German Jewish intellectual, Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch.[210]

Over the next few years Dylan returned to his roots with two albums covering folk and blues numbers: Good as I Been to You (1992) and World Gone Wrong (1993), featuring interpretations and acoustic guitar work. Many critics and fans commented on the quiet beauty of the song “Lone Pilgrim”,[211] written by a 19th-century teacher. In November 1994 Dylan recorded two live shows for MTV Unplugged. He said his wish to perform traditional songs was overruled by Sony executives who insisted on hits.[212] The album from it, MTV Unplugged, included “John Brown”, an unreleased 1962 song of how enthusiasm for war ends in mutilation and disillusionment.[213]

Dylan and members of his band perform onstage. Dylan, wearing a red shirt and black pants, plays an electric guitar and sings.

Dylan performs during the 1996 Lida Festival in Stockholm

Dylan’s longtime road manager Victor Maymudes has claimed that the singer quit drinking alcohol in 1994.[214] Maymudes felt that Dylan sobering up made him “more introverted and a little less social.”[214]

With a collection of songs reportedly written while snowed in on his Minnesota ranch,[215] Dylan booked recording time with Daniel Lanois at Miami’s Criteria Studios in January 1997. The subsequent recording sessions were, by some accounts, fraught with musical tension.[216] Before the album’s release Dylan was hospitalized with a life-threatening heart infection,pericarditis, brought on by histoplasmosis. His scheduled European tour was cancelled, but Dylan made a speedy recovery and left the hospital saying, “I really thought I’d be seeing Elvissoon.”[217] He was back on the road by mid-year, and performed before Pope John Paul II at the World Eucharistic Conference in Bologna, Italy. The Pope treated the audience of 200,000 people to a homily based on Dylan’s lyric “Blowin’ in the Wind”.[218]

In September Dylan released the new Lanois-produced album, Time Out of Mind. With its bitter assessment of love and morbid ruminations, Dylan’s first collection of original songs in seven years was highly acclaimed. One critic wrote: “the songs themselves are uniformly powerful, adding up to Dylan’s best overall collection in years.”[219] This collection of complex songs won him his first solo “Album of the Year” Grammy Award.[220]

In December 1997, U.S. President Bill Clinton presented Dylan with a Kennedy Center Honor in the East Room of the White House, paying this tribute: “He probably had more impact on people of my generation than any other creative artist. His voice and lyrics haven’t always been easy on the ear, but throughout his career Bob Dylan has never aimed to please. He’s disturbed the peace and discomforted the powerful.”[221]

In 1999, Dylan embarked on a North American tour with Paul Simon, where each alternated as headline act with a “middle” section where they performed together, starting on the first of June and ending September 18. The collaboration was generally well-received, with just one critic, Seth Rogovoy, from the Berkshire Eagle, questioning the collaboration.[222]

2000s

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Dylan’s Oscar-winning song was featured in the movie Wonder Boys. The line “sapphire-tinted skies” echoes the verse of Shelley[223] while “forty miles of bad road” echoes Duane Eddy’s hit single.

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Dylan commenced the 2000s by winning the Polar Music Prize in May 2000 and his first Oscar; his song “Things Have Changed“, written for the film Wonder Boys, won anAcademy Award in March 2001.[224] The Oscar, by some reports a facsimile, tours with him, presiding over shows perched atop an amplifier.[225]

“Love and Theft” was released on September 11, 2001. Recorded with his touring band, Dylan produced the album himself under the pseudonym Jack Frost.[226] The album was critically well received and earned nominations for several Grammy awards.[227] Critics noted that Dylan was widening his musical palette to include rockabilly, Western swing, jazz, and even lounge ballads.[228] “Love and Theft” generated controversy when The Wall Street Journal pointed out similarities between the album’s lyrics and Japanese author Junichi Saga’s book Confessions of a Yakuza.[229][230]

In 2003, Dylan revisited the evangelical songs from his “born again” period and participated in the CD project Gotta Serve Somebody: The Gospel Songs of Bob Dylan. That year Dylan also released the film Masked & Anonymous, which he co-wrote with director Larry Charles under the alias Sergei Petrov.[231] Dylan played the central character in the film, Jack Fate, alongside a cast that includedJeff Bridges, Penélope Cruz and John Goodman. The film polarised critics: many dismissed it as an “incoherent mess”;[232][233] a few treated it as a serious work of art.[234][235]

In October 2004, Dylan published the first part of his autobiography, Chronicles: Volume One. Confounding expectations,[236] Dylan devoted three chapters to his first year in New York City in 1961–1962, virtually ignoring the mid-1960s when his fame was at its height. He also devoted chapters to the albums New Morning (1970) and Oh Mercy (1989). The book reached number two on The New York Times’ Hardcover Non-Fiction best seller list in December 2004 and was nominated for a National Book Award.[237]

No Direction Home, Martin Scorsese‘s acclaimed film biography of Dylan,[238] was first broadcast on September 26–27, 2005, on BBC Two in the UK and PBS in the US.[239] The documentary focuses on the period from Dylan’s arrival in New York in 1961 to his motorcycle crash in 1966, featuring interviews with Suze Rotolo, Liam Clancy, Joan Baez, Allen Ginsberg, Pete Seeger, Mavis Staples, and Dylan himself. The film received a Peabody Award in April 2006[240] and a Columbia-duPont Award in January 2007.[241] The accompanying soundtrack featured unreleased songs from Dylan’s early career.[242]

