The Pronk Pops Show 670, May 2, 2016, Story 1: Larry Wilmore Brings Back The N Word and Race Baiting Jokes and Dumps on Big Media At White House Correspondent’s Dinner — Wilmore Did Not Call Obama A Mullato — Wonder Why? — CNN Money Strikes Back — Trump Dumps Disgusting Dinners of White House Democratic Correspondents? — The Last Supper of 8,000 Elitist Press Corps — Videos

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 670: May 2, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 669: April 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 668: April 28, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 667: April 27, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 666: April 26, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 665: April 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 664: April 24, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 663: April 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 662: April 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 661: April 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 660: April 18, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 659: April 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 658: April 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 657: April 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 656: April 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 655: April 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 654: April 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 653: April 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 652: April 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 651: April 4, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 650: April 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 649: March 31, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 648: March 30, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 647: March 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 646: March 28, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 645: March 24, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 644: March 23, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 643: March 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 642: March 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 641: March 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 640: March 10, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 639: March 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 638: March 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 637: March 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 636: March 4, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 635: March 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 634: March 2, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 633: March 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 632: February 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 631: February 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 630: February 24, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 629: February 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 628: February 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 627: February 18, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 626: February 17, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 625: February 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 624: February 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 623: February 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 622: February 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 621: February 10, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 620: February 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 619: February 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 618: February 5, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 617: February 4, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 616: February 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 615: February 1, 2016

Story 1: Larry Wilmore Brings Back The N Word and Race Baiting Jokes and Dumps on Big Media At White House Correspondent’s Dinner — Wilmore Did Not Call Obama A Mullato — Wonder Why? — CNN Money Strikes Back — Trump Dumps Disgusting  Dinners of White House Democratic Correspondents? — The Last Supper of 8,000 Elitist Press Corps —  Videos

“The end of the Republic has never looked better.”

~President Barack Obama

lincoln

Mullatto

a person of mixed white and black ancestry, especially a person with one white and one black parent.

Donald Trump Jr. & Eric Trump At The White House Correspondents’ Dinner 2016

Obama Attacks Trump at White House Correspondents’ Dinner 2016

Donald Trump – How He Feels About The Disgusting Press & Media ✔

Larry Wilmore: ‘You Did It, My Nigga’; White House Correspondents’ Dinner; 5-1-2016

Larry Wilmore! Barack Obama! #WHCD! LV White House Correspondents Dinner Joke Roundup

Larry Wilmore | White House Correspondent’s Dinner 2016 [FULL SPEECH]

FULL Event: 2016 White House Correspondents’ Dinner – President Obama roasts Donald Trump (4-30-16)

The Nightly Show – Racism on Fox News & Attack on Planned Parenthood

The duality of Thomas Jefferson

PJTV: Obama Is Not Doing Squat for the Black Community

PJTV: Hollywood and Quentin Tarantino Have a Fetish for the N-Word

10 Best Zingers from Obama’s Final White House Correspondents Dinner

From Obama’s mic drop-worthy jokes to Trump disses, the funniest one-liners from 2016 Washington press-corp skewring

By

If 2015 marked the “fourth quarter” of Obama’s presidency — as mentioned at last year’s White House Correspondents Association dinner — then 2016 finds him casually tacking on field goals as the clock runs out. Onstage at the annual roast of Washington and its press corps, the president was loose, funny, and completely at ease in front of a crowd that (generally) loves him; his remarks were delivered with the confidence of a man serving the last months of his second term, his approval rating up and his legacy assured. The roast came close to a victory lap, going so far as to end with the words “Obama out,” and a literal mic drop. Did he earn the holiest of holy stage gestures? Not really, but the last seven years surely entitle him to one.

Of course, all that goodwill and grandiosity made Obama a tough act to follow, as The Nightly Show‘s Larry Wilmore understood very quickly. The host’s material wasn’t all that edgy, but the audience didn’t give him much room before gasping and even groaning at times. Which is not to say the Daily Show‘s former Senior Black Correspondent bombed; he held his own and got good responses from a number of bits that tackled race, presidential hopefuls and Don Lemon — who took his moment on-camera to smile and flip Wilmore off.

Unlike certain years past, the obvious example being Stephen Colbert’s assault on George W. Bush in 2006, there was no sense of danger in the room. The only real jab Wilmore took at Obama compared him to the Golden State Warriors’ Steph Curry: “Both of you like raining down bombs from long distances.” (Meh.) Even if Trump had been at a table, stone-faced and entirely uncomfortable as he was at the dinner in 2011, there would have been more of a chance for excitement. Hell, even Chris Christie would have livened things up.

In any case, there were a bunch of great jokes — and here are our Top 10 contenders:

1. In a nod to the strangest (and scariest) election cycle in recent memory, Obama started off with this State-of-the-Union quip: “The end of the republic has never looked better,” and followed up with, “Eight years ago I said it was time to change the tone of our politics. In hindsight, I clearly should have been more specific.”

2. Warming up, Obama joked about his professional future while jabbing other politicians who do their time as public speakers, like a certain Democratic party front-runner: “If this material works well, I’m gonna use it at Goldman Sachs next year.” He added, “Earn me some serious Tubmans.”

3. Obama greeted Rachel McAdams, Mark Ruffalo and Liev Schreiber from the movie Spotlight, and then quipped, “As you know, Spotlight is a film about investigative journalists with the resources and the autonomy to chase down the truth and hold the powerful accountable. Best fantasy film since Star Wars.

4. After talking about the nominating process on the Democratic side, the president had this to say of conservative electoral politics: “On the Republican side, things are — how shall we say this — a little more loose. Just look at the confusion over the invitations to tonight’s dinner. Guests were asked to check whether they wanted steak or fish, but instead a whole bunch of you wrote in Paul Ryan.”

5. The president seemed surprised that Donald Trump didn’t show up, and puzzled it out: “You’ve got a room full of reporters, celebrities, cameras, and he says no. Is this dinner too tacky for the Donald? What could he possibly be doing instead? Is he at home, eating a Trump steak, tweeting out insults to Angela Merkel?”

6. Bernie Sanders was in the audience, which was good for a few laughs at his age and fustiness. Obama took aim at his politics: “I am hurt, though, Bernie, that you have been distancing yourself a little from me. I mean, that’s just not something you do to your comrade.”

