The Pronk Pops Show 659, April 15, 2016, Story 1: Limbaugh Exposes Audio Dirty Trick On Cruz — Another Fox SNAFU (Situation Normal All Foxed Up) — Similar Audio Feed Problems With Trump Speech ABC Audio Feed– Audio On Limbaugh Show Experiences Similar Audio Glitch — Verified All Over America –New York Values? — Limousine Liberal Big Media Values — New York, New York — Breaking News: 7.1 Magnitude Earthquake in Southern Japan — Videos

Posted on April 15, 2016. Filed under: 2016 Presidential Campaign, 2016 Presidential Candidates, Blogroll, Breaking News, College, Countries, Donald J. Trump, Donald Trump, United States of America | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Project_1

The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 659: April 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 658: April 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 657: April 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 656: April 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 655: April 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 654: April 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 653: April 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 652: April 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 651: April 4, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 650: April 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 649: March 31, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 648: March 30, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 647: March 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 646: March 28, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 645: March 24, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 644: March 23, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 643: March 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 642: March 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 641: March 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 640: March 10, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 639: March 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 638: March 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 637: March 7, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 636: March 4, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 635: March 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 634: March 2, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 633: March 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 632: February 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 631: February 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 630: February 24, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 629: February 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 628: February 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 627: February 18, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 626: February 17, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 625: February 16, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 624: February 15, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 623: February 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 622: February 11, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 621: February 10, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 620: February 9, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 619: February 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 618: February 5, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 617: February 4, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 616: February 3, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 615: February 1, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 614: January 29, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 613: January 28, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 612: January 27, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 611: January 26, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 610: January 25, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 609: January 22, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 608: January 21, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 607: January 20, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 606: January 19, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 605: January 15, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 604: January 14, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 603: January 13, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 602: January 12, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 601: January 11, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 600: January 8, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 599: January 6, 2016

Pronk Pops Show 598: January 5, 2016

Story 1: Limbaugh Exposes Audio Dirty Trick On Cruz — Another Fox SNAFU (Situation Normal All Foxed Up) — Similar Audio Feed Problems With Trump Speech ABC Audio Feed– Audio On Limbaugh Show Experiences Similar Audio Glitch — Verified All Over America –New York Values? — Limousine Liberal Big Media Values — New York, New York — Breaking News: 7.1 Magnitude Earthquake in Southern Japan — Videos

grand hyatt

NEW YORK, NY - APRIL 14: Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump speaks during the 2016 annual New York State Republican Gala on April 14, 2016 in New York City. Donald Trump, Senator Ted Cruz of Texas and Gov. John R. Kasich of Ohio take part in a fund-raiser for the state Republican Party, being the first time they are seen together since they decided to abandon the so-called loyalty pledge they signed last year to support whoever becomes the party nominee. (Photo by Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images)

donald j trump

 tjohn kasich

Republican U.S. presidential candidate Ted Cruz speaks at the 2016 New York State Republican Gala in New York City, April 14, 2016. REUTERS/Brendan McDermid

trump ice rink trump ice rink3-wollman-rink

wollmaniceskatingrink02

Frank Sinatra – “Theme from New York New York” (Concert Collection)

Frank Sinatra-New York,New York-Lyrics

Lyrics

Start spreadin’ the news, I’m leavin’ today
I want to be a part of it
New York, New York
These vagabond shoes, are longing to stray
Right through the very heart of it
New York, New York

I want to wake up, in a city that never sleeps
And find I’m king of the hill
Top of the heap

These little town blues, are melting away
I’ll make a brand new start of it
In old New York
If I can make it there, I’ll make it anywhere
It’s up to you, New York..New York

New York…New York
I want to wake up, in a city that never sleeps
And find I’m A number one, top of the list
King of the hill, A number one….

These little town blues, are melting away
I’ll make a brand new start of it
In old New York
If I can make it there, I’ll make it anywhere
It’s up to you, New York..New York New York!!!

Rush Limbaugh – April 15, 2016 Full Podcast

Ted Cruz FULL SPEECH at 2016 New York State Republican Gala (4-14-16)

John Kasich FULL Speech at 2016 New York State Republican Gala (4-14-16)

FULL SPEECH: Donald Trump at the New York State Republican Gala (4-14-16) New York GOP Gala

LIVE Donald Trump New York State Republican Gala Grand Hyatt FULL SPEECH HD STREAM (4-14-16)

Q15 – Cruz, Trump – What are “New York Values?”

Donald Trump On “New York Values”

Donald Trump on New York Values – In His Own Words

Trump talks New York values at GOP gala

What does limousine liberal mean?