Dylan earned yet another distinction in a 2007 study of US legal opinions and briefs that found his lyrics were quoted by judges and lawyers more than those of any other songwriter, 186 times versus 74 by the Beatles, who were second. Among those quoting Dylan were US Supreme Court Chief Justice John Roberts and Justice Antonin Scalia, both conservatives. The most widely cited lines included “you don’t need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows” from “Subterranean Homesick Blues” and “when you ain’t got nothing, you got nothing to lose” from “Like a Rolling Stone“.[243][244]

Modern Times

May 3, 2006, was the premiere of Dylan’s radio presenting career, hosting a weekly radio program, Theme Time Radio Hour, for XM Satellite Radio, with song selections revolving around a chosen theme.[245][246] Dylan played classic and obscure records from the 1930s to the present day, including contemporary artists as diverse as Blur, Prince, L.L. Cool J and the Streets. The show was praised by fans and critics as “great radio,” as Dylan told stories and made eclectic references with his sardonic humor, while achieving a thematic beauty with his musical choices.[247][248] In April 2009, Dylan broadcast the 100th show in his radio series; the theme was “Goodbye” and the final record played was Woody Guthrie’s “So Long, It’s Been Good to Know Yuh”. This led to speculation that Dylan’s radio excursion had ended.[249]

Dylan together with five members of his band onstage. Dylan, dressed in a white shirt and black pants, is second from right.

Dylan, the Spectrum, 2007

On August 29, 2006, Dylan released his Modern Times album. Despite some coarsening of Dylan’s voice (a critic for The Guardian characterised his singing on the album as “a catarrhal death rattle”[250]) most reviewers praised the album, and many described it as the final installment of a successful trilogy, embracing Time Out of Mind and “Love and Theft”.[251] Modern Times entered the U.S. charts at number one, making it Dylan’s first album to reach that position since 1976’s Desire.[252] The New York Times published an article exploring similarities between some of Dylan’s lyrics in Modern Times and the work of the Civil War poet Henry Timrod.[253]

Nominated for three Grammy Awards, Modern Times won Best Contemporary Folk/Americana Album and Bob Dylan also won Best Solo Rock Vocal Performance for “Someday Baby”.Modern Times was named Album of the Year, 2006, by Rolling Stone magazine,[254] and by Uncut in the UK.[255] On the same day that Modern Times was released the iTunes Music Storereleased Bob Dylan: The Collection, a digital box set containing all of his albums (773 tracks in total), along with 42 rare and unreleased tracks.[256]

In August 2007, the award-winning film biography of Dylan I’m Not There, written and directed by Todd Haynes, was released—bearing the tagline “inspired by the music and many lives of Bob Dylan”.[257][258] The movie used six different actors to represent different aspects of Dylan’s life: Christian Bale, Cate Blanchett, Marcus Carl Franklin, Richard Gere, Heath Ledger and Ben Whishaw.[258][259] Dylan’s previously unreleased 1967 recording from which the film takes its name[260] was released for the first time on the film’s original soundtrack; all other tracks are covers of Dylan songs, specially recorded for the movie by a diverse range of artists, including Sonic Youth, Eddie Vedder, Mason Jennings, Stephen Malkmus, Jeff Tweedy, Karen O, Willie Nelson, Cat Power, Richie Havens, and Tom Verlaine.[261]

Dylan, dressed in a black western outfit with red highlights, stands onstage and plays the keyboards. He gazes to the left of the photo. Behind him is a guitar player, dressed in black.

Bob Dylan performs at Air Canada Centre, Toronto, November 7, 2006

On October 1, 2007, Columbia Records released the triple CD retrospective album Dylan, anthologising his entire career under the Dylan 07 logo.[262] As part of this campaign, Mark Ronson produced a re-mix of Dylan’s 1966 tune “Most Likely You Go Your Way and I’ll Go Mine“, which was released as a maxi-single. This was the first time Dylan had sanctioned a re-mix of one of his classic recordings.[263]

The sophistication of the Dylan 07 marketing campaign was a reminder that Dylan’s commercial profile had risen considerably since the 1990s. This first became evident in 2004, when Dylan appeared in a TV advertisement for Victoria’s Secret lingerie.[264] Three years later, in October 2007, he participated in a multi-media campaign for the 2008 Cadillac Escalade.[265][266] Then, in 2009, he gave the highest profile endorsement of his career, appearing with rapper will.i.am in a Pepsi ad that debuted during the telecast of Super Bowl XLIII.[267] The ad, broadcast to a record audience of 98 million viewers, opened with Dylan singing the first verse of “Forever Young” followed by will.i.am doing a hip hop version of the song’s third and final verse.[268]

In October 2008, Columbia released The Bootleg Series Vol. 8 – Tell Tale Signs as both a two-CD set and a three-CD version with a 150-page hardcover book. The set contains live performances and outtakes from selected studio albums from Oh Mercy to Modern Times, as well as soundtrack contributions and collaborations with David Bromberg and Ralph Stanley.[269] The pricing of the album—the two-CD set went on sale for $18.99 and the three-CD version for $129.99—led to complaints about “rip-off packaging” from some fans and commentators.[270][271] The release was widely acclaimed by critics.[272] The abundance of alternative takes and unreleased material suggested to one reviewer that this volume of old outtakes “feels like a new Bob Dylan record, not only for the astonishing freshness of the material, but also for the incredible sound quality and organic feeling of everything here.”[273]

Together Through Life and Christmas in the Heart

Bob Dylan released his album Together Through Life on April 28, 2009. In a conversation with music journalist Bill Flanagan, published on Dylan’s website, Dylan explained that the genesis of the record was when French film director Olivier Dahan asked him to supply a song for his new road movie, My Own Love Song; initially only intending to record a single track, “Life Is Hard,” “the record sort of took its own direction”.[274] Nine of the ten songs on the album are credited as co-written by Bob Dylan and Robert Hunter.[275]