7. When Larry Wilmore took the stage, he skewered the language of conservative news outlets with one line: “Welcome to Negro Night here in Washington — or as Fox News will report, Two Thugs Disrupt Elegant Dinner in D.C.”

8. As the event is broadcast live on C-SPAN, there are always obligatory knocks on the network. Some are better than others. “C-SPAN is carrying this show live, which is ironic because most of their viewers aren’t,” Wilmore said. “C-SPAN is the No. 1 network among people who died watching TV and no one’s found them yet.”

9. Wilmore didn’t understand why Al Sharpton supports Hillary Clinton, and hit with this one: “You don’t put a relaxer in your hair for 40 years and not feel the Bern.”

10. Of the Republican who was called “Lucifer in the flesh,” by John Boehner just this week, Wilmore said, “Man, everybody hates Ted Cruz. Even O.J. Simpson said, That guy is just hard to like.”
http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/10-best-zingers-from-obamas-final-white-house-correspondents-dinner-20160502#ixzz47XLQITFu
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Trump blames media for White House Correspondents’ Dinner absence

President Barack Obama may have joked during the White House Correspondents’ Dinner that the breadth of Donald Trump’s experience with foreign leaders extends to Miss Sweden, Miss Argentina and Miss Azerbaijan, but the Republican front-runner is taking it in stride.

Such gibes were not the reason for his absence at the annual dinner last Saturday in Washington, he said.

“I thought it was fine. I mean, honestly I have heard it before. But I do deal with leaders around the world,” Trump said Monday in a telephone interview with CNN’s “New Day.” “Right now, we have hundreds of deals negotiated all over the world by my company, and I deal with presidents, and I deal with prime ministers. I deal with everybody. I probably have more experience than virtually anybody looking at this office, and I make money. I’ve made a lot of money doing it.”

Trump chalked it up to Obama “having fun” and “joking,” adding “I think it’s fine.”

“I’ll tell you the reason I didn’t go, if you have a second. I never really expressed this. The time I went he went after me and then the comedian went after me. I’ll tell you what,” Trump said, referring to the 2011 dinner in which he was a constant punch line for both Obama and host Seth Meyers. “Honestly, I had a great time.”

When CNN anchor Chris Cuomo mused that Trump’s appearance at that dinner did not bear the hallmarks of someone having a great time, the candidate laced into the media.

Noting that he told the press he had a “great time” at the 2011 dinner, Trump recalled the reports in The Washington Post and The New York Times.

“The next day, they said Donald Trump had a miserable time. He felt humiliated. I didn’t feel humiliated, I had a great time,” Trump said. “The press is very dishonest, they don’t report the truth and therefore it’s easiest not to go.”

Cuomo followed up, asking if the reason for his not going was because he felt the media would not cover it accurately.

“No, because I felt I would have a great time. I would have loved to have gone,” Trump said. “I felt I would have a great time if I go, but no matter how great a time, I knew they obviously would be talking about me. No matter how great a time I would have, wouldn’t matter. They will say, ‘Donald Trump was humiliated.’ ‘Donald Trump had a miserable time.’ You know? That’s what they did last time.”

Though Trump attended the 2015 dinner, he appeared to refer to the 2011 event in his subsequent comments.

“I had really a great time. Hey, look. You had the president of the United States spending much of his speech on me. And I even said to my wife, this is sort of amazing. The president’s devoting so much of his time to me. Amazing. I had a good time and he was very respectful. It was good. But the next day — I told that to the press. I had a great time,” Trump said. “The next day, every paper — The Washington Post, The New York Times, they said, ‘Donald Trump felt humiliated, he had a terrible time.'”

Those reports, Trump maintained, “are just lies.”

“I said, they are so dishonest. The one thing, the one group that lies more than lyin’ Ted Cruz is the press. The media. They really are bad,” Trump said. “They really are dishonest and that’s why their poll numbers with people in the public are so low. They are so totally dishonest.”

Trump’s son Eric did attend this year’s dinner, as a guest of ABC News.

http://www.politico.com/blogs/2016-gop-primary-live-updates-and-results/2016/05/trump-white-house-correspondents-dinner-222693#ixzz47XD3dnVv
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Obama not offended by Larry Wilmore’s N-word shout-out

President Obama isn’t taking exception to comedian Larry Wilmore’s use of the N-word during his speech at the White House Correspondents’ dinner Saturday night.

Instead, the White House appears to be offering a tepid endorsement of the way Wilmore used the racist term.

White House press secretary Josh Earnest said he had talked to Obama about Wilmore’s use of the word and said the president told him “he appreciated the spirit of Mr. Wilmore’s expression Saturday night.”

“I’m confident that Mr. Wilmore used the word by design. He was seeking to be provocative,” Earnest said. “Any reading of his comments made clear that he was not using the president as a butt of a joke.”

MORE FROM WASHINGTON EXAMINER
WATCH: Larry Wilmore ends White House Correspondents’ speech with the N-word
By Madeleine Morgenstern• April 30, 2016 | 11:19 pm
“This is a tough assignment,” Earnest said of Wilmore’s job, which was to follow the president at a dinner where comedians are “going to get much closer to the line than they ordinarily would.”
Wilmore, the host of Comedy Central’s satirical news program “The Nightly Show,” set off a social media uproar with his several race-tinged comments during his remarks.

“Yo Barry, you did it my n—-a,” Wilmore said to Obama to close out his set.
After the event, the Rev. Al Sharpton said he thought the use of the word was “at best in poor taste.”

But others, such as “Saturday Night Live” cast member Sasheer Zamata, tweeted, “This is the blackest correspondents dinner ever and I LOVE it.”