Trump widens lead in Fox News Poll, but voters have concerns

Latest Polls

Friday, April 15
Race/Topic(Click to Sort) Poll Results Spread
New York Republican Presidential Primary 0ptimus (R)* Trump 49, Kasich 23, Cruz 14 Trump +26
Arizona Senate – McCain vs. Kirkpatrick Behavior Research Center McCain 42, Kirkpatrick 42 Tie
President Obama Job Approval Gallup Approve 48, Disapprove 47 Approve +1
President Obama Job Approval Rasmussen Reports Approve 49, Disapprove 51 Disapprove +2
Thursday, April 14
Race/Topic(Click to Sort) Poll Results Spread
2016 Democratic Presidential Nomination FOX News Clinton 48, Sanders 46 Clinton +2
2016 Republican Presidential Nomination FOX News Trump 45, Cruz 27, Kasich 25 Trump +18
2016 Democratic Presidential Nomination CBS News Clinton 50, Sanders 44 Clinton +6
2016 Republican Presidential Nomination CBS News Trump 42, Cruz 29, Kasich 18 Trump +13
New York Democratic Presidential Primary NBC 4 NY/WSJ/Marist Clinton 57, Sanders 40 Clinton +17
Pennsylvania Republican Presidential Primary Monmouth Trump 44, Cruz 28, Kasich 23 Trump +16
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton FOX News Clinton 48, Trump 41 Clinton +7
General Election: Cruz vs. Clinton FOX News Clinton 45, Cruz 44 Clinton +1
General Election: Kasich vs. Clinton FOX News Kasich 49, Clinton 40 Kasich +9
General Election: Trump vs. Sanders FOX News Sanders 53, Trump 39 Sanders +14
General Election: Cruz vs. Sanders FOX News Sanders 51, Cruz 39 Sanders +12
General Election: Kasich vs. Sanders FOX News Sanders 47, Kasich 43 Sanders +4
General Election: Trump vs. Clinton CBS News Clinton 50, Trump 40 Clinton +10
General Election: Cruz vs. Clinton CBS News Clinton 45, Cruz 42 Clinton +3
General Election: Kasich vs. Clinton CBS News Kasich 47, Clinton 41 Kasich +6
General Election: Trump vs. Sanders CBS News Sanders 53, Trump 36 Sanders +17
General Election: Cruz vs. Sanders CBS News Sanders 50, Cruz 38 Sanders +12
General Election: Kasich vs. Sanders CBS News Sanders 46, Kasich 41 Sanders +5
President Obama Job Approval FOX News Approve 49, Disapprove 47 Approve +2
President Obama Job Approval CBS News Approve 46, Disapprove 45 Approve +1
President Obama Job Approval Reuters/Ipsos Approve 48, Disapprove 48 Tie
Congressional Job Approval CBS News Approve 14, Disapprove 77 Disapprove +63
Direction of Country CBS News Right Direction 30, Wrong Track 66 Wrong Track +36
Direction of Country Reuters/Ipsos Right Direction 25, Wrong Track 63 Wrong Track +38

http://www.realclearpolitics.com/epolls/latest_polls/

 

The Green Papers
2016 Presidential Primaries, Caucuses, and Conventions
Copyright www.flags.net/UNST.htm Republican Convention
Presidential Nominating Process
Debate –  Fox – Cleveland, Ohio: Thursday 6 August 2015
Debate – CNN – Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, Simi Valley, California: Wednesday 16 September 2015
Debate – CNBC – Boulder, Colorado: Wednesday 28 October 2015
Debate – Fox Business News – Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Tuesday 10 November 2015
Debate – CNN – Las Vegas, Nevada: Tuesday 15 December 2015
Debate – Fox Business Channel, Charleston, South Carolina: Thursday 14 January 2016
Debate – Fox – Iowa: Thursday 28 January 2016
Debate – CBS – South Carolina: February 2016 (presumably)
Debate – NBC/Telemundo – Texas: Friday 26 February 2016
Debate – CNN – TBD: March 2016 (presumably)
Debate – Salt Lake City, Utah (announced 20 February 2016): Monday 21 March 2016
41st Republican National Convention: Monday 18 July – Thursday 21 July 2016
Republicans
Candidate Popular
Vote
Delegate Votes
Soft
Pledged
Soft
Unpledged
Soft
Total
Hard Total
Trump, Donald John, Sr. 8,263,231  37.01% 757  32.04% 1   0.92% 758  30.66% 757  30.62%
Cruz, Rafael Edward “Ted” 6,324,157  28.33% 533  22.56% 11  10.09% 544  22.01% 529  21.40%
Rubio, Marco A. 3,483,761  15.60% 173   7.32%   173   7.00% 173   7.00%
Kasich, John Richard 2,982,743  13.36% 144   6.09%   144   5.83% 144   5.83%
Carson, Benjamin Solomon “Ben”, Sr. 698,989   3.13% 9   0.38%   9   0.36% 9   0.36%
Bush, John Ellis “Jeb” 257,920   1.16% 4   0.17%   4   0.16% 4   0.16%
Uncommitted 68,400   0.31% 11   0.47% 17  15.60% 28   1.13% 64   2.59%
Paul, Randal H. “Rand” 59,036   0.26% 1   0.04%   1   0.04% 1   0.04%
Christie, Christopher James “Chris” 54,043   0.24%        
Huckabee, Michael Dale “Mike” 48,740   0.22% 1   0.04%   1   0.04% 1   0.04%
Fiorina, Carleton Sneed “Carly” 36,107   0.16% 1   0.04%   1   0.04% 1   0.04%
Santorum, Richard John “Rick” 16,525   0.07%        
No Preference 9,312   0.04%        
Graham, Lindsey Olin 5,687   0.03%        
Gray, Elizabeth 5,455   0.02%        
(others) 3,382   0.02%        
Gilmore, James Stuart “Jim”, III 2,896   0.01%        
Pataki, George E. 2,006   0.01%        
Others 1,586   0.01%        
Cook, Timothy “Tim” 517   0.00%        
Jindal, Piyush “Bobby” 221   0.00%        
Martin, Andy 202   0.00%        
Witz, Richard P.H. 109   0.00%        
Lynch, James P. “Jim”, Sr. 100   0.00%        
Messina, Peter 79   0.00%        
Cullison, Brooks Andrews 56   0.00%        
Lynch, Frank 47   0.00%        
Robinson, Joe 44   0.00%        
Comley, Stephen Bradley, Sr. 32   0.00%        
Prag, Chomi 16   0.00%        
Dyas, Jacob Daniel “Daniel”, Sr. 15   0.00%        
McCarthy, Stephen John 12   0.00%        
Iwachiw, Walter N. 9   0.00%        
Huey, Kevin Glenn 8   0.00%        
Drozd, Matt 6   0.00%        
Mann, Robert Lawrence 5   0.00%        
Hall, David Eames          
(available)   729  30.85% 80  73.39% 809  32.73% 789  31.92%
Total 22,325,454 100.00% 2,363 100.00% 109 100.00% 2,472 100.00% 2,472 100.00%