The album received largely favorable reviews,[276] although several critics described it as a minor addition to Dylan’s canon of work. Andy Gill wrote in The Independent that the record “features Dylan in fairly relaxed, spontaneous mood, content to grab such grooves and sentiments as flit momentarily across his radar. So while it may not contain too many landmark tracks, it’s one of the most naturally enjoyable albums you’ll hear all year.”[277]

In its first week of release, the album reached number one in the Billboard 200 chart in the U.S.,[278] making Bob Dylan (67 years of age) the oldest artist to ever debut at number one on that chart.[278] It also reached number one on the UK album chart, 39 years after Dylan’s previous UK album chart topper New Morning. This meant that Dylan currently holds the record for the longest gap between solo number one albums in the UK chart.[279]

On October 13, 2009, Dylan released a Christmas album, Christmas in the Heart, comprising such Christmas standards as “Little Drummer Boy“, “Winter Wonderland” and “Here Comes Santa Claus“.[280] Dylan’s royalties from the sale of this album will benefit the charities Feeding America in the USA, Crisis in the UK, and the World Food Programme.[281]

The album received generally favorable reviews.[282] The New Yorker commented that Dylan had welded a pre-rock musical sound to “some of his croakiest vocals in a while”, and speculated that Dylan’s intentions might be ironic: “Dylan has a long and highly publicized history with Christianity; to claim there’s not a wink in the childish optimism of ‘Here Comes Santa Claus’ or ‘Winter Wonderland’ is to ignore a half-century of biting satire.”[283] In USA Today, Edna Gundersen pointed out that Dylan was “revisiting yuletide styles popularized by Nat King Cole, Mel Tormé, and the Ray Conniff Singers.” Gundersen concluded that Dylan “couldn’t sound more sentimental or sincere”.[284]

In an interview published in The Big Issue, journalist Bill Flanagan asked Dylan why he had performed the songs in a straightforward style, and Dylan responded: “There wasn’t any other way to play it. These songs are part of my life, just like folk songs. You have to play them straight too.”[285]

2010s

Tempest

On October 18, 2010, Dylan released Volume 9 of his Bootleg Series, The Witmark Demos. This comprised 47 demo recordings of songs taped between 1962 and 1964 for Dylan’s earliest music publishers: Leeds Music in 1962, and Witmark Music from 1962 to 1964. One reviewer described the set as “a hearty glimpse of young Bob Dylan changing the music business, and the world, one note at a time.”[286] The critical aggregator website Metacritic awarded the album a Metascore of 86, indicating “universal acclaim”.[287] In the same week, Sony Legacy released Bob Dylan: The Original Mono Recordings, a box set that for the first time presented Dylan’s eight earliest albums, from Bob Dylan (1962) to John Wesley Harding (1967), in their original mono mix in the CD format. The CDs were housed in miniature facsimiles of the original album covers, replete with original liner notes. The set was accompanied by a booklet featuring an essay by music critic Greil Marcus.[288][289]

On April 12, 2011, Legacy Recordings released Bob Dylan in Concert – Brandeis University 1963, taped at Brandeis University on May 10, 1963, two weeks prior to the release of The Freewheelin’ Bob Dylan. The tape was discovered in the archive of music writer Ralph J. Gleason, and the recording carries liner notes by Michael Gray, who says it captures Dylan “from way back when Kennedy was President and the Beatles hadn’t yet reached America. It reveals him not at any Big Moment but giving a performance like his folk club sets of the period… This is the last live performance we have of Bob Dylan before he becomes a star.”[290]

The extent to which his work was studied at an academic level was demonstrated on Dylan’s 70th birthday on May 24, 2011, when three universities organized symposia on his work. The University of Mainz,[291] the University of Vienna,[292] and the University of Bristol[293] invited literary critics and cultural historians to give papers on aspects of Dylan’s work. Other events, including tribute bands, discussions and simple singalongs, took place around the world, as reported in The Guardian: “From Moscow to Madrid, Norway to Northampton and Malaysia to his home state of Minnesota, self-confessed ‘Bobcats’ will gather today to celebrate the 70th birthday of a giant of popular music.”[294]

Dylan and the Obamas at the White House, after a performance celebrating music from the civil rights movement(February 9, 2010)

On October 4, 2011, Dylan’s label, Egyptian Records, released an album of previously unheard Hank Williams songs, The Lost Notebooks of Hank Williams. Dylan had helped to curate this project, in which songs unfinished when Williams died in 1953 were completed and recorded by a variety of artists, including Dylan himself, his son Jakob Dylan, Levon Helm, Norah Jones,Jack White, and others.[295][296]

On May 29, 2012, U.S. President Barack Obama awarded Dylan a Presidential Medal of Freedom in the White House. At the ceremony, Obama praised Dylan’s voice for its “unique gravelly power that redefined not just what music sounded like but the message it carried and how it made people feel”.[297]

On September 11, 2012, Dylan released his 35th studio album, Tempest.[298] The album features a tribute to John Lennon, “Roll On John”, and the title track is a 14 minute song about thesinking of the Titanic.[299] Reviewing Tempest for Rolling Stone, Will Hermes gave the album five out of five stars, writing: “Lyrically, Dylan is at the top of his game, joking around, dropping wordplay and allegories that evade pat readings and quoting other folks’ words like a freestyle rapper on fire.” Hermes called Tempest “one of [Dylan’s] weirdest albums ever”, and opined, “It may also be the single darkest record in Dylan’s catalog.”[300] The critical aggregator website Metacritic awarded the album a score of 83 out of 100, indicating “universal acclaim”.[301]