Larry Wilmore missed a chance to boost his sagging ‘Nightly Show’

Larry Wilmore’s ‘Nightly Show’ ratings really miss Jon Stewart

Mulatto

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“Mulato” redirects here. For other uses, see Mulato (disambiguation).
“Mulatos” redirects here. For the river in Colombia, see Mulatos River.
For the mountain in the United States, see Mulatto Mountain.
Mulatto
Total population
  • Brazil: 42 million [1]
  • Cuba: 2.8 million[2]
  • Dominican Republic: 6.8 million
  • South Africa: 4.6 million (2011)[3]
  • United Kingdom: ~600,000 (2011)[4]
  • United States: 1.8 million (2010)[5]
  • No official worldwide census
Regions with significant populations
Latin America, Caribbean, United States, South Africa, Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde,Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Mascarene Islands, United Kingdom, France, Portugal,Namibia
Languages
Portuguese, Spanish, English, French, Dutch,Afrikaans, Creole languages, others.
Related ethnic groups
African peoples, Europeans (mostly British,Irish, French, Iberians, and Dutch), and Native Americans

Mulatto is a term formerly used to refer to persons born of one white parent and one black parent, or to persons born of a mulatto parent or parents. The term today is generally confined to an historical context, and English-speakers of mixed white and black ancestry seldom choose to identify themselves as “mulatto”.[6]

The term is generally considered archaic, and may be taken as pejorative, especially in the United States, where “multiracial” and “biracial” are preferred.[citation needed] Those terms, however, may apply to other racial mixtures. Residents of Spain, Latin America, the Caribbean, and some countries in Africa freely use the term, or its cognates in other languages, usually without any suggestion of insult.[7] In Latin America, most “mulattoes” derive from interracial relationships dating to the slavery period, rather than from recent racial mixing. This is especially true in Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Haiti, Cape Verde and Puerto Rico, which have the highest proportions of persons of mixed race.[citation needed]

Etymology

The etymology of the term is usually believed to derive from the Spanish and Portuguesemulato, which comes from mula(old Galician-Portuguese, from the Latinmūlus), meaning mule, the hybrid offspring of a horse and a donkey.[8][9][10]

Some dictionaries and scholarly works trace the word’s origins to the Arabic term muwallad, which means “a person of mixed ancestry”.[11]Muwallad literally means “born, begotten, produced, generated; brought up”, with the implication of being born and raised among Arabs, but not of Arab blood. Muwallad is derived from the root wordWaLaD (Arabic: ولد direct Arabictransliteration: waw, lam, dal), and colloquial Arabic pronunciation can vary greatly. Walad means, “descendant, offspring, scion; child; son; boy; young animal, young one”. In al-Andalus, Muwallad referred to the offspring of non-Arab/Muslim people who adopted the Islamic religion and manners. Specifically, the term was historically applied to the descendants of indigenous Christian Iberians who, after several generations of living among a Muslim majority, adopted their culture and religion. Notable examples of this category include the famous Muslim scholar Ibn Hazm. According to Lisan al-Arab, one of the earliest Arab dictionaries (c. 13th century AD), applied the term to the children of Non-Muslim (often Christian) slaves or Non-Muslim children who were captured in a war and were raised by Muslims to follow their religion and culture. Thus, in this context, the term “Muwalad” has a meaning close to “the adopted”. According to the same source, the term does not denote being of mixed-race but rather being of foreign-blood and local culture.

According to Julio Izquierdo Labrado,[12] the 19th-century linguist Leopoldo Eguilaz y Yanguas, as well as some Arabic sources[13]muwallad is the etymological origin of mulato. These sources specify that mulato would have been derived directly from muwallad independently of the related word muladí, a term that was applied to Iberian Christians who had converted to Islam during the Moorishgovernance of Iberia in the Middle Ages.

The Real Academia Española (Spanish Royal Academy) casts doubt on the muwallad theory. It states, “The term mulata is documented in our diachronic data bank in 1472 and is used in reference to livestock mules in Documentacion medieval de la Corte de Justicia de Ganaderos de Zaragoza, whereas muladí (frommullawadí) does not appear until the 18th century, according to [Joan] Corominas“.[nb 1]

Scholars such as Werner Sollors cast doubt on the mule etymology for mulatto. In the 18th and 19th centuries, racialists such as Edward Long and Josiah Nottbegan to assert that mulattoes were sterile like mules. They projected this belief back onto the etymology of the word mulatto. Sollers points out that this etymology is anachronistic: “The Mulatto sterility hypothesis that has much to do with the rejection of the term by some writers is only half as old as the word ‘Mulatto.'”[15]

Africa

Of São Tomé and Príncipe‘s 193,413 inhabitants, the largest segment is classified as mestiço.[16] 71% of the population of Cape Verde is also classified as such.[17]The great majority of their current populations descend from unions between the Portuguese who settled the islands from the 15th century onwards and the black Africans they brought from the African mainland to work as slaves. In the early years, mestiços began to form a third-class between the Portuguese colonists and African slaves, as they were usually bilingual and often served as interpreters between the populations.

In Angola and Mozambique, the mestiço constitute smaller but still important minorities; 2% in Angola[18] and 0.2% in Mozambique.[19]

The Christmas Bands are a popular Cape Coloured cultural tradition in Cape Town

In Namibia, a current-day population of between 20,000 and 30,000 people, known as Rehoboth Basters, descend from liaisons between the Cape Colony Dutch and indigenous African women. The name Baster is derived from the Dutch word for “bastard” (or “crossbreed”). While some people consider this term demeaning, the Basters proudly use the term as an indication of their history.

In South Africa, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruin Afrikaners in Afrikaans) used to refer to individuals who possess some degree of sub-Saharan ancestry, but not enough to be considered black-African under the law of South Africa. Under Apartheid law there were seven categories of Coloured people: Cape Coloured, Cape Malay, Griqua, Indian, Chinese, or other Asiatic, and Other Coloured – the aim of subdivisions was to enhance the meaning of the larger category of Coloured by making it all encompassing. In contemporary society, however, to redress the unfair privileges of the past Apartheid regime the policy of Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) was adopted to level the economic playing field. BEE policy favored indigenous Black Africans for employment, scholarships, government contracts and loans, whereas before such opportunities were strictly reserved for the White minority. Suddenly, the racial hierarchy of the past were reversed; those who suffered the greatest injustices were put first on the list for advancement. African women were of top priority with African men close behind, next came Coloured women followed by Coloured men. Subsequently, Indian men followed Indian women. Legally and politically speaking, all people of color were classified “black” in the non-racialist terms of anti-Apartheid rhetoric of the Black Consciousness Movement.[20] In addition to European ancestry, they may also possess Asian ancestry from immigrants from India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Sri Lanka, China and/or Saint Helena. As an interesting note, because Indians did not fall within the definitions of either European or African but were people of color they were classed as “coloureds.” . Based on the Population Registration Act to classify people, laws were put in place prohibiting mixed marriages. Therefore, many people that were descendants of the “Asian” category were able to legally intermarry with “mixed-race” people because they shared the same nomenclature.[20] There was extensive combining of these diverse heritages in the Western Cape, but in other parts of southern Africa, the coloured usually were descendants of two primary ethnic groups – primarily Africans of various tribes and European colonists, with generations of coloured forming families.