HOW TRUMP CAN LOCK UP GOP NOMINATION BEFORE THE CONVENTION

To all the political junkies yearning for a contested Republican convention this summer: not so fast.

It’s still possible for Donald Trump to clinch the nomination by the end of the primaries on June 7. His path is narrow and perilous. But it’s plausible and starts with a big victory Tuesday in his home state New York primary.

Trump is the only candidate with a realistic chance of reaching the 1,237 delegates needed to clinch the nomination before the July convention in Cleveland. His rivals, Texas Sen. Ted Cruz and Ohio Gov. John Kasich, can only hope to stop him.

If Cruz and Kasich are successful, politicos across the country will have the summer of their dreams – a convention with an uncertain outcome. But Trump can put an end to those dreams, and he can do it without any of the 150 or so delegates who will go to the convention free to support the candidate of their choice.

What comes next isn’t a prediction, but rather, a way in which Trump could win the nomination outright on June 7.

To be sure, Trump will have to start doing a lot better than he has so far. He gets that chance starting Tuesday, beginning the day with 744 delegates.

NEW YORK

There are 95 delegates at stake in the Empire State, and it’s important for Trump to win a big majority of them. It won’t be easy.

There are 14 statewide delegates and three delegates in each congressional district.

If a candidate gets more than 50 percent of the statewide vote, he gets all 14 delegates. Otherwise, he has to share them with other candidates.

If a candidate gets more than 50 percent of the vote in a congressional district, he gets all three delegates. Otherwise, again, he has to share.

Trump leads statewide in the most recent preference polls, with right around 50 percent. New York is a large and diverse state, so he probably won’t win all the congressional districts.

Let’s say Trump does make it to 50 percent, but Kasich or Cruz wins five congressional districts; Trump will take 77 delegates on the night.

Trump’s running total: 821 delegates.

APRIL 26

Five states have primaries on April 26, with 172 delegates at stake: Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland and Rhode Island.

Pennsylvania could be trouble for Trump. The state has a unique system in which 54 delegates – three from each congressional district – are listed by name on the ballot, with no information for voters to know which candidate they support.

That means even if Trump wins Pennsylvania, he’s only guaranteed to claim 17 of the state’s 71 delegates.

Connecticut awards 13 delegates to the statewide winner and three to the winner of each congressional district, for a total of 28. The New York real estate mogul needs to win his neighboring state. If he does well, he could get 22 delegates.

Delaware’s 16 delegates are winner-take-all, increasing the importance of this small state. If Trump loses Delaware, he has to make it up elsewhere.

Maryland awards 14 delegates to the statewide winner and three to the winner of each congressional district, for a total of 38. Recent polls show Trump with a significant lead. If he does well, he could get 32 delegates.

Trump can afford to lose Rhode Island, which awards its 19 delegates proportionally.

In all, it’s a day on which we’ll say Trump claims 93 delegates.

Trump’s running total: 914.

MAY

Five states hold contests in May, with a total of 199 delegates at stake: Indiana, Nebraska, West Virginia, Oregon and Washington State.

Indiana’s May 3 primary is important for Trump. The state awards 30 delegates to the statewide winner and three delegates to the winner of each congressional district, for a total of 57. If Trump can win the state and a majority of the congressional districts, he could collect 45 delegates.

West Virginia is another unique state in which voters elect 31 delegates in the May 10 primary. In West Virginia, however, the delegates will be listed on the ballot along with the presidential candidate they support. If Trump does well here, he could pick up 20 or more delegates.

Nebraska’s 36 delegates are winner-take-all. But if Nebraska is like its neighbors Kansas and Iowa, two states Cruz won earlier in the race, Trump can’t count on these delegates.

Oregon and Washington state award delegates proportionally, so even the losers get some.

We’ll give Trump 70 delegates for the month.

Trump’s running total: 984.

JUNE 7

This could be Trump’s D-Day. Or his Waterloo.