On August 27, 2013, Columbia Records released Volume 10 of Dylan’s Bootleg Series, Another Self Portrait (1969–1971).[302] The album contained 35 previously unreleased tracks, including alternate takes and demos from Dylan’s 1969–1971 recording sessions during the making of the Self Portrait and New Morning albums. The box set also included a live recording of Dylan’s performance with the Band at the Isle of Wight Festival in 1969. Another Self Portrait received favorable reviews, earning a score of 81 on the critical aggregator, Metacritic, indicating “universal acclaim”.[303] AllMusiccritic Thom Jurek wrote, “For fans, this is more than a curiosity, it’s an indispensable addition to the catalog.”[304]

On November 4, 2013, Columbia Records released Bob Dylan: Complete Album Collection: Vol. One, a boxed set containing all 35 of Dylan’s studio albums, six albums of live recordings, and a collection, entitled Sidetracks, of singles, songs from films and non-album material.[305] The box includes new album-by-album liner notes written by Clinton Heylin with an introduction by Bill Flanagan. On the same date, Columbia released a compilation, The Very Best of Bob Dylan, which is available in both single CD and double CD formats.[306] To publicize the 35 album box set, an innovative video of the song “Like a Rolling Stone” was released on Dylan’s website. The interactive video, created by director Vania Heymann, allowed viewers to switch between 16 simulated TV channels, all featuring characters who are lip-synching the lyrics of the 48-year-old song.[307][308]

On February 2, 2014, Dylan appeared in a commercial for the Chrysler 200 car which was screened during the 2014 Super Bowl American football game. At the end of the commercial, Dylan says: “So let Germany brew your beer, let Switzerland make your watch, let Asia assemble your phone. We will build your car.” Dylan’s Super Bowl commercial generated controversy and op-ed pieces discussing the protectionist implications of his words, and whether the singer had “sold out” to corporate interests.[309][310][311][312][313]

In 2013 and 2014, auction house sales demonstrated the high cultural value attached to Dylan’s mid-1960s work, and the record prices that collectors were willing to pay for artefacts from this period. In December 2013, theFender Stratocaster which Dylan had played at the 1965 Newport Folk Festival fetched $965,000, the second highest price paid for a guitar.[314][315] In June 2014, Dylan’s hand-written lyrics of “Like a Rolling Stone“, his 1965 hit single, fetched $2 million dollars at auction, a record for a popular music manuscript.[316][317]

On October 28, 2014, Simon & Schuster published a massive 960 page, thirteen and a half pound edition of Dylan’s lyrics, Lyrics: Since 1962. The book was edited by literary critic Christopher Ricks, Julie Nemrow and Lisa Nemrow, to offer variant versions of Dylan’s songs, sourced from out-takes and live performances. A limited edition of 50 books, signed by Dylan, was priced at $5,000. “It’s the biggest, most expensive book we’ve ever published, as far as I know,” said Jonathan Karp, Simon & Schuster’s president and publisher.[318][319]

On November 4, 2014, Columbia Records/Legacy Recordings released The Basement Tapes Complete by Bob Dylan and the Band. These 138 tracks in a six-CD box form Volume 11 of Dylan’s Bootleg Series. The 1975 album,The Basement Tapes, contained some of the songs which Dylan and the Band recorded in their homes in Woodstock, New York, in 1967. Subsequently, over 100 recordings and alternate takes have circulated on bootleg records. The sleeve notes for the new box set are by Sid Griffin, American musician and author of Million Dollar Bash: Bob Dylan, the Band, and the Basement Tapes.[320][321]

Shadows in the Night and Fallen Angels

On February 3, 2015, Dylan released Shadows in the Night, featuring ten songs written between 1923 and 1963,[322][323] which have been described as part of the Great American Songbook.[324] All the songs on the album were recorded by Frank Sinatra but both critics and Dylan himself cautioned against seeing the record as a collection of “Sinatra covers”.[322][325] Dylan explained, “I don’t see myself as covering these songs in any way. They’ve been covered enough. Buried, as a matter a fact. What me and my band are basically doing is uncovering them. Lifting them out of the grave and bringing them into the light of day.”[326] In an interview, Dylan said he had been thinking about making this record since hearing Willie Nelson‘s 1978 album Stardust.[327]

Shadows In the Night received favorable reviews, scoring 82 on the critical aggregator Metacritic, which indicates “universal acclaim”.[328] Critics praised the restrained instrumental backings and Dylan’s singing, saying that the material had elicited his best vocal performances in recent years.[324][329] Bill Prince in GQ commented: “A performer who’s had to hear his influence in virtually every white pop recording made since he debuted his own self-titled album back in 1962 imagines himself into the songs of his pre-rock’n’roll early youth.”[325] In The Independent, Andy Gill wrote that the recordings “have a lingering, languid charm, which… help to liberate the material from the rusting manacles of big-band and cabaret mannerisms.”[330] The album debuted at number one in the UK Albums Chart in its first week of release.[331]

On October 5, 2015, IBM launched a marketing campaign for its Watson computer system which featured Dylan. Dylan is seen conversing with the computer which says it has read all his lyrics and reports: “My analysis shows that your major themes are that time passes and love fades.” Dylan replies: “That sounds about right.”[332]

On November 6, 2015, Sony Music released The Bootleg Series Vol. 12: The Cutting Edge 1965–1966. This work consists of previously unreleased material from the three albums Dylan recorded between January 1965 and March 1966: Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde. The records have been released in three formats: a 2-CD “Best Of” version, a 6-CD “Deluxe edition”, and an 18-CD “Collector’s Edition” in a limited edition of 5,000 units. On Dylan’s website the “Collector’s Edition” was described as containing “every single note recorded by Bob Dylan in the studio in 1965/1966”.[333][334] The critical aggregator website Metacriticawarded Cutting Edge a score of 99, indicating universal acclaim.[335] The Best of the Cutting Edge entered the Billboard Top Rock Albums chart at number one on November 18, based on its first-week sales.[336]