In KwaZulu-Natal, most Coloureds (that were classified as “other coloureds”) had British and Zulu heritage, while Zimbabwean coloureds were descended fromShona or Ndebele mixing with British and Afrikaner settlers. Griqua, on the other hand, are descendants of Khoisan and Afrikaner trekboers. The Griqua were subjected to an ambiguity of other creole people within Southern African social order. According to Nurse and Jenkins (1975) the leader of this “mixed” group, Adam Kok I, was a former slave of the Dutch governor who was manumitted and provided land outside Cape Town in the eighteenth century. With territories beyond the Dutch East India Company administration, Kok delivered refuge to deserting soldiers, runaway slaves, and remaining members of various Khoikhoi tribes.[20]

Afro-European clans

Latin America and the Caribbean

Mulattoes represent a significant part of the population of various Latin American and Caribbean countries:[21]Dominican Republic (73%; all mixed-racepeople),[21][nb 2]Brazil (49.1% mixed-race, Gypsy and Black, Mulattoes (20.5%), Mestiços, Mamelucos or Caboclos (21.3%), Blacks (7.1%) and Eurasian (0.2%)),[22][23]Belize (25%), Colombia (25%),[21]Cuba (24.86%),[21]Haiti (1-5%).[21]

In colonial Latin America, mulato could also refer to an individual of mixed African and Native American ancestry.[24] In the 21st century, persons with indigenous and black African ancestry in Latin America are more frequently called zambos in Spanish or cafuzo in Portuguese.

In the United States, due to the influence and laws making slavery a racial caste and later practices of hypodescent, white colonists and settlers tended to classify persons of mixed African and Native American ancestry as black, regardless of how they identified themselves, or sometimes as black Indians. But many tribes hadmatrilinealkinship systems and practices of absorbing other peoples into their cultures. Multiracial children born to Native American mothers were customarily raised in her specific tribal culture. Federally recognized Indian tribes have insisted that identity and membership is related to culture, and that individuals brought up within tribal culture are fully members, regardless of whether they have some European or African ancestry. . than race, and many have had mixed-race members who identify primarily as of the tribes.

If the children were born to slave women, they were classified under slave law as slaves, and more likely raised within the African-American community and considered black. A number of African Americans in contemporary United States have ancestry including some Native American.[25]

Brazil

Portrait “A Redenção de Cam” (1895), showing a Brazilian family.

Further information: Race and ethnicity in Brazil

Studies carried out by the geneticist Sergio Pena conclude the average white Brazilian is 80% European, 10% Amerindian, and 10% African/black.[26] Another study, carried out by the Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, concludes the average white Brazilian is (>70%) European.[27]

According to the IBGE 2000 census, 38.5% of Brazilians identified as pardo, i.e. of mixed ancestry.[28][29] This figure includes mulatto and other multiracial people, such as people who have European and Amerindian ancestry (calledcaboclos), as well as assimilated, westernized Amerindians, and mestizos with some Asian ancestry. A majority of mixed-race Brazilians have all three ancestries: Amerindian, European, and African. According to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics census 2006, some 42.6% of Brazilian identify as pardo, an increase over the 2000 census.[30]

According to genetic studies, some of those who identify as White Brazilians (48.4%) also have some mixed-race ancestry (both Subsaharan African and Amerindian ancestry), not surprising given the multiracial history of this country. Brazilians who identify as de raça negra or de cor preta, i.e. Brazilians of Black African origin, make up 6.9% of the population; genetic studies show their average total ancestry is still mixed: 40% African, 50% European, and 10% Amerindian, but they likely grew up within visibly black communities.

Such autosomal DNA studies, which measure total genetic contribution, continue to reveal differences between how individuals identify, which is usually based in family and close community, with genetic ancestry, which may relate to a distant past they know little about. Such DNA studies were conducted of students at a school in the poor periphery of Rio de Janeiro. It found that the multiracial “pardos” were genetically more than 80% European in ancestry. “The results of the tests of genomic ancestry are quite different from the self made estimates of European ancestry”, say the researchers. The test results showed that the proportion of European genetic ancestry was higher than students expected. When questioned before the test, students who identified as “pardos”, for example, identified as 1/3 European, 1/3 African and 1/3 Amerindian.[31][32] On the other hand, students classified as “white” tended to overestimate their proportion of African and Amerindian genetic ancestry.[31]

Haiti

Further information: Gens de couleur and Social class in Haiti

Mulattoes account for up to 5% of the nation’s population. In Haitian history, such mixed-race people, known as free people of color in colonial times, gained some education and property before the Revolution. In some cases, their white fathers arranged for multiracial sons to be educated in France and join the military, giving them an advance economically. Free people of color gained some social capital and political power before the Revolution, were influential during the Revolution and since then. The people of color have retained their elite position, based on education and social capital, that is apparent in the political, economic and cultural hierarchy in present-day Haiti. Numerous leaders throughout Haiti’s history have been people of color.[33]

The struggle within Haiti between the people of color led by André Rigaud and the black Haitians led by Toussaint Louverture devolved into the War of Knives.[34][35]In the early period of independence, former slaves of majority-black ancestry led the government, as it was the many more numerous slaves who had done most of the fighting in the North, where the largest plantations were located, to achieve independence.

Puerto Rico

Further information: Demographics of Puerto Rico

DonMiguel Enríquez, a Puerto Ricanprivateer, is the only known mulatto knighted by the Monarchy of Spain. After being born illegitimate, he became a shoemaker and privateer, ultimately one of the wealthiest men of the New World.

In a 2002 genetic study of maternal and paternal direct lines of ancestry of 800 Puerto Ricans, 61% had mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from an Amerindian female ancestor, 27% inherited MtDNA from a female African ancestor and 12% had MtDNA from a female European ancestor.[36] Conversely, patrilineal direct lines, as indicated by the Y chromosome, showed that 70% of Puerto Rican males in the sample have Y chromosome DNA from a male European ancestor, 20% inherited Y-DNA from a male African ancestor, and less than 10% inherited Y-DNA from a male Amerindian ancestor.[37] As these tests measure only the DNA along the direct matrilineal and patrilineal lines of inheritance, they cannot tell what total percentage of European or African ancestry any individual has.