Five states vote on June 7, with 303 delegates up for grabs. The biggest prize is California, along with New Jersey, South Dakota, Montana and New Mexico.

The only state Trump can afford to lose is New Mexico, which awards 24 delegates proportionally.

New Jersey, South Dakota and Montana are winner-take-all, with a total of 107 delegates.

California is more complicated, with 172 delegates at stake. The statewide winner gets only 13. The other 159 are awarded according to the results in individual congressional districts.

Each of the state’s 53 congressional districts has three delegates. You win the district, you get all three.

For Trump to clinch the nomination on June 7 – the last day of the primary season – he has to win a big majority of California’s congressional districts. If he wins 39 districts, he gets 130 delegates.

On the last voting day of the primary campaign, we’ll say Trump wins 242 delegates.

Trump’s running total: 1,226 – or 11 delegates short of the magic number.

OH, WAIT!

Missouri has certified the results of its March 15 primary, with Trump beating Cruz by 1,965 votes. If the results survive a potential recount, Trump wins Missouri and another 12 delegates.

Trump’s total: 1,238.

Cue the balloons.

http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/U/US_GOP_2016_TRUMPS_PATH?SITE=AP&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT&CTIME=2016-04-16-09-02-40

Angry and frustrated upstate New York swings behind Trump

What do a New York lawyer, a business owner who calls himself a left-leaning Republican and a construction worker who elected Barack Obama have in common? They’re voting for Donald Trump.

None of them live on the breadline. They share surprisingly varied opinions. Yet they are profoundly frustrated — with the economy, with career politicians and with perceptions of declining American prestige.

The Republican frontrunner’s supporters are often portrayed as undereducated, underearning whites.

But in upstate New York, where Trump calls himself “the most popular person that’s ever lived,” the breadth of support spotlights his enduring appeal, albeit as the Republican elites plot to bring him down.

The most divisive presidential campaign in a generation hits New York on Tuesday.

“I don’t think he’s the Hitler everyone puts him out to be, I really truly don’t and as a New Yorker I grew up with the guy,” says Lloyd Knecht, 59, who owns a heating and air conditioning company that employs 30 people.

Knecht works in Binghamton, one of the fastest-shrinking towns in America and a pale imitation of an illustrious past where IBM was founded more than a century ago and where the flight simulator was invented.

The gradual departure of IBM and other manufacturing corporations, taking jobs and technology overseas, has left behind unemployment above the US average and a poverty rate higher than the state average.

Knecht worries about rising insurance and wage bills, though he believes in “some sort of national health plan.” He fears the economy is becoming sluggish. He supported Obama’s decriminalization of petty drug crimes.

Trump’s populist message promising to bring back jobs and restore national pride with his say-it-how-it-is manner strike a deep chord in an area that has long felt forgotten by state and federal politicians.

Bernie Sanders, trailing Hillary Clinton for the Democratic presidential ticket, was this week the first candidate to visit Binghamton since George W. Bush 16 years ago.

– Heroin-addicted ghost town –

Ahead of next week’s crucial primary Trump leads the Republican polls in New York state on 53.4 percent to Ohio Governor John Kasich’s 21.7 percent and Texas Senator Ted Cruz’s 17.6 percent, according to a RealClearPolitics average.

Christopher Love, a union member who has lived in the area 42 years and works in construction, says Binghamton has gone from “valley of opportunity” to a “ghost town” where young people either leave or get hooked on heroin.

Trump, a billionaire real-estate mogul and reality television star, is the only candidate talking about issues that matter to him, says Love.

“We’ve got to do something different. What we’ve been doing the last 30 years isn’t working,” he told AFP, wearing a Trump 2016 trucker hat. His octogenarian father-in-law, who described Democrat John F. Kennedy as the best US president in his lifetime, is also supporting Trump.

Binghamton supporters are not blind to Trump’s shortcomings — his tabloid divorces, business flops, dubious policy pronouncements, talk of banning Muslims. But it just makes him more human, they argue. He may be imperfect, but he’s the best of the bunch, they say.

Those who spoke to AFP dismissed Cruz as too radical, too religious, unlikeable — even “scary.”

They write off Kasich and have no time for Clinton, a two-time New York senator, even if one couple admitted to voting for her in the past.

“I think it’s just the frustration of people who have voted for many years and they’re getting disgusted, tired, desensitized even,” said Love, 49, asked about Trump’s appeal.

– You’re kidding –

Conrad Taylor, a 19-year-old student and elected Democrat on the Binghamton city council, says it is rural areas where Trump, 69, is making hay.

“Would I ever vote for Trump in a million years? No, but I can easily identify why so many people in our area think that he’s a good candidate,” he said.

People are angry with Republican grandees conspiring to deny Trump, who has never held elected office, the nomination — exposing a gulf between Washington’s elites and party rank-and-file.

“Frankly, I’m fed up,” said Kevin Guyette, a lifelong Republican who specializes in personal injury and criminal defense law — and another backing Trump for the White House.

He is exasperated by Republicans who deny climate change, marginalize women, explain the world through the Bible and refuse to entertain Obama’s pick for the Supreme Court.

“They make some outlandish comments that defy logic,” he said, appearing to ignore remarks by Trump that have seen him accused of everything from misogyny to inciting violence at his rallies.