On March 2, 2016, it was announced that Dylan had sold an extensive archive of about 6,000 items to the George Kaiser Family Foundation and the University of Tulsa. It was reported that the sale price was “an estimated $15 million to $20 million”, and the archive comprises notebooks, drafts of Dylan lyrics, recordings, and correspondence.[337] Filmed material in the collection includes 30 hours of outtakes from the 1965 tour documentary Dont Look Back, 30 hours of footage shot on Dylan’s legendary 1966 electric tour, and 50 hours shot on the 1975 Rolling Thunder Revue. The archive will be housed at Helmerich Center for American Research, a facility at the Gilcrease Museum.[338]

On May 20, 2016, Dylan released his 37th studio album, Fallen Angels, which was described as “a direct continuation of the work of ‘uncovering’ the Great Songbook that he began on last year’s Shadows In the Night.”[339] The album contained twelve songs by classic songwriters such as Harold Arlen, Sammy Cahn and Johnny Mercer, eleven of which had been recorded by Sinatra.[339] Jim Farber wrote in Entertainment Weekly: “Tellingly, [Dylan] delivers these songs of love lost and cherished not with a burning passion but with the wistfulness of experience. They’re memory songs now, intoned with a present sense of commitment. Released just four days ahead of his 75th birthday, they couldn’t be more age-appropriate.”[340] The album received a score of 79 on critical aggregator website Metacritic, denoting “generally favorable reviews”.[341]

In September 2016, Legacy Recordings announced a 36-CD set, Bob Dylan: The 1966 Live Recordings, including every known recording of Bob Dylan’s 1966 concert tour, will be released on November 11. Legacy Recordings president Adam Block said: “While doing the archival research for The Cutting Edge 1965-1966, last year’s box set of Dylan’s mid-’60s studio sessions, we were continually struck by how great his 1966 live recordings really are.”[342] The recordings commence with the concert in Sydney, Australia, on April 13, 1966, and end with the Royal Albert Hall concert in London on May 27. The liner notes for the set are by Clinton Heylin, author of the book,Judas!: From Forest Hills to the Free Trade Hall: A Historical View of Dylan’s Big Boo, a study of the 1966 tour.[343]

Never Ending Tour

Main article: Never Ending Tour

Bob Dylan performing at Finsbury Park, London, June 18, 2011

Bob Dylan performing at Finsbury Park, London, June 18, 2011

The Never Ending Tour commenced on June 7, 1988,[344] and Dylan has played roughly 100 dates a year for the entirety of the 1990s and 2000s—a heavier schedule than most performers who started out in the 1960s.[345] By May 2013, Dylan and his band had played more than 2,500 shows,[346][347] anchored by long-time bassist Tony Garnier, drummer George Recile, multi-instrumentalist Donnie Herron, and guitarist Charlie Sexton.[348] To the dismay of some of his audience,[349] Dylan’s performances remain unpredictable as he alters his arrangements and changes his vocal approach night after night.[350] Critical opinion about Dylan’s shows remains divided. Critics such as Richard Williams and Andy Gill have argued that Dylan has found a successful way to present his rich legacy of material.[351][352] Others have criticized his live performances for mangling and spitting out “the greatest lyrics ever written so that they are effectively unrecognisable”, and giving so little to the audience that “it is difficult to understand what he is doing on stage at all.”[353]

Dylan’s performances in China in April 2011 generated controversy. Some criticised him for not making any explicit comment on the political situation in China, and for, allegedly, allowing the Chinese authorities to censor his set list.[354][355] Others defended Dylan’s performances, arguing that such criticism represented a misunderstanding of Dylan’s art, and that no evidence for the censorship of Dylan’s set list existed.[356][357] In response to these allegations, Dylan posted a statement on his website: “As far as censorship goes, the Chinese government had asked for the names of the songs that I would be playing. There’s no logical answer to that, so we sent them the set lists from the previous 3 months. If there were any songs, verses or lines censored, nobody ever told me about it and we played all the songs that we intended to play.”[358]

Dylan commenced a tour of Japan in Tokyo on April 4, 2016, which concluded in Yokohama on April 28. Dylan announced a tour of the US starting in Woodinville WA on June 4, 2016, and finishing in Gilford NH on July 17.[359]Dylan also participated in a so-called “Mega-Fest” titled Desert Trip, in California on October 7, which also included the Rolling Stones, Neil Young, Paul McCartney, the Who and Roger Waters.[360]

Visual artist

The cover of Dylan’s album Self Portrait (1970) is a reproduction of a painting of a face by Dylan.[361] Another of his paintings is reproduced on the cover of the 1974 album Planet Waves. In 1994 Random House publishedDrawn Blank, a book of Dylan’s drawings.[362] In 2007, the first public exhibition of Dylan’s paintings, The Drawn Blank Series, opened at the Kunstsammlungen in Chemnitz, Germany;[363] it showcased more than 200 watercolors and gouaches made from the original drawings. The exhibition coincided with the publication of Bob Dylan: The Drawn Blank Series, which includes 170 reproductions from the series.[363][364] From September 2010 until April 2011, the National Gallery of Denmark exhibited 40 large-scale acrylic paintings by Dylan, The Brazil Series.[365]