In keeping with Spanish practice, for most of its colonial period, Puerto Rico had laws such as the Regla del Sacar or Gracias al Sacar. A person with African ancestry could be considered legally white if he could prove that at least one person per generation in the last four generations had been legally white. People of black ancestry with known white lineage were classified as white, in contrast to the “one-drop rule” put into law in the early 20th century in the United States. In colonial and antebellum times in certain locations, persons of three-quarters or more white ancestry were considered legally white.[38] If born to slave mothers, however, this status did not overrule their being considered slaves, like Sally Hemings, who was three-quarters white, and her children by Thomas Jefferson, who were seven-eighths white, and all born into slavery.

United States of America

Antebellum era

Creole woman of color with black servant, New Orleans, 1867.

Historians have documented sexual abuse of slave women during the colonial and post-revolutionary slavery times by white men in power: planters, their sons before marriage, overseers, etc., producing multiracial children born into slavery. But, Paul Heinegg has documented that most of the free people of color in the 1790–1810 censuses in the Upper South were descended from unions and marriages during the colonial period in Virginia between white women, who were free or indentured servants, and African or African-American men, servant, slave or free. In the early colonial years, working-class people lived and worked closely together, and slavery was not as much of a racial caste. Slave law had established that children in the colony took the status of their mothers. This meant that multi-racial children born to white women were born free. The colony required them to serve lengthy indentures if the woman was not married, but nonetheless, numerous individuals with African ancestry were born free, and formed more free families. Many of these free people of color became leaders in the African-American community; others continued to marry into the white community.[39][40] His findings have been supported by DNA studies as well.[41]

According to historian F. James Davis,

Rapes occurred, and many slave women were forced to submit regularly to white males or suffer harsh consequences. However, slave girls often courted a sexual relationship with the master, or another male in the family, as a way of gaining distinction among the slaves, avoiding field work, and obtaining special jobs and other favored treatment for their mixed children (Reuter, 1970:129). Sexual contacts between the races also included prostitution, adventure, concubinage, and sometimes love. In rare instances, where free blacks were concerned, there was marriage (Bennett, 1962:243–68).[42]

Some wealthy planters, especially widowers or young men before they married, took women slaves as concubines, as did Virginia planter John Wayles, after being widowed three times. His daughter Martha Wayles, born to his first wife, married Thomas Jefferson, the future president. Wayles took Elizabeth Hemings, a mixed-race slave, as his concubine. The youngest of their six children, who were all three-quarters white and born into slavery, was Sally Hemings. These children were the half-siblings of Jefferson’s wife Martha. Sally Hemings became the concubine of Jefferson several years after he was widowed. They had six children, who were seven-eighths white and born into slavery. Four survived to adulthood, and Jefferson arranged for their freedom, allowing two to “walk away” from Monticello when they became of age and freeing the youngest two sons in his will. Three of these Hemings children passed into white society as adults, and their children were accepted as white. Eston Hemings moved his family to Wisconsin to reduce risk of being kidnapped, and took the surname Jefferson to reflect his ancestry. His sonJohn Wayles Jefferson ran a hotel in the 1850s. Accepted as white, he served as a colonel in the Union Army in the Civil War, later becoming a successful cotton broker in Memphis, Tennessee.

Some mixed-race persons in the South became slave owners, and many who were accepted in the society supported the Confederacy during the Civil War. For example, William Ellison owned 60 slaves. Andrew Durnford of New Orleans, which had a large population of free people of color, mostly of French descent and Catholic culture, was listed in the census as owning 77 slaves. In Louisiana free people of color constituted a third class between white colonists and the mass of slaves.[43]

Other multiracial people became abolitionists and supported the Union. For example, Mary Ellen Pleasant and Thomy Lafon used their fortunes to support the abolitionist cause. Francis E. Dumas of New Orleans, a free person of color, emancipated all his slaves and organized them into a company in the Second Regiment of the Louisiana Native Guards.[44]

Historically in the American South, the term mulatto was also applied at times to persons with mixed Native American and African American ancestry.[25] For example, a 1705 Virginia statute reads as follows:

“And for clearing all manner of doubts which hereafter may happen to arise upon the construction of this act, or any other act, who shall be accounted a mulatto, Be it enacted and declared, and it is hereby enacted and declared, That the child of an Indian and the child, grand child, or great grand child, of a negro shall be deemed, accounted, held and taken to be a mulatto.”[45]

In early American history, the term mulatto was also used to refer to persons of Native American and European ancestry. Certain tribes of Indians of the Inocoplo family in Texas referred to themselves as “mulatto.” [46] At one time, Florida’s laws declared that a person from any number of mixed ancestries would be legally defined as a mulatto, including White/Hispanic, Black/Indian, and just about any other mix as well.[47]

Contemporary era

Further information: Multiracial American

Mulatto was used as an official census racial category in the United States until 1930. (In the early 20th century, several southern states had adopted the one-drop rule as law, and southern Congressmen pressed the US Census Bureau to drop the mulatto category: they wanted all persons to be classified as “black” or “white”.) At that time, the term was primarily applied as a category to persons of mixed African and European descent. During the colonial and early federal period, in the Southern colonies and states, it was sometimes applied persons of any mixed ethnicity, including Native American and European. During the early census years of the United States beginning in 1790, “mulatto” was applied to persons who were identifiably of mixed African-American and Native American ancestry.[48][49][50][51]Mulatto was also used interchangeably with terms like “Turk“, leading to ambiguity when referring to North Africans and Middle Easterners, who were of limited number in the colonies.[52] In the 2000 United States Census, 6,171 Americans self-identified as having mulatto ancestry.[53] Since then, multi-racial people have been allowed to identify as having more than one type of ethnic ancestry.

The term “mulatto” was also used to refer to the children of whites who intermarried with South Asianindentured servants brought to the British American colonies by the East India Company. These were not numerous in the mainland colonies. But a daughter born to a South Asian father and Irish mother in Maryland in 1680 was classified as a “mulatto” and sold into slavery.[54] Starting with Virginia in 1662, colonies adopted the principle of partus sequitur ventrem in slave law, which said that children in the colony were born into the status of their mother. Thus, children born to slave mothers were born into slavery, regardless of who their fathers were; children born to white mothers were free, even if mixed-race.