But upstate New York is by no means monolithic. Trump has a favorability rating of 57 percent and an unfavorable rating of 39 percent among upstate Republicans, says Don Levy, director of the Siena College Research Institute, underlining how he sharply splits opinion.

Even in death, it seems, that remains.

Barbara Fuller, a retired music teacher and Democrat, says her late father supported Trump. But when she mentioned that at his funeral, there was disgust.

“They were all like, ‘You’re kidding. No, no, no,'” she said.

https://www.yahoo.com/news/angry-frustrated-upstate-york-swings-behind-trump-022716832.html

4/15/2016 — Major Earthquakes Strike Japan — Pacific Unrest Obvious — West Coast USA on watch

Magnitude 7.3 earthquake hits southern Japan. Kumamoto, 16 April, 2016. new earthquake

7.1 Magnitude Earthquake Hits Southern Japan | MSNBC

M 7.0 EARTHQUAKE – KYUSHU, JAPAN – April 15, 2016

Earthquake : Powerful 7.1 Earthquake rocks Southern Japan after 6.2 foreshock (Apr 15, 2016)

Multiple Earthquakes Hit Japan – 7.1 Quake Hits Japan – Tsunami Advisory – The Real Story

EARTHQUAKES IN JAPAN – WHAT CAUSES THEM? APRIL 15, 2016 KUNAMOTO

Bill Nye the Science Guy – Earthquakes (richter scale)

BN Pangaea and Plate Tectonics I

4.0-9.0 Magnitude Earthquake Simulation

JAPAN – The Earthquake – 15 Minutes Live-Cam

Most Powerful Earthquake in the World Ever – Full Documentary

Richter magnitude scale

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Earthquake Richter Scale.jpg

The Richter magnitude scale (also Richter scale) assigns a magnitude number to quantify the energy released by anearthquake. The Richter scale, developed in the 1930s, is a base-10logarithmic scale, which defines magnitude as the logarithm of the ratio of the amplitude of the seismic waves to an arbitrary, minor amplitude.

As measured with a seismometer, an earthquake that registers 5.0 on the Richter scale has a shaking amplitude 10 times that of an earthquake that registered 4.0, and thus corresponds to a release of energy 31.6 times that released by the lesser earthquake.[1] The Richter scale was succeeded in the 1970s by the moment magnitude scale. This is now the scale used by the United States Geological Survey to estimate magnitudes for all modern large earthquakes.[2]

Development

In 1935, the seismologistsCharles Francis Richter and Beno Gutenberg, of the California Institute of Technology, developed the (future) Richter magnitude scale, specifically for measuring earthquakes in a given area of study in California, as recorded and measured with the Wood-Anderson torsion seismograph. Originally, Richter reported mathematical values to the nearest quarter of a unit, but the values later were reported with one decimal place; the local magnitude scale compared the magnitudes of different earthquakes.[1] Richter derived his earthquake-magnitude scale from the apparent magnitude scale used to measure the brightness of stars.[3]

Richter established a magnitude 0 event to be an earthquake that would show a maximum, combined horizontal displacement of 1.0 µm (0.00004 in.) on a seismogram recorded with a Wood-Anderson torsion seismograph 100 km (62 mi.) from the earthquakeepicenter. That fixed measure was chosen to avoid negative values for magnitude, given that the slightest earthquakes that could be recorded and located at the time were around magnitude 3.0. The Richter magnitude scale itself has no lower limit, and contemporary seismometers can register, record, and measure earthquakes with negative magnitudes.

M_\text{L} (local magnitude) was not designed to be applied to data with distances to the hypocenter of the earthquake that were greater than 600 km (373 mi.).[2] For national and local seismological observatories, the standard magnitude scale in the 21st century is still M_\text{L}. This scale saturates[clarification needed] at around M_\text{L} = 7,[4] because the high frequency waves recorded locally have wavelengths shorter than the rupture lengths[clarification needed] of large earthquakes.

Later, to express the size of earthquakes around the planet, Gutenberg and Richter developed a surface wave magnitude scale (M_\text{s}) and a body wave magnitudescale (M_\text{b}).[5] These are types of waves that are recorded at teleseismic distances. The two scales were adjusted such that they were consistent with the M_\text{L}scale. That adjustment succeeded better with the M_\text{s} scale than with the M_\text{b} scale. Each scale saturates when the earthquake is greater than magnitude 8.0.

Because of this, researchers in the 1970s developed the moment magnitude scale (M_\text{w}). The older magnitude-scales were superseded by methods for calculating the seismic moment, from which was derived the moment magnitude scale.

About the origins of the Richter magnitude scale, C.F. Richter said:

I found a [1928] paper by Professor K. Wadati of Japan in which he compared large earthquakes by plotting the maximum ground motion against [the] distance to the epicenter. I tried a similar procedure for our stations, but the range between the largest and smallest magnitudes seemed unmanageably large. Dr. Beno Gutenberg then made the natural suggestion to plot the amplitudes logarithmically. I was lucky, because logarithmic plots are a device of the devil.