In July 2011, a leading contemporary art gallery, Gagosian Gallery, announced their representation of Dylan’s paintings.[366] An exhibition of Dylan’s art, The Asia Series, opened at the Gagosian Madison Avenue Gallery on September 20, displaying Dylan’s paintings of scenes in China and the Far East.[367] The New York Times reported that “some fans and Dylanologists have raised questions about whether some of these paintings are based on the singer’s own experiences and observations, or on photographs that are widely available and were not taken by Mr. Dylan.” The Times pointed to close resemblances between Dylan’s paintings and historic photos of Japan and China, and photos taken by Dmitri Kessel and Henri Cartier-Bresson.[368] The Magnum photo agency confirmed that Dylan had licensed the reproduction rights of these photographs.[369]

Dylan’s second show at the Gagosian Gallery, Revisionist Art, opened in November 2012. The show consisted of thirty paintings, transforming and satirizing popular magazines, including Playboy and Babytalk.[370][371] In February 2013, Dylan exhibited the New Orleans Series of paintings at the Palazzo Reale in Milan.[372] In August 2013, Britain’s National Portrait Gallery in London hosted Dylan’s first major UK exhibition, Face Value, featuring twelve pastel portraits.[373]

In November 2013, the Halcyon Gallery, in London, exhibited seven wrought iron gates created by Dylan (the exhibition was entitled Mood Swings). In a statement released by the gallery, Dylan said, “I’ve been around iron all my life ever since I was a kid. I was born and raised in iron ore country, where you could breathe it and smell it every day. Gates appeal to me because of the negative space they allow. They can be closed but at the same time they allow the seasons and breezes to enter and flow. They can shut you out or shut you in. And in some ways there is no difference.”[374][375]

Since 1994, Dylan has published six books of paintings and drawings.[376]

Discography

Accolades

President Obama presents Dylan with a Medal of Freedom, May 2012

File:Sara Danius announces the Nobel Prize in Literature 2016 03.webm

Sara Danius announces the Nobel Prize in Literature 2016.

Dylan has won many awards throughout his career including twelve Grammy Awards, one Academy Award and one Golden Globe Award. He has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, and Songwriters Hall of Fame. In May 2000, Dylan received the Polar Music Prize from Sweden’s King Carl XVI.[377]

In June 2007, Dylan received the Prince of Asturias Award in the Arts category.[378] Dylan received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in May 2012.[379][380] In February 2015, Dylan accepted the MusiCares Person of the Year award from the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, in recognition of his philanthropic and artistic contributions to society.[381] In November 2013, Dylan received the accolade of Légion d’Honneur from the French education minister Aurélie Filippetti.[382]

The Nobel Prize committee announced on October 13, 2016 that it would be awarding Dylan the Nobel Prize in Literature “for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition”.[383][384] The New York Times reported: “Mr. Dylan, 75, is the first musician to win the award, and his selection on Thursday is perhaps the most radical choice in a history stretching back to 1901.”[385] It is the first time since 1993 that the Nobel committee has offered the award in the category of American literature.[386]

Dylan’s website acknowledged the prize five days later, posting the heading “Winner Of The Nobel Prize In Literature” on a section promoting a book of the writer’s lyrics between 1961 and 2012.[387][388] The mention was removed the following day.[389] On October 21, a member of the Swedish Academy, writer Per Wästberg, termed Dylan “rude and arrogant” for ignoring the Nobel Committee’s attempts to contact him.[390]

After two weeks of speculation about Dylan’s lack of response to the prize,[391] he said in an interview that his reaction to news of the award was: “amazing, incredible. Whoever dreams about something like that?”. When asked whether he would attend the ceremony in Stockholm in December 2016, Dylan responded, “Absolutely. If it’s at all possible.” [392]

Personal life

Family

Dylan married Sara Lownds on November 22, 1965. Their first child, Jesse Byron Dylan, was born on January 6, 1966, and they had three more children: Anna Lea (born July 11, 1967), Samuel Isaac Abram (born July 30, 1968), and Jakob Luke (born December 9, 1969). Dylan also adopted Sara’s daughter from a prior marriage, Maria Lownds (later Dylan, born October 21, 1961). Bob and Sara Dylan were divorced on June 29, 1977.[393] Maria married musician Peter Himmelman in 1988.[394] In the 1990s, Dylan’s son Jakob became well known as the lead singer of the band the Wallflowers. Jesse Dylan is a film director and a successful businessman.

Desiree Gabrielle Dennis-Dylan, Dylan’s daughter with his backup singer Carolyn Dennis (often professionally known as Carol Dennis), was born on January 31, 1986, and Dylan married Carolyn Dennis on June 4, 1986.[395] The couple divorced in October 1992. Their marriage and child remained a closely guarded secret until the publication of Howard Sounes‘ biography, Down the Highway: The Life of Bob Dylan, in 2001.[396]

When not touring, Dylan is believed to live primarily in Point Dume, a promontory on the coast of Malibu, California, though he also owns property around the world.[397][398]

Religious beliefs

Growing up in Hibbing, Minnesota, Dylan and his family were part of the area’s small but close-knit Jewish community, and in May 1954 Dylan had his Bar Mitzvah.[399] Around the time of his 30th birthday, in 1971, Dylan visitedIsrael, and also met Rabbi Meir Kahane, founder of the New York-based Jewish Defense League.[400] Time magazine quoted him saying about Kahane, “He’s a really sincere guy. He’s really put it all together.”[401] Subsequently, Dylan downplayed the extent of his contact with Kahane.[402]

Dylan performing onstage with an electric guitar.