The term mulatto has fallen out of favor for general use in the United States, and is considered offensive by some.[55] More socially acceptable terms for people of mixed-race include biracial, multiracial, mixed-race, and multi-ethnic; since the 1968 Warren Court ruling of Loving v. Virginia that struck down laws against mixed-race marriages, the number of multiracial births in the United States has risen rapidly.[citation needed]

Colonial references

See also

References

Notes
  1. Jump up^ Corominas describes his doubts on the theory as follows: “[Mulato] does not derive from the Arab muwállad, ‘acculturated foreigner’ and sometimes ‘mulatto’ (see Mdí), as Eguílaz would have it, since this word was pronounced ‘moo-EL-led’ in the Arabic of Spain. In the 19th century, Reinhart Dozy (Supplément aux Dictionnaires Arabes, Vol. II, Leyden, 1881, 841a) rejected this Arabic etymology, indicating the true one, supported by the Arabic nagîl, ‘mulatto’, derived from nagl, ‘mule’.”[14]
  2. Jump up^ In the Dominican Republic, the mulatto population has absorbed the Taíno Amerindians historically present in that country, based on a 1960 census that included colour categories such as white, black, yellow, and mulatto. Since then, racial components have been dropped from the Dominican census.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mulatto

White House Correspondents’ Association

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
White House Correspondents’ Association
White House Correspondents' Association logo.jpg
Abbreviation WHCA
Formation February 25, 1914; 102 years ago
Location
  • Washington, DC
President
Carol Lee (Wall Street Journal)
Website whca.net

The White House Correspondents’ Association (WHCA) is an organization of journalists who cover the White House and the President of the United States. The WHCA was founded on February 25, 1914, by journalists in response to an unfounded rumor that a Congressional committee would select which journalists could attend press conferences of President Woodrow Wilson.[1]

The WHCA operates independently of the White House. Among the more notable issues handled by the WHCA are the credentialing process, access to the President and physical conditions in the White House press briefing rooms.[2][3]

Executives

Many legitimate White House Correspondents are not associated with the WHCA. You do not need to be a member of WHCA to be a White House Correspondent. The WHCA has been the subject of rumors for its treatment of professional foreign born USA Nationals, and it’s habit of “clique” driven favoritism. The WHCA elects four officers and five board members from within its ranks once a year.

  • 2015–2016 Officers[2]
    • President: Carol Lee, [[[The Wall Street Journal|Wall Street Journal]]]
    • Vice President: Jeff Mason, [[[Reuters]]]
    • Secretary: Major Garrett, [CBS]
    • Treasurer: Olivier Knox, [Yahoo]
  • 2015-2016 Board Members
  • Executive Director, Julia Whiston

Past Presidents

Year Name Employer
1914–20 William Wallace Price The Washington Star
1921–22 Frank R. Lamb The Washington Star
1922–23 J. Russell Young The Washington Star
1923–24 E. Ross Bartley Associated Press
1924–25 Isaac Gregg The Sun
1925–26 George E. Durno International News Service
1926–27 John Edwin Nevin The Washington Post
1927–28 John T. Lambert Universal Service
1928–29 J. Russell Young The Washington Star
1929–30 Wilbur Forrest New York Herald Tribune
1930–31 Lewis Wood The New York Times
1931–33 Paul R. Mallon syndicated columnist
1933–34 George E. Durno International News Service
1934–35 Francis M. Stephenson Associated Press
1935–36 Albert J. Warner New York Herald Tribune
1936–37 Frederick J. Storm United Press Associations
1937–38 Walter J. Trohan Chicago Tribune
1938–40 Earl Godwin The Washington Times
1940 Felix Belair Jr. The New York Times
1940–41 Thomas F. Reynolds United Press Associations
1941–42 John C. O’Brien The Philadelphia Inquirer
1942 John C. Henry The Washington Star
1942–43 Douglas B. Cornell Associated Press
1943–44 Paul Wooten The Times-Picayune
1944–45 Merriman Smith United Press Associations
1946–47 Edward T. Folliard The Washington Post
1947–48 Felix Belair Jr. The New York Times
1948–49 Ernest B. Vaccaro Associated Press
1949–50 Robert G. Nixon International News Service
1950–53 Carlton Kent Chicago Sun-Times
1953–54 Robert J. Donovan New York Herald Tribune
1954–55 Anthony H. Leviero The New York Times
1955–56 Laurence H. Burd Chicago Tribune
1956–58 Francis M. Stephenson Daily News
1958–59 Marvin Arrowsmith Associated Press
1959–61 Garnett D. Horner The Washington Star
1961–62 William H.Y. Knighton Jr. The Baltimore Sun
1962–63 Robert Roth Philadelphia Bulletin
1963–64 Merriman Smith United Press International
1964–66 Alan L. Otten The Wall Street Journal
1966–67 Robert E. Thompson Hearst Newspapers
1967–68 Frank Cormier Associated Press
1968–69 Carroll Kilpatrick The Washington Post
1969–70 Charles W. Bailey II Minneapolis Tribune
1970–71 Peter Lisagor Chicago Daily News
1971–72 John P. Sutherland U.S. News & World Report
1972–73 Edgar A. Poe The Times-Picayune
1973–74 Ted Knap Scripps Howard Newspapers
1974–75 James Deakin St. Louis Post-Dispatch
1975–76 Helen Thomas United Press International
1976–77 Lawrence M. O’Rourke Philadelphia Bulletin
1977–78 Paul F. Healy Daily News
1978–79 Aldo Beckman Chicago Tribune
1979–80 Ralph Harris Reuters
1980–81 Robert C. Pierpoint CBS News
1981–82 Clifford Evans RKO General Broadcasting
1982–83 Thomas M. DeFrank Newsweek
1983–84 James R. Gerstenzang Associated Press
1984–85 Sara Fritz Los Angeles Times
1985–86 Gary F. Schuster CBS News
1986–87 Bill Plante CBS News
1987–88 Norman D. Sandler United Press International
1988–89 Jeremiah O’Leary The Washington Times
1989–90 Johanna Neuman USA Today
1990–91 Robert M. Ellison Sheridan Broadcasting
1991–92 Charles Bierbauer CNN
1992–93 Karen Hosler The Baltimore Sun
1993–94 George E. Condon Jr. Copley News Service
1994–95 Kenneth T. Walsh U.S. News & World Report
1995–96 Carl P. Leubsdorf The Dallas Morning News
1996–97 Terence Hunt Associated Press
1997–98 Laurence McQuillan Reuters
1998–99 Stewart Powell Hearst Newspapers
1999–2000 Susan Page USA Today
2000–01 Arlene Dillon CBS News
2001–02 Steve Holland Reuters
2002–03 Bob Deans Cox Newspapers
2003–04 Carl Cannon National Journal
2004–05 Ron Hutcheson Knight Ridder
2005–06 Mark Smith Associated Press TV and Radio
2006–07 Steve Scully C-SPAN
2007–08 Ann Compton ABC News
2008–09 Jennifer Loven Associated Press
2009–10 Edwin Chen Bloomberg
2010–11 David Jackson USA Today
2011–12 Caren Bohan Reuters
2012–13 Ed Henry Fox News
2013–14 Steven Thomma McClatchy
2014–15 Christi Parsons Tribune Media