Details

The Richter scale was defined in 1935 for particular circumstances and instruments; the particular circumstances refer to it being defined for Southern California and “implicitly incorporates the attenuative properties of Southern California crust and mantle.”[6] The particular instrument used would become saturated by strong earthquakes and unable to record high values. The scale was replaced in the 1970s by the moment magnitude scale (MMS); for earthquakes adequately measured by the Richter scale, numerical values are approximately the same. Although values measured for earthquakes now are M_w (MMS), they are frequently reported by the press as Richter values, even for earthquakes of magnitude over 8, when the Richter scale becomes meaningless. Anything above 5 is classified as a risk by the USGS.[citation needed]

The Richter and MMS scales measure the energy released by an earthquake; another scale, the Mercalli intensity scale, classifies earthquakes by their effects, from detectable by instruments but not noticeable, to catastrophic. The energy and effects are not necessarily strongly correlated; a shallow earthquake in a populated area with soil of certain types can be far more intense in effects than a much more energetic deep earthquake in an isolated area.

Several scales have historically been described as the “Richter scale”, especially the local magnitudeM_\text{L} and the surface wave M_\text{s} scale. In addition, the body wave magnitude, m_\text{b}, and the moment magnitude, M_\text{w}, abbreviated MMS, have been widely used for decades. A couple of new techniques to measure magnitude are in the development stage by seismologists.

All magnitude scales have been designed to give numerically similar results. This goal has been achieved well for M_\text{L}, M_\text{s}, and M_\text{w}.[7][8] The m_\text{b} scale gives somewhat different values than the other scales. The reason for so many different ways to measure the same thing is that at different distances, for differenthypocentral depths, and for different earthquake sizes, the amplitudes of different types of elastic waves must be measured.

M_\text{L} is the scale used for the majority of earthquakes reported (tens of thousands) by local and regional seismological observatories. For large earthquakes worldwide, the moment magnitude scale (MMS) is most common, although M_\text{s} is also reported frequently.

The seismic moment, M_o, is proportional to the area of the rupture times the average slip that took place in the earthquake, thus it measures the physical size of the event. M_\text{w} is derived from it empirically as a quantity without units, just a number designed to conform to the M_\text{s} scale.[9] A spectral analysis is required to obtain M_o, whereas the other magnitudes are derived from a simple measurement of the amplitude of a specifically defined wave.

All scales, except M_\text{w}, saturate for large earthquakes, meaning they are based on the amplitudes of waves which have a wavelength shorter than the rupture length of the earthquakes. These short waves (high frequency waves) are too short a yardstick to measure the extent of the event. The resulting effective upper limit of measurement for M_L is about 7[4] and about 8.5[4] for M_\text{s}.[10]

New techniques to avoid the saturation problem and to measure magnitudes rapidly for very large earthquakes are being developed. One of these is based on the long period P-wave;[11] the other is based on a recently discovered channel wave.[12]

The energy release of an earthquake,[13] which closely correlates to its destructive power, scales with the 32 power of the shaking amplitude. Thus, a difference in magnitude of 1.0 is equivalent to a factor of 31.6 (=({10^{1.0}})^{(3/2)}) in the energy released; a difference in magnitude of 2.0 is equivalent to a factor of 1000 (=({10^{2.0}})^{(3/2)} ) in the energy released.[14] The elastic energy radiated is best derived from an integration of the radiated spectrum, but an estimate can be based on m_\text{b} because most energy is carried by the high frequency waves.

Richter magnitudes

Earthquake severity.jpg

The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the amplitude of waves recorded by seismographs (adjustments are included to compensate for the variation in the distance between the various seismographs and the epicenter of the earthquake). The original formula is:[15]

M_\mathrm{L} = \log_{10} A - \log_{10} A_\mathrm{0}(\delta) = \log_{10} [A / A_\mathrm{0}(\delta)],\

where A is the maximum excursion of the Wood-Anderson seismograph, the empirical function A0 depends only on theepicentral distance of the station, \delta. In practice, readings from all observing stations are averaged after adjustment with station-specific corrections to obtain the M_\text{L} value.

Because of the logarithmic basis of the scale, each whole number increase in magnitude represents a tenfold increase in measured amplitude; in terms of energy, each whole number increase corresponds to an increase of about 31.6 times the amount of energy released, and each increase of 0.2 corresponds to a doubling of the energy released.

Events with magnitudes greater than 4.5 are strong enough to be recorded by a seismograph anywhere in the world, so long as its sensors are not located in the earthquake’s shadow.

The following describes the typical effects of earthquakes of various magnitudes near the epicenter. The values are typical only. They should be taken with extreme caution, since intensity and thus ground effects depend not only on the magnitude, but also on the distance to the epicenter, the depth of the earthquake’s focus beneath the epicenter, the location of the epicenter and geological conditions (certain terrains can amplify seismic signals).