Dylan performs in Ahoy Rotterdam, the Netherlands, June 4, 1984

During the late 1970s, Dylan converted to Christianity. Starting in 1978 Dylan started studying the New Testament with Brooklyn-born convert Al Kasha;[403][404] then, from January to April 1979, he participated in Bible study classes at the Vineyard School of Discipleship in Reseda, California. Pastor Kenn Gulliksen has recalled: “Larry Myers and Paul Emond went over to Bob’s house and ministered to him. He responded by saying, ‘Yes he did in fact want Christ in his life.’ And he prayed that day and received the Lord.”[405][406]

By 1984, Dylan was distancing himself from the “born again” label. He told Kurt Loder of Rolling Stone magazine: “I’ve never said I’m born again. That’s just a media term. I don’t think I’ve been an agnostic. I’ve always thought there’s a superior power, that this is not the real world and that there’s a world to come.” In response to Loder’s asking whether he belonged to any church or synagogue, Dylan laughingly replied, “Not really. Uh, the Church of the Poison Mind.”[407] In 1997 he told David Gates of Newsweek:

Here’s the thing with me and the religious thing. This is the flat-out truth: I find the religiosity and philosophy in the music. I don’t find it anywhere else. Songs like “Let Me Rest on a Peaceful Mountain” or “I Saw the Light“—that’s my religion. I don’t adhere to rabbis, preachers, evangelists, all of that. I’ve learned more from the songs than I’ve learned from any of this kind of entity. The songs are my lexicon. I believe the songs.[408]

In an interview published in The New York Times on September 28, 1997, journalist Jon Pareles reported that “Dylan says he now subscribes to no organized religion.”[409]

Dylan has supported the Chabad Lubavitch movement,[410] and has privately participated in Jewish religious events, including the Bar Mitzvahs of his sons and attending Hadar Hatorah, a Chabad Lubavitch yeshiva. In September 1989 and September 1991, he appeared on the Chabad telethon.[411] On Yom Kippur in 2007 he attended Congregation Beth Tefillah, in Atlanta, Georgia, where he was called to the Torah for the sixth aliyah.[412]

Dylan has continued to perform songs from his gospel albums in concert, occasionally covering traditional religious songs. He has also made passing references to his religious faith—such as in a 2004 interview with 60 Minutes, when he told Ed Bradley that “the only person you have to think twice about lying to is either yourself or to God.” He also explained his constant touring schedule as part of a bargain he made a long time ago with the “chief commander—in this earth and in the world we can’t see.”[22]

In a 2009 interview with Bill Flanagan promoting Dylan’s Christmas LP, Christmas in the Heart, Flanagan commented on the “heroic performance” Dylan gave of “O Little Town of Bethlehem” and that he “delivered the song like a true believer”. Dylan replied: “Well, I am a true believer.”[285]

Legacy

Dylan has been described as one of the most influential figures of the 20th century, musically and culturally. He was included in the Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century where he was called “master poet, caustic social critic and intrepid, guiding spirit of the counterculture generation”.[413] In 2008, The Pulitzer Prize jury awarded him a special citation for “his profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power.”[414] President Barack Obama said of Dylan in 2012, “There is not a bigger giant in the history of American music.”[297] For 20 years, academics lobbied the Swedish Academy to give Dylan the Nobel Prize in Literature,[415][416][417][418] which awarded it to him in 2016.[385] Dylan became the first musician to be awarded the Literature Prize, placing him in the company of Dario Fo, Toni Morrison and Samuel Beckett.[385] In 2011, Rolling Stone ranked Dylan at number two in its 2011 list of “100 Greatest Artists” of all time,[419] while “Like A Rolling Stone” was listed as the “Greatest Song of all Time.”[420] In 2008, it was estimated that Dylan had sold about 120 million albums worldwide.[421]

Initially modeling his writing style on the songs of Woody Guthrie,[422] the blues of Robert Johnson,[423] and what he termed the “architectural forms” of Hank Williams songs,[424] Dylan added increasingly sophisticated lyrical techniques to the folk music of the early 1960s, infusing it “with the intellectualism of classic literature and poetry”.[425] Paul Simon suggested that Dylan’s early compositions virtually took over the folk genre: “[Dylan’s] early songs were very rich … with strong melodies. ‘Blowin’ in the Wind’ has a really strong melody. He so enlarged himself through the folk background that he incorporated it for a while. He defined the genre for a while.”[426]

When Dylan made his move from acoustic folk and blues music to a rock backing, the mix became more complex. For many critics, his greatest achievement was the cultural synthesis exemplified by his mid-1960s trilogy of albums—Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde. In Mike Marqusee‘s words:

Between late 1964 and the middle of 1966, Dylan created a body of work that remains unique. Drawing on folk, blues, country, R&B, rock’n’roll, gospel, British beat, symbolist, modernist and Beat poetry, surrealismand Dada, advertising jargon and social commentary, Fellini and Mad magazine, he forged a coherent and original artistic voice and vision. The beauty of these albums retains the power to shock and console.”[427]

Dylan’s lyrics began to receive detailed scrutiny from academics and poets. Richard F. Thomas, Classics professor at Harvard University, created a freshman seminar called “Dylan” in 2004 to “to put the artist in context of not just popular culture of the last half-century, but the tradition of classical poets like Virgil and Homer.”[428] William Arctander O’Brien, literary scholar and professor of German and Comparative Literature at the University of California San Diego, memorialized the significance of Dylan’s contribution to world literature when he created a full academic course in 2009 devoted to Dylan that analyzed and celebrated the “historical, political, economic, aesthetic, and cultural significance of Dylan’s work.”[429] Kevin Barents, lecturer at Boston University, teaches a class on Bob Dylan’s lyrics, focused on the mechanics of poetry, while also examining the relationship between the lyrics and music itself.[430] Literary critic Christopher Ricks published Dylan’s Visions of Sin, a 500-page analysis of Dylan’s work, placing him in the context of Eliot, Keats and Tennyson,[431] claiming that Dylan was a poet worthy of the same close analysis.[432] Former British poet laureate Sir Andrew Motion argued that his lyrics should be studied in schools.[433]