White House Press Room

The WHCA is responsible for assigning seating in the James S. Brady Press Briefing Room in the West Wing of the White House.

White House Correspondents’ Dinner[edit]

The WHCA’s annual dinner, begun in 1920, has become a Washington, D.C. tradition and is usually attended by the President and Vice President.[1] Fifteen presidents have attended at least one WHCA dinner, beginning with Calvin Coolidgein 1924.[1] The dinner is traditionally held on the evening of the last Saturday in April at the Washington Hilton.

Until 1962, the dinner was open only to men, even though WHCA’s membership included women. At the urging of Helen Thomas, President John F. Kennedy refused to attend the dinner unless the ban on women was dropped.[4]

Prior to World War II, the annual dinner featured singing between courses, a homemade movie and an hour-long, post-dinner show with big-name performers.[1]Since 1983, however, the featured speaker has usually been a comedian, with the dinner taking on the form of a roast of the President and his administration.

The Dinner is a scholarship benefit for gifted students in college journalism programs.

Many annual dinners were cancelled or downsized due to deaths or political crises. The dinner was cancelled in 1930 due to the death of former president William Howard Taft; in 1942, following the United States’ entry into World War II; and in 1951, over what President Harry S. Truman called the “uncertainty of the world situation.”[5]

Dinner criticisms

The WHCD has been increasingly criticized as an example of the coziness between the White House press corps and the Administration.[6] The dinner typically includes a skit, either live or videotaped, by the sitting President in which he mocks himself, for the amusement of the press corps.[6] The press corps, in turn, hobnobs with Administration officials, even those who are unpopular and are not regularly cooperative with the press.[6] Increasing scrutiny by bloggers has contributed to added public focus on this friendliness.[6]

After the 2007 dinner, New York Times columnist Frank Rich implied that the Times will no longer participate in the dinners.[7] Rich said that the event is “a crystallization of the press’s failures in the post-9/11 era” because it “illustrates how easily a propaganda-driven White House can enlist the Washington news media in its shows.”[7]

In recent years, the dinners have drawn increasing public attention, and the guest list grows “more Hollywood”.[3] The attention given to the guest list and entertainers often overshadows the intended purpose of the dinner, which is to “acknowledge award-winners, present scholarships, and give the press and the president an evening of friendly appreciation.”[3] This has led to an atmosphere of coming to the event only to “see and be seen.”[3] This usually takes place at pre-dinner receptions and post-dinner parties hosted by various media organizations, which are often a bigger draw and can be more exclusive than the dinners themselves.[8][9][10]

Performers[edit]

Year Performer(s) Notes
1944 Bob Hope, Fritz Kreisler, Gracie Fields, tenor Pedro Bargas, Fred Waring, Elsie Janis, Ed Gardiner, Nan Merriman, Robert Merrill, and NBC musical director Frank Black with a 40-piece orchestra.[11]
1945 Frank Sinatra, Danny Thomas, Jimmy Durante,Fanny Brice, Danny Kaye, and Garry Mooreshared hosting duties.[12]
1953 Bob Hope[13]
1954 Milton Berle, The Four Step Brothers,[14]Jaye P. Morgan, The McGuire Sisters, and Irving Berlin performed. Berlin performed an original song, “I Still Like Ike,” to honor President Eisenhower.[5]
1956 James Cagney emceed; Nat King Cole, Patti Page, and Dizzy Gillespie performed.[15]
1961 The Peiro Brothers (jugglers), Julie London,Dorothy Provine, violinist Mischa Elman, opera singer Jerome Hines[16]
1962 Peter Sellers, Gwen Verdon, Richard Goodman, and Benny Goodman shared hosting duties.[12]
1963 Merv Griffin emceed; Barbra Streisandperformed.[17]
1964 Duke Ellington, the Smothers Brothers[5]
1968 Richard Pryor[12]
1969 The DisneylandGolden Horseshoe Revue[18]
1975 Danny Thomas[5]
1976 Bob Hope emceed and Chevy Chaseperformed.[19] When President Ford rose to speak, he pretended to fumble, and began his speech with “Good evening. I’m Gerald Ford and you’re not”—a reference to Chase’s catchphrase from Saturday Night Live‘sWeekend Update.[19]
1983 Mark Russell[20]
1984 Rich Little[21]
1987 Jay Leno[22]
1988 Yakov Smirnoff[23]
1989 Jim Morris (Bush impersonator)[24] Garry Shandling made a surprise appearance.[25]
1990 Jim Morris[26]
1991 Sinbad[27]
1992 Paula Poundstone Poundstone was the first solo female host.[28]
1993 Elayne Boosler[29] This was the first year that the dinner was televised on C-SPAN.
1994 Al Franken
1995 Conan O’Brien, Bill Maher
1996 Al Franken
1997 Jon Stewart[30] Norm MacDonald delivered a “Weekend Update” parody.
1998 Ray Romano
1999 Aretha Franklin[12] NBC’s Brian Williams performed a skit.
2000 Jay Leno Outgoing President Bill Clinton also mocked himself in the short film President Clinton: The Final Days, which depicted him as a lonely man closing down a nearly deserted White House, riding a bicycle, and learning about the Internet with the help of actor Mike Maronna.
2001 Darrell Hammond
2002 Drew Carey
2003 Ray Charles President George W. Bush decided to eschew a comedian that year, given the recent invasion of Iraq.[31]
2004 Jay Leno
2005 Cedric the Entertainer First Lady Laura Bush also performed some jokes.
2006 Stephen Colbert

Colbert performed his television satire of a right-wing cable television pundit.[32] Several of Bush’s aides and supporters walked out during Colbert’s speech, and one former aide said that the President had “that look that he’s ready to blow.”[33]Steve Bridges also performed a Bush impersonation.[34] See also: Stephen Colbert at the 2006 White House Correspondents’ Association Dinner.