Magnitude Description Mercalli intensity Average earthquake effects Average frequency of occurrence (estimated)
Less than 2.0 Micro I Microearthquakes, not felt, or felt rarely. Recorded by seismographs.[16] Continual/several million per year
2.0–2.9 Minor I to II Felt slightly by some people. No damage to buildings. Over one million per year
3.0–3.9 II to IV Often felt by people, but very rarely causes damage. Shaking of indoor objects can be noticeable. Over 100,000 per year
4.0–4.9 Light IV to VI Noticeable shaking of indoor objects and rattling noises. Felt by most people in the affected area. Slightly felt outside. Generally causes none to minimal damage. Moderate to significant damage very unlikely. Some objects may fall off shelves or be knocked over. 10,000 to 15,000 per year
5.0–5.9 Moderate VI to VIII Can cause damage of varying severity to poorly constructed buildings. At most, none to slight damage to all other buildings. Felt by everyone. 1,000 to 1,500 per year
6.0–6.9 Strong VII to X Damage to a moderate number of well-built structures in populated areas. Earthquake-resistant structures survive with slight to moderate damage. Poorly designed structures receive moderate to severe damage. Felt in wider areas; up to hundreds of miles/kilometers from the epicenter. Strong to violent shaking in epicentral area. 100 to 150 per year
7.0–7.9 Major VIII or greater[17] Causes damage to most buildings, some to partially or completely collapse or receive severe damage. Well-designed structures are likely to receive damage. Felt across great distances with major damage mostly limited to 250 km from epicenter. 10 to 20 per year
8.0–8.9 Great Major damage to buildings, structures likely to be destroyed. Will cause moderate to heavy damage to sturdy or earthquake-resistant buildings. Damaging in large areas. Felt in extremely large regions. One per year
9.0 and greater At or near total destruction – severe damage or collapse to all buildings. Heavy damage and shaking extends to distant locations. Permanent changes in ground topography. One per 10 to 50 years

(Based on U.S. Geological Survey documents.)[18]

The intensity and death toll depend on several factors (earthquake depth, epicenter location, population density, to name a few) and can vary widely.

Minor earthquakes occur every day and hour. On the other hand, great earthquakes occur once a year, on average. The largest recorded earthquake was theGreat Chilean earthquake of May 22, 1960, which had a magnitude of 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale.[19] The larger the magnitude, the less frequent the earthquake happens.

Beyond 9.5, while extremely strong earthquakes are theoretically possible, the energies involved rapidly make such earthquakes on Earth effectively impossible without an extremely destructive source of external energy. For example, the asteroid impact that created the Chicxulub crater and caused the mass extinction that may have killed the dinosaurs has been estimated as causing a magnitude 13 earthquake (see below), while a magnitude 15 earthquake could destroy the Earth completely. Seismologist Susan Hough has suggested that 10 may represent a very approximate upper limit, as the effect if the largest known continuous belt of faults ruptured together (along the Pacific coast of the Americas).[20]

Energy release equivalents

The following table lists the approximate energy equivalents in terms of TNT explosive force – though note that the earthquake energy is released undergroundrather than overground.[21] Most energy from an earthquake is not transmitted to and through the surface; instead, it dissipates into the crust and other subsurface structures. In contrast, a small atomic bomb blast (see nuclear weapon yield) will not, it will simply cause light shaking of indoor items, since its energy is released above ground.

Approximate magnitude Approximate TNT equivalent for
seismic energy yield
Joule equivalent Example
0.0 15 g 63 kJ
0.2 30 g 130 kJ Large hand grenade
1.5 2.7 kg 11 MJ Seismic impact of typical small construction blast
2.1 21 kg 89 MJ West fertilizer plant explosion[22]
3.0 480 kg 2.0 GJ Oklahoma City bombing, 1995
3.5 2.7 metric tons 11 GJ PEPCON fuel plant explosion, Henderson, Nevada, 1988
3.87 9.5 metric tons 40 GJ Explosion at Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 1986
3.91 11 metric tons 46 GJ Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb
6.0 15 kilotons 63 TJ Approximate yield of the Little Boy atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima (~16 kt)
7.9 10.7 megatons 45 PJ Tunguska event
8.35 50 megatons 210 PJ Tsar Bomba—Largest thermonuclear weapon ever tested. Most of the energy was dissipated in the atmosphere. The seismic shock was estimated at 5.0–5.2[23]
9.15 800 megatons 3.3 EJ Toba eruption 75,000 years ago; among the largest known volcanic events.[24]
13.0 100 teratons 420 ZJ Yucatán Peninsula impact (creating Chicxulub crater) 65 Ma ago (108 megatons; over 4×1029 ergs = 400 ZJ).[25][26][27][28][29]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richter_magnitude_scale

Limousine liberal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Limousine liberal and latte liberal are pejorative Americanpolitical terms used to illustrate hypocrisy by a political liberal of upper class or upper middle classstatus; including calls for the use of mass transit while frequently using limousines or private jets,[1] claiming environmental consciousness but driving fuel inefficientsports cars or SUVs, attacking income inequality while being wealthy themselves, or ostensibly supporting public education while actually sending their children to private schools.[2]

“Limousine liberal” is also a reference to celebrities who use their fame to influence others into agreeing with their political and societal points of view. Such celebrities’ critics (including proponents of the pejorative) assert that their wealth and status keeps them out of touch with the American middle and lower middle classes they purport to support, and that they are typically blind to this disconnect.

Formation and early use

Procaccino campaign

DemocraticNew York Citymayoral hopeful Mario Procaccino coined the term “limousine liberal” to describe incumbent RepublicanMayorJohn Lindsay and his wealthy Manhattan backers during a heated 1969 campaign.