Dylan’s voice also received critical attention. New York Times critic Robert Shelton described his early vocal style as “a rusty voice suggesting Guthrie’s old performances, etched in gravel like Dave Van Ronk’s.”[434] David Bowie, in his tribute, “Song for Bob Dylan“, described Dylan’s singing as “a voice like sand and glue”. His voice continued to develop as he began to work with rock’n’roll backing bands; critic Michael Gray described the sound of Dylan’s vocal work on “Like a Rolling Stone” as “at once young and jeeringly cynical”.[435] As Dylan’s voice aged during the 1980s, for some critics, it became more expressive. Christophe Lebold writes in the journal Oral Tradition, “Dylan’s more recent broken voice enables him to present a world view at the sonic surface of the songs—this voice carries us across the landscape of a broken, fallen world. The anatomy of a broken world in “Everything is Broken” (on the album Oh Mercy) is but an example of how the thematic concern with all things broken is grounded in a concrete sonic reality.”[436]

Dylan is considered a seminal influence on many musical genres. As Edna Gundersen stated in USA Today: “Dylan’s musical DNA has informed nearly every simple twist of pop since 1962.”[437] Punk musician Joe Strummerpraised Dylan for having “laid down the template for lyric, tune, seriousness, spirituality, depth of rock music.”[438] Other major musicians who acknowledged Dylan’s importance include Johnny Cash,[439] Jerry Garcia,[440] John Lennon,[441] Paul McCartney,[442] Pete Townshend,[443] Neil Young,[444] Bruce Springsteen,[90] David Bowie,[445] Bryan Ferry,[446] Nick Cave,[447][448] Patti Smith,[449] Syd Barrett,[450] Joni Mitchell,[451] and Tom Waits.[452] Dylan significantly contributed to the initial success of both the Byrds and the Band: the Byrds achieved chart success with their version of “Mr. Tambourine Man” and the subsequent album, while the Band were Dylan’s backing bandon his 1966 tour, recorded The Basement Tapes with him in 1967,[453] and featured three previously unreleased Dylan songs on their debut album.[454]

Some critics have dissented from the view of Dylan as a visionary figure in popular music. In his book Awopbopaloobop Alopbamboom, Nik Cohn objected: “I can’t take the vision of Dylan as seer, as teenage messiah, as everything else he’s been worshipped as. The way I see him, he’s a minor talent with a major gift for self-hype.”[455] Australian critic Jack Marx credited Dylan with changing the persona of the rock star: “What cannot be disputed is that Dylan invented the arrogant, faux-cerebral posturing that has been the dominant style in rock since, with everyone from Mick Jagger to Eminem educating themselves from the Dylan handbook.”[456]

Fellow musicians also presented dissenting views. Joni Mitchell described Dylan as a “plagiarist” and his voice as “fake” in a 2010 interview in the Los Angeles Times, in response to a suggestion that she and Dylan were similar since they had both created personas.[457][458] Mitchell’s comment led to discussions of Dylan’s use of other people’s material, both supporting and criticizing him.[459] Talking to Mikal Gilmore in Rolling Stone in 2012, Dylan responded to the allegation of plagiarism, including his use of Henry Timrod’s verse in his album Modern Times,[253] by saying that it was “part of the tradition”.[460][a 5]

If Dylan’s work in the 1960s was seen as bringing intellectual ambition to popular music,[427] critics in the 21st century described him as a figure who had greatly expanded the folk culture from which he initially emerged. Following the release of Todd Haynes’ Dylan biopic I’m Not There, J. Hoberman wrote in his 2007 Village Voice review:

Elvis might never have been born, but someone else would surely have brought the world rock ‘n’ roll. No such logic accounts for Bob Dylan. No iron law of history demanded that a would-be Elvis from Hibbing, Minnesota, would swerve through the Greenwich Village folk revival to become the world’s first and greatest rock ‘n’ roll beatnik bard and then—having achieved fame and adoration beyond reckoning—vanish into a folk tradition of his own making.[461]

When Dylan was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, The New York Times commented: “In choosing a popular musician for the literary world’s highest honor, the Swedish Academy, which awards the prize, dramatically redefined the boundaries of literature, setting off a debate about whether song lyrics have the same artistic value as poetry or novels.”[385] Responses varied from the skepticism of Stephen Metcalf, who thought the award was ill-advised because “the distinctive thing about literature is that it involves reading silently to oneself”,[462] to the positive tone of Salman Rushdie who tweeted: “From Orpheus to Faiz, song & poetry have been closely linked. Dylan is the brilliant inheritor of the bardic tradition. Great choice.”[463]

Bibliography

Dylan has published Tarantula, a work of prose poetry, Chronicles: Volume One, the first part of his memoirs, several books of the lyrics of his songs, and six books of his art. He has been the subject of many biographies and critical studies.

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bob_Dylan

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Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 124-130

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 121-123

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 118-120

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 113 -117

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 112

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 108-111

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 106-108

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 104-105

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 101-103

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 98-100

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 94-97

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 93

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 92

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 91

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 88-90

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 84-87

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 79-83

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 74-78

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 71-73

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 68-70

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 65-67

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 62-64

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 58-61

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 55-57

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 52-54

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 49-51

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 45-48

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 41-44

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 38-40

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 34-37

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 30-33

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 27-29

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 17-26

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 16-22

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 10-15

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 1-9

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