2007 Rich Little David Letterman appeared by video with a Top 10 list of “favorite George W. Bush moments.”[35]
2008 Craig Ferguson Like his Late Late Show monologues, Ferguson appeared to go off script and started improvising new jokes. It was noted that President Bush had difficulty understanding Ferguson’s Scottish accent.[36]
2009 Wanda Sykes
2010 Jay Leno Leno hosted for the fourth time, more than any other individual in the dinner’s history.[37] Leno had been chosen several weeks before his controversial Tonight Show conflict,[38] and his use of recycled jokes was noted by critics.[39]
2011 Seth Meyers[40][41] Both the president and then-Secretary of DefenseRobert Gates were seen laughing at Meyers’ jokes about the government’s apparent inability to track down Osama Bin Laden, even though the president was a day away from overseeing the operation to assassinate him.
2012 Jimmy Kimmel
2013 Conan O’Brien[42][43]
2014 Joel McHale[44]
2015 Cecily Strong[45] Keegan-Michael Key made a guest appearance as the president’s “anger translator”, Luther, a recurring character from the Comedy Central show Key & Peele.
2016 Larry Wilmore[46]

Awards

The Merriman Smith Memorial Award

Awarded for outstanding examples of deadline reporting.

Year Recipient Distinction Employer Notes & Ref
2000 Gary Nurenberg Broadcast KTLA-Tribune Broadcasting [47]
Jodi Enda Print Knight-Ridder Newspapers [47]
2001 Jim Angle Broadcast Fox News Channel [48]
Sandra Sobieraj Print Associated Press [48]
2002 Peter Maer Broadcast CBS News [49]
Ron Fournier Print Associated Press [49]
2003 Jim Angle Broadcast Fox News Channel [50]
David Sanger Print The New York Times [50]
2004 Mike Allen Print The Washington Post [51]
2005 Ron Fournier Print Associated Press [52]
Jackie Calmes Print The Wall Street Journal Honorable Mention[52]
2006 Terry Moran Broadcast ABC News [53]
Deb Riechmann Print Associated Press [53]
2007 Martha Raddatz Broadcast ABC News [54]
David Sanger Print The New York Times [54]
2008 Ed Henry Broadcast CNN [55]
Deb Riechmann Print Associated Press [55]
2009 David Greene Broadcast NPR [56]
Sandra Sobieraj Westfall Print People magazine [56]
2010 Jake Tapper Broadcast ABC News [57]
Ben Feller Print Associated Press [57]
2011 Jake Tapper Broadcast ABC News [58]
Dan Balz Print The Washington Post [58]
2012 Jake Tapper Broadcast ABC News [59]
Glenn Thrush, Carrie Budoff Brown, Manu Raju and John Bresnahan Print Politico [59]

The Aldo Beckman Memorial Award

Awarded for journalistic excellence.

Year Recipient Employer Ref
2000 Jeanne Cummings The Wall Street Journal [47]
2001 Steve Thomma Knight Ridder [48]
2002 Anne E. Kornblut The Boston Globe [49]
2003 Dana Milbank The Washington Post [50]
2004 David Sanger The New York Times [51]
2005 Susan Page USA Today [52]
2006 Carl Cannon National Journal [53]
2007 Kenneth T. Walsh U.S. News & World Report [54]
2008 Alexis Simendinger National Journal [55]
2009 Michael Abramowitz The Washington Post [56]
2010 Mark Knoller CBS News [57]
2011 Peter Baker The New York Times [58]
2012 Scott Wilson The Washington Post [59]

The Edgar A. Poe Memorial Award

Awarded for excellence on a story of national or regional significance.

Year Recipient Employer Notes & Ref
2000 Sam Roe The Toledo Blade [47]
2001 Elizabeth Marchak, Dave Davis and Joan Mazzolini The Plain Dealer [48]
John Barry and Evan Thomas Newsweek Honorable Mention[48]
David Pace Associated Press Honorable Mention[48]
2002 Evan Thomas and Mark Hosenball, & Martha Brant and Roy Gutman Newsweek [49]
Staff The Seattle Times Honorable Mention[49]
Staff The Dayton Daily News Honorable Mention[49]
2003 Sean Naylor Army Times [50]
Staff South Florida Sun-Sentinel Honorable Mention[50]
Michael Berens Chicago Tribune Honorable Mention[50]
2004 Russell Corollo and Mei-ling Hopgood Dayton Daily News [51]
Christopher H. Schmitt and Edward T. Pound U.S. News & World Report Honorable Mention[51]
Michael Hudson Southern Exposure Magazine Honorable Mention[51]
Warren P. Strobel and Jonathan S. Landy Knight Ridder Honorable Mention[51]
Rod Nordland and Michael Hirsh Newsweek Honorable Mention[51]
Sami Yousafzai, Ron Moreau, and Michael Hirsh Newsweek Honorable Mention[51]
Fareed Zakaria Newsweek Honorable Mention[51]
2005 Mark Fainaru-Wada and Lance Williams The San Francisco Chronicle [52]
Donald Barlett and James Steele Time Magazine Honorable Mention[52]
2006 Marcus Stern and Jerry Kammer Copley News Service [53]
Staff Time Magazine Honorable Mention[53]
Russell Carollo and Larry Kaplow Dayton Daily News Honorable Mention[53]
2007 Joan Ryan The San Francisco Chronicle [54]
2008 Paul Shukovsky, Tracy Johnson, and Daniel Lathrop Seattle Post-Intelligencer [55]
2009 Michael J. Berens and Ken Armstrong The Seattle Times [56]
2010 Suzanne Bohan and Sandy Kleffman Contra Costa Times, California [57]
2011 Michael Berens The Seattle Times [58]
2012 Matt Apuzzo, Adam Goldman, Eileen Sullivan and Chris Hawley Associated Press [59]

See also

 

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