It was a populist and producerist epithet, carrying an implicit accusation that the people it described were insulated from all negative consequences of their programs purported to benefit the poor, and that the costs and consequences of such programs would be borne in the main by working class or lower middle classpeople who were not so poor as to be beneficiaries themselves. In particular, Procaccino criticized Lindsay for favoring unemployed blacks over working-class ethnic whites.[3]

One Procaccino campaign memo attacked “rich super-assimilated people who live on Fifth Avenue and maintain some choice mansions outside the city and have no feeling for the small middle class shopkeeper, home owner, etc. They preach the politics of confrontation and condone violent upheaval in society because they are not touched by it and are protected by their courtiers“.[4]The Independent later stated that “Lindsay came across as all style and no substance, a ‘limousine liberal’ who knew nothing of the concerns of the same ‘Silent Majority‘ that was carrying Richard Nixon to the White House at the very same time.”[5]

Later use

In the 1970s, the term was applied to wealthy liberal supporters of open-housing and forced school busing who didn’t make use of public schooling.[6] In Boston,Massachusetts, supporters of busing, such as Senator Ted Kennedy, sent their children to private schools or lived in affluent suburbs. To some South Bostonresidents, Kennedy’s support of a plan that “integrated” their children with blacks and his apparent unwillingness to do the same with his own children, was hypocrisy.[7]

By the late 1990s and early 21st century, the term has also come to be applied to those who support environmentalist or “green” goals, such as mass transit, yet drive large SUVs or literally have a limousine and driver. The Weekly Standard applied the term to Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee (D-TX 18) for being “routinely chauffeured the one short block to work–in a government car, by a member of her staff, at the taxpayers’ expense.”[8] The term was also used disparagingly in a 2004 episode of Law & Order by Fred Thompson‘s character, Arthur Branch, to criticize the politics and beliefs of his more liberal colleague, Serena Southerlyn.South Parks creators Trey Parker and Matt Stone poked fun at the tendency of some liberals to be more concerned with image than actually helping the earth in the episode “Smug Alert!

The New York Observer applied the term to 2008 Democratic presidential candidate John Edwards for paying $400 for a haircut and, according to the newspaper, “lectures about poverty while living in gated opulence”.[9]

In 2009, the term was applied by many commentators to former Senate Majority Leader and then-Obama cabinet appointee Tom Daschle for failing to pay back taxes and interest on the use of a limousine service.[10][11]

The term has often been applied to documentary filmmaker Michael Moore over the years by both critics on the left and right due to his habit of traveling around New York City in a limousine.[12][13]

Al Gore is often called a limousine liberal by his critics for his use of private jet planes[14] and SUVs,[15] while giving speeches calling for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.[16] In the May 16, 2007 edition of TIME magazine, the term was used in the allegation that that “His (Gore’s) Tennessee mansion consumes 20 times the electricity used by the average American home”[17]

“Lexus liberal” is a variant on the term, used to describe an upper-middle class individual who supports the same ideas of the limousine liberals, but is still out-of-touch with the actual poor they purport to feel for. The term “Lexus” is used as these liberals are wealthy enough to afford a luxury car or high-end vehicle, such as the Lexus.

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Time . “Limousine Liberal Hypocrisy” by Charles Krauthammer. Published March 16, 2007.
  2. Jump up^ NPR
  3. Jump up^ The New York Times. “Mayoral Follies, The 1969 Edition “ Published January 25, 1998.
  4. Jump up^ The Ungovernable City: John Lindsay and His Struggle to Save New York by Vincent J. Cannato, page 428.
  5. Jump up^ The Independent. “Obituary: John Lindsay “.Written December 22, 2000 by Rupert Cornwell.
  6. Jump up^ “A liberal interpretation: The current definition of right- and left-“ by Geoffrey Nunberg. Chicago Sun-Times. Published July 30, 2006.
  7. Jump up^ News/Features |
  8. Jump up^ Sheila Jackson Lee, Limousine Liberal
  9. Jump up^ Is Edwards An Easy Mark? | The New York Observer
  10. Jump up^ “The Post and Courier | Charleston SC, News, Sports, Entertainment”. Charleston.net. 2013-05-16. Retrieved 2013-06-04.
  11. Jump up^ Hart, Ron (February 8, 2009). “Future generations will pay for our mistakes”. Newsherald.com. Archived from the original on February 17, 2009. RetrievedJune 4, 2013.
  12. Jump up^ Business Insider: The REAL Fun Was At The Michael Moore Afterparty
  13. Jump up^ Newsmax: Michael Moore: The Leni Riefenstahl of the Left
  14. Jump up^ “Articles – Al Gore and the Limits of Recycling”. RealClearPolitics. 2006-06-02. Retrieved 2013-06-04.
  15. Jump up^ Malkin, Michelle (2008-07-17). “Limousine liberal video of the day: Gore and his gas-guzzling fans exposed!; Update: What global warming consensus? «”. Michelle Malkin. Retrieved 2013-06-04.
  16. Jump up^ Al Gore (speaker) (2008). A Generational Challenge to Repower America. Retrieved 2013-03-27.
  17. Jump up^ Krauthammer, Charles (2007-03-16). “Limousine Liberal Hypocrisy”. TIME. Retrieved 2013-06-04.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limousine_liberal

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